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1

Seed storage proteins of the globulin family are cleaved post-translationally in wheat embryos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The 7S globulins are plant seed storage proteins that have been associated with the development of a number of human diseases, including peanut allergy. Immune reactivity to the wheat seed storage protein globulin-3 (Glo-3 has been associated with the development of the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in diabetes-prone rats and mice, as well as in a subset of human patients. Findings The present study characterized native wheat Glo-3 in salt-soluble wheat seed protein extracts. Glo-3-like peptides were observed primarily in the wheat embryo. Glo-3-like proteins varied significantly in their molecular masses and isoelectric points, as determined by two dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-Glo-3A antibodies. Five major polypeptide spots were identified by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing as belonging to the Glo-3 family. Conclusions These results in combination with our previous findings have allowed for the development of a hypothetical model of the post-translational events contributing to the wheat 7S globulin profile in mature wheat kernels.

Koziol Adam G

2012-07-01

2

11S Storage Globulin from Pumpkin Seeds: Regularities of Proteolysis by Papain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited proteolysis of the ?- and ?-chains and deep cleavage of the ??-subunits by the cooperative (one-by-one) mechanism was observed in the course of papain hydrolysis of cucurbitin, an 11S storage globulin from seeds of the pumpkin Cucurbita maxima. An independent analysis of the kinetics of the limited and cooperative proteolyses revealed that the reaction occurs in two successive steps. In the first step, limited proteolysis consisting of detachments of short terminal peptides from the ?- and ?-chains was observed. The cooperative proteolysis, which occurs as a pseudo-first order reaction, started at the second step. Therefore, the limited proteolysis at the first step plays a regulatory role, impacting the rate of deep degradation of cucurbitin molecules by the cooperative mechanism. Structural alterations of cucurbitin induced by limited proteolysis are suggested to generate its susceptibility to cooperative proteolysis. These alterations are tentatively discussed on the basis of the tertiary structure of the cucurbitin subunit pdb|2EVX in comparison with previously obtained data on features of degradation of soybean 11S globulin hydrolyzed by papain. PMID:25365492

Rudakova, A S; Rudakov, S V; Kakhovskaya, I A; Shutov, A D

2014-08-01

3

Storage globulins pass through the Golgi apparatus and multivesicular bodies in the absence of dense vesicle formation during early stages of cotyledon development in mung bean.  

Science.gov (United States)

During seed development and maturation, large amounts of storage proteins are synthesized and deposited in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for transporting storage proteins to PSVs in developing seeds. In this study, a specific antibody was raised against the mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed storage protein 8S globulin and its deposition was followed via immunogold electron microscopy in developing mung bean cotyledons. It is demonstrated that non-aggregated 8S globulins are present in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in early stages of cotyledon development where neither dense vesicles (DVs) nor a PSV were recognizable. However, at later stages of cotyledon development, condensed globulins were visible in both DVs and distinct MVBs with a novel form of partitioning, with the internal vesicles being pushed to one sector of this organelle. These distinct MVBs were no longer sensitive to wortmannin. This study thus indicates a possible role for MVBs in transporting storage proteins to PSVs during the early stage of seed development prior to the involvement of DVs. In addition, wortmannin treatment is shown to induce DVs to form aggregates and to fuse with the plasma membrane. PMID:22143915

Wang, Junqi; Tse, Yu Chung; Hinz, Giselbert; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

2012-02-01

4

Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

MacFarlane Amanda J

2009-07-01

5

Serum globulin electrophoresis  

Science.gov (United States)

... levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunfixation Protein electrophoresis

6

SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)  

Science.gov (United States)

... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... Get Tested? To evaluate whether the concentration of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is affecting the amount ...

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Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicil [...] ins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

M.P., Sales; P.P., Pimenta; N.S., Paes; M.F., Grossi-de-Sá; J., Xavier-Filho.

2001-01-01

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Purification of equine Gc-globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation, shock and death in human patients with massive actin release caused by severe tissue injuries like physical trauma, sepsis, endotoxemia, or liver failure. Gc-globulin is consumed in this process, and the plasma concentration of free Gc-globulin hence decreases rapidly after tissue injury and has shown to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration of Gc-globulin in colic horses with intestinal ischemia were Gc-globulin might be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Horses with intestinal ischemia often die, despite of expensive surgical treatment, because of endotoxemia and shock, therefore these horses potentially could benefit from Gc-globulin infusions.

Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg

9

Successful transport to the vacuole of heterologously expressed mung bean 8S globulin occurs in seed but not in vegetative tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the subcellular location of mung bean (Vigna radiata) 8S globulin in transient expression systems as well as in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and different tissues from a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) line stably expressing this storage globulin. When transiently expressed in protoplasts from both BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells, the 8S globulin located to structures that were neither Golgi nor pre-vacuolar compartments (PVCs). Immunogold electron microscopy of the transgenics reveals the 8S globulin-positive structures to be small, spherical, ribosome-covered endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived bodies. In BY-2 cells and all vegetative cells, the 8S globulin was present as a pro-form. However, in Arabidopsis embryos, with the onset of endogenous storage protein synthesis, the 8S globulin exited the ER and passed through the PVC to the protein storage vacuole where it was processed to its smaller mature form. These results clearly demonstrated that, when taken out of context and expressed in vegetative cells, the mung bean 8S storage globulin cannot exit the ER, and indicate that natural targeting of storage proteins to the vacuole should be better studied in the maturing seed. PMID:23382549

Wang, Junqi; Shen, Jinbo; Cai, Yi; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

2013-04-01

10

Barley embryo globulin 1 gene, Beg1: characterization of cDNA, chromosome mapping and regulation of expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report identification of a 2189 bp cDNA clone from barley corresponding to a single-copy gene, Beg1 (Barley embryo globulin), on chromosome 4, which encodes a storage globulin. In barley, the major protein reserve in the aleurone layer belongs to the 7S globulin class of proteins found in many seeds. Electrophoretically and antigenically similar proteins are present in the barley embryo. Accumulation of Beg1 mRNA was noted beginning 15-20 days post-anthesis in both the aleurone layer and embryo of the developing barley grain but not in the starchy endosperm. A high level of Beg1 mRNA is also present in the mature imbibed aleurones, which can be repressed by treatment with gibberellic acid. This repressive effect of gibberellin on the levels of Beg1 mRNA is confirmed in the gibberellin response-constitutive mutant, slender, whose aleurone layers do not accumulate Beg1 mRNA even in the absence of applied gibberellic acid. The deduced primary translation product of the Beg1 mRNA is a 63.7 amino acid (72 kDa) protein with homology to maize embryo globulin 1 (GLB1) and a partial sequence of a wheat 7S globulin. The internal amino acid sequence of BEG1 closely matches the N-terminal sequence of isolated barley aleurone globulin. Seven imperfect tandem repeats of 16 amino acids each are present near the N-terminus of BEG1, which conform to the consensus HGEGEREEEXGRGRGR, and contribute to the observed unusual amino acid composition of this protein. A second, distinct barley globulin gene, Beg2, which is homologous to maize Glb2, was detected by Northern and Southern analysis. Beg2 and Beg1 are regulated differently which may indicate variation in storage or utilization properties among the barley globulins. PMID:8510647

Heck, G R; Chamberlain, A K; Ho, T H

1993-05-01

11

Serum globulins and infection in mongolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparisons are made between a large group of mongols cared for in institutions and their carefully matched controls in respect of (a) serum levels of immuno-gamma-globulin (gammaA, gammaG, and gammaM) and (b) the incidence of pyrexial illnesses over a retrospective five-year period. Male mongols are found to have higher levels of gammaA-globulin than their male controls and a higher incidence of pyrexial illnesses. Otherwise no significant differences were found. The findings are discussed in the light of previous studies. PMID:4182053

Griffiths, A W; Sylvester, P E; Baylis, E M

1969-01-01

12

Genetics Home Reference: Inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

... inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency: the complete form (TBG-CD), which results in a total loss of thyroxine-binding globulin, and the partial form (TBG-PD), which reduces the amount of this protein ...

13

Diffusion and fate of intramuscularly injected human rabies immune globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of rabies immune globulin (RIG) in postexposure rabies treatment is well known and it has been emphasized that the local injection into the animal bite sites is crucial. This preliminary study used a radioisotope tracer that allows following the fate of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) injected intramuscularly. There was significant retention and local diffusion of the immune globulin at the injection site and significant radiotracer could still be detected at the site 24 h later. PMID:10974171

Saesow, N; Chaiwatanarat, T; Mitmoonpitak, C; Wilde, H

2000-10-01

14

Total deficiency of corticosteroid-binding globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

An obese 15-year-old boy of Jewish Iranian origin who is the offspring of consanguineous parents was found to have very low levels of total cortisol in the plasma. Investigation of the family revealed a complete lack of cortisol-binding-globulin (CBG) in the proband and a sister, evidently the first cases of total CBG deficiency to be reported. The parents and a brother were found to have half the normal levels. This study indicates that CBG deficiency, a benign condition, is compatible with a codominant or recessive autosomal trait inheritance. PMID:6499234

Roitman, A; Bruchis, S; Bauman, B; Kaufman, H; Laron, Z

1984-11-01

15

21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroxine-binding globulin test system. ...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1685 Thyroxine-binding globulin test system. (a) Identification. A thyroxine-binding globulin test system is...

2010-04-01

16

Amaranth 7S globulin Langmuir films and its interaction with l-?-dipalmitoilphosphatidilcholine at the air-fluid interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amaranth seeds are one of the more promising food ingredients, due to their high protein content, among which the most important are storage proteins known as globulins. However, little is known about the physicochemical of the globulin proteins. In this work, we study the physicochemical behavior of films made of amaranth 7S globulin and its interaction with a model membrane made of L-?-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (L-?-DPPC) at the air-liquid interface. The study was done by means of Langmuir balance, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that isotherms of pure 7S globulin directly deposited on either water or buffer subphases behave similarly and globulin forms a condensed film made of globular and denature structures, which was confirmed by BAM observations. Good mixtures of the protein with L-?-DPPC are formed at low surface pressure. However, they phase separate from moderate to high surface pressure as observed by BAM. Isotherms detect the presence of the protein in the mixture with L-?-DPPC, but we were unable to detect it through BAM or AFM. We show that fluorescence microscopy is a very good technique to detect the presence of the protein when it is well-mixed within the LE phase of the lipid. AFM images clearly show the formation of protein mono- and multilayers, and in phase mode, we detected domains that are formed by protein and LE lipid phase, which were corroborated by fluorescence microscopy. We have shown that globulin 7S mix well with lipid phases, which could be important in food applications as stabilizers or emulsifiers, but we also show that they can phase separate with a moderate to high surface pressure. PMID:24125489

Garcia-Gonzalez, Alcione; Flores-Vazquez, A L; Barba de la Rosa, A P; Vazquez-Martinez, E A; Ruiz-Garcia, J

2013-11-14

17

21 CFR 862.1330 - Globulin test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 862.1330 Section 862.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...disease, multiple myeloma, and other disorders of blood globulins. (b)...

2010-04-01

18

Purification and biophysical characterization of an 11S globulin from Wrightia tinctoria exhibiting hemagglutinating activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wrightia tinctoria globulin (WTG), one of the major seed storage proteins, was isolated for the first time from seeds of the medicinal plant. WTG was extracted and purified to homogeneity in two steps using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatographies. On an SDS-PAGE gel under non-reducing conditions, a major band of ~56 kDa was observed; under reducing conditions, however, two major polypeptides, one with molecular weight ~32-34 kDa and the other with molecular weight ~22-26 kDa were observed. Intact mass determination by MALDI-TOF supported this observation. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WTG matched in NCBI database with an expressed sequence tag obtained from the c-DNA of developing embryo m-RNA of Wrightia tinctoria. The EST sequence was further substantiated by partial de novo internal sequencing using MALDI-TOF/TOF. The high sequence homology with seed storage protein 11S globulin confirmed that WTG is a type of 11S globulin. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the secondary structure of WTG consists predominantly of ?-sheets (44.2%) and moderate content of ?-helices (10.3%). WTG showed hemagglutinating property indicating that the protein may possess lectin-like activity. WTG was crystallized at 20 Å°C by the vapour diffusion method using PEG 400 as precipitant. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with cell dimensions of a=109.9Å, b=113.2Å and c=202.2Å with six molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.2Å under cryocondition. Preliminary structure solution of WTG indicated the possibility of a hexameric assembly in its asymmetric unit. PMID:22973842

Kumar, Pramod; Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Yernool, Dinesh; Singh, Nirpendra; Dasauni, Pushpanjali; Kundu, Suman; Kumar, Pravindra

2013-05-01

19

A Vigna radiata 8S globulin ?' promoter drives efficient expression of GUS in Arabidopsis cotyledonary embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are proven effective bioreactors for the production of heterologous proteins including those desired by the biopharmaceutical industry. However, the potential of plants as bioreactors is limited by the availability of characterized plant promoters that can drive target gene expression in relatively distant plant species. Seeds are ideal for protein storage because seed proteins can be kept stably for several months. Hence, a strong promoter that can direct the expression and accumulation of target proteins within seeds represents a powerful tool in plant biotechnology. Toward this end, an effort was made to identify such a promoter from Vigna radiata (mung bean) to drive expression in dicot seeds. A 784-bp 5'-flanking sequence of the gene encoding the 8S globulin ?' subunit (8SG?') of the V. radiata seed storage protein was isolated by genome walking. When the 5'-flanking region was analyzed with bioinformatics tools, numerous putative cis-elements were identified. The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) regulated by this promoter was observed to be transiently expressed in protoplasts derived from V. radiata cotyledons. Finally, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven from the 8S globulin ?' promoter showed strong GUS expression in transgenic embryos in both histochemical and quantitative GUS assays, confirming high expression within seeds. Therefore, the V. radiata 8S ?' promoter has shown potential in directing expression in seeds for bioreactor applications. PMID:23763701

Chen, Mo-Xian; Yang, Yue-Ning; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Xu, Chao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

2013-07-01

20

Sex hormone binding globulin and insulin resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein composed of two 373-amino-acid subunits. The SHBG gene and a promotor region have been identified. The SHBG receptor has yet to be cloned but is known to act through a G-protein-linked second-messenger system following plasma membrane binding. The principal function of SHBG has traditionally been considered to be that of a transport protein for sex steroids, regulating circulating concentrations of free (unbound) hormones and their transport to target tissues. Recent research suggests that SHBG has functions in addition to the binding and transport of sex steroids. Observational studies have associated a low SHBG concentration with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) independent of sex hormone levels in men and women. Genetic studies using Mendelian randomization analysis linking three single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SHBG gene to risk of developing type 2 DM suggest SHBG may have a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 DM. The correlation between SHBG and insulin resistance that is evident in a number of cross-sectional studies is in keeping with the suggestion that the association between SHBG and incidence of type 2 DM is explained by insulin resistance. Several potential mechanisms may account for this association, including the identification of dietary factors that influence SHBG gene transcription. Further research to characterize the SHBG-receptor and the SHBG second messenger system is required. An interventional study examining the effects on insulin resistance of altering SHBG concentrations may help in determining whether this association is causal. PMID:23121642

Wallace, Ian R; McKinley, Michelle C; Bell, Patrick M; Hunter, Steven J

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

Correlation of free thyroxine index and thyroxine: thyroxine binding globulin ratio with the free thyroxine concentration as measured by the thyroxine and thyroxine-binding globulin radioimmunoassays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of thyroxine-binding globulin in the serum can now be measured by a simple and specific radioimmunoassay. Triiodothyronine uptake and measurement of total thyroxine have been combined to yield a free thyroxine index which has been found to correlate with the clinical state of the patients. An estimate of the free thyroxine concentration, as measured by the thyroxine and thyroxine-binding globulin radioimmunoassays, provided a good correlation with the free thyroxine index and the thyroxine : thyroxine-binding globulin ratio. However, the thyroxine: thyroxine-binding globulin ratio is inaccurate when thyroxine-binding globulin concentrations are high or low. (Auth.)

22

Gene families encoding 11S globulin and 2S albumin isoforms of jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang) Achenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed storage proteins of plants commonly comprise several groups of multiple isoforms encoded by gene families. From about 300 expressed sequence tag (EST) clones in maturing jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes, gene families encoding precursor polypeptides of two storage protein classes, including six 11S globulin isoforms and two 2S albumin isoforms, were identified. Complete sequences encoding the precursor polypeptides of these eight storage proteins were obtained by sequencing the pertinent EST clones that contained full-length cDNA fragments. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of these storage protein isoforms in the extract of jelly fig achenes resolved in SDS-PAGE. The amino acid compositions of the deduced storage proteins indicated that achene proteins in jelly fig are nutritive, for both isoforms of 2S albumin are sulfur-rich, and one of them is also rich in tryptophan. PMID:18256470

Chua, Anna C N; Hsiao, Eric S L; Yang, Yuan-Chang; Lin, Li-Jen; Chou, Wing-Ming; Tzen, Jason T C

2008-02-01

23

In vivo effects of horse and rabbit antithymocyte globulin in patients with severe aplastic anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently reported that rabbit antithymocyte globulin was markedly inferior to horse antithymocyte globulin as a primary treatment for severe aplastic anemia. Here we expand on our findings in this unique cohort of patients. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin was detectable in plasma for longer periods than horse antithymocyte globulin; rabbit antithymocyte globulin in plasma retained functional capacity to bind to lymphocytes for up to 1 month, horse antithymocyte globulin for only about 2 weeks. In the first week after treatment there were much lower numbers of neutrophils in patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin than in patients receiving horse antithymocyte globulin. Both antithymocyte globulins induced a "cytokine storm" in the first 2 days after administration. Compared with horse antithymocyte globulin, rabbit antithymocyte globulin was associated with higher levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 during the first 3 weeks. Besides a much lower absolute number and a lower relative frequency of CD4(+) T cells, rabbit antithymocyte globulin induced higher frequencies of CD4(+)CD38(+), CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, and B cells than did horse antithymocyte globulin. Serum sickness occurred around 2 weeks after infusion of both types of antithymocyte globulin. Human anti-antithymocyte globulin antibodies, especially of the IgM subtype, correlated with serum sickness, which appeared concurrently with clearance of antithymocyte globulin in blood and with the production of cytokines. In conclusion, rabbit and horse antithymocyte globulins have very different pharmacokinetics and effects on neutrophils, lymphocyte subsets, and cytokine release. These differences may be related to their efficacy in suppressing the immune system and restoring hematopoiesis in bone marrow failure. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00260689. PMID:24907357

Feng, Xingmin; Scheinberg, Phillip; Biancotto, Angelique; Rios, Olga; Donaldson, Sarah; Wu, Colin; Zheng, Haiyun; Sato, Kazuya; Townsley, Danielle M; McCoy, J Philip; Young, Neal S

2014-09-01

24

Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, ?-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for ?-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that ?-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:24054261

Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

2014-01-15

25

Rasmussen syndrome and long-term response to gamma globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rasmussen syndrome (RS) is a severe and progressive focal epilepsy of unknown etiology that leads to deterioration of motor and cognitive function. We report a 14-year-old girl who developed epilepsia partialis continua involving the left hand, mild hemiparesis, and secondarily generalized seizures. RS was confirmed by brain biopsy. The patient has been treated with intravenous gamma globulin every 4 months for 46 months. The clinical course throughout this time has been distinctly atypical for RS, with no progression in motor or cognitive deficits and rare secondarily generalized seizures. Although the mechanism for action for gamma globulin in RS is not known, an immunomodulatory role has been postulated. Evidence of an immunologically mediated process in RS and clinical experience with a growing number of patients who benefit from immunomodulatory therapy suggest that a systematic study of the efficacy of gamma globulin in comparison with other forms of medical therapy is warranted. PMID:8703228

Wise, M S; Rutledge, S L; Kuzniecky, R I

1996-02-01

26

21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 ...Immunological Test Systems § 866.5400 Alpha -globulin immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

27

21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Identification. A thyroxine-binding globulin test system is a device intended to measure thyroxine (thyroid)-binding globulin (TBG), a plasma protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

2010-04-01

28

21 CFR 866.5160 - Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...immunochemical techniques beta globulins (serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Beta -globulin proteins include beta -lipoprotein,...

2010-04-01

29

The use of antithymocyte globulin in myasthenia gravis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been used to treat three female patients with myastenia gravis. No other immunosuppressive agent was used. All three cases responded favourably to ATG therapy. This suggest that further work should be undertaken in this field though the condition itself is extremely variable and this study was not controlled. PMID:1087016

Barnes, A D

1976-01-01

30

Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), Estradiol And Breast Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary The human serum Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) plays an important role in breast cancer pathophysiology and risk definition, since it regulates the bioavailable fraction of circulating estradiol. We here summarize data reported over the years concerning the involvement of SHBG and SHBG polymorphisms in the definition of breast-cancer risk. We also report what is known about the direct action of SHBG in breast cancer cells, illustrating its interaction with these cells ...

2009-01-01

31

Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses : A Ph.d. project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Group specific (Gc) globulin also known as vitamin D-binding protein is part of the extracellular actin-scavenging system that removes actin from the circulation. Actin is an intracellular structural protein, which is released to blood in patients with tissue injury and cell death. Circulating actin forms filaments, which cause microthrombi and endothelial injury. These effects of circulating actin are extremely harmful, and high levels of free actin are potentially lethal. Gc-globulin binds to actin and removes it from the circulation via the reticuloendothelial system. Plasma concentrations of Gc-globulin decrease after conditions causing tissue injury and cell death, for example physical trauma, sepsis, experimentally induced endotoxemia or liver failure. In humans, decreases in Gc-globulin levels are observed within 60 minutes after trauma. Studies in humans and laboratory rodents have shown that very low concentration of plasma Gc-globulin are related to an increased risk of developing shock and lethal complications of trauma. Gc-globulin is thus a prognostic marker in intensive care medicine. It has been suggested that treatment with Gc-globulin to patients with severe tissue injury can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc-globulin concentrations in horses under clinical conditions have never previously been investigated. The Ph.D. project focuses on Gc-globulin as a prognostic marker in horses with acute abdominal pain.

Pihl, Tina Holberg

32

ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS  

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This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G) ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin...

Nuzhat Sultana; Rahila Najam

2013-01-01

33

Features of gamma-globulin denaturation at thermal and ?-radiating influences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of different doses of gamma radiation of 57Co isotope on the peculiarities in spectral alterations of globulin-gamma is studied as well as effect of 55 deg C and 70 deg C temperatures. Data on the specific character of hypochromic and hyperchromic effects, bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts in separate derivatives of the absorption spectrum of globulin-gamma are presented. Proposition on the exclusiveness of hyperchromic effect in case of globulin-gamma and albumin denaturation is removed

34

Expression and characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana 11S globulin family.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 11S globulins are the principal seed storage proteins in a variety of major crop species, including members of the legume and mustard families. They are targets for protein engineering studies attempting to alter the physicochemical properties of seed protein extracts (e.g. soybean) and to improve the nutritional quality of important agricultural crops. A key factor that has limited the success of this approach to date is insufficient accumulation of the engineered protein variants in vivo due to their improper folding and/or reduced stability, compared to the native protein. We have developed the Arabidopsis thaliana 11S proglobulins as a model system to enable studies exploring the factors underlying structural stability in this family of proteins. Yields of 1.5-4 mg/L were achieved for the three A. thaliana 11S proglobulins expressed in the Origami Escherichia coli cell line in super broth media at 20°C for 16 h and purified via immobilized-metal affinity chromatography. We also demonstrate that differential scanning fluorimetry is an effective and accessible technique to facilitate the screening of variants to enable the successful engineering of 11S seed storage proteins. The relative in vitro stability of the A. thaliana 11S proglobulins (proAtCRU1>proAtCRU3>proAtCRU2) is consistent between chemical and thermal denaturation studies. PMID:24530827

Jaworski, Allison F; Aitken, Susan M

2014-04-01

35

Allotype polymorphism of serum globulins (Gp system) in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

By alloimmunization with whole serum reagents were obtained which revealed two new allotypes, G8 and P30, in pigs. Evidence is presented that the allotypes G8, P30 and previously described G4 and G6 are controlled by three complex autosomal allelic genes forming a closed system. For this new allotype system we propose the designation Gp (globulin, pig). For alternative G4-G8 and G6-P30, forming pairs of mutually exclusive alloantigens, it is proposed to use a standard designation GpA-Gpa and GpB-Gpb respectively. PMID:6412603

Janik, A; Hojný, J; Duniec, M

1983-01-01

36

Endocrine assessment of impotence--pitfalls of measuring serum testosterone without sex-hormone-binding globulin.  

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The pitfalls of measuring only total serum testosterone are illustrated by a 52 year old man whose hyperprolactinaemia was associated with normal total serum testosterone but a raised sex-hormone-binding globulin, giving a low free testosterone. Prolactin suppression with bromocriptine normalized sex-hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone, and restored potency and energy after 30 years of impotence and tiredness.

Hardy, K. J.; Seckl, J. R.

1994-01-01

37

Comparison of horse and rabbit antithymocyte globulin in immunosuppressive therapy for refractory cytopenia of childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Refractory cytopenia of childhood is the most common subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome in children. In this study, we compared the outcome of immunosuppressive therapy using horse antithymocyte globulin (n=46) with that using rabbit antithymocyte globulin (n=49) in 95 patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood and hypocellular bone marrow. The response rate at 6 months was 74% for horse antithymocyte globulin and 53% for rabbit antithymocyte globulin (P=0.04). The inferior response in the rabbit antithymocyte globulin group resulted in lower 4-year transplantation-free (69% versus 46%; P=0.003) and failure-free (58% versus 48%; P=0.04) survival rates in this group compared with those in the horse antithymocyte globulin group. However, because of successful second-line hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, overall survival was comparable between groups (91% versus 85%; P=ns). The cumulative incidence of relapse (15% versus 9%; P=ns) and clonal evolution (12% versus 4%; P=ns) at 4 years was comparable between groups. Our results suggest that the outcome of immunosuppressive therapy with rabbit antithymocyte globulin is inferior to that of horse antithymocyte globulin. Although immunosuppressive therapy is an effective therapy in selected patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood, the long-term risk of relapse or clonal evolution remains. (ClinicalTrial.gov identifiers: NCT00662090). PMID:24162791

Yoshimi, Ayami; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Baumann, Irith; Schwarz, Stephan; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; de Paepe, Pascale; Campr, Vit; Kerndrup, Gitte Birk; O'Sullivan, Maureen; Devito, Rita; Leguit, Roos; Hernandez, Miguel; Dworzak, Michael; de Moerloose, Barbara; Stary, Jan; Hasle, Henrik; Smith, Owen P; Zecca, Marco; Catala, Albert; Schmugge, Markus; Locatelli, Franco; Führer, Monika; Fischer, Alexandra; Guderle, Anne; Nöllke, Peter; Strahm, Brigitte; Niemeyer, Charlotte M

2014-04-01

38

Homologous radioimmunoassay for guinea pig corticosteroid-binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid, specific, and sensitive (requiring only 20 fmole of antigen equivalent to 0.007) ?l of serum) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the measurement of guinea pig corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). CBG was purified to homogeneity from guinea pig serum by affinity chromatography and used for immunization, as the standard and as the radiolabeled trace in the RIA. The antiserum to CBG was raised in rabbits. It was judged specific by immunoelectrophoresis and by comparison of RIA values with steroid-binding assay profiles obtained on serum separated on the basis of size and ion-exchange properties. The results of the radioimmunoassays agree with those of a steroid-binding assay run on identical samples. The sensitivity of the assay allows detection of CBG in serial serum samples, other biologic fluids such as milk, and cell culture supernatants

39

Possible Association between Dysfunction of Vitamin D Binding Protein (GC Globulin) and Migraine Attacks  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify the genetic causality of migraine and acute, severe melalgia, we performed a linkage analysis and exome sequencing in a family with four affected individuals. We identified a variant (R21L) in exon 2 of the GC globulin gene, which is involved in the transportation of vitamin D metabolites and acts as a chemotaxic factor; this variant was co-segregated within the family. To investigate the relationship between GC globulin and melalgia, we investigated the cytokine levels in serum samples from the patients and control subjects using a cytokine antibody array. GC globulin can bind to both MCP-1 and RANTES in human serum but has a higher affinity to MCP-1. In cell culture systems, MCP-1 was able to bind to overexpressed wild-type GC globulin but not to the GC globulin variant, and the GC globulin binding affinity to MCP-1 was significantly lower in sera from the patients than in sera from control subjects. A higher concentration of MCP-1 was also observed in sera from the patients. Thus, the dysfunctional GC globulin affected cytokine release, especially the release of MCP-1, and MCP-1 might play important roles in melalgia and migraine. PMID:25147936

Nagata, Eiichiro; Fujii, Natsuko; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yoichi; Mashimo, Yoichi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Satoh, Tadayuki; Osawa, Motoki; Inoue, Ituro; Hata, Akira; Takizawa, Shunya

2014-01-01

40

Determination of thyroxine-binding globulin in human serum by single radial immunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two immunochemical methods for determination of thyroxine-binding globulin in human serum were developed, in which the purified globulin and monospecific antiserum to it are used. One method, based on radial immunodiffusion, has good precision and values for analytical recovery. Reference values obtained for men were 9.8 to 17.8 mg/liter and for women 11.3 to 20.5 mg/liter. The sex-related difference was significant. The other method is based on radioimmunoassay, with use of an iodinated acylating agent for the labeling of thyroxine-binding globulin. The relative merits of the two methods are discussed

 
 
 
 
41

Labeling of human immune gamma globulin with sup(99m)Tc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human immune serum gamma globulin and rabbit anti-Stap. aureus antibody have been successfully labeled with sup(99m)Tc at pH 7.4 with an average binding efficiency of 86 and 82%, respectively. The labeled proteins behave similarly to unlabeled gamma-globulin fraction in the normal human serum as demonstrated by protein electrophoresis. The biological half-time of sup(99m)Tc-gamma-globulin in dog has been determined to be 54 min for the fast component and 14.7 hr for a slower component. Immunological assays demonstrate no significant change in antibody activity after labeling process. (author)

42

Studies on the role of glycosylation for human corticosteroid-binding globulin: Comparison with that for thyroxine-binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of glycosylation on the secretion and the stability of human corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) was studied. Cells of the human hepatoma line were labeled by [35S]methionine in presence of or absence of tunicamycin (TM). Media or cells were harvested at 0, 3, 6, and 20 h after the addition of excess unlabeled methionine. Media and cell lysates were incubated with anti-CBG serum and immune complexes were precipitated with Staphylococcus aureus protein A (Pansorbin). Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by fluorography after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoprecipitation of T4-binding globulin (TBG) was also carried out with anti-TBG serum. Fluorographic analysis revealed three forms of CBG: CBG1, a glycosylated, mature, and secretory form with apparent mol wt of 70 K; CBG2, a glycosylated precursor which due to incomplete carbohydrate processing has an apparent mol wt of 54 K; and CBG3, a nonglycosylated form consisting of the 40 K core protein. In absence of TM, CBG1 was observed in media and CBG2 was detected in cell lysates. The proportion of CBG1 increased during the chase, whereas that of CBG2 decreased, indicating that CBG was secreted after processing of the oligosaccharides on CBG2. In presence of TM, CBG3 was found both in media and cell lysates. The sum of CBG3 in the medium and the cell lysate decreased during the chase, whereas that of CBG1 and CBG2 remained unchanged. Similar to CBG, TBG1 (mature form, 60 ed. Similar to CBG, TBG1 (mature form, 60 K) and TBG2 (partially processed glycosylated form, 54 K) were observed in media and cell lysates, respectively, in absence of TM. However, TBG3 (nonglycosylated, 44 K) was not detected in medium. These results indicate that glycosylation is not a key factor for the secretion of CBG but is important for its stability. On the other hand the glycosylation is indispensable for the secretion of TBG

43

SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PRODUK INTERAKSI FRAKSI GLOBULIN 7S KOMAK (Dolichos lablab DAN GUM XANTAN [Functional Properties of the Interaction Product Between Globulin of 7S Fraction of Lablab Bean (Dolichos lablab with Xantan Gum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab seeds is a potential source of protein globulin.The bean’s protein content is 20.86 %, and the amount of globulin was more than 60% from the total protein, having major fractions of 7S and 11S. The objectives of this research were to explore the 7S globulin fractions, to study interaction between 7S globulin fractions with xanthan gum, and to observe the functional properties of the product of the interaction. The research was conducted in 2 steps. The first step was to fractionate the 7S fractions from globulin. The second steps was to interact 7S globulin fraction with xanthan gum. The yield of these interaction were examined for its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that the 7S globulin fractions could be interacted by xanthan gum at pH 7. The interacted product of globulin 7S fraction 10 % with xanthan gum 0,75 % had good functional properties than globulin 7S fraction, such as oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, and emulsion activity. Water holding capacity could not be detected because the yield became soluble. However,the foaming and emulsifying stability were still lower than those of soybean protein isolates. The research concluded that xanthan gum could be used to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of globulin 7S fraction.

Sukamto1*

2009-12-01

44

The preparation, purification and radioimmunoassay of human plasma thyroxine binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The historical development and clinical use of in vitro thyroid function tests are reviewed. Purification and characterisation of thyroxine binding globulin(TBG) and TBG determination in men and women by radioimmunoassay are described. (U.K.)

45

21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1685 Thyroxine-binding...binding globulin (TBG), a plasma protein which binds thyroxine, in serum...

2010-04-01

46

Allosteric Modulation of Hormone Release from Thyroxine and Corticosteroid-binding Globulins*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The release of hormones from thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is regulated by movement of the reactive center loop in and out of the ?-sheet A of the molecule. To investigate how these changes are transmitted to the hormone-binding site, we developed a sensitive assay using a synthesized thyroxine fluorophore and solved the crystal structures of reactive loop cleaved TBG together with its complexes with thyroxine, the thyroxine fluorophores, furosemi...

Qi, Xiaoqiang; Loiseau, Franc?ois; Chan, Wee Lee; Yan, Yahui; Wei, Zhenquan; Milroy, Lech-gustav; Myers, Rebecca M.; Ley, Steven V.; Read, Randy J.; Carrell, Robin W.; Zhou, Aiwu

2011-01-01

47

Pre-exposure prophylaxis with immune serum globulin for prevention of viral hepatitis in army recruits.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A controlled trial with pre-exposure immune serum globulin was undertaken in Israel Defence Forces (IDF) recruits, an indigenous population living in a hyperendemic area for hepatitis A. The objective was to examine whether the prevailing IDF policy of postexposure administration of immune serum globulin prophylaxis should be modified to further reduce the incidence of infectious hepatitis in the IDF. Altogether 23 447 recruits were systematically allocated on their first day of service into ...

Kark, J. D.

1982-01-01

48

Novel hydrophobic ligand-containing hydrogel membrane matrix: preparation and application to gamma-globulins adsorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, phenylalanine as a hydrophobic ligand was covalently attached to the co-monomer methacrylochloride. Then, poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylamidophenyalanine) [poly(HEMA-MAPA)] membranes were prepared by UV-initiated photopolymerization of HEMA and methacrylamidophenyalanine. The gamma-globulins adsorption onto these affinity membranes from aqueous solutions containing different amounts of gamma-globulins at different pH was investigated in a batch system. The gamma-globulins adsorption capacity of the membranes was increased as the ligand density on the membrane surface increase. The non-specific adsorption of the gamma-globulins on the pHEMA membranes was negligible. The adsorption phenomena appeared to follow a typical Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) of the poly(HEMA-MAPA4) membrane for gamma-globulins was 2.37 mg g(-1) dry membrane. The equilibrium constant (k(d)) value was found to be 1.61x10(-1) mg ml(-1). More than 87% (up to 100%) of the adsorbed gamma-globulins were desorbed in 120 min in the desorption medium containing 50% ethylene glycol in 1.0 M NaCl. PMID:11397630

Yakup Arica, M; Akin-Öktem, G; Denizli, A

2001-08-01

49

[The comparative efficacy of splenectomy and antilymphocyte globulin therapy in patients with aplastic anemia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the clinical efficacy and long-term survival of patients with grave and not grave forms of aplastic anemia, subjected to splenectomy or treated with antilymphocytic globulin has shown that in grave aplastic anemia, the clinical efficacy of antilymphocytic globulin is higher than the efficacy of the operative treatment methods. The 30-month survival can be attained in 42% of the patients given globulin and in 28% of the patients after splenectomy. In patients with grave aplastic anemia, it is recommended that the treatment be instituted from the use of antilymphocytic globulin in a dose of 15 mg/kg bw daily for 5 days, provided there are no contraindications. In patients with not grave aplastic anemia, the results of splenectomy and therapy with antilymphocytic globulin are approximately the same: the 5-year survival amounts to 94 and 93%, respectively. Therefore, the use of globulin may be recommended as a method of choice for the above patients' group, since surgical approaches to the treatment are still coupled with a high risk for the patient's life. PMID:2251670

Savchenko, V G; Mikha?lova, E A; Liubimova, L S; Turbina, N S; Ustinova, E N; Mendeleeva, L P; Zakharov, G N; Askarov, T U

1990-01-01

50

Safety Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Human Gc Globulin (Vitamin D Binding Protein)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gc globulin is an important protein of the plasma actin-scavenger system. As such, it has been shown to bind free actin and prevent hypercoagulation and shock in patients with massive actin release resulting from severe tissue injuries. Treatment of such patients with Gc globulin could therefore potentially be life-saving. This article presents pre-clinical toxicology experiments conducted on purified plasma-derived human Gc globulin. The Gc globulin formulation was shown to be stable for at least 4 years with full retention of actin-binding capacity. In vitro studies did not reveal activation of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day toxicity studies in rats and horses did not show any unwanted reactions. In a 14-day toxicology study in beagle dogs, formation of antibodies was seen and in the end of the study period, three out of four dogs showed clinical immunological reactions, which could be ascribed to the formation of antibodies. The half-life, T, for human Gc globulin was 12 hr in rats, 16 hr in horses and 30 hr in dogs. The safety profile of plasma-derived Gc globulin is concluded to be consistent to that required for use in man.

Pihl, Tina Holberg; JØrgensen, Charlotte Svaerke

2010-01-01

51

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human corticosteroid binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) has been developed using 125I-labelled CBG and a monospecific solid-phase CBG-antiserum (CBG-Ab-cellulose). The specificity of the RIA was confirmed for serial dilutions of male, female and pregnancy sera, as well as pure CGB standards. The mean +- S.D.recovery (99 +- 8%) verified the accuracy of the method, and a good correlation existed between serum CBG cortisol binding capacity measurements and CBG concentrations measured by RIA. Intra- and interassay precisions at low to high serum CBG concentrations were < 5% and < 9% respectively. The mean +- S.D. serum CBG concentrations measured were: 21.8 +- 4.6 in boys, 20.0 +- 4.2 in girls, 20.7 +- 2.7 in men, 20.5 +- 2.9 in women and 47.1 +- 10.5 in pregnant women. The sensitivity of the standard curve was 1.0 ng CBG/assay tube, but this could be increased to 0.2 ng/assay tube by reducing the amount of CBG-Ab-cellulose used. The RIA is suitable for both clinical and research purposes, and will aid the identification of abnormal forms of CBG and facilitate studies of the regulation of CBG production in vitro. (author)

52

Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. PMID:20347821

Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

2010-06-01

53

Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials

54

ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin and highly significant decrease in Albumin after 15 and 30 days of dosing of Aloe vera in comparison to control animals group. It is concluded that the long-term use of Aloe vera may cause hypoglobinemia and hypoalbuminemia at 30 days of dosing and it could be due to the liver diseases, evidence of hepatotoxicity induced Aloe vera also reported in previous studies.

Nuzhat Sultana

2013-08-01

55

Release of flavonoids from lupin globulin proteins during digestion in a model system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupin seed globulin proteins form complexes with flavonoids, predominantly apigenin C-glycosides. Enzymes typical for the gastrointestinal tract were used to hydrolyze lupin seed globulins. Release of native flavonoids as a result of the proteolysis reaction was observed. Different analytical methods such as size exclusion chromatography, HPLC-MS, and fluorescence spectroscopy (steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes) were used for a detailed characterization of this phenomenon. Flavonoids liberated from lupin globulin proteins as a result of pancreatin-catalyzed digestion were bound by ?-conglutin resistant to this enzyme. Two possible mechanisms of this interaction may be suggested: hydrogen bonding between oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins and the sugar moieties of the flavonoid glycosides or electrostatic attraction between positively charged ?-conglutin and flavonoids partially ionized at pH 7.5. PMID:22264085

Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Kachlicki, Piotr; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora; Nogala-Kalucka, Malgorzata

2012-02-22

56

A pitfall in determining the globulin/albumin ratio in amaranth grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

In amaranth grains (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.), there were two albumin (Alb) fractions, Alb-1 and Alb-2; Alb-1 was extracted with water or 0.5 M NaCl, and Alb-2 was extracted with water after extracting Alb-1 and globulin. The amount of Alb-2 comprised about 30% of the total albumin and globulin content. Little or no measurable protein corresponding to the amaranth Alb-2 was extracted from seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.), or barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Sekitorisai-1). That the globulin/albumin ratio (G/A) in amaranth grains has been conflicting among investigators probably accounts for the consideration of Alb-2 during extraction. We here report the revised G/A ratio of 0.3-0.4. PMID:1506925

Konishi, Y; Azumaya, J; Horikawa, K; Nakatani, N

1992-04-01

57

Effect of Co-60 irradiation on hyperimmune antimeningococcus globulins-gamma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Globulins-gamma from voluntary blood donors immunized with the Cuban BC antimeningococcus vaccine is now being used in our country for the treatment of the meningococcus disease. This study of the effect of Co-60 irradiation on antimeningococcus globulins-gamma was carried out to try to eliminate the inconvenience shown by the traditionally used sterilization procedures (losses in the filter and persistence of viral contamination). globulins-gamma was obtained by ethanol fractionation and was irradiated at a different dose in solution with different stabilizers and it was also lyophilized. Results of the chemical controls carried out lead to the conclusion that it is possible to use radiosterilization on this product in a lyophilized form. The preservation of bactericidal activity, even after the highest irradiation doses, confirms the above mentioned. 13 refs

58

Studies on a possible using of penicillin and specific globulin for treatment of Siberia ulcer infection in irradiated animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of anti-anthracic globulin and penicillin for treating infectious anthrax was compared in experiments on 160 guinea pigs and 400 white mice irradiated with sub-lethal doses of cobalt-60 gamma rays. It was found that penicillin retained its effectiveness in the irradiated animals whereas anti-anthracic globulin lost much of its therapeutic efficiency. (auth.)

59

Mouse splenocyte blast transformation in the presence of plasma ?-globulin fraction proteins and their complexes with copper and zinc.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma ?-globulin fraction proteins, copper and zinc cations, and metal complexes formed by these cations and human serum ?-globulin induce blast transformation of splenocytes from BALB/c mice at a level comparable to that induced by concanavalin A. Zinc bound to ?-globulin reduces by 25% and copper in complex with this protein stimulates by 1.6 times its capacity to induce blast transformation. Combinations with concanavalin A reproduce the effects of ?-globulin-metal complex under conditions of mitogen induction. Incorporation of(3)H-thymidine in splenocytes incubated with combinations of ?-globulin-copper metalcomplex, copper cations, and control protein with concanavalin A was by 1.4, 1.3 (p<0.1), and 1.25 times higher (p<0.05), respectively, than after incubation with concanavalin A alone. PMID:22235400

Cheknev, S B; Grigorjeva, E A; Nikolaeva, T N; Pronin, A V

2011-03-01

60

Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty.

SØrensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Radio-immunoassay for serum thyroxine-binding-globulin in blood serum. Results in normal subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thyroxine-binding-globulin radio-immunoassay in blood serum has been set up. The standard used has been determined by gravimetry, its maximal thyroxine-binding capacity is 0,96 mole of thyroxine per mole of TBG. Serum concentration of TBG has been measured in 159 euthyroid normals. The mean value of the concentration is 20 mg/l

62

Long-term outcome after immunosuppressive therapy with horse or rabbit antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for severe aplastic anemia in children  

Science.gov (United States)

Some prospective studies showed that rabbit antithymocyte globulin was inferior to horse antithymocyte globulin as first-line therapy for patients with severe aplastic anemia. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcome of 455 children with severe aplastic anemia who received horse antithymocyte globulin (n=297) or rabbit antithymocyte globulin (n=158) combined with cyclosporine as first-line therapy between 1992 and 2010. The response rates were comparable between the horse and rabbit antithymocyte globulin groups at 3 months [46% (136/294) versus 42% (66/153), P=0.55] and 6 months [60% (178/292) versus 55% (87/143), P=1.0]. Using multivariate analysis, differences in antithymocyte globulin preparations were not associated with response rates. However, 2-year and 10-year overall survival rates in the horse antithymocyte globulin group were significantly better than those in the rabbit antithymocyte globulin group (2-year overall survival: 96% versus 87%, 10-year overall survival: 92% versus 84%, P=0.004). On the basis of multivariate analysis, use of rabbit antithymocyte globulin was a significant adverse factor for overall survival (hazard ratio = 3.56, 95% confidence interval, 1.53 – 8.28, P=0.003). Rabbit antithymocyte globulin caused more profound immunosuppression, which might be responsible for the higher incidence of severe infections. Considering that there are no studies showing the superiority of rabbit antithymocyte globulin over horse antithymocyte globulin, horse antithymocyte globulin should be recommended as a first-line therapy. However, our results justify the use of rabbit antithymocyte globulin as first-line therapy if horse antithymocyte globulin is not available. PMID:24213150

Jeong, Dae Chul; Chung, Nack Gyun; Cho, Bin; Zou, Yao; Ruan, Min; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Ohara, Akira; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Yang, Wenyu; Kim, Hack Ki; Zhu, Xiaofan; Kojima, Seiji

2014-01-01

63

Proteomic Analysis of Albumins and Globulins from Wheat Variety Chinese Spring and Its Fine Deletion Line 3BS-8  

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Full Text Available The relationship between chromosome deletion in wheat and protein expression were investigated using Chinese Spring and fine deletion line 3BS-8. Through 2-DE (2-D electrophoresis analysis, no differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were found in leaf samples; however, 47 DEPs showed at least two-fold abundance variation (p < 0.05 in matured wheat grains and 21 spots were identified by tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among the identified spots, four were cultivar-specific, including three (spots B15, B16, and B21 in Chinese Spring and one in 3BS-8 (spot B10. Among variety-different DEPs between Chinese Spring and 3BS-8, most spots showed a higher express profile in CS; only four spots showed up-regulated expression tendency in 3BS-8. An interesting observation was that more than half of the identified protein spots were involved in storage proteins, of which 11 spots were identified as globulins. According to these results, we can presume that the encoded genes of protein spots B15, B16, and B21 were located on the chromosome segment deleted in 3BS-8.

Yue-Ming Yan

2012-10-01

64

Energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

65

Transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin messenger RNA activities during turpentine-induced inflammation in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously we have shown that the serum concentration of transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin markedly decreases during turpentine-induced inflammation. In the present study transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin mRNA from healthy rats and from animals with inflammation was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Female rats had higher levels of translatable transcortin mRNA than male animals and the level of mRNA for transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin decreased rapidly during inflammation. These results indicate that the sex difference in the serum level of transcortin and the changes in serum transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin during inflammation are mainly determined by differences in the mRNAs in the liver. PMID:2413280

Faict, D; Verhoeven, G; Mertens, B; De Moor, P

1985-09-01

66

A simple ligand-binding assay for thyroxine-binding globulin on reusable Sephadex columns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the assay of thyroxine-binding globulin on reusable Sephadex G-25 columns is described. It depends upon elution by diluted iodothyronine-free serum of protein-bound [125I]thyroxine from the columns under conditions where binding to thyroxine-binding prealbumin and albumin are abolished. It is simple, rapid and precise, and permits determinations inlarge numbers of samples. Values (mg/l; mean +- S.D.) were: normals 31.6+-5.4, hyperthyroid 28.3+-4.8, hypothyroid 40.6+-7.5, oral contraceptives 40.1+-6.8, pregnant 50.3+-5.4, cirrhotics 20.7+-4.3. Concentrations were reduced in serum heated at 56degC, while the uptake of [125I]triiodothyronine was increased. There was a significant negative correlation between thyroxine-binding globulin concentration and triiodothyronine uptake in the heated serum samples and in euthyroid subjects

67

Radioimmunological analysis of the content of thyroid hormones, and thyroxin binding globulin in the blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of general thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) as well as the absolute content of free thyroxin (ACT4) and thyroxin binding globulin have been studied in the blood of normal people, patients with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyrosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and also in pregnant women by a radioimmunological method using Corning kits. It has been shown that the mean concentration of thyroxin binding globulin in patients with thyrotoxicosis is decreased. However the TBG determination cannot be used as a diagnostic test for this disease because of notable variations of individual indices. T4, T3 and ACT4 concentration in the blood was decreased and TBG concentration increased in patients with hypothyrosis. The content of thyroid hormones did not change in obesity, diabetes mellitus and in pregnant women in spite of the increased TBG concentration in the blood

68

Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.  

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Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants. PMID:20362336

Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

2010-05-01

69

Verification of a method for sexual hormone-binding globulin analysis and estimation of free testosterone  

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Introduction: Sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a protein that binds to androgens and oestrogens, especially testosterone. The fraction of testosterone that is not bound to SHBG is the biologically active fraction which makes its determination more relevant than determining the total amount of circulating testosterone. It is difficult to measure the plasma concentration of free testosterone; therefore calculations using the concentrations of testosterone and SHBG are used to estimate ...

Englund, Sofia

2012-01-01

70

Low Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women  

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Although an association between the metabolic syndrome and hyperandrogenism has been suggested in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, few studies have investigated this relationship in postmenopausal women. We measured estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated the free androgen index (FAI) in 212 postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy in the Women's Health Study. A modified ATP III definition of the metabolic syndrome (3 or more of the followi...

Weinberg, Melissa E.; Manson, Joann E.; Buring, Julie E.; Cook, Nancy R.; Seely, Ellen W.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

2006-01-01

71

Radioimmunoassay for determination of the molecules variety of human thyroxin-binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for quantitative determination of thyroxinbinding globulin (TBG-1) - native molecular TBG variety including TBG-1 extraction by microcolumn chromatography of serum on KonA-sefaroza and following radioimmunoassay is developed. Control tests and determination of TBG-1 in different serum reveal that the developed method does not yield to direct techniques of radioimmunoassay in parameters characterizing accuracy and reliability of measurements; the method permits to differentiate different physiological states of organism by BBG-1 level

72

EFFECT OF COMBINATION EXERCISE TRAINING ON SEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER  

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Studies indicated that decreased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) can increase the risk ofbreast cancer and its recurrences in postmenopausal women. On the other hand; it’s possible thatexercise training can affect SHBG. Therefore; the aim of current study was to clarify the effectof combination exercise training on SHBG in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Thus;29 postmenopausal women with breast cancer that received surgery; chemotherapy and radiationtherapy divided in to two gr...

Reza Nuri

2011-01-01

73

?(2)-µ-Globulin fragment (a2-f) from kidneys of male rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of ?(2)-µ-Globulin fragment (A2-f) is not known.?(2)-µ-Globulin fragment (A2-f) is a 15.5 kDa protein that binds equimolar amount of fatty acids in male rat kidneys. The expression of this protein has been shown to change in response to druginduced and genetic hypertension which suggests that it plays an important role in renal fatty acid metabolism under pathological conditions as well as normal conditions. A2-f has sequence homology with amino acid 28-178 of ?(2)-µ-Globulin (A2U) that is synthesized pre-dominantly in the male rat liver and is present in the urine. It is believed that unusual structural features permit A2-f to be targeted to the proximal tubule cell; to escape lysosomal degradation in liver and to enter the cytosol of proximal tubule cells of the kidneys. Homology modeling has been employed to determine the structural elements of this protein and they have been compared with the published structure of A2U. Results suggest differences between the structure of A2-f and its precursor protein A2U. PMID:23422892

Hai, Abdul; Kizilbash, Nadeem A

2013-01-01

74

Modification of solubility and heat-induced gelation of amaranth 11S globulin by protein engineering.  

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The primary structure of amaranth 11S globulin (Ah11S) was engineered with the aim to improve its functional properties. Four continuous methionines were inserted in variable region V, obtaining the Ah11Sr+4M construction. Changes on protein structure and surface characteristics were analyzed in silico. Solubility and heat-induced gelation of recombinant amaranth 11S proglobulin (Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4M) were compared with the native protein (Ah11Sn) purified from amaranth seed flour. The Ah11Sr+4 M showed the highest surface hydrophobicity, but as consequence the solubility was reduced. At low ionic strength (? = 0.2) and acidic pH (amaranth 11S globulins analyzed. In conclusion, the 3D structure analysis has revealed interesting molecular features that could explain the thermal resistance and gel forming ability of amaranth 11S globulins. The incorporation of four continuous methionines in amaranth increased the hydrophobicity, and self-supporting gels formed had intermediate hardness between Ah11Sn and Ah11Sr. These functional properties could be used in the food industry for the development of new products based on amaranth proteins. PMID:23495835

Carrazco-Peña, Laura; Osuna-Castro, Juan A; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F; Morales-Rueda, Juan A; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

2013-04-10

75

COMPARATIVE ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS OF ALBUMINS/ GLOBULINS EXTRACTED FROM DRY GRAINS AND GREEN MALTS OF BARLEY VARIETIES  

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Full Text Available Applicability of electrophoretic separations of albumins/globulins, followed by nonspecific protein staining and specific glycoprotein and aminopeptidase detection has been examined for barley variety discrimination. Albumins/globulins extracted from dry grains and green malt of six barley varieties were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10 % T, pH=8.9 of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate denatured proteins, and by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient of 3.5-9.5 and 4.0-6.5. Analysis of dry grain extracts gave better results than green malt extracts. Obtained data indicate that SDS-PAGE of albumins/globulins and IEF in pH gradient 3.5-9.5 followed by Coomassie Blue staining could be useful in Croatian barley variety discrimination. Angora barley could be clearly distinguished from the other varieties which were grouped as follows: Rodnik/Sladoran, Barun/Rex, and Martin. Glycoprotein patterns did not improve the recognition of individual varieties. Broad specificity, phenylalanine and leucine preferring, and arginine specific aminopeptidase were not found as applicable markers for discrimination of examined barley varieties.

Ivica Strelec

2012-12-01

76

Isolation, characterization and radioimmunoassay of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) in human serum - clinical significance and comparison to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolation of the corticosteroid-binding globulin CBG was achieved by 5 chromatographical steps on cortisol Sepharose, QAE-Sephadex A-50, Con A-Sepharose and hydroxylapatite. The purity of the isolated CBG was demonstrated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and ultracentrifugation. Microheterogeneity was shown in isoeletric focusing by 5 bands in the pH range of 3.7-4.2, which could be reduced to one major band after neuraminidase treatment. The equimolar binding of cortisol to CBG was demonstrated by binding studies. The association constant for cortisol was 2.8 x 108M-1, for progesterone 1.7 x 106M-1. From analytical ultracentrifugation, the molecular weight was calculated on 50 700; the sedimentation coefficient was 3.6 S, the partial specific volume 0.690 ml/g, the Stokes radius 38 A and the frictional coefficient ratio 1.5. A specific radioimmunoassay for CBG was established using the purified CBG for immunization, radioiodination and for calibration standards. The normal range of CBG levels in human serum was 2.4-4.4 mg/100 ml (mean +- 2SD). Studies were performed to compare the levels of CBG and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). No sex differences but a significant biphasic age dependence were observed for both proteins. In pregnancy and under oestrogen treatment of women and men, CBG was demonstrated to be the more distinct indicator of oestrogenic activity as compared with TBG oestrogenic activity as compared with TBG, whereas the sensitivity of TBG was more pronounced to supposedly antioestrogenic substances like Danazol, and in severe disease. No coincidence of genetic CBG and TBG deficiencies have been found so far. (author)

77

Energy Storage.  

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Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

Eaton, William W.

78

[Immune modulating effect of intravenous gamma globulin in a patient with overlapping syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 46 years old woman with a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma overlapping syndrome. During treatment with steroids and azathioprine, the appearance of paresthesias and a progressive invalidating proximal weakness was interpreted as a steroidal myopathy. Steroidal treatment was progressively discontinued, but lupic activity and esophageal involvement exacerbated. Therefore, the use of immune modulating doses of intravenous gamma globulin (2 g/kg/total dose) was decided. The patient received this dose in two consecutive days and, 48 hours later, a notable improvement in esophageal function and general condition was verified. After six months of follow up, the disease remains inactive. PMID:9922516

Jurlow, E; Poblete, P; Marinovic, M A

1998-09-01

79

Comparative characterization of molecular varieties of thyroxine-binding human globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two molecular varieties of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) of human retroplacental blood, obtained as a result of fractionation of pure TBG on concanavalin A-Sepharose, were studied. It was shown that these varieties (TBG-1 and TBG-2) are immunologically identical; they have the same molecular weight and amino acid composition, exhibit the same affinity for thyroid hormones, and are indistinguishable in spectral characteristics. And yet, TBG-1 and TBG-2 have differences in charge, detectable in isoelectrofocusing, and a different monosaccharide composition. The existence of molecular varieties of TBG during pregnancy is apparently due to the peculiarities of the glycosylation of the polypeptide chain during TBG biosynthesis

80

Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application  

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An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat) confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST) and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the Un...

Cupo, Palmira; Azevedo-marques, Marisa M.; Sarti, Willy; Hering, Sylvia Evelyn

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Reducing rice seed storage protein accumulation leads to changes in nutrient quality and storage organelle formation.  

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Rice (Oryza sativa) seed storage proteins (SSPs) are synthesized and deposited in storage organelles in the endosperm during seed maturation as a nitrogen source for germinating seedlings. We have generated glutelin, globulin, and prolamin knockdown lines and have examined their effects on seed quality. A reduction of one or a few SSP(s) was compensated for by increases in other SSPs at both the mRNA and protein levels. Especially, reduction of glutelins or sulfur-rich 10-kD prolamin levels was preferentially compensated by sulfur-poor or other sulfur-rich prolamins, respectively, indicating that sulfur-containing amino acids are involved in regulating SSP composition. Furthermore, a reduction in the levels of 13-kD prolamin resulted in enhancement of the total lysine content by 56% when compared with the wild type. This observation can be mainly accounted for by the increase in lysine-rich proteins. Although reducing the level of glutelins slightly decreased protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), the simultaneous reduction of glutelin and globulin levels altered the inner structure of PSVs, implicating globulin in framing PSV formation. Knock down of 13-kD prolamins not only reduced the size of endoplasmic reticulum-derived protein bodies (PBs) but also altered the rugged peripheral structure. In contrast, PBs became slightly smaller or unchanged by severe suppression of 10- or 16-kD prolamins, respectively, indicating that individual prolamins have distinct functions in the formation of PBs. Extreme increases or decreases in sulfur-poor prolamins resulted in the production of small PBs, suggesting that the ratio of individual prolamins is crucial for proper aggregation and folding of prolamins. PMID:20940349

Kawakatsu, Taiji; Hirose, Sakiko; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Takaiwa, Fumio

2010-12-01

82

Copper excess impairs mobilization of storage proteins in bean cotyledons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germination represents a limiting stage of plant life cycle. One of the underlying metabolic activities following imbibition of seed is the reserve mobilization. Seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif) were germinated by soaking in distilled water or 200 ?M CuCl(2). Storage proteins breakdown and amino acids freeing from reserve tissues were investigated. Compared to the control, Cu caused a reduction in germination rate, embryo growth, and in mobilization of cotyledonary biomass. The failure in albumin and globulin hydrolysis after the exposure to the pollutant was argued by (1) higher contents of remaining proteins than control ones, (2) persistence of some polypeptide bands resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of albumin and globulin-rich fractions, and (3) decrease in the availability of amino acids. Nitrogen starvation in embryonic axis should be associated with the Cu-imposed delay in growth. PMID:21681466

Karmous, Inès; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Chaoui, Abdelilah

2011-12-01

83

Release, aggregation and lysis of human platelets by antilymphocyte globulin and antiplatelet serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human platelets labeled with 51Cr were used to determine the contribution made by platelet lysis to the platelet release reaction and platelet aggregation induced by rabbit antihuman platelet serum (APS) and equine antihuman thymocyte globulin (ATG). Platelets were tested in both plasma (PRP) and non-plasma containing media. Antibodies directed against platelets, either as APS or ATG, induced significant amounts of platelet release and aggregation, as well as some degree of lysis, in the absence of complement. The presence of complement increased platelet lysis and aggregation, but not the release reaction. Non-immune horse gamma globulin produced different responses depending upon whether platelets were investigated in PRP or non-plasma containing media. Aggregation was seen in the latter but not the former. These differences can be explained by the presence of plasma components which prevent non-specific immune complexes from causing platelet aggregation. Since platelets in vivo are always in a plasma medium, one must be wary of utilizing data from platelet studies in synthetic plasma-free media as the basis of explaining clinical events. These observations demonstrate at least two, and possibly three, different mechanisms whereby ATG could activate platelets causing thrombotic complications and thrombocytopenia, i.e., via 1) specific and, 2) non-specific non-lytic pathways and 3) a lytic pathway. PMID:1087479

Lekas, N; Rosenberg, J C

1976-11-30

84

Radioimmunoassay of testosterone and of sexual hormone-binding globulin in plasma of women with hirsutism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma-borne testosterone was determined in 176 women with hirsutism, and in 47 patients sexual hormone-binding globulin was determined as well. The highest average testosterone values were recorded from cases with congenital adrenogenital syndrome (AGS). In cases of postnatal AGS values were much lower, but they were clearly in excess of those recordable from Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Plasma borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism came very close to testosterone levels established in the context of Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Testosterone levels dropped with significance, following AGS treatment, using cortisol derivatives, and following wedge-shaped ovariectomy. Sexual hormone binding-globulin was found to be strongly reduced in almost all women with hirsutism. Such reduction seemed to suggest the presence of increased amounts of free active testosterone in the blood of those patients. Determination of plasma-borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism is considered to be essential to both diagnosis of the endocrinological syndromes and monitoring of therapy. (author)

85

Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction in renal transplantation: review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Leah Andress,1 Anjali Gupta,2 Nida Siddiqi,3 Kwaku Marfo2,3 1University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Buffalo, 2Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Department of Abdominal Organ Transplant Program, Bronx, 3Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG has proven benefit as induction therapy in renal transplant recipients, achieving reduced acute rejection rates and better short-term allograft function, with slightly higher rates of complications such as infections and malignancy. Compared with other agents, the most benefit from rATG induction has been observed in renal transplant recipients at high immunologic risk for rejection. However, in special populations, such as pediatrics, the elderly, and hepatitis C-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-positive renal transplant recipients, additional information is needed to delineate the absolute benefit of rATG induction compared with other induction agents. Selection of rATG as the choice of induction therapy in renal transplant recipients should be guided by a cost-effective approach in balancing efficacy, safety, and cost. This review summarizes the published literature on efficacy, safety, and cost of rATG induction in renal transplantation. Keywords: anti-thymocyte globulin, renal transplantation, induction therapy

Andress L

2014-01-01

86

Effect of total binding capacity of thyroxine binding globulin on the free thyroxine index  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In search of a definite source of misleading free thyroxine index (FT4I), the relationship between in vitro thyroid testing results and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) capacities were reexamined in sera from a population with a relatively high prevalence of serum TBG alterations. Sera from 21 subjects with different total thyroxine-binding globulin capacities (TTBG), were loaded with graded amounts of thyroxine (T4) and assayed for T4, T3 uptake (T3U), TTBG, and free T4 concentration (FT4I). Serum T4, T3U, and the calculated FT4 index (FT4I) were able to separate efficiently the samples according to their FT4, but their respective normal ranges varied with TTBG. Interpretation of the results of the in vitro tests, in the light of TTBG, greatly improved their operating characteristics in the study of 141 patients with a high prevalence of TBG alterations. The misleading FT4I is not the outcome of reduced intrinsic sensitivities of the in vitro tests, but a consequence of a shift of their normal ranges caused by a change of TTBG. By estimating TTBG from the values of T4 and T3U, this problem is easily solved without adding cost

87

In vitro thyroid testing in populations with low thyroxine binding globulin capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total thyroxine (T4) concentration in serum is a reliable indicator of thyroid function in most individuals, but it is affected by altered concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in serum. Within certain limits, the variations in total TBG binding capacity (TBGTOTAL) caused by the fluctuations in the concentration of this binding globulin in serum can be modulated by calculating the free thyroxine index (FT4I) as the product of T4 and the in vitro uptake of triiodothyronine by a secondary binder (T3U). This calculation is empirically based on the facts that free TBG binding capacity (TBGFREE) is inversely related to T3U and that T4 and T3U show opposite behaviour when measured in sera with altered TBG: a low T4 in serum with reduced TBGTOTAL is compensated by a high value for T3U, while an elevated T4 in serum with increased TBGTOTAL is compensated by a low value for T3U. In both cases the product of T4 and T3 renders a normal FT4I value, showing a certain association with the concentration of free T4 in serum (FT4). In fact, this index has been shown to be superior than several FT4 assay systems in the assessment of thyroid status in clinical euthyroid subjects with relatively high or low T3U

88

Genome-wide association study of serum albumin:globulin ratio in Korean populations.  

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Low albumin:globulin (A/G) ratios are associated with vascular adverse events, nephrotic syndrome and autoimmune disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been identifying genetic variants associated with total serum protein, serum albumin and globulins, but A/G ratio has never been considered the target phenotype. To identify the genetic basis of the A/G ratio, we performed a GWAS on A/G ratio in 4205 individuals from the Ansan cohort and confirmed the results in 4637 subjects from the Ansung cohort. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of Affymetrix SNP array 5.0 were obtained from the Korean Association Resource Consortium, and we selected 290?659 common SNPs with a minor allele frequency >0.05. Genetic factors for A/G ratio were analyzed by linear regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status and alcohol drinking status as covariates. From the GWAS of the Ansan cohort, we identified two significant genome-wide signals (P-valuesFADS1 and TNFRSF13B) were replicated, with P-valuesFADS1 locus (SNP: rs174548)-with an overall combined P-value=3.54 × 10(-8). PMID:23303382

Hong, Kyung-Won; Jin, Hyun-Seok; Song, Daesub; Kwak, Hye-Kyoung; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Yeonjung

2013-03-01

89

Intraindividual variation of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin and thyroxine-binding globulin in fasting serum from healthy men  

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The concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin and thyroxine-binding globulin were determined in fasting serum from 11 healthy men (age 18-25 years) by radioimmunoassays conducted over a period of 4 weeks on 5 consecutive days per week. The concentrations of thyroxine and thyroxine-binding globulin were very consistent intraindividually, with coefficients of variation of 7.84% and 9.37%, respectively. The triiodothyronine and thyrotropin levels showed significant intraindividual variability with coefficients of variation of 18.38% and 51.85%, respectively. These results point to the type of difficulties encountered in judging serum values, namely intraindividual variations over a given period of time.

Liappis, N.; Hoffmann, U.; Rao, M.L.

1986-02-01

90

Relationship between in vitro Fe and Zn dialysability and peptide composition of albumin and globulins extracted from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro dialysability of iron, zinc and protein was determined from whole bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), albumin and globulin (G1, G2) after cooking. Albumin showed the highest iron, zinc, protein and phytic acid content. Cooking increased iron and protein dialysability only in whole bean and albumin. Compared to globulins, albumin also presented a higher in vitro protein digestibility and cystine chemical reactivity. HPLC analysis of peptides in dialysates of bean and protein fractions suggested that some aggregation occurred during dialysis. The percentage of amino acids in dialysed peptides was found to be different between albumin and globulins. The difference in iron and zinc dialysability between albumin and globulins seems to depend on the phytic acid content of the albumin fraction and the protein properties of globulins. PMID:8933202

Lombardi-Boccia, G; Carbonaro, M; Cappelloni, M; Carnovale, E

1996-11-01

91

Influence of administered indigenous microorganisms on uptake of [Iodine-125] ?-globulin in vivo by intestinal segments of neonatal calves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten calves less than 14 h of age (average 8.6 h) were anaesthetized, and the intestine was ligated into segments 10 cm in length at 3-cm intervals beginning 1.8 m anterior to the ileocecal junction and proceeding proximally. Seven treatments were assigned in random order to segments in three successive sections of the small intestine. Segments received 1 ml of viable bacteria of intestinal origin, autoclaved bacteria of intestinal origin, or sterile microbiological broth at zero time; then after 4 h they were injected with iodine-125 labeled ?-globulin. After an additional 1.5 h, the experiment was ended and uptake assayed. Two treatments measured anaerobic microbial growth after 4 h incubation with 1 ml of either sterile broth or live bacteria culture. Residual [iodine-125]?-globulin was measured in segments receiving 1 ml of sterile broth or live bacteria culture with 5.5-h incubation followed by 15-s exposure to labeled ?-globulin. Uptake was lowest in segments receiving live bacteria as compared to segments receiving sterile inocula. Number of bacteria per gram of tissue was correlated negatively with uptake. Low corticosteroids in serum were associated with low uptake of ?-globulin

92

["Non-immune" interactions of gamma-globulin in regulation of immune reactions].  

Science.gov (United States)

It was shown using the model of L2-dependent proliferation of T-cells that IL2 forms complexes with gamma-globulin inhibiting IL2 activity. In this interaction IL2 acts as lectin binding with two-antenna terminals of 5 or 6 mannose residues in one and the same region of immunoglobulin. Similar effect is observed in vivo in case of induction of DTH to listerial antigens. This phenomenon accounts for suppression of the immune response after passive injection of autoantibodies and for the inverse relationship between humoral and cellular immunity. Reduction of IL2 activity after its interaction with IgG or immune complexes may be regarded as a universal feedback immunoregulatory mechanism. External and internal factors showing affinity to mannose, e.g. sodium polyprenyl phosphate or lactobacillus, can interfere with this process and exert immunomodulating effect. PMID:22168041

Sobolev, S M; Nikolaeva, T N; Pronin, A V

2011-01-01

93

Chemical study on labelling of ?-globulin with 199Au via thiomalic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

199Au-labelled monoclonal antibody against cancer may be applied to the diagnosis and therapy of tumors. In this study, ?-globulin (IgG) was used as the protein model of monoclonal antibody, and thiomalic acid (TMA) as the bifunctional conjugate connecting gold to IgG. The authors have systematically studied the preparation of S-acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (AMSA), the conjugation of IgG with AMSA, the release of thiols from AMSA conjugating IgG by hydrolysis, and the reaction condition of the conjugate IgG-TMA with gold. However, the labelled compound Au-TMA-IgG is not very stable in air, and it needs further study to verify whether the label is stable in vivo or not. The result obtained could be applied to the labelling of monoclonal antibody

94

Therapeutic effect of spleen cells incubated with placental globulin and dexamethasone on mice irradiated with ?-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adult male (C57 x LACA) F1 mice were irradiated with 9.5 Gy of ?-rays and injected with spleen cells, either non-incubated or incubated with placental globulin (PG) and dexamethasone (DXM). Mice of the control group were irradiated only. All animals in the control group died within 28 days after irradiation, while all mice treated with non-incubated spleen cells died even much earlier than the controls-within 9 days after irradiation. The 30-day-survival rate of mice injected with incubated spleen cells was 77.1%. The spleen index in mice treated with non-incubated spleen cells (2.44 ± 0.27) was higher than that in mice injected with incubated spleen cells (1.25 ± 0.14). These experiments showed that PG and DXM could reduce the severencess of GVHD in the treated mice, and, therefore, in creased their survival rate

95

Antithymocyte globulin has limited efficacy and substantial toxicity in unselected anemic patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has recently been popularized as an effective treatment in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We treated 8 anemic MDS patients (refractory anemia [RA] and refractory anemia with excess blasts [RAEB-1]) with ATG (40 mg/kg/d for 4 days) and prednisone in a phase 2 trial. The study was stopped early according to a preset termination rule because of lack of efficacy. There were no salutary responses. Toxicities included serum sickness (in all patients), transient neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, vomiting, and syncope with a generalized seizure. At least 3 patients had the HLA-DR15 (DR2) allele. We conclude that the risk-benefit ratio of ATG in an unselected population of MDS patients may be unfavorable, and more work is needed to define the subset of patients who will respond to ATG before its widespread use can be recommended. PMID:12411290

Steensma, David P; Dispenzieri, Angela; Moore, S Breanndan; Schroeder, Georgene; Tefferi, Ayalew

2003-03-15

96

Control survey of normal reference ranges adopted for serum thyroxine binding globulin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey using questionnaires was made on 152 facilities from July through September 1984 to examine normal reference ranges of serum thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine (TT4), and triiodothyronine (TT3). Normal reference ranges of TBG were in good agreement with each other, with the exception of four facilities showing high upper limits. An average value of the upper and lower limits in 83 facilities was 13.7 +- 1.9 ?g/ml; and the standard deviation was 28.6 +- 2.8 ?g/ml. Differences (approximately 10 %) in coefficient of variation were comparable to those (5.7-9.6 %) obtained from the previous survey. There were approximately 10 % differences in coefficient of variation for both TT4 and TT3. (Namekawa, K.)

97

Simultaneous determination of free thyroxine and capacity of thyroxine-binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple method is described for the simultaneous determination of capacity thyroxine-binding of globulin (TBG) and free thyroxine concentration (FT4). The ratio of bound to free T4 (B/F) is first determined for two total-T4 concentrations using a Sephadex G-25 competitive-binding technique. TBG capacity and FT4 can both be calculated assuming a known value of affinity constant of TBG. The method is linear over a twenty-fold serum dilution. FT4 calculated is identical to that calculated using the method of Irvine. TBG capacity is shown to be linearly correlated to TBG concentration as determined by radioimmunoassay and is consistent with a molecular weight of 69,000 Daltons and one T4 binding site per molecule. FT4 is found to correlate with the free thyroxine index in a complicated way, depending on the degree of TBG saturation

98

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol cross-talk in breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma glycoprotein that regulates the action of steroid hormones at several levels. SHBG regulates the availability of free androgens and estradiol to hormone-responsive tissues. Moreover, SHBG is also part of a novel steroid signaling system. We report here on the mechanism of action and the biological effects of SHBG in breast cancer cells, especially distinguishing cross-talk between membrane-initiated SHBG and estradiol pathways. After interacting with a specific binding site on breast cancer cell membranes, SHBG activates a specific pathway, and by cAMP induction, inhibits estradiol-mediated activation of ERK. Both estradiol and SHBG membrane-initiated pathways involve cross-talk at MAP kinase level with the ultimate result of inhibiting estradiol-mediated cell growth and antiapoptosis. On the basis of reported evidence, we suggest that SHBG is one of the regulators of growth and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. PMID:16700004

Fortunati, N; Catalano, M G

2006-04-01

99

Mathematical model for determination of colloid osmotic pressure: The role of albumin-globulin ratio  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colloid Osmotic Pressure (COP is an important factor in the fluid balance of body compartments. COP is related to Total Protein (TP concentration and Albumin: Globulin Ratio (A/G. The A/G was not included in pervious empirical models, and therefore the main objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to determine the COP in terms of TP concentration and A/G. METHODS: Sera with different A/G were prepared in-vitro, and COP was measured directly using colloid osmometer. The relationship between COP, TP concentration and A/G were determined mathematically. The validity of developed empirical models was confirmed by statistical comparison between measured and calculated COP in 122 serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients and healthy individuals. RESULTS: By non-linear regression, the following relationships were found between COP, TP concentration and A/G. All coefficients were statistically significant (p<0.05: COP = (4.0814 A/G TP/(A/G + 0.0153 TP; r2 = 0. 91272. COP = [5.3192 A/G -2.2252 (A/G2 + 0.2939 (A/G3] TP; r2 = 0.94737 No significant differences were indicated between measured COP and calculated one in clinical data. CONCLUSIONS: The variation of A/G may be the most effective factor for the differences between calculated and measured COP. This parameter must be considered when the direct measurement of COP is unavailable. KEY WORDS: Mathematical model, colloid osmotic pressure, oncotic pressure, albumin-globulin ratio.

Mehdi Nematbakhsh

2006-12-01

100

Allosteric modulation of hormone release from thyroxine and corticosteroid-binding globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The release of hormones from thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is regulated by movement of the reactive center loop in and out of the ?-sheet A of the molecule. To investigate how these changes are transmitted to the hormone-binding site, we developed a sensitive assay using a synthesized thyroxine fluorophore and solved the crystal structures of reactive loop cleaved TBG together with its complexes with thyroxine, the thyroxine fluorophores, furosemide, and mefenamic acid. Cleavage of the reactive loop results in its complete insertion into the ?-sheet A and a substantial but incomplete decrease in binding affinity in both TBG and CBG. We show here that the direct interaction between residue Thr(342) of the reactive loop and Tyr(241) of the hormone binding site contributes to thyroxine binding and release following reactive loop insertion. However, a much larger effect occurs allosterically due to stretching of the connecting loop to the top of the D helix (hD), as confirmed in TBG with shortening of the loop by three residues, making it insensitive to the S-to-R transition. The transmission of the changes in the hD loop to the binding pocket is seen to involve coherent movements in the s2/3B loop linked to the hD loop by Lys(243), which is, in turn, linked to the s4/5B loop, flanking the thyroxine-binding site, by Arg(378). Overall, the coordinated movements of the reactive loop, hD, and the hormone binding site allow the allosteric regulation of hormone release, as with the modulation demonstrated here in response to changes in temperature. PMID:21325280

Qi, Xiaoqiang; Loiseau, François; Chan, Wee Lee; Yan, Yahui; Wei, Zhenquan; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Myers, Rebecca M; Ley, Steven V; Read, Randy J; Carrell, Robin W; Zhou, Aiwu

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Response of transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin to turpentine-induced inflammation in the rat: influence of corticosteroids and prolactin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence is presented that (transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin react as negative acute-phase proteins in the rat. Thirty-six hours after turpentine injection, the serum concentration of these proteins showed a two- to threefold decrease. Thereafter, transcortin rapidly returned to normal values, whereas alpha 2u-globulin remained low. This reaction pattern was still present after adrenalectomy, adrenalectomy and administration of glucocorticoids, and after treatment with bromocriptine, a suppressor of prolactin secretion. It is concluded that changes in the secretion of glucocorticoids and prolactin are not required for the observed turpentine-induced decrease of transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin. PMID:6196428

Faict, D; Vandoren, G; De Moor, P; Lesaffre, E; Verhoeven, G

1983-12-01

102

Cloning and computer analysis of the promoter region of the legumin-like storage protein gene from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench  

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Using the modified 5’-RACE approach, a fragment containing the 955 bp long 5’- regulatory region of the buckwheat storage globulin gene (FeLEG1) has been amplified from the genomic DNA of buckwheat. The entire fragment was sequenced and the sequence analyzed by computer prediction of cis-regulatory elements possibly involved in tissue specific and developmentally controlled seed storage protein gene expression. The promoter obtained might be interesting not only for fundamental research, ...

Milisavljevi? Mira; Konstantinovi? Miroslav M.; Brklja?i? Jelena M.; Maksimovi? Vesna R.

2004-01-01

103

Fasting induces the generation of serum thyronine-binding globulin in Zucker rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five-month-old lean and obese Zucker rats were fasted for up to 7 days (lean rats) or 28 days (obese rats), and serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations, percent free T4 and T3 by equilibrium dialysis, and the binding of [125I] T4 to serum proteins by gel electrophoresis were measured. In the lean rats, a 4- or 7-day fast resulted in significant decreases in serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations. There was a decrease in the percent free T3 after 7 days of starvation. In contrast, a 4- or 7-day fast did not alter any of these variables in the obese rats. However, after 14 or more days of starvation, serum total T4 and T3 concentrations increased, and the percent free T4 and T3 decreased, resulting in no change in the serum free T4 or T3 concentrations in the obese rats. The percent of [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin increased and the percent bound to thyronine-binding prealbumin decreased with the duration of the fast in both the lean and obese rats. The increase in serum thyronine-binding globulin binding of T4 can explain the increase in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, the decrease in percent free T4 and T3, and the normal free hormone concentration in the long term fasted obese rats. The findings in the lean rats appear to be due to a combination of the known central hypothyroidism that occurs during 4-7 days of fasting and the fasting-induced changes in T4 binding in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in serum during fasting in the rat must be considered when the effects of fasting on serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone kinetics, and the peripheral action of the thyroid hormones are evaluated

104

Fasting induces the generation of serum thyronine-binding globulin in Zucker rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five-month-old lean and obese Zucker rats were fasted for up to 7 days (lean rats) or 28 days (obese rats), and serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations, percent free T4 and T3 by equilibrium dialysis, and the binding of (/sup 125/I) T4 to serum proteins by gel electrophoresis were measured. In the lean rats, a 4- or 7-day fast resulted in significant decreases in serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations. There was a decrease in the percent free T3 after 7 days of starvation. In contrast, a 4- or 7-day fast did not alter any of these variables in the obese rats. However, after 14 or more days of starvation, serum total T4 and T3 concentrations increased, and the percent free T4 and T3 decreased, resulting in no change in the serum free T4 or T3 concentrations in the obese rats. The percent of (/sup 125/I)T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin increased and the percent bound to thyronine-binding prealbumin decreased with the duration of the fast in both the lean and obese rats. The increase in serum thyronine-binding globulin binding of T4 can explain the increase in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, the decrease in percent free T4 and T3, and the normal free hormone concentration in the long term fasted obese rats. The findings in the lean rats appear to be due to a combination of the known central hypothyroidism that occurs during 4-7 days of fasting and the fasting-induced changes in T4 binding in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in serum during fasting in the rat must be considered when the effects of fasting on serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone kinetics, and the peripheral action of the thyroid hormones are evaluated.

Young, R.A.; Rajatanavin, R.; Moring, A.F.; Braverman, L.E.

1985-04-01

105

Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application  

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Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out that a negative SST result may lead the health team to a feeling of false safety that no adverse reaction will occur, but this is not true for the anaphylactoid reactions. The decision to use premedication, which is based on knowledge about anaphylaxis and on the pharmacology of the medication used, is left to the judgment of health professionals, who should always be prepared for eventual untoward events.

CUPO Palmira

2001-01-01

106

[Analysis of protein bodies isolated from Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet: Intracellular localisation of globulins, proteases and trypsin inhibitors].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotyledonary cells are submitted to fractionation by isopycnic centrifugation. Small intact protein bodies are collected in the densest zones (d=1.205-1.237 g/cm(3)). Fragments of larger bodies are gathered in zones of lower density (d=1.205 g/cm(3)). Small dense bodies are largely sedimentable after dilution, whereas fragments of the large bodies dissociate into a dense sedimentable clot and into floating elements which contain most of the globulins and all of the albumins. Among the dissociated floating components are the BAPA-active endopeptidases and the trypsin inhibitors (BAPA=?-N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide). A caseolytic activity remains with the dense mass. The localisation of the albumins, globulins, proteases and trypsin inhibitors is discussed. Relations between solubility, structure and function are considered. PMID:24424699

Miège, M N; Mascherpa, J M; Royer-Spierer, A; Grange, A; Miège, J

1976-01-01

107

Preferential interaction of ?-globulin from sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) with cosolvents is accompanied by the protein structural reorganization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a cosolvent on the structure and stability of a protein depends upon the nature of preferential protein- water, protein-cosolvent or cosolvent-water interactions. The preferential interaction parameters of glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose with ?-globulin (from Sesamum indicum L. seeds) were evaluated and the results showed the exclusion of cosolvents and preferential hydration of the protein. Data from fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and thermal stability measurements inferred that the preferential hydration had a considerable effect on the structure of protein under native conditions. Such cosolvent-protein interactions bring out a previously unnoticed, but outstanding phenomenon of cosolvent induced structural effects on the protein. This study reveals that these cosolvents interact with ?-globulin in such a way that they induce a structural reshuffling to enhance the protein stability, mostly by intensifying intra-molecular hydrophobic interactions. PMID:23061669

Sekhar, P M Guna; Yadav, Jay Kant

2013-05-01

108

Controlled trial to evaluate protection of high-risk infants against respiratory syncytial virus disease by using standard intravenous immune globulin.  

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We performed a randomized, controlled trial of intravenous immune globulin (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] neutralizing [Nt] antibody titer of 1:950 in 5% solution) to evaluate protection against RSV-induced disease over two respiratory virus seasons. Forty-nine children (mean age at enrollment, 4.5 months) with severe congenital heart disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia were randomized as follows. Twenty-four patients were followed as controls and received no immune globulin. Twenty-fiv...

Meissner, H. C.; Fulton, D. R.; Groothuis, J. R.; Geggel, R. L.; Marx, G. R.; Hemming, V. G.; Hougen, T.; Snydman, D. R.

1993-01-01

109

Prolonged, Low-Dose Anti-Thymocyte Globulin, Combined with CTLA4-Ig, Promotes Engraftment in a Stringent Transplant Model  

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Background: Despite significant nephrotoxicity, calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) remain the cornerstone of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. We, along with others, have reported tolerogenic properties of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG, Thymoglobulin®), evinced by its ability both to spare Tregs from depletion in vivo and, when administered at low, non-depleting doses, to expand Tregs ex vivo. Clinical trials investigating B7/CD28 blockade (LEA29Y, Belatacept) in kidney transplant ...

D’addio, Francesca; Boenisch, Olaf; Magee, Ciara N.; Yeung, Melissa; Yuan, Xueli; Mfarrej, Bechara; Vergani, Andrea; Ansari, Mohammed Javeed; Fiorina, Paolo; Najafian, Nader

2013-01-01

110

Factors associated with serum levels of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin among premenopausal Japanese women.  

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We measured serum levels of estradiol (E(2)) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 50 healthy premenopausal Japanese women in 1994 in Gifu, Japan, to investigate the relationships between potential risk factors for breast cancer and hormone levels. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we collected data on body size, physical activity, and previous disease history, as well as menstrual and reproductive histories of the woman and her mother. Blood samples were drawn from each subjec...

Nagata, C.; Kaneda, N.; Kabuto, M.; Shimizu, H.

1997-01-01

111

Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

Handberg, A

2010-01-01

112

DETERMINATION OF WHEAT STORAGE PROTEINS BY RP-HPLC METHOD  

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Full Text Available The wheat storage proteins have the most important role in defining functional properties of flour. The aim of this study was to analyse the wheat storage proteins profiles and relative amount by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. 13 wheat cultivars grown at Agricultural Institute Osijek were investigated. As compared to the other wheat storage protein fractions the average proportion of albumins and globulins was the least (19.03%. The albumins and globulins chromatogram profiles were different regarding subunits number (19-22 with constant retention time from 7 to 15 minutes. Within gliadins group hidrophobic ?- (8-10 subunits and ?- gliadins (6-9 subunits were dominant, while the subunits number of hydrophilic gliadins varied from 1 to 3 for ?5- and 3 to 6 for ?1,2- gliadins. According to obtained results ?- and ?- gliadins were dominant components of gliadins group in relation to minor ?5- and ?1,2- gliadins. The LMW glutenins with 16 to 19 subunits were dominant proteins of glutenins group compared with the HMW glutenins whose subunits number varied from 4 to 6. The average proportion of gluten was 80.97%. Concerning gluten proteins, the gliadins were dominant group (44.20% compared with the average glutenins proportion (36.77%

Daniela Horvat

2006-12-01

113

Grafting of different glycosides on the surface of liposomes and its effect on the tissue distribution of 125I-labelled ?-globulin encapsulated in liposomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different glycosides were grafted on the surface of liposomes containing 125I-labelled ?-globulin by two ways: (1) by using glycolipid and (2) by covalent coupling of p-aminophenyl-D-glycosides to phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes using glutaraldehyde. The distribution of 125I-labelled ?-globulin was determined in mouse tissues from 5-60 min after a single injection of these liposomes. The liver uptake of encapsulated 125I-labelled ?-globulin was highest from liposomes having galactose and mannose on the surface. Competition experiments and cross-inhibition studies indicate that this uptake is mediated by specific recognition of the surface galactose and mannose residues of liposomes by the receptors present on the plasma membrane of liver cells. Stearylamine-containing liposomes were found to be more efficient in mediating the uptake of 125I-labelled ?-globulin by the lung, whereas in the case of spleen, phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes were more efficient. The extent of uptake of 125I-labelled ?-globulin from all types of liposome decreases as the amount of given liposomes increases. The uptake of 125I-labelled ?-globulin from liposomes containing asialogangliosides depends upon the phospholipid/glycolipid ratio. These experiments clearly demonstrate that enhanced liposome uptake by liver cells could be achieved by grafting galactose and mannose on the liposomal surface. (orig.)somal surface. (orig.)

114

Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-+g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state

115

Relationship between Post-kidney Transplantation Antithymocyte Globulin Therapy and Wound Healing Complications  

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Full Text Available Background: Wound healing disorders are probably the most common post-transplantation surgical complications.It is thought that wound healing disturbance occurs due to antiproliferative effects of immunosuppressivedrugs. On the other hand, success of transplantation is dependent on immunosuppressivetherapies. Antihuman thymocyte globulin (ATG has been widely used as induction therapy but the impactof this treatment on wound healing is not fully understood.Objective: To investigate wound healing complications after ATG therapy in renal transplant recipients.Methods: The medical records of 333 kidney transplant recipients were assessed for wound healing disorders.Among these patients, 92 received ATG and 5 doses of 1.5 mg/kg ATG along with the standardprotocol of drugs.Results: The mean age of patients was 38.9 years. Of 333 recipients, 92 (23.7% received ATG; 21 (6.3%developed wound healing complications. There was a significant relationship between ATG therapy andwound complications (p=0.034. Also, women were more likely to develop wound healing disorders thanmen (p=0.002. No statistical difference was observed between age and wound healing complication(p=0.28. There was no significant difference between the mean duration of hospitalization between ATGand Non-ATG group (p=0.9.Conclusion: ATG increases the risk of overall wound complications. It is needed to pay more attention tothe patients treated with this immunosuppressant to avoid the risk of re-interventions, lessen the durationof hospitalization and decrease the impairment of graft function.

G. R. Pourmand

2012-04-01

116

Spatial and temporal dynamics of corticosterone and corticosterone binding globulin are driven by environmental heterogeneity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The question of whether changes in glucocorticoid concentrations reflect consistent changes in physiology associated with transitions between different stages of reproduction, or whether they reflect responses to environmental conditions, is one the central issues in field endocrinology studies. We examined the temporal and spatial dynamics of corticosterone (CORT, baseline, and acute stress-induced) and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) concentrations in blood of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding at four major colonies in the Bering Sea, Alaska, during 1999-2005. We found that total CORT, free CORT, and CBG capacity varied inconsistently among reproductive stages, colonies, and years. Total CORT levels were positively correlated with CBG capacity. Variation in free CORT was largely driven by variation in total CORT. Results suggest that the adrenocortical function and CBG in breeding kittiwakes do not vary as a consequence of stage-specific modulation associated with a particular reproductive stage as in some short-lived passerine birds. Rather, in accord with predictions for a long-lived species, the lack of consistent colony, year, and reproductive stage patterns in baseline and maximum CORT, and CBG indicates that environmental factors, probably local dynamics of food availability, drive variation in these factors. PMID:18164297

Shultz, Michael Todd; Kitaysky, Alexander Stanislav

2008-02-01

117

Corticosterone and corticosteroid binding globulin in birds: relation to urbanization in a desert city.  

Science.gov (United States)

As cities expand worldwide, understanding how species adapt to novel urban habitats will become increasingly important to conservation. The adrenocortical stress response enables vertebrates to cope with novel environmental challenges to homeostasis. We examined total and estimates of free baseline and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and CORT binding globulin (CBG) levels in five passerine species within and around Phoenix, Arizona. We tested whether baseline and stress-induced CORT patterns differed among species living at varying densities in Phoenix and tested the hypothesis that, for species capable of successfully colonizing cities, individuals living in urban areas have a decreased acute stress response compared to individuals living in native desert. Baseline total CORT levels were generally similar in urban and rural birds. Capture and handling stress typically produced greater total CORT responses in urban birds than in rural birds, although these responses differed as a function of the life history stage (non-breeding, breeding or molt). CBG binding capacity did not change with life history stage or locality. Estimated free CORT concentrations differed less between groups than total CORT concentrations. Urban birds showed less variability in stress responses across life history stages than rural birds. We propose that more predictable resources in the city than in rural areas may decrease the need to vary stress responsiveness across life history stages. The results highlight the species-specific effects of urbanization on stress physiology and the difficulty to predict how urbanization impacts organisms. PMID:19116155

Fokidis, H Bobby; Orchinik, Miles; Deviche, Pierre

2009-02-01

118

Purification and properties of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) corticosteroid binding globulins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), a serum glycoprotein which binds glucocorticoids and progestins with high affinity, is widely distributed throughout the animal world. Although its charge and size characteristics have largely been conserved across species, the authors found the behavior of CBG in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) serum during fractionation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or Sephadex chromatography was consistent with a molecule about twice the size of that found in most species. To more fully understand the basis for this difference, they purified the protein by sequential affinity and DEAE-Sepharose chromatographies. The final product was obtained in greater than 60% yield and was found to migrate as a single homogeneous band when examined by electrophoresis. The steroid binding specificity of the purified protein was identical with that of the protein in the starting serum. In contrast to the single protein band observed following electrophoresis under normal conditions, separations in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resolved the pure protein into two bands: one at 54,000 daltons and one at 57,000 daltons. Unlike other species, squirrel monkey CBG exists as a dimer in its native state. Antibodies were generated against the purified material and tested for cross-reactivity against the sera from other species by both radioimmunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay techniques. Only serum from titi monkeys was observed to cross-react when examined by radioimmunoassay. Taken together, the results suggest that New World monkey CBG's are distinct from those of other species in both size and immunologic characteristics

119

Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone  

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The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

120

Hyporesponsiveness to glucocorticoids in mice genetically deficient for the corticosteroid binding globulin  

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Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) is the carrier for glucocorticoids in plasma. The protein is believed to keep the steroids inactive and to regulate the amount of free hormone acting on target tissues (free hormone hypothesis). Here, we generated a mouse model genetically deficient for CBG to test the contribution of the carrier to glucocorticoid action and adrenocortical stress response. The absence of CBG resulted in a lack of corticosterone binding activity in serum and in an approximately 10-fold increase in free corticosterone levels in CBG-null mice, consistent with its role in regulation of circulating free hormone levels. Surprisingly, cbg(-/-) animals did not exhibit features seen in organisms with enhanced glucocorticoid signaling. Rather, the mice exhibited increased activity of the pituitary axis of hormonal control, normal levels of gluconeogenetic enzymes, and fatigue, as well as an aggravated response to septic shock, indicating an inability to appropriately respond to the excess free corticosterone in the absence of CBG. Thus, our data suggest an active role for CBG in bioavailability, local delivery, and/or cellular signal transduction of glucocorticoids that extends beyond a function as a mere cargo transporter.

Petersen, Helle Heibroch; Andreassen, Thomas K

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Inhibition of Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Gene Expression by Glucocorticoids Involves C/EBP?  

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Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), a negative acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, is responsible for the transport of glucocorticoids (GCs). It also modulates the bioavailability of GCs, as only free or unbound steroids are biologically active. Fluctuations in CBG levels therefore can directly affect GC bioavailability. This study investigates the molecular mechanism whereby GCs inhibit the expression of CBG. GCs regulate gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which either directly binds to DNA or acts indirectly via tethering to other DNA-bound transcription factors. Although no GC-response elements (GRE) are present in the Cbg promoter, putative binding sites for C/EBP?, able to tether to the GR, as well as HNF3? involved in GR signaling, are present. C/EBP?, but not HNF3?, was identified as an important mediator of DEX-mediated inhibition of Cbg promoter activity by using specific deletion and mutant promoter reporter constructs of Cbg. Furthermore, knockdown of C/EBP? protein expression reduced DEX-induced repression of CBG mRNA, confirming C/EBP?’s involvement in GC-mediated CBG repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) after DEX treatment indicated increased co-recruitment of C/EBP? and GR to the Cbg promoter, while C/EBP? knockdown prevented GR recruitment. Together, the results suggest that DEX repression of CBG involves tethering of the GR to C/EBP?. PMID:25335188

Verhoog, Nicolette; Allie-Reid, Fatima; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Smith, Carine; Haegeman, Guy; Hapgood, Janet; Louw, Ann

2014-01-01

122

Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine-binding globulin: evaluation of a kit and diagnostic application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by using a radioimmunoassay method. The within-batch of variation (CV) of the assay was 5% or less at different TBG concentrations with a between-batch variation of less than 10%. The mean TBG concentration in hypothyroidism (28.5 plus or minus 6.7 mg/l) was significantly higher, and that in hyperthyroidism (22.3 plus or minus 3.5 mg/l) was significantly lower, than the euthyroid mean (25.4 plus or minus 6.9 mg/l). Acutely ill patients suffering from various non-thyroid illnesses were found to have significantly low mean TBG (13.8 plus or minus 4.3 mg/l). A group of women in late pregnancy had a higher mean value, as expected. Serum TBG level, however, was ineffective as a thyroid function test because of overlapping concentrations between groups. The derived index T4:TBG ratio was found to be superior to free thyroxine index (FTI) in many cases of acutely ill patients, pregnancy and hereditary TBG abnormality. The 95% confidence limit for the ratio in euthyroids, was 2.3 to 7.1. Serum TBG level with T4:TBG ratio is recommended as a replacement for the T3-uptake test and FTI. (author)

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A novel variant in Serpina7 gene in a family with thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency.  

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Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) carries approximately 75% of serum T4 and T3. This protein is encoded by serpina7 gene, formerly known as TBG gene, localized on X-chromosome (Xq22.2). A deficiency in TBG is suspected when abnormally low serum total T4 and T3 are encountered in clinically euthyroid subjects in the presence of normal serum TSH. This condition has been associated with different serpina7 gene mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions or truncations in the mature protein. Herein, we report a new serpina7 gene variant in three members of the same family. It results in the replacement of the normal asparagine 233 by isoleucine and, subsequently, in disruption of a glycosylation site. Co-segregation of this new variant with undetectable levels of TBG in the hemizygous man studied and failure to recognize the same variant in 100 alleles at random, made us to consider it as the underlying cause of the TBG deficiency. PMID:19415532

Domingues, Rita; Font, Paula; Sobrinho, Luís; Bugalho, Maria João

2009-08-01

124

Serum Thyroxine to Thyroxine-Binding Globulin Ratio in Pregnancy and Newborn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the diagnostic value of the ratio of serum thyroxine(T4) /thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) for the thyroid status in pregnancy and newborn serum thyroxine, TBG, triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels were radioimmunoassayed in normal pregnant women at each of the trimesters, and the calculated serum T4/TBG ratios were compared with other parameters such as T3/TBG ratio and free T4/TBG ratio and free T4/TBG ratio. Serum T4 levels were elevated with the proportionate increase in TBG levels during pregnancy, leading to the nearly constant value of serum T4/TBG ratios as in normal non-pregnant controls. In contrast, serum T3/TBG and free T4/TBG ratios varied considerably during pregnancy. In newborn, T4 levels were nearly not changed with compared non-pregnant control value and TBG levels were elevated. The results indicate that serum T4/TBG ratio is a better parameter than others in evaluating the thyroid status during pregnancy and but newborn is a no better.

125

Clinical evaluation of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) as a marker of liver tumors  

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This investigation was undertaken to evaluate thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB) as a marker of liver tumors, in conjection with the liver scintigram. Of 30 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), 22 (73.3%) showed significantly higher TBG concentrations. Eight patients (26.7%) showed normal TBG concentrations. In the case of 27 our of 30 patients with definite liver tumors, defects were apparent on the scintigrams. But seven of them had normal TBG concentrations in spite of the defects on the scintigrams. Out of 33 postoperative patients with liver metastasis, 28 (84%) had a raised TBG concentration. Only five (15.2%) had a normal TBG level. In 31 patients (93.9%) out of 33 with liver metastasis, a definite diagnosis was made on the basis of the liver scintigram. In 28 (90.3%) of these 31 people, the TBG concentration was higher than normal. Among 63 patients with liver tumors, both primary and metastatic, the test sensitivity for liver tumors was 92.1% (58/63) based on the accuracy of the liver scintigram. It was 79.4% (50/63) based on the TBG measurement. Why TBG increases to such an extent in spite of the euthyroid state remains unexplained. But it may be concluded that elevated TBG with positive liver scintigram furnishes a sensitive, fairly reliable, nonspecific tumor marker to determine liver tumors, especially in the case of liver metastasis. (orig.)

126

Characterization of the 11S globulin gene family in the castor plant Ricinus communis L.  

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The 11S globulin (legumin) gene family has been characterized in the castor plant Ricinus communis L. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of two diverged subfamilies (RcLEG1 and RcLEG2) comprising a total of nine genes and two putative pseudogenes. The expression of castor legumin genes has been studied, indicating that it is seed specific and developmentally regulated, with a maximum at the stage when cellular endosperm reaches its full expansion (around 40-45 DAP). However, conspicuous differences are appreciated in the expression timing of individual genes. A characterization of the 5'-proximal regulatory regions for two genes, RcLEG1-1 and RcLEG2-1, representative of the two legumin subfamilies, has also been performed by fusion to the GUS reporter gene. The results obtained from heterologous expression in tobacco and transient expression in castor, indicating seed-specific regulation, support the possible utility of these promoters for biotechnological purposes. PMID:19908832

Chileh, Tarik; Esteban-García, Belén; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

2010-01-13

127

Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin): 25 years and new frontiers in solid organ transplantation and haematology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The more than 25 years of clinical experience with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG), specifically Thymoglobulin, has transformed immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation and haematology. The utility of rATG has evolved from the treatment of allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease to the prevention of various complications that limit the success of solid organ and stem cell transplantation. Today, rATG is being successfully incorporated into novel therapeutic regimens that seek to reduce overall toxicity and improve long-term outcomes. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of rATG in recipients of various types of solid organ allografts, recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants who are conditioned with both conventional and nonconventional regimens, and patients with aplastic anaemia. Over time, clinicians have learnt how to better balance the benefits and risks associated with rATG. Advances in the understanding of the multifaceted mechanism of action will guide research into new therapeutic areas and future applications. PMID:20394456

Gaber, A Osama; Monaco, Anthony P; Russell, James A; Lebranchu, Yvon; Mohty, Mohamad

2010-04-16

128

Low dose antithymocyte globulin for the treatment of older patients with aplastic anaemia.  

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We report 14 older patients with aplastic anaemia (AA) who were treated with 'low dose' antithymocyte globulin (ATG). The aims of the study were to assess the efficacy and safety of reduced dose ATG in patients over the age of 60 years. Median age was 71 years (range 62-74 years). At the study endpoint (response to treatment at 6 months) 12 patients were evaluable. All patients received lymphoglobuline (horse ATG; Genzyme) at a dose of 0.5vials/10kg/day for 5 days (5mg/kg/day, equivalent to one-third of the standard dose). There were no deaths attributed to ATG. Two patients died during follow-up, from sepsis and anaphylaxis following platelet transfusion, respectively. Only one of the 12 evaluable patients responded to treatment and remains transfusion independent at 14 months after ATG. These results suggest that this lower dose of ATG, though well tolerated, had low efficacy in the treatment of AA. PMID:16530266

Killick, S B; Cavenagh, J D; Davies, J K; Marsh, J C W

2006-12-01

129

Clonality of acquired primary pure red cell aplasia: effectiveness of antithymocyte globulin.  

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Primary pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) was diagnosed in two male patients, 65 and 69 years old respectively. In both, surface markers of peripheral blood nuclear cells revealed the presence of TCR alphabeta+ phenotype. Clonality of T cells was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction in both patients, in whom, prednisone at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day improved the anemia and lower doses caused its renewal, resulting in the reappearance of the patient's transfusion requirement. On the other hand, the anemia seems to have been treated permanently (second case) with horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (20 mg/kg/day 1 to 8 +) since his hemoglobin was about 15 g/dl at the time of writing. In the first patient, the hemoglobin level was 10.5 g/dl one month after the administration of ATG (15 mg/kg/d 1 to 5 +), but unfortunately, the patient died because of a massive gastrointestinal bleeding on the fortieth day following this treatment. We, therefore, suggest that, patients with acquired primary PRCA should be screened to detect the presence of a T-cell clone and recommend that, treatment should start earlier with ATG, if the PRCA is due to a T-cell clonal disorder. PMID:11911428

Dinçol, G; Aktan, M; Nalçaci, M; Yavuz, A S; Keskin, H; Dawson, B; Dinçol, K

2001-01-01

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Serum sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin in prostatic hyperplasia  

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Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH develops in elderly males when serum androgens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but it is not well understood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia. It is also uncertain whether there is any change in sex steroid levels in males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males is often discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens on prostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatic hyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significant change in these hormones after the age of 40 years. Subjects and Methods: We studied healthy males of age 240 years with (n=92 or without (n=93 clinical prostatic hyperplasia. Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were compared. The hormones and SHBG were also correlated with age. Results: No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases with prostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significant age-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negative correlation (P< .003 with age was found. Conclusions: Serum sex steroids and SHBG remained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except for estradiol there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone, gonadotrophins and SHBG in healthy males after the fourth decade. More studies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.

Ansari Mohammad Abdul

2008-01-01

131

In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [3H]5?-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 ?M concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at sed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost

132

Hepatic uptake of desialylated testosterone-oestradiol-binding globulin in the rat  

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Testosterone-oestradiol-binding globulin (TeBG) isolated from bovine serum was desialylated by treatment with neuraminidase and its properties were compared with intact TeBG. No significant differences were observed in the testosterone-binding capacity or antigenic determinant, but electrophoretic mobility of asialo-TeBG decreased slightly. When injected into rat vein, 125I-labelled asialo-TeBG was rapidly taken up by the liver, whereas 125labelled intact TeBG remained in the circulation for a much longer period. Galactose oxidase treatment of asialo-TeBG, which presumably oxidized the primary alcohol of galactose at C-6 to an aldehyde, caused a reversion of its survival time in the blood to that of intact TeBG. When incubated with isolated rat liver cells at 20degC, the desialylated, but not intact, TeBG was rapidly taken up, ant its uptake was inhibited by excess amount of asialo-orosomucoid. Under these conditions in vitro, [3H]testosterone bound to asialo-TeBG was taken by the liver cells together with the asialo-TeBG. (author)

133

Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (?20%), pauci-mannosidic (?40%), and complex forms (?40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants ?-1,2-xylose and ?-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectincontaining two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy.

Dam, Svend Secher; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

2013-01-01

134

Globulin-platelet model predicts minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients  

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Full Text Available AIM: To establish a simple model consisting of the routine laboratory variables to predict both minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 114 chronic HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy in two different hospitals. Thirteen parameters were analyzed by step-wise regression analysis and correlation analysis. A new fibrosis index [globulin/platelet (GP model] was developed, including globulin (GLOB and platelet count (PLT. GP model = GLOB (g/mL × 100/PLT (× 109/L. We evaluated the receiver operating characteristics analysis used to predict minimal fibrosis and compared six other available models. RESULTS: Thirteen clinical biochemical and hematological variables [sex, age, PLT, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, albumin, GLOB, total bilirubin (T.bil, direct bilirubin (D.bil, glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, HBV DNA and prothrombin time (PT] were analyzed according to three stages of liver fibrosis (F0-F1, F2-F3 and F4. Bivariate Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed that six variables, including age, PLT, T.bil, D.bil, GLOB and PT, were correlated with the three fibrosis stages (FS. Correlation coefficients were 0.23, -0.412, 0.208, 0.220, 0.314 and 0.212; and P value was 0.014, < 0.001, 0.026, 0.018, 0.001 and 0.024, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that only PLT and GLOB were significantly different in the three FS (PLT: F = 11.772, P < 0.001; GLOB: F = 6.612, P = 0.002. Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that PLT and GLOB were also independently correlated with FS (R2 = 0.237. By Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, GP model was significantly correlated with the three FS (r = 0.466, P < 0.001. The median values in F0-F1, F2-F3 and F4 were 1.461, 1.720 and 2.634. Compared with the six available models (fibrosis index, AST-platelet ratio, FIB-4, fibrosis-cirrhosis index and age-AST model and age-PLT ratio, GP model showed a highest correlation coefficient. The sensitivity and positive predictive value at a cutoff value < 1.68 for predicting minimal fibrosis F0-F1 were 72.4% and 71.2%, respectively. The specificity and negative predictive value at a cutoff value < 2.53 for the prediction of cirrhosis were 84.5% and 96.7%. The area under the curve (AUC of GP model for predicting minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis was 0.762 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.676-0.848] and 0.781 (95% CI: 0.638-0.924. Although the differences were not statistically significant between GP model and the other models (P all > 0.05, the AUC of GP model was the largest among the seven models. CONCLUSION: By establishing a simple model using available laboratory variables, chronic HBV-infected patients with minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis can be diagnosed accurately, and the clinical application of this model may reduce the need for liver biopsy in HBV-infected patients.

Xu-Dong Liu

2012-01-01

135

Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

136

Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL. The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT, and two minor transcripts. Results We report that transcriptional expression of the human SHBG gene is far more complex than previously described. PL and PT direct the expression of at least six independent transcripts each, resulting from alternative splicing of exons 4, 5, 6, and/or 7. We mapped two transcriptional start sites downstream of PL and PT, and present evidence for a third SHBG gene promoter (PN within the neighboring FXR2 gene; PN regulates the expression of at least seven independent SHBG gene transcripts, each possessing a novel, 164-nt first exon (1N. Transcriptional expression patterns were generated for human prostate, breast, testis, liver, and brain, and the LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. Each expresses the SHBG transcript, albeit in varying abundance. Alternative splicing was more pronounced in the cancer cell lines. PL- PT- and PN-derived transcripts were most abundant in liver, testis, and prostate, respectively. Initial findings reveal the existence of a smaller immunoreactive SHBG species in LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells. Conclusion These results extend our understanding of human SHBG gene transcription, and raise new and important questions regarding the role of novel alternatively spliced transcripts, their function in hormonally responsive tissues including the breast and prostate, and the role that aberrant SHBG gene expression may play in cancer.

Rosner William

2009-05-01

137

Circadian and circaseptan rhythmicities in corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding activity of human milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been demonstrated that human milk contains a corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG, transcortin) which is very similar to that isolated from plasma. It is agreed, moreover, that the cortisol environment of the breast is important for the synthesis of major milk proteins. It was of interest, therefore, to investigate whether milk transcortin exhibits circadian variations in the binding activity as does the plasma counterpart. Twelve lactating women, aged 23-35 years, collected specimens of milk just before feeding at different times of the 24-h cycle for 3 consecutive days in the first week of lactation. Six women extended milk collection for at least a 28-days span in the first 2 months of lactation. To obtain whey, milk was centrifuged in cellulose nitrate tubes at 105,000 g for 30 min at 4 degrees C. Specific cortisol binding activity of CBG was measured by an adsorption technique and data were expressed as a function of protein content. Cortisol levels in milk were measured by radioimmunoassay. Rhythmometric analyses (single- and mean-cosinor procedures) yielded detection of a significant circadian rhythm in 'apparent specific binding activity' for cortisol (ASBA-F) whereas no significant oscillation was found as far as milk cortisol concentrations were concerned. Mean acrophase of the CBG-binding activity in milk was located in the evening, lagging behind the corresponding activity in serum by approximately 8 h. A circaseptan rhythmicity in milk binding activity was also present in our longitudinal series at a high level of significance. These results provide evidence that CBG binding activity in human milk has a clear circadian rhythm in the face of ecchronic milk cortisol concentrations. Phase-shift with regard to the rhythm of the plasma counterpart may be accounted for by processes of milk accumulation before nursing The significance of circadian and circaseptan variations in specific cortisol (and other steroids) binding in milk awaits further investigation. PMID:7172869

Agrimonti, F; Frairia, R; Fornaro, D; Torta, M; Borretta, G; Trapani, G; Bertino, E; Angeli, A

1982-01-01

138

A sensitive and specific method for determining testosterone estradiol binding globulin (TeBG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, rapid and highly sensitive method for measuring TeBG and how it can be used for obtaining a Free Testosterone Index (FTI) is described. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is used instead of testosterone owing to its higher affinity for this globulin. Non-specific binding (NSB) is estimated by incubating the plasma samples in parallel, with and without a 100-fold excess of cold DHT. To determine the level at which TeBG becomes saturated and to work far from this region of the curve, where sensitivity diminishes, hot-only experiments were performed. Saturation was found to occur beyond 1000 pg DHT. Control normal sera were compared with samples from hypogonadic patients and Scatchard plots were done to find a parallel between the two groups and a point of maximal discrimination among them at about 500 pg DHT. Since an excellent reproducibility between experiments was found, Scatchard plots were not routinely done and only the binding capacity of a control normal pool at the point of maximal discrimination was compared to that of the unknown sample and calculated as follows: TeBG binding capacity = DHT bound by the normal pool/DHT bound by the unknown. The FTI is obtained by multiplying the total testosterone by the TeBG binding capacity. Total testosterone (Tt), TeBG and FTI were analysed in 38 normal volunteers classified according to age in four groups: 20-30 (n=13), 40-50 (n=7), 50-60 (n=8), 60-70 (n=10). Although a slight difference was observed when Tt was compared between the different age groups (P<0.05), there was a much higher significant difference for TeBG and FTI (P<0.0001). (author)

139

New directions for rabbit antithymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin(®)) in solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants and autoimmunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 30 years since the rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) Thymoglobulin(®) was first licensed, its use in solid organ transplantation and hematology has expanded progressively. Although the evidence base is incomplete, specific roles for rATG in organ transplant recipients using contemporary dosing strategies are now relatively well-identified. The addition of rATG induction to a standard triple or dual regimen reduces acute cellular rejection, and possibly humoral rejection. It is an appropriate first choice in patients with moderate or high immunological risk, and may be used in low-risk patients receiving a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-sparing regimen from time of transplant, or if early steroid withdrawal is planned. Kidney transplant patients at risk of delayed graft function may also benefit from the use of rATG to facilitate delayed CNI introduction. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, rATG has become an important component of conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens, following demonstration of reduced acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. More recently, a role for rATG has also been established in reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. In autoimmunity, rATG contributes to the treatment of severe aplastic anemia, and has been incorporated in autograft projects for the management of conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, and systemic sclerosis. Finally, research is underway for the induction of tolerance exploiting the ability of rATG to induce immunosuppresive cells such as regulatory T-cells. Despite its long history, rATG remains a key component of the immunosuppressive armamentarium, and its complex immunological properties indicate that its use will expand to a wider range of disease conditions in the future. PMID:25164240

Mohty, Mohamad; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Saliba, Faouzi; Zuckermann, Andreas; Morelon, Emmanuel; Lebranchu, Yvon

2014-09-01

140

Interactions of thyroxine with thyroxine-binding globulin of low binding capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physico-chemical interactions between thyroxine (T4) and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) of low binding capacity were investigated by radioimmunoassay, equilibrium dialysis, and reverse flow electrophoresis. Knowledge of total and free T4 (FT4) concentrations in serum, and of the total binding capacity of the protein carrier (TTBG), allowed the determination of the association constant ruling these interactions (K/sub tbg/). Correlation between T4 and FT4 varies with TTBG, shifting the normal range for T4. The level of FT4 in serum is a function of the fractional saturation of TBG by endogenous hormones, which depends on T4 and TTBG. Data on T4, TTBG, and K/sub tbg/ were integrated into the general equation of the law of mass action and the results showed a very significant linear correlation with the values of FT4 measured by equilibrium dialysis. It is concluded that the misleading results of serum T4 measurements and of the free T4 index, obtained in euthyroid individuals with low TTBG, cannot be ascribed to a reduction of the intrinsic sensitivity of the assay due to oversaturation of TBG by endogenous T4, as previously postulated by others, but to a shift of their normal ranges produced by abnormal variations of TTBG. These results stress the need for data regarding TTBG for the proper interpretation of T4,he proper interpretation of T4, and for the calculation of the fractional saturation of TBG and the FT4 concentration in serum. The authors have solved this problem by using an empirical equation relating TTBG to T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) uptake, which was previously derived by other workers

 
 
 
 
141

Associations between sex hormone binding globulin and metabolic syndrome parameters in premenopausal obese women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to determine sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG concentrations in premenopausal obese women and to evaluate the relationships between sex hormones and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Settings and Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 350 obese patients aged 25 to 69 years referred to the Department of Endocrinology, Pamukkale University in 2002-2003. Materials and Methods: 125 premenopausal euthyroid patients were eligible for this study. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI: Group I, women with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 (n = 17 and Group II,, women with BMI ? 30 kg/m 2 (n = 108. Median SHBG concentration of Group I was 50.1 nmol/L. Group II was divided into two subgroups according to the median SHBG concentration of Group I: subjects with high SHBG levels (SHBG concentration ? median level of the control group, i.e ? 50.1 nmol/L and subjects with low SHBG levels (< 50.1 nmol/L. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 9.0 software (SPSS Inc.. Results: No significant difference was found in mean age between the low and high SHBG groups. The low SHBG group was significantly heavier, and with higher waist circumference than the high SHBG group. In the low SHBG group, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT and free androgen index (FAI were significantly higher. Lipid profile, blood pressure, uric acid, insulin and HOMA were found similar between two groups. Linear regression analyses revealed that body mass index and FAI were significant, being independent predictors of SHBG concentrations in premenopausal women. (r = 0.365, r square = 0.134. Conclusions: It is concluded that low SHBG concentrations may indicate visceral obesity and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women.

Akin Fulya

2008-10-01

142

Effects of corticosterone pellets on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding-globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exogenous administration of glucocorticoids is a widely used and efficient tool to investigate the effects of elevated concentrations of these hormones in field studies. Because the effects of corticosterone are dose and duration-dependent, the exact course of plasma corticosterone levels after exogenous administration needs to be known. We tested the performance of self-degradable corticosterone pellets (implanted under the skin) in elevating plasma corticosterone levels. We monitored baseline (sampled within 3min after capture) total corticosterone levels and investigated potential interactions with corticosteroid-binding-globulin (CBG) capacity and the endogenous corticosterone response to handling in Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus and barn owl Tyto alba nestlings. Corticosterone pellets designed for a 7-day-release in rodents elevated circulating baseline total corticosterone during only 2-3 days compared to placebo-nestlings. Highest levels occurred 1-2days after implantation and levels decreased strongly thereafter. CBG capacity was also increased, resulting in a smaller, but still significant, increase in baseline free corticosterone levels. The release of endogenous corticosterone as a response to handling was strong in placebo-nestlings, but absent 2 and 8 days after corticosterone pellet implantation. This indicates a potential shut-down of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis after the 2-3 days of elevated baseline corticosterone levels. 20 days after pellet implantation, the endogenous corticosterone response to handling of nestlings implanted with corticosterone pellets attained similar levels as in placebo-nestlings. Self-degradable pellets proved to be an efficient tool to artificially elevate circulating baseline corticosterone especially in field studies, requiring only one intervention. The resulting peak-like elevation of circulating corticosterone, the concomitant elevation of CBG capacity, and the absence of an endogenous corticosterone response to an acute stressor have to be taken into account. PMID:18996387

Müller, Claudia; Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Breuner, Creagh W; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

2009-01-01

143

Gene amplification as a cause of inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess in two Japanese families  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

T{sub 4}-binding globulin (TBG) is the major thyroid hormone transport protein in man. Inherited abnormalities in the level of serum TBG have been classified as partial deficiency, complete deficiency, and excess. Sequencing analysis of the TBG gene, located on Xq21-22, has uncovered the molecular defects causing partial and complete deficiency. However, the mechanism leading to inherited TBG excess remains unknown. In this study, two Japanese families, F-A and F-T, with inherited TBG excess were analyzed. Serum TBG levels in hemizygous males were 58 and 44 {mu}g/mL, 3- and 2-fold the normal value, respectively. The molecule had normal properties in terms of heat stability and isoelectric focussing pattern. The sequence of the coding region and the promoter activity of the TBG gene were also indistinguishable between hemizygotes and normal subjects. The gene dosage of TBG relative to that of {beta}-globin, which is located on chromosome 11, and Duchenne muscular dystropy, which is located on Xp, was evaluated by coamplification of these target genes using polymerase chain reaction and subsequent quantitation by HPLC. The TBG/{beta}-globin ratios of the affected male and female of F-A were 3.13 and 4.13 times, respectively, that in the normal males. The TBG/Duchenne muscular dystrophy ratios were 2.92 and 2.09 times the normal value, respectively. These results are compatible with three copies of TBG gene on the affected X-chromosome. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in gene dosage was demonstrated in the affected hemizygote of F-T. A 3-fold tandem amplification of the TBG gene was shown by in situ hybridization of prometaphase and interphase chromosomes from the affected male with a biotinylated genomic TBG probe, confirming the gene dosage results. Gene amplification of TBG is the cause of inherited TBG excess in these two families. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Mori, Yuichi; Miura, Yoshitaka; Saito, Hidehiko [Toyota Memorial Hospital (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01

144

IgE-binding epitopic peptide mapping on a three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).  

Science.gov (United States)

The three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) consists of three protomers exhibiting the cupin motif, arranged in a homotrimer around a three-fold symmetry axis. Using the SPOT technique, 11 continuous IgE-binding epitopic peptides were characterized on the molecular surface of the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat. Except for one of them, they all correspond to well exposed regions containing electropositiveley and/or electronegatively charged residues, which cover up to 40% of the molecular surface of the allergen. Some of these epitopes come in close contact to probably create more extended discontinuous epitopes, especially those located on the edge of the 13S globulin homotrimer. Half of the identified epitope peptides remain unaltered in a core structure protected against hydrolysis by digestive proteases and are thus assumed to promote the allergenicity of the 13S globulin. In addition, a few of these epitopes coincide with sequential IgE-binding epitopes previously characterized in soybean 11S globulins, that could account for the IgE-binding cross-reactions observed between soybean and buckwheat in Western blot experiments. PMID:19463732

Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

2009-06-01

145

Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. Irish Hepatology Research Group.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In February 1994, batches of anti-D immune globulin used in Ireland during 1977 and 1978 to prevent Rh isoimmunization were found to be contaminated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a single infected donor. In March 1994, a national screening program was initiated for all women who had received anti-D immune globulin between 1970 and 1994. Of the 62,667 women who had been screened when this study began, 704 (1.1 percent) had evidence of past or current HCV infection, and 390 of those 704 (55 percent) had positive tests for serum HCV RNA on reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction analysis. All 390 were offered a referral for clinical assessment and therapy. We evaluated 376 of these 390 women (96 percent); the other 14 were not seen at one of the designated treatment centers. RESULTS: The mean (+\\/-SD) age of the 376 women was 45+\\/-6 years at the time of screening. They had been infected with hepatitis C for about 17 years. A total of 304 women (81 percent) reported symptoms, most commonly fatigue (248 [66 percent]). Serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were slightly elevated (40 to 99 U per liter) in 176 of 371 women (47 percent), and the concentrations were 100 U per liter or higher in 31 (8 percent). Liver biopsies showed inflammation in 356 of 363 women (98 percent); in most cases the inflammation was slight (41 percent) or moderate (52 percent). Although the biopsy samples from 186 of the 363 women (51 percent) showed evidence of fibrosis, only 7 women (2 percent) had probable or definite cirrhosis. Two of the seven reported excessive alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the women with HCV infection 17 years after receiving HCV-contaminated anti-D immune globulin had evidence of slight or moderate hepatic inflammation on liver biopsy, about half had fibrosis, and 2 percent had probable or definite cirrhosis.

Kenny-Walsh, E

2012-02-03

146

Cask storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To eliminate various kinds of economical disadvantages in construction of cask storage and disperse risks caused by massive storage. Constitution: The storage half-underground structure is composed of the cask storage room buried under the ground and the ventilation room with the air inlet and outlet placed on the ground level. Direct radiation from the cask is shielded by using soils below the ground level, and radiation in the ceiling direction is shielded by the ceiling concrete. Heat generated from the cask is transferred and exhausted by natural air ventilation from the air inlet to the outlet by using the drive force of buoyancy generated from the difference of air density between the inside and the outside of the storage. The cask is taken in and out of the shielding lid installed in the ceiling corresponding to the storage position, by using a movable crane. (Sekiya, K.)

147

The role of alpha2u-globulin in ochratoxin A induced renal toxicity and tumors in F344 rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) was shown to be a potent kidney carcinogen in rats demonstrating a marked sex difference in the response. Compared to female rats, male rats had a 10-fold higher incidence of kidney carcinomas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this sex difference in tumor response is due to an exacerbation of effect resulting from the interaction of the male rat specific urinary protein ?2u-globulin (?2u) with OTA. Male and female rats were treated by o...

Ra?sonyi, Thomas; Schlatter, Josef; Dietrich, Daniel R.

1999-01-01

148

Tritium storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

149

Energy storage  

CERN Document Server

Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

Brunet, Yves

2013-01-01

150

Estimation of the T4 Binding Capacity of Serum Thyroxine Binding Globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most commonly used methods for determining thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) concentration as the total thyroxine-binding capacity utilize electrophoretic separation of serum. Although technically simple, the electrophoretic method is time consuming and is limited in the number of samples which can be run in a single assay. The author presented a single T4 load ion exchange resin method as an approach to simplify the technique as with clinical practicability and results were analyzed. For construction of the standard curves, serum mixtures were diluted with barbital buffer which effectively blocked T4-binding to TBPA. For each serum dilution, a constant amount of T4-125I and increments of unlabelled T4 were added. After incubation in water bath, resin beads were dispensed to the samples which binded all T4 not bound to TBG. The radioactivity in the supernatant was counted in the gamma scintillation counter. Each standard curve was plotted from the percent counts in the supernatant and total T4 in each tube. Unknown samples were diluted to 1 : 40 and ran at a single T4 loading concentration, and the TBG capacity of the samples was able to be read on the standard isobars. The following results were obtained. 1) Mean and standard deviation for TBG capacity in normal population was 28.6±5.09 ?g T4/100 ml. 2) 24.9±3.87 ?g T4/100 ml in hyperthyroidism showed sub>/100 ml in hyperthyroidism showed low TBG capacity tendency comparing to normal population(p4/100 ml in hypothyroidism showed high TBG capacity tendency comparing to normal population. 4) Reversed correlationship existed between TBG capacity and T3 resin uptake (r=-0.624), TBG capacity and serum T4 value (r=-0.859), and TBG capacity and free thyroxine index (r=-0.623). The author assumes that this method of assay is considerably simpler in instrumentation and technique than any other assays traditionally being used, and seems to be more practical for routine clinical laboratory use.

151

Diagnostic Significance of the Serum Thyroxine Binding Globulin (TBG) in Various Thyroid Diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the serum thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) in various thyroid disease states, the authors measured serum T3 uptake, T3, total T4, free T4, TSH and TBG by radioimmunoassay technique, and calculated the free T4 index(FT4I) and T4/TBG ratio in 10 cases of normal subjects, 11 eases of hypothyroidism, 62 cases of euthyroidism and 37 cases of hyperthyroidism. The data were analysed in the aspects of diagnostic significance in each thyroid disease state, and the results were as follows; 1) In 10 cases of normal subjects, serum TBG was 17.4-26.8 ug/ml, FT4I was 5.1-9.7, and T4/TBG ratio was 21.949.9 (Mean±S.D.). 2) 62 cases of euthyroidism with diffuse and nodular goiter, FT4I was 7.26±1.82, T4/TBG ratio was 31.47±10.42, and there were no significant difference from those of normal subjects(p>0.5). 3) In 11 cases of hypothyroidism, the FT4I was 3.13±2.15, T4/TBG ratio was 11.3±5.31, significantly lower than normal controls(p4I was 30.0±12.01 T4/TBG ratio was 121.4±62.2, significantly higher than normal controls(p4I and T4/TBG ratio, total T4 and T4/TBG radio, in each thyroid function statedio, in each thyroid function states. 6) The FT4I showed 100% of diagnostic value in hyperthyroidism, 89.2% in euthyroidism, and 80% in hypothyroidism group. The T4/TBG ratio showed 100% of diagnostic value in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and 80.6% in euthyroidism group. The above results suggest that T4/TBG ratio and FT4I showed same diagnostic value in hyperthyroidism group, but T4/TBG showed higher diagnostic significance than FT4I in hypothyroidism.

152

Cardiovascular risk factors in men : The role of gonadal steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.

Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L

2001-01-01

153

Atomic storage  

CERN Multimedia

IBM is supplying CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, with its Storage Tank file system virtualization software, 20 terabytes of storage capacity, and services under a three-year deal to build computer systems that will support the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (1 paragraph).

Ricadela, A

2003-01-01

154

Protective activity of a human respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin prepared from donors screened by microneutralization assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore the feasibility of preparing a human immune globulin specific for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by screening plasma donors, the ability of seven RSV antibody assays to identify plasma-yielding IgG with high virus-neutralizing and animal-protective activities was compared. IgG prepared from plasma units selected by microneutralization assay had significantly higher activity in protecting mice from respiratory RSV challenge than did IgGs prepared from plasmas selected by three direct ELISAs using purified F protein, G protein, or RSV-infected cell lysate, by two competitive ELISAs with RSV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed to the F2 or F3 epitopes of the F protein, or by plaque reduction neutralization. Relative to IgG made from unselected plasma, microneutralization-screened IgG was enriched fivefold by plaque-reduction neutralization assays done with or without complement. The microneutralization assay identified RSV antibodies with highest animal protective activity. This assay will be useful for identifying plasma donors for the preparation of a human immune globulin with high protective activity against RSV and deserves further evaluation for prediction of protective antibody concentrations in children. PMID:1538152

Siber, G R; Leszcynski, J; Pena-Cruz, V; Ferren-Gardner, C; Anderson, R; Hemming, V G; Walsh, E E; Burns, J; McIntosh, K; Gonin, R

1992-03-01

155

Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

156

Serum sickness and severe acute renal failure after rabbit antithymocyte globulin treatment in aplastic anemia: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum sickness is an immune-complex-mediated illness that frequently occurs in patients after polyclonal antibody therapy (thymoglobulin). Although serum sickness has been described secondary to thymoglobulin therapy in adults, there are no reports in children on thymoglobulin-induced acute renal failure. We report a case of serum sickness in a 10-year-old girl who was treated for severe aplastic anemia using rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Eleven days after being started on antithymocyte globulin treatment, she developed fever, gross hematuria, arthralgia, rash, and acute renal failure. Laboratory results showed decreased complement levels, hypergammaglobulinemia, serum creatinine of 4.8 mg/dL (0.6 mg/dL at baseline), and blood urea nitrogen of 79 mg/dL (28 mg/dL at baseline). Peritoneal dialysis was required for 14 days. The patient's symptoms resolved after 13 days on treatment with a short course of high-dose steroids for 3 days, followed by a prednisolone taper. Early recognition and accurate diagnosis is the key for managing thymoglobulin-induced serum sickness, as treatment is highly effective at achieving good outcomes. PMID:21063223

da Silva, Paulo Sérgio Lucas; Passos, Roselene Mesquita Augusto; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Park, Miriam Verônica Flor

2011-01-01

157

Isoforms of thyroxine-binding globulin as a model for molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The novel field of molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk has added a new branch to classical epidemiology by providing a direct link between human cancer and carcinogen exposure. It was estimated that about 80% of cancers are due to environmental factors. The blood proteins are almost certainly targets for modification in human cancer, and their identification and characterization will be of primary importance in the development of the new and rapidly evolving field of molecular epidemiology. Among blood proteins that are altered in human cancer, TBG occupies a special place because the level of human blood TBG is the most sensitive to intensification of biosynthesis and proliferation processes in organisms in different types of cancer. The increase of TBG concentration in cancer can be result from both activation of TBG biosynthesis in liver or altering of post translation glycosylation that prolongs protein survival time. The molecular basis for the change in the properties of TBG in cancer is unknown. These distinctive changes could have important consequences for the function of TBG in cancer and may help to develop more precise markers for monitoring pathological progression in this disease. Considerable variability and subtlety can occur in the carbohydrate composition and structure of serum glycoproteins in disease. This can be either as a major change, such as an increase in the number of oligosaccharide branches at a particular glycosylation site or as a minor change such as the addition of an extra fucose or sialic acid residue. Increased fucosylation has also been reported for transferrin and alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer; thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer, IgG in myeloma, haptoglobin in ovarian cancer. The last own studies have shown that in clinically healthy teenagers born in Khojniki (137 Cs 185-555 kBq/m), we have found an unusual thyroid profile exhibiting increased levels of total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) by 50-60%, but no elevation in free T4, as compared with similar control groups of from Minsk. One of the reasons for the euthyroid syndrome in teenagers from the contaminated region was shown to be the blood isoforms in TBG. These isoforms differed in the structure of the carbohydrate components and as a rule are characterized by a prolonged circulation time. Using specific affinity chromatography, with subsequent immunological assay we shown that a certain amount of serum TBG-molecules in persons from Khojniki contains a high level of TBG (about 30% higher than the control group) containing fucosyalated biantennary sugar chains with more prolonged survival time. Previous findings showed that increased levels of fucosylation are observed for some serum glycoproteins in the blood of tumour patients. We provide evidence for variations in the TBGfuc which are contained in the serum TBG pool of patients suffering from cancer with various localisation. Thus, analysis of TBGfuc may be regarded as a prognostic marker in the determination of risk groups. The molecular mechanism of increased activity of fucosyl transferases will be discussed. We propose to measure the level of TBG fucosylated to assess the human cancer risk and habitants of contaminated region of Belarus. (authors)

158

Reduction of the non-specific binding of DNA to gamma-globulin in Farr radioimmunoassay by addition of dextran sulfate and calcium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of non-specific binding caused by the interaction between gamma-globulin and denatured DNA was markedly reduced by addition of dextran sulfate or CaCl2 at alkaline pH. This method was shown to be applicable in the detection of anti-DNA antibodies in sera from cases of human systemic lupus erythematosus. (Auth.)

159

Serum dioxin, insulin, fasting glucose, and sex hormone-binding globulin in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied insulin, fasting glucose, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in Air Force veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), during the Vietnam War. The index subjects were veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial herbicide spraying in Vietnam from 1962-1971. Other Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia during the same period but were not involved with spraying herbicides served as comparisons. We assigned each Ranch Hand veteran based on his dioxin level to one of three exposure categories, named background, low, and high. Among nondiabetic veterans, we found the mean of the logarithm of insulin significantly increased in the high dioxin category. Additionally, in nondiabetic veterans the relation between SHBG and insulin interacted significantly with dioxin category on the log scale within strata defined by age and percent body fat. Among young (age, dioxin and insulin regulation. PMID:10323376

Michalek, J E; Akhtar, F Z; Kiel, J L

1999-05-01

160

A new polymorphism of thyroxin-binding globulin in three African groups (Mali) with endemic nodular goitre.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) polymorphism was investigated in three African groups: two belonged to the Bwa villages of Mali, and the third was a Dogon group living in the same area. The Bwa groups were characterized by the occurrence of nodular goitres, whereas the Dogon population did not show similar pathological symptoms. Females were more affected by goitre than males in the affected villages. The TBG polymorphism enabled us to demonstrate the presence of an undescribed allele (TBG C1) in these populations. The frequency of the TBG S allele was also higher than previously published in other African groups. We observed a disequilibrium in the distribution of the C and S alleles in the population, with an excess of homozygous TBG S individuals. No clear relationship between the TBG polymorphism and the number of nodules can be drawn. PMID:1587531

Constans, J; Ribouchon, M T; Gouaillard, C; Chaventré, A; Clayton, J

1992-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Association of allelic variants of thyroid-binding globulin with puberty in boars and responses to hemicastration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemicastration of males increases weight of remaining testis when conducted before Sertoli cells cease to proliferate. The current studies re-examined responses to hemicastration in one-quarter Meishan crossbred boars that differed for two alleles of thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). In the first experiment, boars at 25 days of age with either allele did not differ in degree of testicular development; however, at 56 days, boars with the C allele had more advanced testicular development than littermates with the A allele as evidenced by testes with seminiferous tubules of larger diameter (PTBG attain puberty at a younger age than those with the A allele thereby linking rate of pubertal development of boars with TBG or with gene(s) on the X chromosome in close proximity of TBG. PMID:20022718

Ford, J J; Rohrer, G A; Nonneman, D J; Lunstra, D D; Wise, T H

2010-06-01

162

Radioimmunoassay for serum thyroxine-binding globulin: results in normal subjects and in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by radioimmunoassay. The human TBG used in this study was purified by affinity, anion-exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. The serum TBG concentration in 98 euthyroid normals was 1.48 +- 0.46 mg/100 ml (mean +- SD), which is one-half that previously reported using a similar method. The level in females (1.66 +- 0.56) was significantly higher than that in males (1.37 +- 0.37). Comparison of the serum TBG level and the maximum binding capacity of serum TBG for thyroxine (T4) yields a molar ratio of 1:1 for T4 and TBG. The mean serum TBG in 19 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was 2.10 +- 1.29 mg/100 ml; however, only two of these patients had serum TBG levels outside the normal range

163

[Hematologic improvement with deferasirox following tandem antithymocyte globulin treatment in a transfusion-dependent patient with severe aplastic anemia].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 62-year-old man with transfusion-dependent severe aplastic anemia received immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with rabbit antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine A in April 2010. However, his transfusion dependency did not improve. As more than 100 red blood cell (RBC) transfusions had been performed, he was administered iron chelation therapy (ICT) with deferasirox (DFX) to improve iron overload starting in July 2011. Consequently, both RBC and platelet transfusion dependency gradually improved concomitant with a decrease in serum ferritin. The bone marrow (BM) biopsy findings before administration of DFX showed severe iron accumulation and strong positive immunostaining for 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative stress due to free iron. One year after ICT, the number of BM hematopoietic cells was increased and both iron deposition and oxidative stress were decreased. These findings suggest that DFX may contribute to hematological improvement in patients with IST-refractory aplastic anemia. PMID:24305537

Jomen, Wataru; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Michiko; Matsuno, Teppei; Sato, Masanori; Abe, Tomoyuki; Sakurai, Tamaki; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Fujita, Miri; Nagashima, Kazuo; Iyama, Satoshi; Miyanishi, Koji; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

2013-11-01

164

d-Limonene-induced male rat-specific nephrotoxicity: Evaluation of the association between d-limonene and alpha 2u-globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

d-Limonene is a naturally occurring monoterpene, which when dosed orally, causes a male rat-specific nephrotoxicity manifested acutely as the exacerbation of protein droplets in proximal tubule cells. Experiments were conducted to examine the retention of [14C]d-limonene in male and female rat kidney, to determine whether d-limonene or one or more of its metabolites associates with the male rat-specific protein, alpha 2u-globulin, and if so, to identify the bound material. The results indicated that, 24 hr after oral administration of 3 mmol d-limonene/kg, the renal concentration of d-limonene equivalents was approximately 2.5 times higher in male rats than in female rats. Equilibrium dialysis in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate indicated that approximately 40% of the d-limonene equivalents in male rat kidney associated with proteins in a reversible manner, whereas no significant association was observed between d-limonene equivalents and female rat kidney proteins. Association between d-limonene and male rat kidney proteins was characterized by high-performance gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography. Gel filtration HPLC indicated that d-limonene in male rat kidney is associated with a protein fraction having a molecular weight of approximately 20,000. Separation of alpha 2u-globulin from other kidney proteins by reverse-phase HPLC indicated that d-limonene associated with a protein present only in male rat kidney which was definitively identified as alpha 2u-globulin by amino acid sequencing. The major metabolite associated with alpha 2u-globulin was d-limonene-1,2-oxide. Parent d-limonene was also identified as a minor component in the alpha 2u-globulin fraction

165

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

166

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

2012-08-01

167

Generation of VHH antibodies against the Arabidopsis thaliana seed storage proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibodies and antibody derived fragments are excellent tools for the detection and purification of proteins. However, only few antibodies targeting Arabidopsis seed proteins are currently available. Here, we evaluate the process to make antibody libraries against crude protein extracts and more particularly to generate a VHH phage library against native Arabidopsis thaliana seed proteins. After immunising a dromedary with a crude Arabidopsis seed extract, we cloned the single-domain antigen-binding fragments from their heavy-chain only antibodies in a phage display vector and selected nanobodies (VHHs) against native Arabidopsis seed proteins. For 16 VHHs, the corresponding antigens were identified by affinity purification and MS/MS analysis. They were shown to bind the major Arabidopsis seed storage proteins albumin and globulin (14 to albumin and 2 to globulin). All 16 VHHs were suitable primary reagents for the detection of the Arabidopsis seed storage proteins by ELISA. Furthermore, several of the anti-albumin VHHs were used successfully for storage protein localisation via electron microscopy. The easy cloning, selection and production, together with the demonstrated functionality and applicability, strongly suggest that the VHH antibody format will play a more prominent role in future protein research, in particular for the study of native proteins. PMID:23963604

De Meyer, Thomas; Eeckhout, Dominique; De Rycke, Riet; De Buck, Sylvie; Muyldermans, Serge; Depicker, Ann

2014-01-01

168

The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

Sirvent Sofía

2012-12-01

169

Data Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Even as home computers are being equipped with hard drives more massive than most users need, the scientific community is facing challenges of inadequate data storage systems. Experiments conducted in research facilities can produce unimaginable amounts of information, and computer scientists are working on ways to handle and manage it.Virtually every modern computer system incorporates several different storage technologies to process data efficiently. A gentle introduction to registers, caches, and other forms of memory is given on this site (1). A more advanced description of computer architecture and memory hierarchy is offered by Sun Microsystems (2). The paper explains the importance of having small, fast caches in the microprocessor to improve performance and reduce the delay of accessing the large, slow hard drive. Colossal Storage (3) is a company specializing in a new method of holographic data storage. While current technologies are hindered by area density, the proposed technology will expand into three dimensions and use the disk's volume to write data. Although the company's homepage is a bit poorly organized, some interesting insights into the technology and several white papers are available. InPhase Technologies is another company exploring holographic storage; however, its goal is to create a device that could be the successor to the DVD. In this article (4), the potential capabilities and specifications of such a device are discussed. A working prototype has already been demonstrated, paving the way for future commercially viable drives based on the technology. A short paper by the Department of Energy Office of Science (5) describes the impending rush of data generated by future scientific applications. It outlines the obstacles that must be overcome, including data mobility, extraction and analysis, and storage hardware. Possibly the most ambitious storage system ever created will be used to capture data from the world's most advanced particle physics facility. The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) will begin operating its Large Hadron Collider in 2007. The system that will collect and manage data from this instrument is described on this page (6). Documentation about the architecture and operation of the CERN Advanced STORage Manager (CASTOR) is provided. A news article from January 2003 (7) describes a new hard drive that can fit gigabytes of data in a tiny space. Said to measure about an inch wide, the Microdrive will be used in portable multimedia devices like digital video cameras. The second part of the article tells of the IBM Millipede project, which uses nanotechnology to make storage devices with less area than a dime. Satellites that monitor the Earth's environment have provided NASA with over a petabyte (a million gigabytes) of data. This article (8) discusses this remarkable achievement and how the system allows constant access to all of the information.

Leske, Cavin.

170

Cloning and computer analysis of the promoter region of the legumin-like storage protein gene from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using the modified 5’-RACE approach, a fragment containing the 955 bp long 5’- regulatory region of the buckwheat storage globulin gene (FeLEG1 has been amplified from the genomic DNA of buckwheat. The entire fragment was sequenced and the sequence analyzed by computer prediction of cis-regulatory elements possibly involved in tissue specific and developmentally controlled seed storage protein gene expression. The promoter obtained might be interesting not only for fundamental research, but also as a useful tool for biotechnological application.

Milisavljevi? Mira

2004-01-01

171

Virus de la inmunodeficiencia felina (VIF): evaluación de las globulinas en pacientes infectados espontáneamente / Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): study of globulins in patients with natural infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fueron estudiadas las posibles correlaciones de parámetros tales como la Alfa glicoproteína ácida (AGP, proteína de fase aguda), fracciones electroforéticas de las proteínas séricas y títulos de Toxoplasma gondii en gatos infectados por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Felina (VIF). Los títulos de Toxo [...] plasma gondii obtenidos por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFI) no correlacionaron con los valores de Proteínas Totales ni con los de las globulinas. Sí se halló múltiple correlación entre todas las proteínas estudiadas (r: 0,98, p Abstract in english Statistical correlation between parameters such as globulins, Alpha- Glycoprotein AGP, serum proteins fractions by electrophoresis and Toxoplasma gondii titles in cats infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) were studied. Indirect Immunofluorecence titles to Toxoplasma gondii did not showe [...] d correlation with Total proteins and globulins. It was observed correlation between all types of proteins studied (r: 0,98, p

N, Gómez; M. A., Gisbert; L, Ramayo; A, Bratanich; V, Castillo; A, Suraniti.

172

INDUCTION OF PROTEIN DROPLET (ALPHA(2-MU)-GLOBULIN) NEPHROPATHY IN MALE-RATS AFTER SHORT-TERM DOSAGE WITH 1,8-CINEOLE AND L-LIMONENE  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a series of short-term studies on peppermint oil constituents for their possible induction of the encephalopathy found with peppermint oil, 1,8-cineole and l-limonene were studied. Groups of 10 male Wistar rats were given 0, 500, or 1000 mg 1,8-cineole/kg body wt./day or 0, 800, or 1600 mg l-limonene/kg body wt./day for 2& days. 1,8-Cineole and l-limonene both induced accumulation of protein droplets containing alpha(2 mu)-globulin in proximal tubular epithelial cells in male rats. These results suggest that both 1,8-cineole and I-limonene possibly belong to the group of chemicals characterized by their induction of excessive alpha(2 mu)-globulin accumulation. Neither of the 2 substances induced encephalopathy.

Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

1995-01-01

173

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, Ad; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, Kl; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, Nc; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

2012-01-01

174

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

2012-01-01

175

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, Andrea D.; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtima?ki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-moret, N. Charlotte; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei

2012-01-01

176

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, A. D.; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, K. L.; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, N. C.; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

2012-01-01

177

Differential effects of oral conjugated estrogens and transdermal estradiol on insulin-like growth factor 1, growth hormone and sex hormone binding globulin serum levels.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In postmenopausal women oral ethinylestradiol causes a reduction in circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and an increase in serum growth hormone levels. There are no data on the effect of conjugated estrogens, the preparation most often used in estrogen replacement treatment (ERT), on these parameters. We evaluated serum IGF-1 and growth hormone levels, together with the levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), an indicator of estrogen hepatocellular action, before and after...

Biglia, Nicoletta; Sismondi, Piero

1993-01-01

178

The control of progesterone receptor expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: effects of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estradiol controls the gene transcription and expression of many proteins in breast cancer cells, like the progesterone receptor, PR, that is up-regulated by the hormone. Moreover, estradiol is one of the crucial factors inducing the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG), the plasma carrier for both estradiol and androgens, inhibits the estradiol-induced growth of MCF-7 cells (estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells), through its membrane receptor (SHBG-R), ...

Frairia, Roberto

2001-01-01

179

The additionally glycosylated variant of human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is linked to estrogen-dependence of breast cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG), the plasma carrier for androgens and estradiol, inhibits the estradiol-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells through its membrane receptor, cAMP, and PKA. In addition, the SHBG membrane receptor is preferentially expressed in estrogen-dependent (ER+/PR+) breast cancers which are also characterized by a lower proliferative rate than tumors negative for the SHBG receptor. A variant SHBG with a point mutation in exon 8, causing an aminoacid substitutio...

Biglia, Nicoletta; Frairia, Roberto; Sismondi, Piero

1999-01-01

180

Intravenous immune globulin (10% caprylate-chromatography purified) for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (ICE study): a randomised placebo-controlled trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Short-term studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin might reduce disability caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) but long-term effects have not been shown. We aimed to establish whether 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immune globulin intravenous (IGIV-C) has short-term and long-term benefit in patients with CIDP. Methods: 117 patients with CIDP who met specific neurophysiological inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT)...

Hughes, R. A. C.; Donofrio, P.; Bril, V.; Dalakas, M. C.; Deng, C.; Hanna, K.; Hartung, H. P.; Latov, N.; Merkies, I. S. J.; Doorn, P. A.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) induction of ?2u-globulin nephropathy in male, but not female rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male F-344 rats were administered corn oil (vehicle control), d-limonene (positive control, 300 mg/kg), or MIBK (1000 mg/kg) and female F-344 rats corn oil (vehicle control) or MIBK for 10 consecutive days by oral gavage. Approximately 24 h after the final dose the kidneys were excised and the left kidney prepared and evaluated for histological changes including protein (hyaline) droplet accumulation, immunohistochemical staining for ?2u-globulin (?2u), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to quantitate renal cell proliferation. The right kidney was prepared for quantitation of total protein and ?2u using an ELISA. MIBK elicited an increase in protein droplets, accumulation of ?2u, and renal cell proliferation in male, but not female rats, responses characteristic of ?2u-mediated nephropathy. MIBK produced identical histopathological changes in the male rat kidney when compared to d-limonene, an acknowledged inducer of ?2u-nephropathy except that the grade of severity tended to be slightly lower with MIBK. MIBK did not induce any effects in female rats. Therefore, renal histopathology, along with the other measures of ?2u accumulation, provides additional weight of evidence to support the inclusion of MIBK in the category of chemicals exerting renal effects through a ?2u-nephropathy-mediated mode-of-action

182

The effect of cyclic and continuous estrogen replacement therapy on sex hormone binding globulins and androgen levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The serum levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, free testosteron (fT and dehidroepiandrostenedione sulphate (DHEASO4 which differ following menopause, are effected by estrogens. Therefore oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE were administered by two different regimens and the consequent hormone levels measured.Materials and Methods: Twenty five postmenopausal women were divided into two groups. Thirteen women received 0.625mg/day CEE (premarin,Wyeth continously and 5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA (Farlutal, Deva between 14-25 days (group I. Twelve patients received 0.625 mg/day CEE between 1- 21 days and 5 mg/day MPA between 14-25 days (groupII. Both regimens were given to the patients for 6 months.Results: While levels of SHBG significantly raised, the fT and DHEASO4 levels significantly decreased within the two groups. However these hormone levels did not differ between the groups.Conclusion: Both regimens affected SHBG, fT and DHEASO4 levels. But the difference did not show significance between the groups. We conclude that studies in larger groups with a longer treatment period would be more enlightening to determine the difference between the groups.

Ercan M AYGEN

2003-03-01

183

Electroimmunoassay of sex hormone binding globulin. Enhanced sensitivity by autoradiography using A-ring 125I-17-?-oestradiol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four different 125I-iodinated steroids were tested for their binding to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) using an electrophoretic technique. 17-?-oestradiol iodinated in its A-ring bound with high affinity to SHBG. This radioactive steroid was used to increase the sensitivity of the electroimmunoassay of SHBG by adding the steroid to the samples before electroimmunoassay. The radioactive steroid incorporated into the immunoprecipitates could be observed by autoradiography. The sensitivity of the assay, which employed a rabbit antiserum against purified human SHBG and was standardized with pure SHBG, was about 0.2 mg/1. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was 2.4% and 2.6% respectively, for values within the normal range. The mean SHBG concentration in healthy regularly menstruating women was 3.50 +- 0.74 (SD) mg/1 when measured in plasma, and 3.78 +- 0.80 mg/1 when measured in serum. The corresponding mean concentrations in healthy men were 2.26 +- 0.45 and 2.44 +- 0.49 mg/1. The modified electroimmunoassay described is a simple modification, which increases the sensitivity sufficiently to permit reliable quantification of SHBG over the entire range of concentration which could be relevant in clinical practice. (author)

184

A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ((90)yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ((131)I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) anti-CD20 MAbs for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, assays were developed to determine HAGA (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to ''humanize'' MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades. PMID:15640788

Mirick, G R; Bradt, B M; Denardo, S J; Denardo, G L

2004-12-01

185

A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ({sup 9}0yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ({sup 1}31I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades.

Mirick, G. R.; Bradt, B. M.; Denardo, S. J.; Denardo, G. L. [Calfornia Univ., Sacramento (United States). Davis Medical Center

2004-12-01

186

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Obtained after In Vitro Hydrolysis of Pea (Pisum sativum var. Bajka) Globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pea seeds represent a valuable source of active compounds that may positively influence health. In this study, the pea globulins were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal condition and potentially bioaccessible angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were identified. The degree of hydrolysis after pepsin, 14.42%, and pancreatin, 30.65%, were noted. The peptides with the highest ACE inhibitory properties were separated using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Thirteen peptides fractions were obtained but only four showed potential antihypertensive properties. The highest inhibitory activity was determined for the fraction F8 (IC50?=?0.0014?mg/mL). This fraction was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptide fractions were obtained. The peptides fraction (B) with the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50?=?0.073?mg/mL) was identified by ESI-MS/MS. The sequences of ACE inhibitory peptides were GGSGNY, DLKLP, GSSDNR, MRDLK, and HNTPSR. Based on Lineweaver-Burk plots for the fraction B, the kinetic parameters as K m , Vmax, and K i and mode of inhibition were determined. This fraction belongs to uncompetitive inhibitor of ACE activity. The seeds of pea are the source of precursor protein, which releases the ACE inhibitory peptides as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25250321

Jakubczyk, Anna; Baraniak, Barbara

2014-01-01

187

Biological half-life and transfer of maternal corticosteroid-binding globulin to amniotic fluid in the rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) from the serum of pregnant and nonpregnant females differs in terms of charge microheterogeneity, and both forms were, therefore, radiolabeled and injected iv into 23- to 27-day pregnant rabbits (n = 6) to assess their biological half-lives and possible transfer to the fetal compartment. After an initially rapid distribution phase, the serum half-lives of both forms of [125I]CBG were essentially identical (approximately 13 h) and did not vary at different gestational ages. There was also no difference in the transfer of either form of [125I]CBG from maternal to fetal compartments in any of the animals studied. Moreover, [125I]CBG showed no sign of degradation and retained its steroid-binding activity in fetal urine and amniotic fluid. Twenty-two hours after administration of [125I]CBG to rabbits (n = 2) at 23 days gestation, its mean level in fetal urine (7 cpm/microliter) and amniotic fluid (2.5 cpm/microliter) was much higher than that in fetal blood (0.6 cpm/microliter). More importantly, the specific activities of [125I]CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid were comparable to that in maternal serum, and approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in fetal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid is largely of maternal origin, and that maternal CBG crosses the fetal kidney preferentially

188

Biological half-life and transfer of maternal corticosteroid-binding globulin to amniotic fluid in the rabbit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) from the serum of pregnant and nonpregnant females differs in terms of charge microheterogeneity, and both forms were, therefore, radiolabeled and injected iv into 23- to 27-day pregnant rabbits (n = 6) to assess their biological half-lives and possible transfer to the fetal compartment. After an initially rapid distribution phase, the serum half-lives of both forms of ({sup 125}I)CBG were essentially identical (approximately 13 h) and did not vary at different gestational ages. There was also no difference in the transfer of either form of ({sup 125}I)CBG from maternal to fetal compartments in any of the animals studied. Moreover, ({sup 125}I)CBG showed no sign of degradation and retained its steroid-binding activity in fetal urine and amniotic fluid. Twenty-two hours after administration of ({sup 125}I)CBG to rabbits (n = 2) at 23 days gestation, its mean level in fetal urine (7 cpm/microliter) and amniotic fluid (2.5 cpm/microliter) was much higher than that in fetal blood (0.6 cpm/microliter). More importantly, the specific activities of ({sup 125}I)CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid were comparable to that in maternal serum, and approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in fetal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid is largely of maternal origin, and that maternal CBG crosses the fetal kidney preferentially.

Seralini, G.E.; Underhill, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Nguyen, V.T.; Hammond, G.L. (Univ. of Western Ontario at Victoria Hospital, London (Canada))

1989-09-01

189

Human thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) promoter directs efficient and sustaining transgene expression in liver-specific pattern.  

Science.gov (United States)

The liver performs a vital role in metabolic process, which makes it an attractive target organ for gene therapy. To improve the effects of gene therapy in disorders caused by metabolic disturbance, we quantitatively evaluated six promoters, CMV, EF1?, PGK, apoE, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) by measuring the expression of ?1-antitrypsin, which is controlled by these promoters and introduced via a lentivirus-mediated delivery system in the liver. The results showed that the TBG promoter presents as highly active though in general it is slightly lower than the ubiquitous CMV and EF1?. The expression of exogenous genes driven by the TBG promoter demonstrates to be much higher than by PGK, apoE, and CYP2E1 promoters, and the fragment of -435bp to -26bp from transcription start site (TSS) in the TBG promoter region is identified as the optimum region to direct transgene expression at a higher level. In addition, we further confirmed that the TBG promoter confers transgene persistent and specific expression within the liver up to several months after integration. The data suggests that the TBG promoter is a valuable tool and will greatly facilitate the optimization of vector design in hepatic gene therapy. PMID:22820390

Yan, Zhonghai; Yan, Hao; Ou, Hailong

2012-09-15

190

Measurement for serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and its clinical assessment in diagnosis of thyroid states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum levels of thyroxine (T4)-binding globulin (TBG) were determined by a radioimmunoassay using cellulose-linked antibody to TBG. Values obtained in healthy young adults averaged 1.62 +- 0.25 (SD) mg/100 ml, and no significant difference was detected between males and females. The TBG levels remained within the normal limit in hyperthyroidism while they were significantly increased in hypothyroidism. Interestingly enough, TBG levels were significantly elevated in chronic thyroidities with no overt hypothyroidism. In normal pregnancy, TBG was increased slightly in the first trimester, and markedly in the second and third trimesters. In one case of congenital TBG deficiency, no immunoreactive TBG was detected. It was demonstrated, further, that an inverse relationship (r = -0.7593) existed between the TBG level and serum triiodothyronine uptake index, and that a direct relation (r = +0.6557) was present between the TBG level and T4 in sera from normal subjects and pregnancy. Ratios of T4/TBG were markedly increased in hyperthyroidism, and decreased in hypothyroidism, showing no overlap with the normal subjects, whereas they were below the normal limit in half the cases in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The radioimmunoassay for TBG was useful in evaluating hypothyroid states, because it could differentiate the increase in T4 associated with elevated TBG from hyperthyroidism. (author)dism. (author)

191

Globulina antilinfocítica en el tratamiento de la anemia aplásica severa / Antilymphocyte globulin in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir la experiencia en nuestro hospital en el tratamiento de anemia aplásica severa con globulina antilinfocítica. Materiales y Metodos: Se estudiaron 58 pacientes con AAS diagnosticados entre 1988-1998 de los cuales 25 recibieron Globulina antilinfocítica (GAL), 56% de ellos eran men [...] ores a 20 años de edad,19 de los pacientes tratados con GAL son del sexo masculino . Resultado: Respondieron favorablemente 68%(17pacientes),la mayoría de ellos (64%)alcanzaron esta respuesta durante los primeros 6 meses. Un paciente evolucionó a Hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN), efectos adversos fueron leves y de corta duración. (Rev Med Hered;1999 ;10:132 - 136 ). Abstract in english Objetive: To report the experience with antilymphocyte globulin in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia. Material and methods: We studied 58 patients with SAA between 1988-1998. Twenty five patients were treated with ALG, 56 % of them were less than 20 years old, nineteen of the patients were mal [...] es. Results:We observed good response in 68% of the patients, the majority of the patients (64%) got a good response during the first 6 months of the follow up. Only one patient evolved into Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria. Side effects were mild and short in duration. (Rev Med Hered; 1999;10:132 - 136 ).

Víctor, Ulloa Perez; Wilson, Ruiz Gil; Luz, Bustamante; Carolina, Tokumura Tokumura.

1999-10-01

192

Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were identified using mass spectrometry and data mining. Salt-soluble endosperm proteins from 67 CS deletion lines were also separated by 2DE (four gels per line). Image analysis of the 268 2DE gels as compared to the CS reference proteome allowed the detection of qualitative and quantitative variations in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression of 391 proteins is controlled by one or more chromosome bins with 262 significant increases and 196 significant decreases in spot volume. The spot volume of several proteins was increased or decreased by numerous chromosomal regions and homoeologous-like regulation was revealed for some proteins. Quantitative or qualitative variation in a total of 386 proteins was influenced by genes assigned to at least one chromosomal region, while 66 % of all stained proteins were not found to be influenced by chromosome bins. Proteomics of deletion lines can, therefore, be used to simultaneously analyse the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.

Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina

2012-01-01

193

Biochemical and immunological characterization of human opsonic alpha2SB glycoprotein: its identity with cold-insoluble globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between human cold-insoluble globulin (CIg, plasma fibronectin) and the human serum opsonic alpha2SB glycoprotein was investigated using immunochemical and biochemical techniques. The two proteins appeared to have identical molecular weights by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on 3.3% gels; have identical migration in the native state on 2.7 to 27% gradient polyacrylamide gels; and have a similar amino acid composition within the accuracy of analysis. Human serum demonstrates antigenic identity when diffused against monospecific antisera to both proteins confirming the presence of common antigenic sites on both molecules. Purified human serum opsonic alpha2SB glycoprotein and purified CIg also demonstrate antigenic identity when diffused against monospecific antiserum to either of the isolated proteins. Antiserum to both proteins also inhibits in vitro hepatic Kupffer cell phagocytic uptake of test particles. These results suggest the idenity of these two proteins and reveal a major physiological function for human plasma CIg. Thus, CIg may be important in the regulation of hepatic reticuloendothelial phagocytic activity and nonspecific systemic host defense. This process of systemic host defense has been shown to be depressed in patients following trauma, major surgery, burn injury, and during neoplastic disease, and, in part, mediated by a deficiency or depletion of the alpha2SB glycoprotein. PMID:96117

Blumenstock, F A; Saba, T M; Weber, P; Laffin, R

1978-06-25

194

Globulina antilinfocítica en el tratamiento de la anemia aplásica severa / Antilymphocyte globulin in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir la experiencia en nuestro hospital en el tratamiento de anemia aplásica severa con globulina antilinfocítica. Materiales y Metodos: Se estudiaron 58 pacientes con AAS diagnosticados entre 1988-1998 de los cuales 25 recibieron Globulina antilinfocítica (GAL), 56% de ellos eran men [...] ores a 20 años de edad,19 de los pacientes tratados con GAL son del sexo masculino . Resultado: Respondieron favorablemente 68%(17pacientes),la mayoría de ellos (64%)alcanzaron esta respuesta durante los primeros 6 meses. Un paciente evolucionó a Hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN), efectos adversos fueron leves y de corta duración. (Rev Med Hered;1999 ;10:132 - 136 ). Abstract in english Objetive: To report the experience with antilymphocyte globulin in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia. Material and methods: We studied 58 patients with SAA between 1988-1998. Twenty five patients were treated with ALG, 56 % of them were less than 20 years old, nineteen of the patients were mal [...] es. Results:We observed good response in 68% of the patients, the majority of the patients (64%) got a good response during the first 6 months of the follow up. Only one patient evolved into Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria. Side effects were mild and short in duration. (Rev Med Hered; 1999;10:132 - 136 ).

Víctor, Ulloa Perez; Wilson, Ruiz Gil; Luz, Bustamante; Carolina, Tokumura Tokumura.

195

A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM (90yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM (131I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades

196

Differential expression and elution behavior of basic 7S globulin among cultivars under hot water treatment of soybean seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic 7S globulin (Bg7S), which accumulates in mature soybean (Glycine max) seeds, is an extracellular matrix protein. A large amount of Bg7S is synthesized de novo and is eluted from soybean seeds when immersed in 50-60°C water (hot water treatment, HWT). However, the Bg7S elution mechanism remains unclear. Under HWT, the seeds probably undergo heat stress and flooding stress. To obtain fundamental knowledge related to how Bg7S is eluted from hot-water-treated seeds, this study compared Bg7S elution among soybean cultivars having different flooding tolerance during pre-germination. The amounts of Bg7S eluted from seeds varied significantly among cultivars. Elution was suppressed by seed coats regarded as preventing the leakage of seed contents by rapid water imbibition. Furthermore, Bg7S expression levels differed among cultivars, although the difference did not result from any variation in Bg7S promoter sequences. However, the expression levels of Bg7S under HWT were not associated with the flooding tolerance level. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the Bg7S accumulated in the intercellular space of hot-water-treated seeds. Plasma membrane shrinkage was observed. The main proteins eluted from seeds under HWT were located in the extracellular space. This study clarified the mechanism of Bg7S elution from seeds under HWT. PMID:24331980

Fujiwara, Keigo; Cabanos, Cerrone; Toyota, Kenji; Kobayashi, Yasunori; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

2014-06-01

197

A family of antimicrobial peptides is produced by processing of a 7S globulin protein in Macadamia integrifolia kernels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new family of antimicrobial peptides has been discovered in Macadamia integrifolia. The first member of this new family to be purified from nut kernels was a peptide of 45 aa residues, termed MiAMP2c. This peptide inhibited various plant pathogenic fungi in vitro. cDNA clones corresponding to MiAMP2c encoded a 666 aa precursor protein homologous to vicilin 7S globulin proteins. The deduced precursor protein sequence contained a putative hydrophobic N-terminal signal sequence (28 aa), an extremely hydrophilic N-proximal region (212 aa), and a C-terminal region of 426 aa which is represented in all vicilins. The hydrophilic portion of the deduced protein contained the sequence for MiAMP2c as well as three additional segments having the same cysteine spacing pattern as MiAMP2c. Each member of the MiAMP2 family (i.e. MiAMP2a, b, c and d) consisted of approximately 50 amino acids and contained a C-X-X-X-C-(10-12)X-C-X-X-X-C motif. Subsequent isolations from seed exudates led to the purification of the predicted family members MiAMP2b and 2d, both of which also exhibited antimicrobial activity in vitro. These results suggest that some vicilins play a role in defence during seed germination. PMID:10571855

Marcus, J P; Green, J L; Goulter, K C; Manners, J M

1999-09-01

198

Redox changes accompanying storage protein mobilization in moist chilled and warm incubated walnut kernels prior to germination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in the redox state of storage proteins and the associated proteolytic processes were investigated in moist-chilled and warm-incubated walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels prior to germination. The kernel total protein labeling with a thiol-specific fluorochrome i.e. monobromobimane (mBBr) revealed more reduction of 29-32 kDa putative glutelins, while in the soluble proteins, both putative glutelins and 41, 55 and 58 kDa globulins contained reduced disulfide bonds during mobilization. Thus, the in vivo more reduced disulfide bonds of storage proteins corresponds to greater solubility. After the in vitro reduction of walnut kernel proteins pre-treated by N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) with dithioerythrethiol (DTT) and bacterial thioredoxin, the 58 kDa putative globulin and a 6 kDa putative albumin were identified as disulfide proteins. Thioredoxin stimulated the reduction of the H(2)O(2)-oxidized 6 kDa polypeptide, but not the 58 kDa polypeptide by DTT. The solubility of 6 kDa putative albumin, 58 and 19-24 kDa putative globulins and glutelins, respectively, were increased by DTT. The in vitro specific mobilization of the 58 kDa polypeptide that occurred at pH 5.0 by the kernel endogenous protease was sensitive to the serine-protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and stimulated by DTT. The specific degradation of the 58 kDa polypeptide might be achieved through thioredoxin-mediated activation of a serine protease and/or reductive unfolding of its 58 kDa polypeptide substrate. As redox changes in storage proteins occurred equally in both moist chilled and warm incubated walnut kernels, the regulatory functions of thioredoxins in promoting seed germination may be due to other germination related processes. PMID:22989946

Shahmoradi, Zeynab; Tamaskani, Fatemeh; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Abdolzadeh, Ahmad

2013-01-01

199

Battery storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As baterias alcalinas, as de matérias activas exteriores, as de sódio e as de lítio constituem uma forma excelente para o armazenamento de energia química e podemos encará-las como muito promissoras para aplicações de armazenamento de energia em larga escala. Este artigo inclui alguns comentários pe [...] rtinentes sobre estes sistemas recarregáveis, na sua actual fase de investigação e desenvolvimento. Abstract in english This paper focuses on four generic types of secondary battery - Alkaline batteries, Flow batteries, Sodium batteries, and Lithium batteries - that hold most promise for the storage of energy. [...

César A.C., Sequeira; Mário R., Pedro.

2008-12-01

200

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19

 
 
 
 
201

Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (?20%), pauci-mannosidic (?40%), and complex forms (?40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants ?-1,2-xylose and ?-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectincontaining two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy.

Dam, Svend Secher; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

2013-01-01

202

Spatial Information Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes the spatial information storage, shows the features of spatial information and of such storage systems formation. Requirements for information storage technologies and for the data management in storage systems are determined. Cartographic information storage and updating features are shown. The article proves that intelligent solutions are the most efficient means of working with large amounts of spatial data.

Vladimir Markelov

2013-01-01

203

Characterization of the human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) gene and demonstration of two transcripts in both liver and testis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A genomic cosmid clone for human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), a liver-secreted plasma glycoprotein that binds sex steroids, was isolated with a previously characterized liver cDNA as probe. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicated that only one SHBG gene is present in the human haploid genome. A 3.8 Kb Xba I-fragment of the clone containing the entire coding region of SHBG was sequenced. The SHBG gene has 8 exons. The 5{prime}-end preceding the translation start site had no TATA box or CAAT box promoter elements. Screening of a human testis cDNA library resulted in the isolation of two distinct cDNA forms. One cDNA was identical with the previously characterized liver SHBG cDNA, thus suggesting that human SHBG and the androgen binding protein (ABP) produced by Sertoli cells are coded for by the same gene. The second cDNA differed from the first by having exon I exchanged with a completely different sequence and exon VII deleted. An exon coding for the 5{prime}-end of this cDNA was found in the cosmid clone 1.5 kb upstream of the first SHBG exon. Primer extension experiments showed the alternatively spliced transcript corresponding to the second cDNA to be present in both liver and testis. From the primary structure of this putative SHBG-gene-related protein, it may be deduced that it is a protein very different from SHBG and probably without steroid binding activity.

Gershagen, S.; Lundwall, A.; Fernlund, P. (Univ. of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden))

1989-11-25

204

Hyperimmune globulins and same-day thrombotic adverse events as recorded in a large healthcare database during 2008-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombotic events (TEs) are rare serious complications following administration of hyperimmune globulin (HIG) products. Our retrospective claims-based study assessed occurrence of same-day TEs following administration of HIGs during 2008-2011 and examined potential risk factors using HealthCore's Integrated Research Database (HIRD(SM) ) and laboratory testing of products' procoagulant Factor XIa activity by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Multivariable regression was used to estimate same-day TE risk for different products. Of 101,956 individuals exposed to 23 different HIG product groups, 86 (0.84 per 1,000 persons) had a TE diagnosis code (DC) recorded on the same day as HIG administration. Unadjusted same-day TE DC rates (per 1,000 persons) ranged from 0.4 to 148.9 for different products. GamaSTAN S/D IG >10 cc had statistically significantly higher same-day TE DC risk compared to Tetanus IG (OR = 57.57; 95% CI = 19.72-168.10). Increased TE risk was also observed with older age (?45 years), prior thrombotic events, and hypercoagulable state(s). Laboratory investigation identified elevated Factor XIa activity for GamaSTAN S/D, HepaGam B, HyperHep B S/D, WinRho SDF, HyperRHO S/D full dose, and HyperTET S/D. Our study, for the first time, identified increase in the same-day TE DC risk with GamaSTAN S/D IG >10 cc and suggests potentially elevated TE risk with other HIGs. PMID:23907744

Menis, Mikhail; Sridhar, Gayathri; Selvam, Nandini; Ovanesov, Mikhail V; Divan, Hozefa A; Liang, Yideng; Scott, Dorothy; Golding, Basil; Forshee, Richard; Ball, Robert; Anderson, Steven A; Izurieta, Hector S

2013-12-01

205

Sex hormone-binding globulins characterization and gonadal gene expression during sex differentiation in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds androgens and estrogens in the blood of many vertebrates, including teleost fish. In mammals, SHBG is synthetized in the liver and secreted into the blood. In fish, shbga also exhibits a hepatic expression. In salmonids, in which the gene has been duplicated, the recently discovered shbgb gene exhibits a predominantly ovarian expression. The present work aimed at gaining new insight into shbgb gene structure and expression during gonadal sex differentiation, a steroid-sensitive process, and Shbgb protein structure and binding characteristics; specifically, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) shbgb was analyzed. shbgb structure was analyzed in silico while expression was characterized during gonadal sex differentiation using all-male and all-female populations. We observed that shbgb gene and cognate-protein structures are similar to homologs previously described in zebrafish and mammals. The shbgb gene is predominantly expressed in differentiating female gonads, with increased expression around the end of ovarian differentiation. In the ovary, shbgb mRNA was detected in a subset of somatic cells surrounding the ovarian lamellae. Furthermore, Shbgb binds steroids with a higher selectivity than Shbga, exhibiting a higher affinity for estradiol compared to Shbga. In conclusion, Shbgb binding characteristics are clearly different from those of Shbga. Shbgb is expressed in the differentiating ovary during a period when the synthesis and action of testosterone and estradiol must be tightly regulated. This strongly suggests that Shbgb participates in the regulation of steroid metabolism and/or mediation, that is, needed during early gonadal development in rainbow trout. PMID:24889418

Marivin, Elisa; Yano, Ayaka; Guérin, Adèle; Nguyen, Thao-Vi; Fostier, Alexis; Bobe, Julien; Guiguen, Yann

2014-08-01

206

Preparation of 125I-labeled human thyroxine-binding alpha globulin and its turnover in normal and hypothyroid subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A protein with the electrophoretic, immunologic, and hormone-binding properties of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) has been prepared from human plasma and labeled with radioiodine (125I) by an enzymatic method of iodination. The [125I]TBG retained the electrophoretic and immunologic characteristics of unlabeled TBG but exhibited a partial loss of thyroxine-binding activity, as assessed by affinity chromatography. The in vivo behavior of [125I]TBG was studied in six euthyroid subjects (controls) with normal serum levels of TBG as measured both by radioimmunoassay and by determination of maximal T4-binding capacity and in four male patients with untreated primary hyperthyroidism, three of whom had elevated serum TBG. The half-time of the final slope of the plasma disappearance curve averaged 5.0 days +- 1.2 (SD) in the controls and ranged from 3.9 to 10.9 days in the hypothyroid patients. The distribution volume was similar in the two groups, 6.7 +- 1.3 vs. 7.1 +- 2.1 liters. The catabolic clearance rate averaged 0.99 +- 0.33 liters plasma/24 h in the controls and 0.92 +- 0.46 in the hypothyroids. The absolute turnover rate of TBG, calculated from the catabolic clearance rate multiplied by the serum concentration of radioimmunoassayable TBG, averaged 17.8 +- 2.1 mg/day in the controls and ranged from 14.8 to 33.2 mg/day in the hypothyroids. Among the entire group of subjects there was no correlation between the serum TBG conc no correlation between the serum TBG concentration and the absolute turnover rate of TBG

207

Prediagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma : Etiological factors or risk markers?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated pre-diagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk (OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), ptrend =0.009). As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p=0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with pre-diagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as pre-diagnostic risk marker for HCC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen

2014-01-01

208

Corticosteroid-binding globulin contributes to the neuroendocrine phenotype of mice selected for extremes in stress reactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing evidence indicates an important role of steroid-binding proteins in endocrine functions, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and regulation, as they influence bioavailability, local delivery, and cellular signal transduction of steroid hormones. In the plasma, glucocorticoids (GCs) are mainly bound to the corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and to a lesser extend to albumin. Plasma CBG levels are therefore involved in the adaptive stress response, as they determine the concentration of free, biologically active GCs. In this study, we investigated whether male mice with a genetic predisposition for high-reactivity (HR), intermediate-reactivity (IR), or low-reactivity (LR) stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) secretion present different levels of free CORT and CORT-binding proteins, basally and in response to stressors of different intensity. Our results suggest a fine control interaction between plasma CBG expression and stress-induced CORT release. Although plasma CBG levels, and therefore CBG binding capacity, were higher in HR animals, CORT secretion overloaded the CBG buffering function in response to stressors, resulting in clearly higher free CORT levels in HR compared with IR and LR mice (HR>IR>LR), resembling the pattern of total CORT increase in all three lines. Both stressors, restraint or forced swimming, did not evoke fast CBG release from the liver into the bloodstream and therefore CBG binding capacity was not altered in our three mouse lines. Thus, we confirm CBG functions in maintaining a dynamic equilibrium between CBG-bound and unbound CORT, but could not verify its role in delaying the rise of plasma free CORT immediately after stress exposure. PMID:24048966

Mattos, Gabriele E; Heinzmann, Jan-Michael; Norkowski, Stefanie; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Minni, Amandine M; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Touma, Chadi

2013-12-01

209

Use of electrophoretic techniques in determining the composition of seed storage proteins in alfalfa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Holoprotein molecular weights and polypeptide composition can be determined for complex mixtures of oligomeric proteins using two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. The variety of two-dimensional analyses presented here is a reflection of the general usefulness of each method for the identification and characterization of the different classes of seed storage proteins in alfalfa. These techniques can be applied to studies of storage proteins in other seeds as well as non-seed storage proteins. The major seed storage proteins in alfalfa are medicagin (a legumin-like globulin), alfin (a vicilin-like globulin) and a family of lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3). These comprise 30%, 10%, and 20%, respectively, of the total extractable protein from cotyledons of mature seeds. Alfin is a heterogeneous oligomeric protein (Mr approximately 150,000) composed of polypeptides ranging in size from Mr 14,000 to 50,000 (alpha 1-alpha 6; 50,000, 38,000, 32,000, 20,000, 16,000 and 14,000, respectively). Medicagin is also a high molecular weight oligomeric protein, but requires high concentrations of salt for solubilisation. It is comprised of a family of individually distinct subunits, each composed of an acidic polypeptide (A1-A9; Mr 49,000 to 39,000) linked via disulphide bond(s) to a basic polypeptide (B1, B2, B3; Mr 24,000, 23,000 and 20,000, respectively). This pairing is highly specific and two families are recognizable on the basis of the B polypeptide (B3 or B1/B2). Subunits (Mr approximately 50,000-65,000) are assembled as trimers (8S) or larger oligomers (12S-15S) in mature seeds. The lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3) are acidic (pI less than 6), and consist of sets of disulphide-bonded polypeptides (Mr 15,000 and 11,000). PMID:3250878

Krochko, J E; Bewley, J D

1988-11-01

210

Pumping and Milk Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

... information in Spanish ( en español ) Pumping and milk storage Pumping Storage of breast milk More information on ... and letting it air dry. Return to top Storage of breast milk Breast milk can be stored ...

211

Safe Storage of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe Storage of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español Improper pesticide storage and disposal can be hazardous to human health ... Follow these safety recommendations: Don't stockpile. Reduce storage needs by buying only the amount of pesticide ...

212

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01

213

Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A 125I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation. (author)

214

Age-related effects of gamma-radiation on testosterone-binding globulin characteristic an testosterone content in blood of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prolonged external low-intensity (3.03 cGy/day) gamma-irradiation of Wismar male rats at different doses (25-100 cGy), in varied periods of time, resulted in marked transitory increases in blood serum testosterone content, simultaneously accompanied by dramatic falls in specific testosterone-blinding globulin concentration, coupled with regulatory-mediated changes of its molecular properties (cooperative and conformational reconstructions). The significance of the phenomena (as adaptation blood hormone-transport system reactions) for correction and compensation of radiation-induced disbalance is discussed (authors)

215

A method for the preparation of human thyroxine-binding globulin; its importance in the establishment of an accurate and specific radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pure thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is required in radioimmunoassay to prepare monospecific antisera, [125I]TBG and as primary standard. Homogeneous TBG was prepared by a three-stage affinity chromatography procedure; it could not be dissociated into subunits and its molecular weight by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 59 000. The amino acid composition was in agreement with two earlier reports. The secondary structure determined by circular dichroism in the far U.V. showed it to contain 24% each of ?-helix and ?-pleated sheet. Serum TBG was determined by a 24-h radioimmunoassay using polyethyleneglycol to separate bound and free TBG. (Auth.)

216

Transient response of pure red cell aplasia to anti-thymocyte globulin in a patient with T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an unusual complication of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. A patient with T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (T-CLL) had severe anemia and neutropenia. Initial in vitro studies demonstrated no evidence of T-cell suppression of erythropoiesis. Sequential bone marrow examinations demonstrated progressive red cell aplasia. In vitro studies showed that the T-cells from the patient suppressed allogeneic but not autologous BFU-E. Treatment with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) reduced circulating leukemic cells and produced a definite but transient improvement in erythropoiesis. PMID:3103427

Hocking, W; Champlin, R; Mitsuyasu, R

1987-03-01

217

Sex hormone-binding globulin, its membrane receptor, and breast cancer: a new approach to the modulation of estradiol action in neoplastic cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG), the plasma carrier of sex steroids, and its membrane receptor, SHBG-R, in estrogen-dependent breast cancer has been investigated in our laboratory in the past few years. SHBG-R is expressed in MCF-10 A cells (not neoplastic mammary cells), MCF-7 cells (breast cancer, ER positive) and in tissue samples from patients affected with ER positive breast cancer, but not in estrogen-insensitive MDA-MB 231 cells. The SHBG/SHBG-R interaction, follo...

Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela

1999-01-01

218

Control of the membrane sex hormone-binding globulin-receptor (SHBG-R) in MCF-7 cells: effect of locally produced SHBG.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interaction between plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and its receptor (SHBG-R) inhibits estradiol-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells (human estrogen-dependent breast cancer) through cAMP and PKA. Thus, SHBG can modulate estradiol action in breast cancer, but the implications of this require a more detailed knowledge of the SHBG-R. To this end, we have transfected MCF-7 cells with an expression vector carrying the human SHBG cDNA (S-MCF-7) and studied the effects of this on bot...

Frairia, Roberto

1998-01-01

219

Identification, characterization and expression of novel Sex Hormone Binding Globulin alternative first exons in the human prostate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG gene, located at 17p13.1, comprises, at least, two different transcription units regulated by two different promoters. The first transcription unit begins with the exon 1 sequence and is responsible for the production of plasma SHBG by the hepatocytes, while the second begins with an alternative exon 1 sequence, which replaces the exon 1 present in liver transcripts. Alternative exon 1 transcription and translation has only been demonstrated in the testis of transgenic mice containing an 11-kb human SHBG transgene and in the human testis. Our goal has been to further characterize the 5' end of the SHBG gene and analyze the presence of the SHBG alternative transcripts in human prostate tissue and derived cell lines. Results Using a combination of in silico and in vitro studies, we have demonstrated that the SHBG gene, along with exon 1 and alternative exon 1 (renamed here exon 1A, contains four additional alternative first exons: the novel exons 1B, 1C, and 1E, and a previously identified exon 1N, which has been further characterized and renamed as exon 1D. We have shown that these four alternative first exons are all spliced to the same 3' splice site of SHBG exon 2, and that exon 1A and the novel exon 1B can be spliced to exon 1. We have also demonstrated the presence of SHBG transcripts beginning with exons 1B, 1C and 1D in prostate tissues and cell lines, as well as in several non-prostatic cell lines. Finally, the alignment of the SHBG mammalian sequences revealed that, while exons 1C, 1D and 1E are very well conserved phylogenetically through non-primate mammal species, exon 1B probably aroused in apes due to a single nucleotide change that generated a new 5' splice site in exon 1B. Conclusion The identification of multiple transcription start sites (TSS upstream of the annotated first exon of human SHBG, and the detection of the alternative transcripts in human prostate, concur with the prediction of the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements project, and suggest that the regulation of SHBG is much more complex than previously reported.

de Torres Inés

2009-06-01

220

Rationality analysis of delivery method for hepatitis B immune globulin in patients with chronic HBV infection after liver transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the rationality of delivery method for hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection after liver transplantation and to investigate the guiding principle for medication. MethodsForty-four cases of hepatitis B-related liver transplantation who participated in the phase IV clinical trial of HBIG for intravenous injection from August 2008 to December 2010 were analyzed. These patients were divided into severe liver disease group, liver cancer group, and liver cirrhosis group. The positive rates of HBV DNA and HBeAg were compared between groups by chi-square test. The HBV DNA level was compared by analysis of variance. The correlation between blood concentration and half-life of HBIG at different doses and dosing intervals was analyzed by Pearson?s correlation test. The titer of anti-HBs at one week after operation was compared between HBeAg-negative group and HBeAg-positive group and between high-HBV DNA group and low-HBV DNA group by t test. Cases of reinfection were also monitored. Results There were no significant differences in the positive rates of HBV DNA and HBeAg between the severe liver disease group, liver cancer group, and liver cirrhosis group (?2=4.871, P=0.088; ?2=1.079, P=0.583. No significant differences in mean HBV DNA level were found between these groups (F=0.895, P=0.418. The Pearson?s correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the blood concentration and half-life of HBIG (r=0.988, P=0.012. The tier of anti-HBs showed no significant differences between HBeAg-negative group and HBeAg-positive group and between high-HBV DNA group and low-HBV DNA group one week after operation (t=1.757, P=0.087. No cases of reinfection were found during the observation period. ConclusionIt is necessary to give HBIG 4000 IU during operation and 2000 IU daily for 6 days after operation, and the dose should be increased appropriately when the patients have relatively high viral load in serum. For the patients whose serological markers of hepatitis B become negative, the antibody level can be maintained at about 100 IU/L until the next administration if 600 IU of HBIG is given once a month by intramuscular injection.

WEI Xianyi

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Differential binding of thyroxine and triiodothyronine to acidic isoforms of thyroid hormone binding globulin in human serum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The differential availability of thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) to liver from the circulating thyroid hormone binding globulin (TBG)-bound pool suggests that the two thyroid hormones may bind to different TBG isoforms in human serum. In the present study, the binding of [125I]T4 and [125I]T3 to human serum proteins was investigated by using slab gel isoelectric focusing and chromatofocusing. In normal human male serum, [125I]T4 was localized to four isoforms of TBG called TBG-I, -II, -III, and -IV, with isoelectric points (pI's) of 4.30, 4.35, 4.45, and 4.55, respectively. [125I]T3 was localized to only two isoforms of TBG, TBG-III, and -IV, with pI's that were identical with those for [125I]T4. In normal female serum, [125I]T4 was localized to the same four isoforms of TBG as those of normal male serum, while [125I]T3 was localized to TBG-II, -III, -IV, and -V (pI = 4.65). In pregnant female serum, [125I]T4 was localized to five isoforms, whereas [125I]T3 was localized to four. IEF was also performed with male serum loaded with various concentrations of unlabeled T3. The K/sub i/ values of T3 binding to TBG-I, -II, -III, and -IV were 5.0, 2.4, 0.86, and 0.46 nM, respectively. The TBG isoforms in normal male serumely. The TBG isoforms in normal male serum were also separated by sequential concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatography and the chromatofocusing (pH range of 3.5-5.0). T4 preferentially bound to the most acidic isoforms of TBG in the pI range of 3.8-4.0, whereas the less acidic fractions (pH 4.0-4.2) bound both T4 and T3. In conclusion, this study shows that T4 and T3 do not bind to a single competitive binding site on TBG. Instead, T4 is preferentially bound by the most acidic TBG isoforms owing to a 10-fold lower affinity of T3 for these proteins

222

The Storage Spectrum  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtually every modern computer system incorporates several different storage technologies to process data efficiently. A gentle introduction to data storage is given on this site, part of Red Hat, Inc.'s Linux System Administration Primer. The topics covered include: "The Storage Spectrum," "CPU Registers," "Cache Memory," "Cache Levels," "Main Memory - RAM," "Hard Drives," and "Off-Line Backup Storage."

2008-02-15

223

Photon storage cavities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general analysis is presented of a photon storage cavity, coupled to free-electron laser (FEL) cavity. It is shown that if the coupling between the FEL cavity and the storage cavity is unidirectional (for example, a ring resonator storage cavity) then storage is possible, but that if the coupling is bi-directional then storage is not possible. Parameters are presented for an infra-red FEL storage cavity giving an order of magnitude increase in the instantaneous photon power within the storage cavity. 4 refs., 3 figs

224

Endoplasmic reticulum-retention C-terminal sequence enhances production of an 11S seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus in Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used to express an 11S seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Three different plasmids were tested for expression of amarantin. One of them, which included the untranslated regions (UTR) of the full cDNA, failed to express the amarantin under tested conditions, whereas the other plasmids, one without UTR and the other similar but including the endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal KDEL, were able to express the proamarantin in P. pastoris. After 48 h of induction, KDEL-proamarantin had accumulated quite significantly compared to unmodified proamarantin. Different solubilization patterns were also obtained from both proamarantin versions; only soluble protein was obtained from the system that included the KDEL retrieval signal. Protein fractionation was carried out by differential precipitation with ammonium sulfate, and proamarantin purification was performed using an HPLC ion exchange column. The endoplasmic reticulum-retention C-terminal sequence (KDEL retrieval signal), not commonly employed in this heterologous expression system, can therefore be used to enhance accumulation of recalcitrant protein in P. pastoris. The results obtained here also suggest that this expression system is suitable for expression and evaluation of engineered seed globulin proteins. PMID:17004299

Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Valverde, María Elena; Paredes-López, Octavio

2006-10-01

225

Mass storage management system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes the application that the author developed during the time the author worked for Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, which creates an integrated storage environment. The application is built as a layer on top of the current storage manager (OSM), hiding details from the end user and manages access to all storage elements. A simple set of commands allows users to manipulate and move data between all storage elements of the system as well as to storage devices on remote machines

226

Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L., also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Results Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique ?, seven ?, two ? and four ? conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinus albus (L., Pisum sativum (L., Medicago truncatula (L., Arachis hypogaea (L. and Glycine max (L. permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (? conglutins and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (? conglutins, the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (? conglutin and basic 7S (? conglutin sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was ? (56%, followed by ? (24%, ? (15% and ? (6% and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the ? conglutin family were potential allergens. Conclusion This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use molecular breeding approaches to improve lupins, for example by reducing allergens or increasing the expression of specific seed storage protein(s with desirable nutritional properties.

Goggin Danica E

2011-04-01

227

Bone marrow transplantation in thalassemia major patients using "short" anti-thymocyte globulin therapy in Shiraz, Southern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed on 113 Iranian transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients from May 1993 through September 2003. To have at least 2 years follow-up, we report BMT on 90 patients transplanted up to December 2001. The donors were human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)-nonreactive siblings (n = 74) on parents (n = 6); HLA-identical MLC-reactive siblings (n = 5) or parents (n = 1); and one HLA antigen-mismatched sibling (n = 4). The induction regimen in 11 patients was oral busulfan (BU) (14 mg/kg) and IV cyclophosphamide (CY; 200 mg/kg); in fifteen patients it was BU (15 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 200 mg/kg); in 47 patients, BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg), and short course of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG, horse; 40 mg/kg including 10 mg/kg on days -2, -1, +1, +2); and in 15 patients, BU (15 mg/kg) CY (200 mg/kg), and ATG (60 to 100 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg at 3 to 5 days before and after BMT). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and prednisolone. The group who received BU (14 mg/kg) and CY (200 mg/kg), as compared to the group receiving BU (15 mg/kg) and CY (200 mg/kg), was of younger age and lower risk; median age 7 versus 10 years, and 46% versus 7% in Lucarelli's risk group class I (the best prognostic group), respectively. These patients showed a lower disease-free survival (DFS), namely 64% versus 73%, with a follow up of 2 to 10.5 years. Thus from 9.5 years ago, our standard protocol for BU has been 15 mg/kg. The group who received "short" ATG (40 mg/kg), BU (15 mg/kg), and CY (200 mg/kg) showed almost the same outcome as the group who received a higher dose of ATG (60 to 100 mg/kg), namely DFS 72% versus 73%, respectively, despite the fact that half of both groups were included in the Lucarelli's risk group class III (the worst prognostic group) 49% versus 53%. We showed the same DFS for the patients who received BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg), and no ATG compared with the ATG group (73% vs 72%), but 27% of the group without ATG developed grade IV acute GVHD and 54% developed chronic GVHD. In the group with short ATG, 15% and 17% of patients developed grade IV acute and chronic GVHD, respectively. There was no significant difference for falls in platelets and white blood cell or engraftment days and the number of packed red blood cell transfusions among the groups. The median hospital stay was longer for the group with BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg) namely 81 versus 61 to 65 days. Second bone marrow infusions were needed in 6% and 20% of patients who received ATG doses of (40 versus 60 to 100 mg/kg; respectively (1 to 2 month post-BMT). BU at a dose of 15 mg/kg was more effective than 14 mg/kg BU for its myeloablative properties. By adding "short" ATG course to the conditioning regimen, the incidence of grade IV acute and chronic GVHD was reduced in thalassemic patients, especially when an HLA disparity was present. PMID:16387149

Zakerinia, M; Khojasteh, H N; Ramzi, M; Haghshenas, M

2005-12-01

228

Windows Azure data storage  

CERN Document Server

Make tools for storage accessible from Azure apps and any Internet connected app In Windows Azure Data Storage, Simon Hart of Microsoft's Windows Azure Center of Excellence Team gives you all the tools you need to provide storage that is accessible both from Windows Azure applications and any application connected to the Internet. The book starts with an overview of the fundamental concepts, and then quickly dives in to configuring, scenario mapping, security, backup, recovery, and maintenance of the various data storage options. Contents include: Data Storage OptionsLocal StorageBlob Stora

Johnson, Bruce

2013-01-01

229

Initial blood storage experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

230

Estradiol induction of cAMP in breast cancer cells is mediated by foetal calf serum (FCS) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG or SBP), the specific carrier for estradiol and androgens, after binding to its membrane receptor (SHBG-R), causes a significant increase of cAMP in the presence of estradiol, in both breast (MCF-7) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells maintained in serum-free medium. On the other hand, it has been proposed that estrogens, in addition to the well-known nuclear receptor pathway, exert their biological effect inducing cAMP, as a consequence of a direct membrane action, in breast cancer and uterine cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify this controversial issue by verifying if the cAMP increase in MCF-7 cells was a direct effect of estradiol, or if it was mediated by FCS proteins, such as bovine sex hormone-binding globulin; and to reevaluate the effect of human SHBG on cAMP induction in the presence of FCS. MCF-7 cells were maintained in DCC-FCS (treated with DCC to remove steroids), in SHBG-FREE/DCC-FCS (treated with DCC and with a specific affinity chromatography to remove bovine sex hormone-binding globulin), or in serum-free medium (SFM). It was observed that estradiol determined a significant time-dependent increase of cAMP only in MCF-7 cells maintained in 10% DCC-FCS. When cells were maintained in 10% SHBG-FREE/DCC-FCS, estradiol had no detectable effect. However, its ability to increase cAMP was observed again after the addition of human SHBG, in doses ranging from 5 to 50 nM. Moreover, in the presence of 10% SHBG-FREE/DCC-FCS, SHBG, even in the absence of estradiol, caused a significant increase of cAMP. In conclusion, the data reported in the present study suggest that the ability of estradiol to induce cAMP in MCF-7 cells is not due to a direct membrane effect of the hormone, but rather it is mediated by FCS. SHBG is one of the serum factors mediating estradiol action. Lastly, it was proven that SHBG triggers the cAMP pathway in MCF-7 cells in a physiologic culture condition and at physiologic concentrations. PMID:10529004

Fortunati, N; Fissore, F; Fazzari, A; Piovano, F; Catalano, M G; Becchis, M; Berta, L; Frairia, R

1999-01-01

231

Storage - Research Councils UK  

We need better ways to store electricity, with the need at three distinct levels: ... \\for vehicles; Large: Energy storage for power generation – grid level storage. ... \\This will result in significant differences in the supply and demand patterns and \\will ...

232

Recent developments in storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat storage in ground, storage by sensible heat and phase change, by means of chemical reactions, in aquifers is considered hydrogeological, geological and thermophysical aspects of aquifers are discussed. Refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

233

Heat transport and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet

234

Fuel storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

1979-08-01

235

Storage in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

236

Effect of triiodothyronine (L-T/sub 3/) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T/sub 3/ (200 ..mu..g/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein diet. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S level. There were changes in serum T/sub 3/ which rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of the 60-day period of L-T/sub 3/ administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals.

Cavaliere, H.; Medeiros Neto, G.A. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina)

1984-06-01

237

Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E2), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m2; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E2 levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

238

The effect of triiodothyronine (L-T3) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T3 (200 ?g/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S leves. There was changes in serum T3 rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of de 60-day period of L-T3 administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals. (M.A.C.)

239

Lymphocyte subset reconstitution patterns in children with small bowel transplantation induced with steroid-free rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple measurements (n = 212) of lymphocyte subsets in 67 children treated with steroid-free Tacrolimus, and rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin induction demonstrate early reconstitution of T-cytotoxic and NK cells. Reconstitution of CD4+ cells is complete after the second post-transplant year. During the period at risk for rejection, NK and T-cytotoxic cell counts are significantly higher among Rejectors. During periods at increased risk for EBV viral infection, CD4 counts bear a significant inverse relationship to EBV viral load in a subset of at-risk recipients. Rejection-prone children also demonstrate significantly higher counts of total lymphocytes, Tc and NK cells prior to SBTx, and may illustrate one basis for enhanced baseline immunocompetence. PMID:18785909

Talukdar, Anjan J; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Wilson, Patrick; Gupta, Ankit; Sun, Qing; Boig, Linda; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Mazariegos, George; Green, Michael; Sindhi, Rakesh

2009-05-01

240

Sex hormone-binding globulin influences gene expression of LNCaP and MCF-7 cells in response to androgen and estrogen treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), a plasma protein that binds androgens and estrogens, also participates in the initial steps of a membrane-based steroid signaling pathway in human prostate and breast. We have recently shown that SHBG is expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in the prostate and breast. In this study, we addressed whether locally expressed SHBG: (1) Functions to regulate activation of membrane-based steroid signaling and (2) influences activation of the androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptors. Using microarray analysis, we identified specific genes that are influenced by SHBG expression in LNCaP and MCF-7 cells in a manner consistent with each of these properties. These findings suggest that locally expressed SHBG can play a functional role in the steroid responsiveness of prostate and breast cells through multiple signaling pathways and that perturbations in local SHBG expression could contribute to prostate and breast cancer. PMID:18497082

Kahn, Scott M; Li, Yu-Hua; Hryb, Daniel J; Nakhla, Atif M; Romas, Nicholas A; Cheong, Janice; Rosner, William

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

PACS storage technology update: holographic storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the emerging technology of holographic storage and its effect on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). A review of the emerging technology is presented, which includes a high level description of holographic drives and the associated substrate media, the laser and optical technology, and the spatial light modulator. The potential advantages and disadvantages of holographic drive and storage technology are evaluated. PACS administrators face myriad complex and expensive storage solutions and selecting an appropriate system is time-consuming and costly. Storage technology may become obsolete quickly because of the exponential nature of the advances in digital storage media. Holographic storage may turn out to be a low cost, high speed, high volume storage solution of the future; however, data is inconclusive at this early stage of the technology lifecycle. Despite the current lack of quantitative data to support the hypothesis that holographic technology will have a significant effect on PACS and standards of practice, it seems likely from the current information that holographic technology will generate significant efficiencies. This paper assumes the reader has a fundamental understanding of PACS technology. PMID:16783957

Colang, John E; Johnston, James N

2006-01-01

242

T-cell-replete haploidentical HSCT with low-dose anti-T-lymphocyte globulin compared with matched sibling HSCT and unrelated HSCT.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed an approach of T-cell-replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with low-dose anti-T-lymphocyte globulin and prospectively compared outcomes of all contemporaneous T-cell-replete HSCT performed at our center using matched sibling donors (MSDs), unrelated donors (URDs), and haploidentical related donors (HRDs). From 2008 to 2013, 90 patients underwent MSD-HSCT, 116 underwent URD-HSCT, and 99 underwent HRD-HSCT. HRDs were associated with higher incidences of grades 2 to 4 (42.4%) and severe acute graft-versus-host disease (17.2%) and nonrelapse mortality (30.5%), compared with MSDs (15.6%, 5.6%, and 4.7%, respectively; P < .05), but were similar to URDs, even fully 10/10 HLA-matched URDs. For high-risk patients, a superior graft-versus-leukemia effect was observed in HRD-HSCT, with 5-year relapse rates of 15.4% in HRD-HSCT, 28.2% in URD-HSCT (P = .07), and 49.9% in MSD-HSCT (P = .002). Furthermore, 5-year disease-free survival rates were not significantly different for patients undergoing transplantation using 3 types of donors, with 63.6%, 58.4%, and 58.3% for MSD, URD, and HRD transplantation, respectively (P = .574). Our data indicate that outcomes after HSCT from suitably matched URDs and HRDs with low-dose anti-T-lymphocyte globulin are similar and that HRD improves outcomes of patients with high-risk leukemia. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry) as #ChiCTR-OCH-12002490. PMID:25214441

Luo, Yi; Xiao, Haowen; Lai, Xiaoyu; Shi, Jimin; Tan, Yamin; He, Jingsong; Xie, Wanzhuo; Zheng, Weiyan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Ye, Xiujin; Yu, Xiaohong; Cai, Zhen; Lin, Maofang; Huang, He

2014-10-23

243

Wind turbine storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled stornergy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

244

Biosynthesis of Storage Proteins in Ripening Agrostemma githago L. Seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of storage proteins in ripening Agrostemma githago seeds was studied by in vivo pulse and pulse-chase experiments with labeled amino acids and labeled glucosamine. It was found that storage proteins were not synthesized directly, but via cleavage of several large precursor proteins. Two disulfide-linked proteins of 38 and 25 kilodaltons were synthesized via a single large precursor protein. This precursor protein contained internal disulfide bridges, at least one of which is involved in holding the subunit structure together following cleavage of the precursor. A similar mode of biosynthesis was noted for two other disulfide-linked proteins of 36 and 22 kilodaltons. The half-life of the precursors was about 2 hours. This mode of processing is analogous to the synthesis of legumin in legumes and globulin in oats. A third pair of disulfide-bonded proteins (41 and 23 kilodaltons) was synthesized from a precursor protein in several steps. These included a legumin-like cleavage, whereafter the subunits remained disulfide-bonded. Then, from the largest subunit, a part was cleaved off, probably a storage protein of 17 kilodaltons. This 17-kilodalton protein was not disulfide-bonded to the 41 and 23-kilodalton complex. The first processing step was fast, the second slow: The half-lives of the precursors were about 3 and 10 hours, respectively. Finally, a group of 16- and 17-kilodalton proteins was synthesized by cleavage of large precursor proteins, likely in two steps. After cleavage, the proteins were not disulfide-bonded. The half-life of the precursors was short, less than 1 hour. In addition, for the 38-, 23-, and one of the 17-kilodalton proteins, a small decrease of relative molecular weight was observed as a last processing step. This was likely due to deglycosylation. PMID:16663454

de Klerk, G J

1984-03-01

245

Cloud storage for dummies  

CERN Document Server

Understand cloud computing and save your organization time and money! Cloud computing is taking IT by storm, but what is it and what are the benefits to your organization? Hitachi Data Systems' Cloud Storage For Dummies provides all the answers, With this book, you discover a clear explanation of cloud storage, and tips for how to choose the right type of cloud storage for your organization's needs. You also find out how cloud storage can free up valuable IT resources, saving time and money. Cloud Storage For Dummies presents useful information on setting up a

Xu, Linda; Loughlin, Tanya

2010-01-01

246

Assessing storage adequacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

247

Energy storage technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book takes stock of the advantages and drawbacks of the different energy storage solutions apart from the classical fossil fuels (oil, uranium, gas), and details the technologies developed for an electric end-use. Storage is one of the most critical point for the development of new energy technologies, in particular those that use the electricity vector all along the energy source chain (generation, production, transport, utilisation). Storage is important not only for individual or independent applications, that use renewable energies or not, often intermittent, but also to secure coupled systems like power transportation and distribution systems. The development and choice of the most relevant technologies is dependent of technical-economical parameters. It can also supply new services, in particular in the framework of new electricity markets. Content: power film-capacitors, magnetic storage, kinetic energy storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), hydro-pneumatic storage, high-temperature thermal storage of electricity, hydraulic gravity storage, power electronic systems for energy storage. (J.S.)

248

Effect of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germination on the major globulin content and in vitro digestibility / Efeito da germinação de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L.) na globulina majoritária e digestibilidade in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A germinação das sementes de grão-de-bico foi acompanhada por um período de 6 dias, no qual pequenas variações nos teores de nitrogênio e globulina total foram registradas. A globulina majoritária (tipo 11 S) apresentou maiores variações após o quarto dia de germinação. A natureza e distribuição da [...] fração globulina majoritária isolada na cromatografia em Sepharose CL-6B mostrou pequenas modificações ao final do período de germinação. A eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilssulfato de sódio do pico eluído na cromatografia em Sepharose CL-6B demonstra modificações nas bandas de proteínas entre os pesos moleculares de 20 e 30 kDa e acima de 60 kDa, indicando degradação protéica durante o período. Atividade proteolítica foi detectada na fração albumina da semente que aumentou até o quarto dia, seguido de queda até o sexto dia de germinação, quando da utilização de globulina total isolada da semente e caseína como substratos. Farinha de grão-de-bico, frações albumina e globulina total isoladas não apresentaram aumento na digestibilidade in vitro; entretanto, a fração globulina majoritária isolada foi mais suscetível à hidrólise após germinação. Abstract in english Chickpea seed germination was carried out over a period of 6 days. Little variation in the nitrogen and total globulin content was observed. The major globulin (11 S type) showed higher variation after the 4th day of germination. The elution behaviour and distribution of the isolated major globulin [...] fraction on Sepharose CL-6B chromatography showed little modification at the end of germination. On SDS-PAGE the peak eluted from Sepharose CL-6B showed changes in protein bands between 20 and 30 kDa and above 60 kDa, indicating protein degradation during the period. Proteolytic activity was detected in the albumin fraction of the seeds, which increased up to the fourth and then decreased up to the sixth day, when isolated chickpea total globulin and casein were used as substrates. Chickpea flour, isolated albumin and total globulin fractions did not show an increase for in vitro digestibility; however, the isolated major globulin was more susceptible to hydrolysis after germination.

Guilherme Vanucchi, Portari; Olga Luisa, Tavano; Maraiza A. da, Silva; Valdir Augusto, Neves.

2005-12-01

249

Challenges in hydrogen storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen is one possible medium for energy storage and transportation in an era beyond oil. Hydrogen appears to be especially promising in connection with electricity generation in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells in cars. However, before such technologies can be implemented on a larger scale, satisfactory solutions for on-board storage of hydrogen are required. This is a difficult task due to the low volumetric and gravimetric storage density on a systems level which can be achieved so far. Possibilities include cryogenic storage as liquid hydrogen, high pressure storage at 70 MPa, (cryo)adsorptive storage, or various chemical methods of binding and releasing hydrogen. This survey discusses the different options and the associated advantages and disadvantages.

Schüth, F.

2009-09-01

250

Large mass storage facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

251

A storage battery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to reduce leakage currents and to improve the operational conditions for storage batteries (AB), for instance, tractive storage batteries of the TNZh type. The storage battery consists of a battery box with a top, storage cells with necks and grooves with openings. The grooves are made with expansions at the points of disposition of the necks, while connecting cylinders are installed in the openings. The lower face of the cylinders is made with a channel while the upper face has a cap with an external spherical surface for draining the electrolyte and an internal concave surface for ensuring its nonwettability.

Makhinya, V.V.; Buryakov, V.M.; Lesnykh, A.V.; Linev, N.A.; Permyakov, N.P.; Tolbatov, I.I.

1982-01-01

252

Underground thermal energy storage  

CERN Document Server

""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" (UTES) provide us with a flexible tool to combat global warming through conserving energy while utilizing natural renewable energy resources. Primarily, they act as a buffer to balance fluctuations in supply and demand of low temperature thermal energy. ""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" provides an comprehensive introduction to the extensively-used energy storage method. ""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" gives a general overview of UTES from basic concepts and classifications to operation regimes. As well as discussing general procedures for des

Lee, Kun Sang

2012-01-01

253

A simple and rapid Hepatitis A Virus (HAV titration assay based on antibiotic resistance of infected cells: evaluation of the HAV neutralization potency of human immune globulin preparations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV, the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in general does not cause cytopathic effect and is detected by immunochemical or molecular probes. Simple HAV titration assays could be developed using currently available viral construct containing selectable markers. Results We developed an antibiotic resistance titration assay (ARTA based on the infection of human hepatoma cells with a wild type HAV construct containing a blasticidin (Bsd resistance gene. Human hepatoma cells infected with the HAV-Bsd construct survived selection with 2 ?g/ml of blasticidin whereas uninfected cells died within a few days. At 8 days postinfection, the color of the pH indicator phenol red in cell culture media correlated with the presence of HAV-Bsd-infected blasticidin-resistant cells: an orange-to-yellow color indicated the presence of growing cells whereas a pink-to-purple color indicated that the cells were dead. HAV-Bsd titers were determined by an endpoint dilution assay based on the color of the cell culture medium scoring orange-to-yellow wells as positive and pink-to-purple wells as negative for HAV. As a proof-of-concept, we used the ARTA to evaluate the HAV neutralization potency of two commercially available human immune globulin (IG preparations and a WHO International Standard for anti-HAV. The three IG preparations contained comparable levels of anti-HAV antibodies that neutralized approximately 1.5 log of HAV-Bsd. Similar neutralization results were obtained in the absence of blasticidin by an endpoint dilution ELISA at 2 weeks postinfection. Conclusion The ARTA is a simple and rapid method to determine HAV titers without using HAV-specific probes. We determined the HAV neutralization potency of human IG preparations in 8 days by ARTA compared to the 14 days required by the endpoint dilution ELISA. The ARTA reduced the labour, time, and cost of HAV titrations making it suitable for high throughput screening of sera and antivirals, determination of anti-HAV antibodies in human immune globulin preparations, and research applications that involve the routine evaluation of HAV titers.

Kaplan Gerardo G

2008-12-01

254

Sex hormone binding globulin decrease as potential pathogenetic factor for hirsutism in adolescent girls / Disminución de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales como factor patogénico de hirsutismo en la adolescencia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se investigaron 252 mujeres con peso normal, de 13 a 39 años de edad, para evaluar si un descenso exagerado en los niveles de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales ("sex hormone binding globulin"; SHBG) puede tener un rol en el desarrollo de hirsutismo. Este signo fue evaluado con la esca [...] la de Ferriman y Gallwey (FG), empleando un criterio riguroso de normalidad 4) y controles (FG Abstract in english We investigated 252 non-obese female subjects aged 13-39 years to evaluate if an exaggerated descent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels during adolescence can play a role in the development of hirsutism. Body hair was assessed according to Ferriman and Gallwey (FG), with a stringent crite [...] rion of normality of 4) and controls (FG

Graciela, Cross; Karina, Danilowics; Martha, Kral; Anne, Caufriez; Georges, Copinschi; Oscar D., Bruno.

255

A Survey on Cloud Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud storage is a new concept come into being simultaneously with cloud computing, and can be divided into public cloud storage, private cloud storage and hybrid cloud storage. This article gives a quick introduction to cloud storage. It covers the key technologies in Cloud Computing and Cloud Storage. Google GFS massive data storage system and the popular open source Hadoop HDFS were detailed introduced to analyze the principle of Cloud Storage technology. As an important technology area and research direction, cloud storage is becoming a hot research for both academia and industry session. The future valuable research works were summarized at the end.

Jiehui Ju

2011-08-01

256

Optical storage networking  

Science.gov (United States)

For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

Mohr, Ulrich

2001-11-01

257

Energy storage capacitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The properties of capacitors are reviewed in general, including dielectrics, induced polarization, and permanent polarization. Then capacitance characteristics are discussed and modelled. These include temperature range, voltage, equivalent series resistance, capacitive reactance, impedance, dissipation factor, humidity and frequency effects, storage temperature and time, and lifetime. Applications of energy storage capacitors are then discussed. (LEW)

Sarjeant, W.J.

1984-01-01

258

Plutonium storage criteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

1996-05-01

259

Electricity Storage. Technology Brief  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable natural storage sites. Electrical batteries have a large potential with a number of new materials and technologies under development to improve performance and reduce costs. Heat storage is practical in CSP plants. The choice between large-scale storage facilities and small-scale distributed storage depends on the geography and demography of the country, the existing grid and the type and scale of renewable technologies entering the market. While the energy storage market is quickly evolving and expected to increase 20-fold between 2010 and 2020, many electricity storage technologies are under development and need policy support for further commercial deployment. Electricity storage considerations should be an integral part of any plans for electric grid expansion or transformation of the electricity system. Storage also offers key synergies with grid interconnection and methods to smooth the variability of electricity demand (demand side management)

Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

2012-04-15

260

Energy storage; Energiespeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accelerated system integration of renewable energy resources and the increase of energy efficiency are two major pillars of the current energy plan of the Federal Government. With this, the development of energy storage is seen as a central key element. The current focus primarily is on the storage of electricity. Right now, major research efforts are being made for the storage of excess quantities of electricity and to compensate for seasonal fluctuations in power generation from renewable energy sources. Possible approaches are examined. Even today, natural gas storage facilities play a major role in the power generation because of seasonal fluctuations of the energy demand can be compensated. In particular, the storage of electricity in the form of chemical energy (hydrogen or methane) currently is being discussed. This power-to-gas approach results in a combination of electricity and gas network infrastructures.

Baufume, Sylvestre; Hennings, Wilfried; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Linssen, Jochen; Markewitz, Peter; Strenzel, Peter; Voegele, Stefan [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEF-STE)

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Electricity: the necessary storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As they are intermittent, renewable energies raise the issue of energy storage. A first article evokes the existence of energy-transfer pumping stations in France (they are associated with dams) and outlines that energy storage requires important investments. It also evokes the different considered and currently tested energy storage technologies (compressed air, hydrogen, flywheels, methane, batteries, or phase-change materials) and outlines that each of them is associated to a specific application. A second article discusses the issue of a precise control of the coupling between energy production and storage. Some experiments are evoked. A last article addresses the development of positive-energy buildings which require energy storage solutions which are based on smart grids

262

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-07-06

263

Heat storage; Chikunetsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

(92) The research on base and application of the low-melting-point latent heat storage material. (93) The physical characteristic of polymer solution for the viscous stabilization solar bond. (94) The effect of the parameter for the optimum capacity of solid heat storage tank of air thermal receiver solar heat heating system variously. (95) Characteristic of thermal energy storage by land burial spiral pipe. The further comment : On the effect of the outside air condition. (96) The research on the district heat and cooling system by the heat storage between seasons. (Part 1 the preliminary of the energy saving in the comparison with the normal mode system.) Though there were 5 announcements in present research presentation, it was the research of which the content differed each. To begin with, there was the research of the application of latent heat storage medicine to resolution of the supercooling and heating for sun heating. Next, there was the research on the relation between air collector and air capacity and heat storage tank capacity of the collector in the combination of solid heat storage tank. The then, research of the effect of outside air condition using land burial spiral pipe in characteristic of thermal energy storage. And, there was the research on the physical characteristic of polymer solution as a necessity, when the polymer solution was used for solar pond. On the outside, there was a research presentation on heat recovery and heat storage to multiple dwelling house which adjoined heating and cooling waste heat from the building in urban area. Though the active question discussion was carried out for the announcement of the above of 5, the substantiality of the research was sensed with the necessity, while the research presentation on heat storage which is an important problem in solar thermal application increases further. (translated by NEDO)

Saito, Yoshikazu [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

1999-01-31

264

Assessment of genomic and species relationships in Triticum and Aegilops by PAGE and by differential staining of seed albumins and globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endosperm protein components from common bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) and related species were extracted with aluminum lactate, pH 3.2, and examined by electrophoresis in the same buffer. Electrophoretic patterns of the albumins and globulins were compared to evaluate the possibility that a particular species might have contributed its genome to tetraploid or hexaploid wheat. Together with protein component mobilities, differential band staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 was employed to test the identity or non-identity of bands. Eight species and 63 accessions, representative of Triticum and Aegilops were tested. Considerable intraspecific variation was observed for patterns of diploid but not for tetraploid or hexaploid species. Patterns of some accessions of Triticum urartu agreed closely with major parts of the patterns of Triticum dicoccoides and T. aestivum. A fast-moving, green band was found in all accessions of T. urartu and of Triticum boeoticum, however, that was not found in those of T. dicoccoides or T. aestivum. This band was present in all accessions of Triticum araraticum and Triticum zhukovskyi. Patterns of Aegilops longissima, which has been suggested as the donor of the B genome, differed substantially from those of T. dicoccoides and T. aestivum. Finally, two marker proteins of intermediate mobility were also observed and may be used to discriminate between accessions of T. araraticum/T. zhukovskyi and those of T. dicoccoides/T. aestivum. PMID:24317663

Caldwell, K A; Kasarda, D D

1978-11-01

265

Complex histopathologic response in rat kidney to oral ?-myrcene: an unusual dose-related nephrosis and low-dose alpha2u-globulin nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral gavage studies with ?-myrcene in male F344 rats showed a complex renal pathology comprising both alpha2u-globulin (?2u-g) nephropathy, an unusual nephrosis involving the outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM), and an increased incidence of renal tubule tumors by 2 years. In the 90-day and 2-year studies, respectively, ?2u-g nephropathy and linear papillary mineralization were observed in males at the two lower doses but were absent from the high dose. Nephrosis was characterized by dilation of the S3 tubules, nuclear enlargement (including karyomegaly), and luminal pyknotic cells, all in the outermost OSOM. Nephrosis was minimal at the higher doses in the 90-day study, but progressed to a severe grade in males dosed with 1,000 mg/kg for 2 years. Renal tubule tumors developed in treated groups with incidences up to 30% in the 250 and 500 mg/kg male dose groups. Tumors at the lower doses in males may have been associated with ?2u-g nephropathy, while those at higher doses in both sexes may have been due to the nephrosis. Because ?-myrcene induced a complex spectrum of renal pathology, the ?2u-g nephropathy mechanism cannot be the sole mechanism of carcinogenesis in these rats. PMID:23531794

Cesta, Mark F; Hard, Gordon C; Boyce, John T; Ryan, Michael J; Chan, Po C; Sills, Robert C

2013-01-01

266

Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. Results None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259 and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941. However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. Conclusion These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk.

Yeager Meredith

2007-04-01

267

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

1988-07-01

268

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

269

Effect of atrazine and fenitrothion at no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on amphibian and mammalian corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determines the effect of atrazine and fenitrothion no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on the binding of corticosterone (B) to corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG) in an amphibian and a mammal. Plasma from five cane toads and five Wistar rats was exposed to atrazine and fenitrothion at the NOEL approved for Australian fresh water residues and by the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration required to displace 50% (IC50) of B binding to CBG was determined by a competitive microdialysis protein assay. Competition studies showed that both atrazine and fenitrothion at NOEL are able to compete with B for CBG binding sites in toad and rat plasma. The IC50 levels for atrazine in toads and rats were 0.004nmol/l and 0.09nmol/l respectively. In the case of fenitrothion the IC50 level found in toads was 0.007nmol/l, and 0.025nmol/l in rats. Plasma dilution curves showed parallelism with the curve of B, demonstrating that these agro-chemicals are competitively inhibiting binding to CBG. The displacement of B by atrazine and fenitrothion would affect the total:free ratio of B and consequently disrupt the normal stress response. This is the first time that the potential disruptive effect of atrazine and fenitrothion on B-CBG interaction at the NOELs has been demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian models. PMID:25138046

Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

2014-11-01

270

A combination of fludarabine, half-dose cyclophosphamide, and anti-thymocyte globulin is an effective conditioning regimen before allogeneic stem cell transplantation for aplastic anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conditioning regimens consisting of reduced-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) and fludarabine (FDR) have been investigated for use in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients with aplastic anemia to reduce the toxicities associated with CY. However, the ideal dose of CY has not been identified. In addition, little information is available regarding donor cell chimerism after allo-HSCT with these regimens. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed 13 patients who underwent allo-HSCT with half-dose CY (100 mg/kg in total), FDR, and anti-thymocyte globulin at total doses of 2.5-10 mg/kg at our center. All the patients except one, who died due to encephalopathy on day 20, achieved neutrophil engraftment a median of 18.5 days after HSCT with complete donor-type chimerism. Two patients who received a graft from an HLA-matched donor subsequently developed mixed chimerism (MC) associated with transfusion-dependent cytopenia. One became transfusion-independent after donor lymphocyte infusion, but continues to exhibit MC. The other regained complete donor-type chimerism after the cessation of cyclosporine, but remains transfusion-dependent. These findings suggest that a conditioning regimen with half-dose CY and FDR is effective for achieving neutrophil engraftment and complete donor-type chimerism. However, subsequent MC may be observed, especially after HLA-matched HSCT. PMID:24488782

Ashizawa, Masahiro; Akahoshi, Yu; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Terasako, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Junya; Yamazaki, Rie; Tanihara, Aki; Nishida, Junji; Kanda, Yoshinobu

2014-03-01

271

Elevation of corticosteroid-binding globulin in Obese strain (OS) chickens: possible implications for the disturbed immunoregulation and the development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basal plasma levels of corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) have been investigated in Obese strain (OS) chickens afflicted with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT). Corticosterone was determined radioimmunologically, and CBG by using a highly sensitive radioligand saturation assay. OS chickens displayed total corticosterone levels not different from healthy normal White Leghorn (NWL) chickens. CBG, however, was found to be twice as high in OS chickens as compared with their healthy counterparts, irrespective of sex or age. This quantitative difference in the CBG level is not compensated for by either altered affinity or specificity of the molecule. Furthermore, no differences were found in the response of OS and NWL lymphocytes to the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids in vitro. It was therefore assumed that OS animals are deficient in free, hormonally active corticosterone. An additional indication for such a diminished glucocorticoid tonus was that in vivo treatment of OS chickens with glucocorticoid hormones, thus increasing the free and active hormone fraction, normalizes the T cell hyperreactivity and significantly reduces thyroid infiltration. Possible pathophysiological implications of a diminished glucocorticoid tonus for spontaneous autoimmunity, as well as possible explanations for the beneficial effects of glucocorticoid treatment on the development of SAT, are discussed

272

Combination Therapy with Antibiotics and Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous (AIGIV) Is Potentially More Effective than Antibiotics Alone in Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of AIGIV when given in combination with levofloxacin and the effective window of treatment to assess the added benefit provided by AIGIV over standard antibiotic treatment alone in a New Zealand white rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Methods Rabbits were exposed to lethal dose of aerosolized spores of Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) and treated intravenously with either placebo, (normal immune globulin intravenous, IGIV) or 15 U/kg of AIGIV, along with oral levofloxacin treatment at various time points (30–96 hours) after anthrax exposure. Results The majority of treated animals (>88%) survived in both treatment groups when treatment was initiated within 60 hours of post-exposure. However, reduced survival of 55%, 33% and 25% was observed for placebo + levofloxacin group when the treatment was initiated at 72, 84 and 96 hours post-exposure, respectively. Conversely, a survival rate of 65%, 40% and 71% was observed in the AIGIV + levofloxacin treated groups at these time points. Conclusions The combination of AIGIV with antibiotics provided an improvement in survival compared to levofloxacin treatment alone when treatment was delayed up to 96 hours post-anthrax exposure. Additionally, AIGIV treatment when given as an adjunct therapy at any of the time points tested did not interfere with the efficacy of levofloxacin. PMID:25226075

Kammanadiminti, Srinivas; Patnaikuni, Ravi Kumar; Comer, Jason; Meister, Gabriel; Sinclair, Chris; Kodihalli, Shantha

2014-01-01

273

Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cie?lak

2008-09-01

274

Storage of radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

275

Aboveground storage tank regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are critical differences between the potential for environmental impact of aboveground and underground oil storage. For example, while leaks from underground storage tanks (USTs) seep into soil or aquifers, the concern with aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) is that an overfill or tank rupture can cause product to escape into a navigable stream and immediately create an oil spill pollution incident. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has very distinct programs outlining regulation parameters for each type of storage, including source of authority, regulatory cutoffs and exclusions, definitions, prevention and response requirements, and penalties, etc. Engineers considering changing or recommending a change in type of storage, particularly from a UST to an AST, need to be aware of existing federal regulations. UST regulation, administered primarily by the states, falls under EPA Regulation 40 CFR 280. EPA's underground storage tank program, which began in 1988, and the individual state programs that have evolved since then, provide generally accepted benchmarks for safe, reliable underground storage of petroleum and hazardous liquid products

276

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

277

Aflatoxins & Safe Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

PhilippeVillers

2014-04-01

278

Aflatoxins and safe storage  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

Villers, Philippe

2014-01-01

279

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-05-10

280

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

Joel Morrison

2005-09-14

 
 
 
 
281

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2007-06-30

282

American gas storage survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The American gas storage survey provides an estimate of working gas inventory for different regions in the U.S. American Gas Association survey reporting procedures, procedures followed by survey participants and the nature of the data they are expected to provide, are described. A summary of net withdrawals from working gas underground storage between 1994 and 1998 for different regions in the U.S is provided. It was predicted that storage operators will enter the 1998-1999 winter heating season with the highest inventories since November 1994. tabs., figs

283

Tiered Storage For LHC  

CERN Document Server

For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

2012-01-01

284

Wet storage integrity update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

285

Costs of Archival Storage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were to determine the costs of establishing and maintaining a preservation solution destined for long-term preservation of digital materials and to develop a tool capable of doing this operation. In order to fulfill the purposes, the project employed a combination of own and external experience as well as the OAIS Reference Model as a framework to fully understand and identify the cost critical activities of bit-preservation as described in Archival Storage. We found that the costs of Archival Storage are obviously closely linked to the data volume, but also to the required preservation quality, especially with regard to the required number of copies and the type of storage solution.

BØgvad Kejser, Ulla

2012-01-01

286

Storage of strawberry pollen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

Rafet Aslanta?

2001-12-01

287

Optical Disk Storage Roadmap  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical disk technology is the only optical data storage technology with a notable market. After more than a decade of persistent struggle, optical disk storage has established itself as a significant, albeit not dominant, segment of the computer data storage industry. Worldwide revenue for optical disk drives in 1998 was 6.1 billion, which compares with 34.2 billion for magnetic hard disk drives [1]. The success and growth of optical storage in the last few years has been strongly fueled by the emergence and acceptance of the CD-ROM device and media as the de facto standard for software distribution on mass market desktop computer systems. CD-ROM drives accounted for 92% of the optical drive units shipped in 1998, although this represented only 75% of the overall optical drive revenue [1]. For software distribution, the attractive features of CD-ROM are that it is a removable storage medium with very low cost and very high capacity, which can be easily mass-replicated. The ubiquitous presence of CD-ROM drives in desktop computer systems has in turn provided a foundation for the recent growth of recordable and rewritable devices in the CD form factor. This strong, established base will have an important influence on the future development of optical disk storage.

Schechtman, B. H.

288

Storage of nuclear wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swedish system of handling and storage of nuclear wastes is well-developed. Existing plants and systems provide great freedom of action and flexibility regarding future development and decisions of ultimate storage of the spent fuel. The interim storage in CLAB - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - could continue without any safety related problems for more than 40 years. In practice the choice of ultimate treatment system is not locked until the encapsulation of the fuel starts. At the same time it is of importance that the generation benefiting by the nuclear power production also be responsible for the development of the ultimate storage system and not unnecessarily postpones important decisions. The ultimate storage system for spent fuel could and should be developed within existing schedule. At the same time is should be worked out to provide coming generations with possibilities to do the type of supervision they like without maintenance and supervision requiring to become a prerequisite for a safe function. (O.S.)

289

Spent nuclear fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

290

Energy Storage: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficient and economic energy storage, if implemented in the current power infrastructure on a large scale, could bring about some of the greatest changes in the power industry in decades. Additionally, energy storage would improve the reliability and dynamic stability of the power system by providing stable, abundant energy reserves that require little ramp time and are less susceptible to varying fuel prices or shortages. Energy storage can shift the higher peak load to off-peak hours in order to level the generation requirement, allowing generators to run more efficiently at a stable power level, potentially decreasing the average cost of electricity. Additionally, increased energy storage capacity can avoid generation capacity, decrease transmission congestion, and help enable distributed generation such as residential solar and wind systems.In this paper energy storage methods are discussed in such a way to provide a detailed overview of how each of the energy storage devices work so that the reader is able to get a better feel for the potential benefits and drawbacks of each device.

Himanshu Verma,

2013-06-01

291

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA on November 8, 2006; {lg_bullet} Draft and compile an electronic newsletter, the GSTC Insider; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-09-30

292

The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from observational studies suggest that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and endogenous sex hormones may be mediators of the putative relation between coffee consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormone levels. Findings After a two-week run-in phase with caffeine abstention, we conducted an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Healthy adults (n?=?42 were recruited from the Boston community who were regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight. Participants were randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water (control group per day consumed with each meal, mid-morning, and mid-afternoon. The main outcome measures were SHBG and sex hormones [i.e., testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate]. No significant differences were found between treatment groups for any of the studied outcomes at week 8. At 4 weeks, decaffeinated coffee was associated with a borderline significant increase in SHBG in women, but not in men. At week 4, we also observed several differences in hormone concentrations between the treatment groups. Among men, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol. Among women, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased total testosterone. Conclusions Our data do not indicate a consistent effect of caffeinated coffee consumption on SHBG in men or women, however results should be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. This is the first randomized trial investigating the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormones and our findings necessitate further examination in a larger intervention trial.

Wedick Nicole M

2012-10-01

293

Stress responses of testosterone and corticosterone-binding globulin in a multi-brooded species, Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus): Does CBG function as a mediator?  

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In avian plasma, testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT) compete to bind with corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG). Elevation of CBG may function to "buffer" the tissues against high circulating levels of T and stress-induced levels of CORT. To demonstrate the effects of acute stress on CBG and T levels and their biological functions, we investigated seasonal changes of baseline and stress-induced T and CBG levels in Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) during different life stages using the capture-handling-restraint stress method. Our results show that (1) male sparrows had significantly higher baseline T levels and CBG capacities during the nest building, the first egg-laying, and the first nestling stages, and significantly decreased stress-induced T levels only during the nest building and the first egg-laying stages. They also expressed significantly increased stress-induced CBG capacities during the second nestling stage. (2) Females showed significantly higher baseline CBG capacities but significantly decreased stress-induced CBG capacities during the nest building stage, and females also showed significantly increased stress-induced CBG capacities during the second egg-laying and the second nestling stages. Therefore, the seasonal fluctuations of baseline CBG in both sexes and baseline T in males reflect their adaptive strategies for optimizing their physiological and behavioral states to the life history cycle. The different patterns of stress-induced CBG in females suggest CBG functions as an essential mediator in regulating stress response to unpredictable perturbations. Our results highlight the need for future studies of stress-induced CBG and T levels on a wide range of vertebrate species that vary in different life history stages to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms that underlie biological functions of CBG and T for unpredictable stressors. PMID:22366504

Li, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaorui; Li, Yaqing; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Yuefeng

2012-04-01

294

Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ?126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ?200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and ?-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

Goto Atsushi

2012-10-01

295

Influence of two different doses of antithymocyte globulin in patients with standard-risk disease following haploidentical transplantation: a randomized trial.  

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To evaluate the effect of the different doses of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) on the incidence of acute GVHD among patients receiving hematopoietic SCT without ex vivo T-cell-depletion from haploidentical donors, 224 patients with standard-risk hematological malignancy were randomized in this study. One hundred and twelve patients received 6?mg/kg ATG, whereas the remaining patients received 10?mg/kg ATG. This study was registered at http://www.chictr.org as No. ChiCTR-TRC-11001761. The incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD was higher in the ATG-6 group (16.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 9.1-23.1%) than in the ATG-10 group (4.5%, CI, 0.7-8.3%, P=0.005, 95% CI for the difference, -19.4% to -3.8%). EBV reactivation occurred more frequently in the ATG-10 group (25.3%, 17.1-33.5%) than in the ATG-6 group (9.6% (4.0-15.2%), P=0.001). The 1-year disease-free survival rates were 84.3% (77.3-91.3%) and 86.0% (79.2-92.8%) for the ATG-6 group and ATG-10 groups, respectively (P=0.88). In conclusion, although 6?mg/kg ATG applied in haploidentical transplantation decreased the risk of EBV reactivation compared with 10?mg/kg ATG, this treatment exposes patients to a higher risk for severe acute GVHD. PMID:24292519

Wang, Y; Fu, H-X; Liu, D-H; Xu, L-P; Zhang, X-H; Chang, Y-J; Chen, Y-H; Wang, F-R; Sun, Y-Q; Tang, F-F; Liu, K-Y; Huang, X-J

2014-03-01

296

Oral contraceptive tablets containing 20 and 30 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol with 150 micrograms desogestrel. Their influence on lipids, lipoproteins, sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone.  

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The effect of two oral contraceptive (OC) pills, both containing 150 micrograms of desogestrel, but with 20 (Mercilon) or 30 micrograms (Marvelon/Desolett) of ethinyl estradiol on plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total and free testosterone were compared in a double-blind, randomized, two-center study in a total of 60 women over one year. A significant rise with Marvelon but not with Mercilon was seen in total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, HDL-3 and apolipoprotein B, whereas LDL cholesterol decreased with Mercilon only. These effects resulted in significant differences between the two groups in the magnitude of responses in all these parameters except HDL-3. HDL-2, apolipoprotein A-1 and total phospholipids were elevated with both pills after treatment and with no difference in the degree of response between groups. The HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio tended to increase in both groups and that of apolipoproteins A-1/B in the women on Mercilon. Total triglycerides increased in both groups, but more in the women on Marvelon. Total testosterone decreased, particularly in the Marvelon group, whereas the two pills caused a similar increase in SHBG and decrease in free testosterone. It is concluded that the direction of changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins with both these pills may as a whole be interpreted as beneficial, and that the differences in effect on LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B may suggest a slightly advantageous effect of Mercilon in this aspect. However, the clinical significance of these changes is uncertain. The results indicate a lack of androgenicity of both pills. PMID:8116352

Akerlund, M; Almström, E; Högstedt, S; Nabrink, M

1994-02-01

297

Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity) both absolute and relative [...] increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years) with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI) ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8) and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10) groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

A.F., Reis; W.L., Miranda; A.R., Chacra.

298

Pilot study using tacrolimus rather than cyclosporine plus antithymocyte globulin as an immunosuppressive therapy regimen option for severe aplastic anemia in adults.  

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Severe aplastic anemia (SAA), which is considered to be an immune-mediated destruction of bone marrow stem cells with pancytopenia and hypoplasia, can be successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between January 2009 and December 2012, thirteen patients diagnosed with SAA were treated with tacrolimus plus rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based immunosuppressive therapy (IST). The outcomes were then compared with our previous data for twenty-four patients administered with cyclosporine (CsA) plus rabbit ATG-based IST. All 37 cases accepted methylpredenisolone and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) from the first day that rabbit ATG was initiated. A total of 7 (54%) of the 13 patients in the tacrolimus group and 10 (42%) of the 24 cases in the ATG+CsA group achieved the criteria for complete response (CR); the partial response (PR) rate was 31% in the tacrolimus group and 33% in the ATG+CsA group. The median follow-up duration of the tacrolimus group and ATG+CsA group patients was 28 months and 27 months, respectively. Two patients in the tacrolimus group who were red blood cell- and platelet transfusion-dependent died, one of sepsis and the other of cerebral hemorrhage, whereas one patient died from serious infection on the 5th day after ATG was initiated in the ATG+CsA group. No clonal transformation to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) was observed in either group. Our data provide a possibility of using tacrolimus as part of an IST regimen for SAA in adults who have no opportunity of HSCT from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. PMID:24931461

Zhu, Xianmin; Guan, Jun; Xu, Jinhuan; Wei, Jia; Jiang, Lijun; Yin, Jin; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Yicheng

2014-09-01

299

Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity) both absolute and relative [...] increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years) with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI) ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8) and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10) groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

A.F., Reis; W.L., Miranda; A.R., Chacra.

1998-12-01

300

Characterisation of the affinity of different anabolics and synthetic hormones to the human androgen receptor, human sex hormone binding globulin and to the bovine progestin receptor.  

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For the steroidal growth promoters trenbolone acetate (TBA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) neither the complete spectrum of biological activities nor the potential endocrine disrupting activity of their excreted metabolites in the environment is fully understood. The potency of these substances in [3H]dihydrotestosterone ([3H]-DHT) displacement from the recombinant human androgen receptor (rhAR) and from human sex-hormone binding globulin (hSHBG) was evaluated. In addition, the potency for [3H]-ORG2058 displacement from the bovine uterine progestin receptor (bPR) was tested. For comparison, different anabolics and synthetic hormones were also tested for their binding affinities. For 17beta-trenbolone (17beta-TbOH), the active compound after TBA administration, an affinity the rhAR similar to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and a slightly higher affinity to the bPR than progesterone were demonstrated. The affinity of the two major metabolites, 17alpha-trenbolone and trendione, was reduced to less than 5% of the 17beta-TbOH-value. The affinity of these three compounds and of MGA to the hSHBG was much lower compared with DHT. MGA showed a 5.3-fold higher affinity than progesterone to the bPR but only a weak affinity to the rhAR. The major MGA metabolites have an affinity to the bPR between 85% and 28% of the affinity of progesterone. In consequence, MGA and TBA metabolites may be hormonally active substances, which will be present in edible tissues and in manure. We conclude that detailed investigations on biodegradation, distribution and bio-efficacy of these substances are necessary. PMID:11252818

Bauer, E R; Daxenberger, A; Petri, T; Sauerwein, H; Meyer, H H

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Serum levels of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) are not predictive of prostate cancer diagnosis and aggressiveness: results from an italian biopsy cohort  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose To explore the association between serum levels of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) and the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) as well as high grade disease in men undergoing prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods Between 2006 and 2012, we prospectively enrolled 740 patients with [...] no history of PCa undergoing prostate biopsy. Before biopsy general data of the patient DRE, PSA and BMI were recorded. The risk of detecting cancer and high grade cancer was assessed as a function of SHBG using crude and adjusted logistic regressions. Results Serum levels of SHBG were not associated with an increased risk of PCa or high grade disease. Age (OR 1.027 95% CI 1.003-1.052 p = 0.027), DRE (OR 3.391 95% CI 2.258-5.092 p = 0.000) and PSA (OR 1.078 95% CI 1.037-1.120 p = 0.000) were found to be independent predictors of prostate cancer risk. Age (OR 1.051 95% CI 1.009-1.095 p = 0.016), DRE (OR 2.519 95% CI 1.384-4.584 p = 0.000), BMI (OR 1.098 95% CI 1.011-1.193 p = 0.027) and PSA (OR 1.074 95% CI 1.014-1.137 p = 0.015) were found to be independent predictors of high grade disease. Conclusions In our cohort of patients, serum levels of SHBG are not predictive of PCa or high grade disease. According to our experience SHBG should not be considered a biomarker in PCa diagnosis neither a marker for high grade disease.

Cosimo, De Nunzio; Riccardo, Lombardo; Simone, Albisinni; Mauro, Gacci; Andrea, Tubaro.

302

Serum levels of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) are not predictive of prostate cancer diagnosis and aggressiveness: results from an italian biopsy cohort  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose To explore the association between serum levels of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) and the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) as well as high grade disease in men undergoing prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods Between 2006 and 2012, we prospectively enrolled 740 patients with [...] no history of PCa undergoing prostate biopsy. Before biopsy general data of the patient DRE, PSA and BMI were recorded. The risk of detecting cancer and high grade cancer was assessed as a function of SHBG using crude and adjusted logistic regressions. Results Serum levels of SHBG were not associated with an increased risk of PCa or high grade disease. Age (OR 1.027 95% CI 1.003-1.052 p = 0.027), DRE (OR 3.391 95% CI 2.258-5.092 p = 0.000) and PSA (OR 1.078 95% CI 1.037-1.120 p = 0.000) were found to be independent predictors of prostate cancer risk. Age (OR 1.051 95% CI 1.009-1.095 p = 0.016), DRE (OR 2.519 95% CI 1.384-4.584 p = 0.000), BMI (OR 1.098 95% CI 1.011-1.193 p = 0.027) and PSA (OR 1.074 95% CI 1.014-1.137 p = 0.015) were found to be independent predictors of high grade disease. Conclusions In our cohort of patients, serum levels of SHBG are not predictive of PCa or high grade disease. According to our experience SHBG should not be considered a biomarker in PCa diagnosis neither a marker for high grade disease.

Cosimo, De Nunzio; Riccardo, Lombardo; Simone, Albisinni; Mauro, Gacci; Andrea, Tubaro.

2013-12-01

303

Serum leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I components and sex-hormone binding globulin. Relationship with sex, age and body composition in healthy population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and thermogenesis, regulates long term energy balance and reproductive function and its concentrations are closely linked to body mass index. Leptin secretion is influenced by many factors and the age-related changes in different hormones might modify circulating leptin concentrations. Sex dimorphism in leptin concentrations has been clearly shown in previous studies and its concentrations were lower in men than in women in all decades of life. Insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a peptide growth factor that is present in all types of physiologic fluids and is also produced by connective tissue cell types and its autocrine/paracrine secretion is nearly always present within tissues. There is a physiological decline of the growth hormone (GH)/IGF-I axis with ageing and in addition, insulin, thyroid hormones and the supply of dietary energy may directly regulate the circulating levels of the IGFs and growth hormone binding protein (GHBP). Furthermore, there is no doubt that GH participates in the regulation of body composition, and with advanced age there is a decrease in muscle and an increase in adiposity associated with a decline in GH and total IGF-I. The biological activities of the IGF ligands are modulated by the family of high affinity GHBP. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations are thought to be regulated primarily through opposing actions of sex steroids on hepatic SHBG production, with oestrogen stimulating and androgen inhibiting SHBG production, and thyroid hormones are also a potent stimulator of SHBG production concentrations. Some studies support an independent IGFBP3 contribution to SHBG variability and these findings are compatible with the hypothesis that some of the anabolic effects ascribed to the GH/IGF axis may be caused by SHBG-mediated changes in testosterone activity or SHBG/total testosterone index. PMID:17897098

Gómez, José-Manuel

2007-01-01

304

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) as an independent determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese middle-aged and elderly men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to assess the impact of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover among Chinese middle-aged and elderly men. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 404 Chinese men aged over 45 years. BMD was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and participants' blood was collected for bone-specific alkaline phosphates (BSAP), SHBG and testosterone assay. Osteoporotic men had lower free testosterone (FT) and higher levels of SHBG, and BSAP than the osteopenia and normal groups. When SHBG levels were divided into quartiles, FT levels decreased and prevalence of osteoporosis increased with higher SHBG levels. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile of SHBG levels (<36.55 nmol/l), subjects in the third quartile [OR (95 % CI) 2.998 (1.460-6.157), p = 0.002] and the highest quartile [OR (95 % CI) 4.439 (2.192-8.991), p < 0.001] were more likely to suffer with osteoporosis. FT was significantly positive related to total hip BMD and total lumbar BMD, whereas there was no association between TT and BMD after adjusting for age, BMI and FT. SHBG levels were also inversely related to BMD. SHBG could explain 1.4-2.1 % of the BMD variance after adjustment for age, BMI and FT. No association was found between BSAP and SHBG, TT and FT. Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI, smoking and FT or SHBG was independently associated with the presence of osteoporosis. Serum FT levels were positively correlated with BMD, while SHBG levels were inversely related to BMD. Increasing SHBG level was an independent risk factor for osteoporosis among Chinese men. PMID:24408050

Zha, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Yu; Pang, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ji-Heng; Chang, Gui-Lin; Li, Li

2014-11-01

305

Desenvolvimento de ensaio imunofluorométrico para a medida da globulina ligadora de tiroxina (thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG e sua aplicação em casos de deficiência desta proteína  

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Full Text Available A globulina ligadora de tiroxina (thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG é a principal transportadora de hormônios tiroidianos no soro. Variações na concentração sérica de TBG determinam variações proporcionais nas concentrações séricas totais de T4 e T3, sem implicar alterações de função, desde que a fração livre permaneça normal. Várias condições clínicas comuns levam a alterações significativas nos níveis de TBG, sendo as variações mais importantes devidas a defeitos genéticos. Como a TBG é codificada por gene localizado no cromossomo X, os defeitos se manifestam mais facilmente no sexo masculino. Descrevemos o desenvolvimento de ensaio imunofluorométrico para a medida de TBG com base em anticorpos monoclonais, sendo um desenvolvido em nosso laboratório e outro comercial. O método apresenta sensibilidade de 0,8mg/l e coeficientes de variação intra e interensaio inferiores a 10%. O estudo comparativo com método comercial mostrou alta correlação (r = 0,93; n = 48, sendo os valores normais obtidos de 10mg/l a 29mg/l. Estudamos também 20 indivíduos portadores de deficiência congênita de TBG, 19 homens e uma mulher, que apresentavam valores normais de TSH e baixos de T4 total; em todos eles os níveis de TBG foram indetectáveis. Já os níveis de T4 livre medidos por método indireto em 16 desses indivíduos mostraram-se elevados em todos, ao passo que, quando medidos por método direto pós-diálise nos quatro restantes, mostraram-se normais. Nossos resultados reforçam a necessidade prática da disponibilidade de ensaio para a medida de TBG para esclarecimento e definição diagnóstica de alguns casos especiais, principalmente quando o ensaio de T4 livre direto, pós-diálise, não é disponível.

Vieira José Gilberto H.

2002-01-01

306

Production and characterization of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to almond (Prunus dulcis L.) major storage protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbits were immunized with purified almond major protein (AMP), the primary storage protein in almonds. Rabbit anti-AMP polyclonal antibodies (PA) could detect AMP when as little as 1-10 ng/mL were used to coat microtiter plates in a noncompetitive enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Competitive inhibition ELISA assays detected the AMP down to 300 ng/mL. PA recognized the AMP in protein extracts from all U.S. major marketing cultivars of almonds (Mission, Neplus, Peerless, Carmel, and Nonpareil) with specific reactivity of 52.6-75% as compared to that of the AMP alone. Immunoreactivity of protein extracts prepared from commercial samples of blanched almonds, roasted almonds, and almond paste was respectively reduced by 50.0%, 56.6%, and 68.4% (noncompetitive ELISA) when compared to the immunoreactivity of the AMP. Moist heat (121 degrees C, 15 min) pretreatment of the AMP reduced the PA reactivity by 87% (noncompetitive ELISA). Exposing AMP to pH extremes (12.5 and 1.5-2.5) caused a 53% and 57% reduction in PA reactivity, respectively (noncompetitive ELISA). PA showed some cross-reactivity with the cashew major globulin, and to a lesser extent, the Tepary and Great Northern bean major storage protein (7S or phaseolin). The presence of almonds in a commercial food was detected using PA in a competitive ELISA. PMID:10552764

Acosta, M R; Roux, K H; Teuber, S S; Sathe, S K

1999-10-01

307

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing negotiations of the four sub-awards working toward signed contracts with the various organizations involved. Second, an Executive Council meeting was held at Penn State September 9, 2004. And third, the GSTC participated in the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting in Charleston, West Virginia, on September 16th and 17th. We hosted a display booth with the Stripper Well Consortium.

Robert W. Watson

2004-10-18

308

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.

Robert W. Watson

2004-07-15

309

Distributed Storage Allocations  

CERN Document Server

We examine the problem of allocating a given total storage budget in a distributed storage system for maximum reliability. A source has a single data object which it can code and store over a set of storage nodes; it is allowed to store any amount of coded data in each node, as long as the total amount of storage used does not exceed the given budget. A data collector subsequently attempts to recover the original data object by accessing only the data stored in a random subset of the nodes. By using an appropriate code, successful recovery can be achieved whenever the total amount of data accessed is at least the size of the original data object. The goal is to find an optimal storage allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery. This optimization problem is challenging in general because of its discrete and nonconvex nature, despite its simple formulation. We study several variations of the problem, assuming different allocation models and access models. The optimal allocation and the opt...

Leong, Derek; Ho, Tracey

2010-01-01

310

Radioactive waste storage issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be

311

Photo storage cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention concerns a photo storage element with both the photoelectric transfer function and the photoelectric storage function and relates to a photo storage element with a big electric capacity. As the material for solar cells, inorganic semiconductors are mainly being studied, but organic semiconductors using organic compounds are also being studied. Organic semiconductors make film-shaped solar cells with large area inexpensively and have excellent workability, but as electrically active elements, many of them have lower efficiency and show considerably more deterioration than inorganic semiconductors. This invention intends to form a layer of pigment on a conductive substrate (particularly a glass substrate or an ITO substrate with Au coating), and compose a cell by laminating in sandwich form a semitransparent electrode (aluminum, etc.) on the above pigment layer in order to manifest the storage function of electricity in addition to the photoelectric transfer function. Thus it offers a photo storage cell with both the photoelectric motive force and the high electric capacity. It shows the structural formulae of squalilium-based pigments as the especially preferable pigments to be used. (2 figs)

Yanai, Kazuki; Iwata, Tomoo; Furusho, Noboru

1987-12-17

312

Extended storage of spent fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (?50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

313

Evolution of clustered storage  

CERN Document Server

The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

2007-01-01

314

Storage battery systems analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

Murphy, K.D.

1982-01-01

315

Neptunium storage at Hanford  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A decision must be made regarding whether the United State's stockpile of neptunium should be discarded into the waste stream or kept for the production of Pu-238. Although the cost of long term storage is not inconsequential, to dispose of the material means the closing of our option to maintain control over our Pu-238 stockpile. Within the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at Hanford there exists a remotely operated facility that can be converted for neptunium storage. This paper describes the facility and the anticipated handling requirements

316

Thermal energy storage  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TES program from April 1990 to March 1992 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, direct contact ice making, latent heat storage plasterboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

Tomlinson, J. J.

1992-03-01

317

Comparative study regarding the association of alpha-2u globulin with the nephrotoxic mechanism of certain petroleum-based air force fuels. Annual report 1 Jul 90-30 Jun 91  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adult male rats have a dose and time dependent renal proximal tubular degeneration induced by certain hydrocarbon compounds. This degeneration is associated with a low molecular weight urinary protein called alpha 2U globulin. We are using rat strain variation (Fisher 344 and NCI Black Reiter) and different hydrocarbon compounds (JP-4, JP-8, decalin and trimethylpentane) to investigate the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxic response. Preliminary histochemical and morphometric evaluation of NCI-Black Reiter rats exposed to JP-8 suggests that this strain undergoes an intermediate form of the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxicity when compared to the albino Fisher 344 strain.

Eurell, T.E.

1991-08-14

318

Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application Proposta de abolição do teste de sensibilidade cutâneo antes da aplicação do soro anti-rábico de origem eqüina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat) confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST) and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the Un...

Cupo, Palmira; Azevedo-marques, Marisa M.; Sarti, Willy; Hering, Sylvia Evelyn

2001-01-01

319

Caracterização e hidrólise in vitro da globulina principal de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L., var. IAC-Marrocos Characterization and in vitro tryptic hydrolysis of the major globulin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente estudo procedeu-se ao isolamento e caracterização da fração globulina majoritária (11 S de grão-de-bico, var. IAC-Marrocos. A globulina majoritária extraída foi isolada por cromatografia de filtração em gel e de troca-iônica mostrando apenas uma banda de proteína na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. A globulina majoritária, após passagem em coluna de Sephadex, revelou duas bandas protéicas de 55 e 52,5kDa e três bandas menores em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio. Na presença de 2-mercaptoetanol 6 polipeptídios na faixa de 18 a 42kDa foram revelados na eletroforese. A globulina isolada foi submetida à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina onde a forma nativa mostrou-se resistente à ação enzimática enquanto o aquecimento (96 e 121°C/15min não foi suficiente para aumentar a susceptibilidade à hidrólise, significativamente. Adição de NaCl 0,3M levou a um aumento da estabilidade estrutural com menor susceptibilidade à digestão proteolítica, fato em parte perdido com o aquecimento. As hidrólises foram acompanhadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio.The isolation and characterization of the major globulin fraction (11 S from Chickpea, vc IAC-Marrocos, were evaluated. The major globulin was extracted, isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography showing only one protein band on PAGE. The globulin, after Sephadex elution, revealed two protein bands of 55 and 52.5kDa and three minor bands on SDS-PAGE. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol six polypeptides were revealed on SDS-PAGE in the range of 18 to 42kDa. The isolated native globulin shown to be resistant to trypsin and chymotrypsin however heating at 96 and 121ºC/15min was not sufficient to increase the hydrolysis significantly. The proteolytic susceptibility of the enzymes was reduced by 0.3M NaCl addition at the assay. The salt concentration was sufficient to stabilize the native protein structure that was lost after heating as demonstrated on SDS-PAGE.

Valdir A. Neves

2004-03-01

320

Caracterização e hidrólise in vitro da globulina principal de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L.), var. IAC-Marrocos / Characterization and in vitro tryptic hydrolysis of the major globulin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo procedeu-se ao isolamento e caracterização da fração globulina majoritária (11 S) de grão-de-bico, var. IAC-Marrocos. A globulina majoritária extraída foi isolada por cromatografia de filtração em gel e de troca-iônica mostrando apenas uma banda de proteína na eletroforese em gel [...] de poliacrilamida. A globulina majoritária, após passagem em coluna de Sephadex, revelou duas bandas protéicas de 55 e 52,5kDa e três bandas menores em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio. Na presença de 2-mercaptoetanol 6 polipeptídios na faixa de 18 a 42kDa foram revelados na eletroforese. A globulina isolada foi submetida à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina onde a forma nativa mostrou-se resistente à ação enzimática enquanto o aquecimento (96 e 121°C/15min) não foi suficiente para aumentar a susceptibilidade à hidrólise, significativamente. Adição de NaCl 0,3M levou a um aumento da estabilidade estrutural com menor susceptibilidade à digestão proteolítica, fato em parte perdido com o aquecimento. As hidrólises foram acompanhadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio. Abstract in english The isolation and characterization of the major globulin fraction (11 S) from Chickpea, vc IAC-Marrocos, were evaluated. The major globulin was extracted, isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography showing only one protein band on PAGE. The globulin, after Sephadex elution, revealed [...] two protein bands of 55 and 52.5kDa and three minor bands on SDS-PAGE. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol six polypeptides were revealed on SDS-PAGE in the range of 18 to 42kDa. The isolated native globulin shown to be resistant to trypsin and chymotrypsin however heating at 96 and 121ºC/15min was not sufficient to increase the hydrolysis significantly. The proteolytic susceptibility of the enzymes was reduced by 0.3M NaCl addition at the assay. The salt concentration was sufficient to stabilize the native protein structure that was lost after heating as demonstrated on SDS-PAGE.

Valdir A., Neves; Maraiza A. da, Silva; Euclides J., Lourenço.

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Systems analysis of thermal storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. Thermal storage concepts were evaluated for a liquid metal receiver. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts studied, include ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

Copeland, R. J.

1981-08-01

322

Solar Energy: Heat Storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

323

Hydrogen Storage Presentation  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation looks at the topic of storing hydrogen for use as fuel. Compressed, liquid and other storage methods are examined. This presentation includes useful graphics to help your students understand the various methods of storing and using hydrogen. This presentation may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

2012-07-13

324

Underground pumped hydroelectric storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

1984-07-01

325

Beyond DVD: Holographic Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

InPhase Technologies is exploring holographic storage; however, its goal is to create a device that could be the successor to the DVD. In this article, the potential capabilities and specifications of such a device are discussed. A working prototype has already been demonstrated, paving the way for future commercially viable drives based on the technology.

Whitmer, Clair

2008-02-15

326

NGLW RCRA Storage Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

2000-06-01

327

Storage ring beam tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Storage ring beam tests since the Second Workshop on RF-Superconductivity (July 1984) are discussed in this report. The experiments are listed in chronological order. Details depend on information given in papers and/or by private communication. 14 references, 22 figures, 5 tables

328

The Open Storage Dilemma  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

Orcutt, Kimberly

2011-01-01

329

NGLW RCRA Storage Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

330

DPM: Future Proof Storage  

CERN Document Server

The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

2012-01-01

331

Tuber storage proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

Shewry, Peter R

2003-06-01

332

Reprocessing and final storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Examines the risk presented by large reprocessing plants such as those under construction at La Hague in France and Sellafield in the UK. Each of these can handle all the irradiated fuel from 30 large nuclear power stations. The Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has calculated that the total risk from all the activities of the nuclear fuel cycle is only 1% of the risk from nuclear power stations. The risk from nuclear power stations is only 0.5% of the radiological risk from natural radiation. There are two strategies for the long-term treatment of radioactive waste. One consists of long-term monitoring; the difficulties here are political and ethical rather than technical. The other consists of deep underground storage, the technology being based on a system of multiple barriers. The second method has been chosen in the countries of the three members of United Processors. W. Germany intends to have these final underground storage depots available as soon as possible. France and the UK, however, are not tackling the problems of final storage with any urgency. Long-term intermediate storage can be justified on technical grounds. (D.J.B.)

333

NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

2013-06-30

334

Silo Storage Preconceptual Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

2012-09-01

335

Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably. Objectives We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific subgroups (according to age and body mass index (BMI)) and individual MetS components. Data sources Two previously published meta-analyses including an updated systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE. Study Eligibility Criteria Cross-sectional or prospective observational studies with data on TT and/or SHBG concentrations in combination with MetS in men. Methods We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of 20 observational studies. Mixed effects models were used to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations of TT, SHBG and free testosterone (FT) with MetS and its individual components. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated and effect modification by age and BMI was studied. Results Men with low concentrations of TT, SHBG or FT were more likely to have prevalent MetS (ORs per quartile decrease were 1.69 (95% CI 1.60-1.77), 1.73 (95% CI 1.62-1.85) and 1.46 (95% CI 1.36-1.57) for TT, SHBG and FT, respectively) and incident MetS (HRs per quartile decrease were 1.25 (95% CI 1.16-1.36), 1.44 (95% 1.30-1.60) and 1.14 (95% 1.01-1.28) for TT, SHBG and FT, respectively). Overall, the magnitude of associations was largest in non-overweight men and varied across individual components: stronger associations were observed with hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity and hyperglycaemia and associations were weakest for hypertension. Conclusions Associations of testosterone and SHBG with MetS vary according to BMI and individual MetS components. These findings provide further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms linking low testosterone and SHBG concentrations to cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25019163

Brand, Judith S.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Schneider, Harald J.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Haring, Robin; Corona, Giovanni; Onat, Altan; Maggio, Marcello; Bouchard, Claude; Tong, Peter C. Y.; Chen, Richard Y. T.; Akishita, Masahiro; Gietema, Jourik A.; Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Undén, Anna-Lena; Goncharov, Nicolai P.; Kumanov, Philip; Chubb, S. A. Paul; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Klotsche, Jens; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

2014-01-01

336

Serum androgens and sex hormone-binding globulins in relation to lifestyle factors in older African-American, white, and Asian men in the United States and Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differences in endogenous androgen levels have been hypothesized to explain ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk. To examine this hypothesis, we gathered data on serum concentrations of androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in healthy older men from four ethnic groups at different levels of prostate cancer risk. As part of a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer we conducted in California, Hawaii, and Vancouver, Canada, 1127 African-American, white, Chinese-American, and Japanese-American control men, mostly ages 60 years or older (mean age, 69.9 years) provided information on various lifestyle factors and donated an early morning fasting blood sample between March 1990 and March 1992. We used these data to examine the distributions of serum androgens [testosterone (total, free, and bioavailable), dihydrotestosterone (DHT)], the ratio of DHT to total testosterone (DHT:testosterone ratio), and SHBG in these four ethnic groups. We also assessed correlations between concentrations of these measures with age, body size, physical activity, and other personal characteristics, and we evaluated ethnic differences in concentrations of androgens and SHBG after adjusting for these characteristics. In each of the four ethnic groups, concentrations of free and bioavailable testosterone declined with age, whereas SHBG concentrations increased with age. Age-adjusted concentrations of all androgen measures and SHBG decreased with increasing levels of Quetelet's index. After adjustment for age and Quetelet's index, androgens and SHBG showed no clear and consistent relationships to physical activity, alcohol consumption, or tobacco use. DHT:testosterone ratio was higher in men reporting a history of benign prostate disease than in men without such a history, and higher in vasectomized men than in nonvasectomized men. SHBG concentrations were higher in men reporting one or more first-degree relatives with prostate cancer than in men without such a family history. After adjustment for age and Quetelet's index, the levels of total and bioavailable testosterone were highest in Asian-Americans, intermediate in African-Americans, and lowest in whites. However, the DHT:testosterone ratio was highest in African-Americans, intermediate in whites, and lowest in Asian-Americans, corresponding to the respective incidence rates in these groups and providing indirect evidence for ethnic differences in 5alpha-reductase enzyme activity. PMID:8672990

Wu, A H; Whittemore, A S; Kolonel, L N; John, E M; Gallagher, R P; West, D W; Hankin, J; Teh, C Z; Dreon, D M; Paffenbarger, R S

1995-01-01

337

A direct effect of hyperinsulinemia on serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether hyperinsulinemia can directly reduce serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, six obese women with this disorder were studied. Before study, ovarian steroid production was suppressed in each woman by the administration of 7.5 mg of a long-acting GnRH agonist, leuprolide depot, im, on days -56, -28, and 0. This resulted in substantial reductions in serum concentrations of testosterone (from 1.72 +/- 0.29 nmol/L on day -56 to 0.32 +/- 0.09 nmol/L on day 0), non-SHBG-bound testosterone (from 104 +/- 16 pmol/L on day -56 to 19 +/- 5 pmol/L on day 0), androstenedione (from 7.25 +/- 1.65 nmol/L on day -56 to 2.78 +/- 0.94 nmol/L on day 0), estrone (from 371 +/- 71 pmol/L on day -56 to 156 +/- 29 pmol/L on day 0), estradiol (from 235 +/- 26 pmol/L on day -56 to 90 +/- 24 pmol/L on day 0), and progesterone (from 0.28 +/- 0.12 nmol/L on day -56 to 0.08 +/- 0.02 nmol/L on day 0). Serum SHBG levels, however, did not change (18.8 +/- 2.8 nmol/L on day -56 vs. 17.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/L on day 0). While continuing leuprolide treatment, the women were administered oral diazoxide (300 mg/day) for 10 days to suppress serum insulin levels. Diazoxide treatment resulted in suppressed insulin release during a 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (insulin area under the curve, 262 +/- 55 nmol/min.L on day 0 vs. 102 +/- 33 nmol/min.L on day 10; P less than 0.05) and deterioration of glucose tolerance. Serum testosterone, androstenedione, estrone, estradiol, and progesterone levels did not change during combined diazoxide and leuprolide treatment. In contrast, serum SHBG levels rose by 32% from 17.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/L on day 0 to 23.5 +/- 2.0 nmol/L on day 10 (P less than 0.003). Due primarily to the rise in serum SHBG levels, serum non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels fell by 43% from 19 +/- 5 pmol/L on day 0 to 11 +/- 4 pmol/L on day 10 (P = 0.05). These observations suggest that hyperinsulinemia directly reduces serum SHBG levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome independently of any effect on serum sex steroids. PMID:1898744

Nestler, J E; Powers, L P; Matt, D W; Steingold, K A; Plymate, S R; Rittmaster, R S; Clore, J N; Blackard, W G

1991-01-01

338

Globulinas totales y recuento linfocitario como marcadores de mortalidad en sepsis y shock séptico / Total globulins and lymphocyte count as markers of mortality in sepsis and septic shock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: No existen estudios que demuestren si pacientes en sepsis o shock séptico que presentan globulinas plasmáticas totales y/o recuento linfocitario plasmático disminuidos, tendrían mayor mortalidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 103 pacientes ingresados a la Unidad [...] de Cuidados Intensivos, que cumplían criterios de sepsis o shock séptico, seguidos diariamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke entre junio y noviembre de 2009. Resultados: Hubo asociación entre mortalidad y recuento linfocitario medido a partir del tercer día (valor p 0,05). El área bajo la curva ROC del recuento linfocitario medido al tercer día fue 0,68 (IC 95% 0,530,82), con una sensibilidad de 75%, especificidad 52%, LR(+) 1,57 y LR(-) 0,48 para un punto de corte de 510 linfocitos/mm³, comportándose además como factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad (OR 3,67, IC 95% 1,03-13,1). Discusión: El recuento linfocitario se asocia precozmente y en forma independiente al pronóstico de mayor mortalidad en estos pacientes. Abstract in english Background: There are no studies probing if patients in sepsis or septic shock with lower levels of total plas-matic globulins and/or lymphocyte count have higher mortality. Patients and Method: Prospective cohort study of 103 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit followed daily at the Dr. Gustav [...] o Fricke Hospital between June and November of 2009, with sepsis or septic shock criteria. Results: There was association between mortality and lymphocytic count measured from the third day of their hospitalization (P 0.05). The area under ROC curve for the mean lymphocyte count at the third day was 0.68 (95% CI 0.53-0.82), with a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 52%, LR(+) 1.57 and LR(-) 0.48 for a cut-off at 510 lymphocytes/mm³, behaving also as an independent risk factor of mortality (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.03-13.1). Discussion: Lymphocyte count is early and independently associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis or septic shock.

Rodrigo, Conlledo; Álvaro, Rodríguez; Javiera, Godoy; Carlos, Merino; Felipe, Martínez.

339

Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

340

Changes in grain size and grain storage protein of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in response to elevated UV-B radiation under outdoor conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variation in growth, grain size and grain storage protein content of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in response to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under sunlight was examined in a cool rice-growing region of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, in 1999, 2001 and 2002. Tiller number, dry mass, panicle number, grain yield and grain size significantly decreased under elevated UV-B radiation in 2001 and 2002. The effects of elevated UV-B radiation on the reduction of each growth parameter were greatly enhanced by daily lower temperature during the ripening stage in those two years. On the contrary, total grain nitrogen content and grain storage protein content significantly increased under elevated UV-B radiation in 2001 and 2002. Among grain storage proteins, glutelin content significantly increased but albumin-globulin and prolamin contents did not. It was thus evident that not only grain size but also grain storage protein of rice was markedly influenced due to elevated UV-B radiation. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Concrete storage cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments and analytical evaluation of the fabrication, non-destructive inspection and structural integrity of reinforced concrete body for storage casks were carried out to demonstrate the concrete storage cask for spent fuel generated from nuclear power plants. Analytical survey on the type of concrete material and fabrication method of the storage cask was performed and the most suitable fabrication method for the concrete body was identified to reduce concrete cracking. The structural integrity of the concrete body of the storage cask under load conditions during storage was confirmed and the long term integrity of concrete body against degradation dependent on environmental factors was evaluated. (author)

342

A Review of Encryption Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information leakage leads to very serious consequences. Encryption storage is an effective means of ensuring information security. We summarize several typical encryption storage methods: application layer encryption, filter driver encryption, virtual disk encryption and full disk encryption. At last this paper compares these methods in some respects and provides the references for design and research of encryption storage systems.

Chaowen Chang

2010-01-01

343

Thyroxine-binding-globuline (TBG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods for measurement of TBG were evaluated in 100 male patients. The results of radial immunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay did not differ significantly, thus it depends on the equippment of the laboratory, the technical capability of the technician and on economical aspects which thechnique is to be preferred. Radial immunodiffusion is less expensive and should be used if there are only few sera without need to have the results immediately. Radioimmunoassay is more useful in case of large sample size, the results are present within the same day. (orig.)

344

Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage using pin storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The densest tolerable form for storing spent nuclear fuel is storage of only the fuel rods. This eliminates the space between the fuel rods and frees the hardware to be treated as non-fuel waste. The storage density can be as much as 1.07 MTU/ft2 when racks are used that just satisfy the criticality and thermal limitations. One of the major advantages of pin storage is that it is compatible with existing racks; however, this reduces the storage density to 0.69 MTU/ft2. Even this is a substantial increase over the 0.39 MTU/ft2 that is achievable with current high capacity stainless steel racks which have been selected as the bases for comparison. Disassembly requires extensive operation on the fuel assembly to remove the upper end fitting and to extract the fuel rods from the assembly skeleton. These operations will be performed with the aid of an elevator to raise the assembly where each fuel rod is grappled. Lowering the elevator will free the fuel rod for transfer to the storage canister. A storage savings of $1510 per MTU can be realized if the pin storage concept is incorporated at a new away-from-reactor facility. The storage cost ranges from $3340 to $7820 per MTU of fuel stored with the lower cost applying to storage at an existing away-from-reactor storage facility and the higher cost applying to at-reactor storage

345

PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage  

CERN Document Server

Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low cost PC cluster based storage server is configured to be activated for large amount of data to provide cloud users. Moreover, one of the contributions of this system is proposed an analytical model using M/M/1 queuing network model, which is modeled on intended architecture to provide better response time, utilization of storage as well as pending time when the system is running. According to the analytical result on experimental testing, the storage can be utilized more than 90% of storage space. In this paper, two parts...

Yee, Tin Tin

2011-01-01

346

Core assembly storage structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor wherein the reactor core barrel and some auxiliary equipment including core assembly transfer equipment including core assembly transfer equipment are all immersed in a pool of liquid metal within a containment vessel, the reactor including an adjacent structure for the storage of core assemblies from the core barrel, the improvement in the core assembly storage structure is described comprising: an enclosed housing , substantially vertical support members interconnecting the top and bottom plates; an inlet duct in fluid communications with the interior of the housing at one end and having an opposite end in fluid communication with a source of ambient air; an exhaust duct in fluid communication with an opposite wall of the housing and having an opposite end in fluid communication with the atmosphere; thimble members extending through the top plate, support means affixed to the bottom plate and located adjacent a lower end of each of the thimbles

347

Chemical energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of regenerative energy in many primary forms leads to the necessity to store grid dimensions for maintaining continuous supply and enabling the replacement of fossil fuel systems. Chemical energy storage is one of the possibilities besides mechano-thermal and biological systems. This work starts with the more general aspects of chemical energy storage in the context of the geosphere and evolves to dealing with aspects of electrochemistry, catalysis, synthesis of catalysts, functional analysis of catalytic processes and with the interface between electrochemistry and heterogeneous catalysis. Top-notch experts provide a sound, practical, hands-on insight into the present status of energy conversion aimed primarily at the young emerging research front.

Schloegl, Robert (ed.) [Fritz-Haber-Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

2013-02-01

348

Superconducting magnetic energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fusion power production requires energy storage and transfer on short time scales to create confining magnetic fields and for heating plasmas. The theta-pinch Scyllac Fusion Test Reactor (SFTR) requires 480 MJ of energy to drive the 5-T compression field with a 0.7-ms rise time. Tokamak Experimental Power Reactors (EPR) require 1 to 2 GJ of energy with a 1 to 2-s rise time for plasma ohmic heating. The design, development, and testing of four 300-kJ energy storage coils to satisfy the SFTR needs are described. Potential rotating machinery and homopolar energy systems for both the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) and tokamak ohmic-heating are presented

349

Optical information storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm2 via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.109 Byte/mm2. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/?sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr1-xBaxNb2O6 doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs

350

Optical storage device  

Science.gov (United States)

A new holographic image storage device which uses four-wave mixing in two photorefractive crystals is described. Photorefractive crystals promise information storage densities on the order of 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) bits per cubic centimeter at real-time rates. Several studies in recent years have investigated the use of photorefractive crystals for storing holographic image information. However, all of the previous studies have focused on techniques for storing information in a single crystal. The disadvantage of using a single crystal is that the read process is destructive. Researchers have developed techniques for fixing the information in a crystal so that it may be read many times. However, when fixed, the information cannot be readily erased and overwritten with new information. It two photorefractive crystals are used, holographic image information may be stored dynamically. That is, the stored image information may be read out more than once, and it may be easily erased and overwritten with new image information.

Welch, Sharon S.

1991-01-01

351

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc.) increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever t...

ELENA RADUCAN; LUMINITA MORARU

2011-01-01

352

Energy Storage Project  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

2011-01-01

353

Linear storage projector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a radiographic apparatus for manipulating a quantity of radioactive material between a stored position and a use position including a capsule of said radioactive material, a storage unit with means defining a passage through it, for storing the capsule in the passage and shielding the surrounding environment from the stored radioactive material, and manipulating means connectible to said storage unit at a first end of said passage for moving said capsule between a stored position within the passage and a use position outside the second end of said passage, the improvement comprising: a shutter mounted on said storage unit for slidng movement transverse to the second end of said passage between first and second limits, said shutter in said first limit blocking said second end, said shutter having a hole through it which registers with said passage when the shutter is in said second limit, shutter-retaining means associated with said passage means adjacent said second end and resilient means cooperating with said retaining means and said storage unit for urging said retaining means to project an end-part toward said shutter, means in said shutter for receiving said end-part when said shutter is in said second limit and thereby retaining said hole in register with said passage, and means coupled to said capsule for pulling said retaining means away from said shutter against the action of said resilient means under control of said manipulating means for withdrawing said end-part from said receiving means and thereby permitting said shutter to move toward said first limit

354

Underground storage tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

355

Maui energy storage study.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

2012-12-01

356

Fuel performance in water storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

357

Dry storage of Magnox fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

358

Holographic Optical Data Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising, and security medium as well. The evolution of holographic optical memories has followed a path not altogether different from holography itself, with several cycles of alternating interest over the past four decades. P. J. van Heerden is widely credited for being the first to elucidate the principles behind holographic data storage in a 1963 paper, predicting bit storage densities on the order of 1/lambda(sup 3) with source wavelength lambda - a fantastic capacity of nearly 1 TB/cu cm for visible light! The science and engineering of such a storage paradigm was heavily pursued thereafter, resulting in many novel hologram multiplexing techniques for dense data storage, as well as important advances in holographic recording materials. Ultimately, however, the lack of such enabling technologies as compact laser sources and high performance optical data I/O devices dampened the hopes for the development of a commercial product. After a period of relative dormancy, successful applications of holography in other arenas sparked a renewed interest in holographic data storage in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Currently, with most of the critical optoelectronic device technologies in place and the quest for an ideal holographic recording medium intensified, holography is once again considered as one of several future data storage paradigms that may answer our constantly growing need for higher-capacity and faster-access memories.

Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

359

Modificaçoes bioquímicas e físicas em grãos de feijão durante o armazenamento / Biochemical and physical modifications of bean seeds during storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Procurou-se estudar parâmetros químicos e físicos que pudessem avaliar, em três épocas, a qualidade de grãos de feijão durante onze meses de armazenamento, utilizando os cultivares Carioca e Rico 23. Eletroforese das frações globulinas em gel de poliacrilamida com sulfato dodecil sódico (SDS), indic [...] ou um aumento no final do número de bandas, porém o fato poderia ser conseqüência de uma maior concentração protéica da amostra, sendo praticamente mantidos durante o estudo os pesos moleculares das subunidades polipeptídicas principais das proteínas G1 e G2, de cerca de 50.000-43.000 e 18.000 respectivamente. As porcentagens de proteína, umidade e açúcar solúvel não sofreram alterações sensíveis, enquanto a de lipídio diminuiu e a de fibra aumentou. O teor de amido também aumentou, provavelmente em vista da maior extratibilidade. O índice de peróxido e o teor de ácidos graxos livres aumentaram, sendo comprovada, por este último, a elevação do índice de acidez. A capacidade de hidratação aumentou inicialmente, permanecendo depois constante, e a porcentagem de sementes com tegumento duro não pareceu sofrer alteração. O comportamento dos dois cultivares foi semelhante. Abstract in english Seeds of dry beans cvs Rico 23 and Carioca, were chemical and physically characterized three times during eleven months of storage. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with SDS of the globulin fraction showed an increase in the number of bands at the third sampling, probably due to a more efficien [...] t protein extraction. However, molecular weight of the G1 and G2 subunits were constant, about 50,000 -43,000 and 18,000, respectively. Total protein, soluble sugars and water contents did not change during storage, while fiber increased and lipids decreased. Starch content, as in case of globulin fraction, also increased due to greater extractability. Both free fatty acids content and peroxide value increased, according to the increase of the acidity value. Water absorption capability increased initially and leveled off thereafter. The percentage of seeds with hard coat was not affected by storage. The behaviour of the two cultivars was very similar.

Haiko Enok, Sawazaki; João Paulo Feijão, Teixeira; Roberto Machado de, Moraes; Eduardo Antônio, Bulisani.

360

Presencia de cbg (corticosteroid binding globulin) y receptores de estrógeno (fracción alfa) y progesterona en el sistema reproductor de ovejas en distintos estadios del ciclo reproductivo. Estudio inmunohistoquímico / Presence of CBG (Corticosteroid binding globulin) Estrogen Receptors Alpha and Progesterone Receptors Along the Reproductive Tract in Sheep During Different Stages of the Reproductive Cycle. Inmunohistochemestry Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las hormonas esteroidales sexuales actúan a través de sus receptores permitiendo el desarrollo del tracto genital y determinando su estado morfofuncional. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estudiar la presencia de CBG (corticosteroid binding globulin) y de los receptores de estrógenos alfa y prog [...] esterona en el útero, oviducto y ovario de ovejas cíclicas (n = 3), gestantes (n = 3), y en anestro (n = 3). La evaluación morfológica se realizó con tinción de hematoxilina - eosina (H-E) e inmunohistoquímica, según técnica de Sternberger. Los resultados revelaron para receptores de estrógenos en oveja cíclicas, inmunorreactividad positiva moderada en el epitelio glandular y estroma endometrial y en epitelio superficial y corión de la mucosa oviductal; siendo la inmunorreactividad leve en ovejas gestantes y anéstricas. Los receptores de progesterona mostraron en los 3 órganos inmunorreactividad positiva moderada en ovejas cíclicas e inmunorreactividad leve o negativa en animales acíclicos. La inmunorreactividad para CBG en endometrio fue marcada en ovejas cíclicas, y leves o negativa en gestantes y anéstricas. En ovario se observó en ovejas durante el ciclo, reacción inmunopositiva a la CBG en células foliculares, en el fluido folicular y en células estromales llenas de material granular inmunopositivo dispuestas en forma grupal o aislada. Se concluye que la presencia de los receptores de estrógenos alfa y de progesterona es siempre detectable en útero, oviducto y ovario variando su concentración según el estadio. La presencia de CBG fue constante en los tres órganos durante el ciclo estral y variable en los otros estadios, siendo su participación dentro del proceso reproductivo tema de próximos estudios Abstract in english The steroids hormones operate through their receptors in the development of the genital tract and determine it morphofuncional state. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of CBG (corticosteroid binding globulin), estrogens alpha and progesterone receptors in the uterus, [...] oviduct and ovary of sheep during oestrous cycle (n = 3), pregnancy (n = 3), and in anoestrous (n = 3). Cross sections were stained with Hematoxylin-eosin and Inmunohistochemical (ICQ) study was made according to the technique of Sternberger. The results showed for estrogens receptors in sheep on cycle estral, moderate positive immunoreaction in the estroma and on the epithelial cells of endometrial glands and in oviductal superficial epithelium and estroma; the immunoreaction in pregnant and anestrics sheep was low. The progesterone receptors had in the 3 organs moderate immunorreactivity in cycling sheep and immunorreactivity low or negative in acycling animals. The CBG endometrial immunorreaction was high in cycling sheep and low or negative in pregnant and anestrics. The CBG in sheep during the cycle demonstrated a positive reaction at ovarian level in follicular cells, inside follicular liquid, and in stromal cells filled with granulate material disseminated in groups or isolated. In conclusion, the presence of estrogens alpha and progesterone receptors are always detectable in uterus, oviduct and ovary varying their concentration according to the stage The presence of CBG was constant in the three organs during the oestral cycle and variable in the other stages, its participation in the reproductive process is topic for next studies

Adriana, Vasconcellos Costa; Patricio, Peña Salazar; Néstor, Sepúlveda Becker; Werner, Miska.

 
 
 
 
361

Desenvolvimento de ensaio imunofluorométrico para a medida da globulina ligadora de tiroxina (thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG) e sua aplicação em casos de deficiência desta proteína / Development of an immunofluorometric assay for thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and its application in cases of protein deficiency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A globulina ligadora de tiroxina (thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG) é a principal transportadora de hormônios tiroidianos no soro. Variações na concentração sérica de TBG determinam variações proporcionais nas concentrações séricas totais de T4 e T3, sem implicar alterações de função, desde que a fra [...] ção livre permaneça normal. Várias condições clínicas comuns levam a alterações significativas nos níveis de TBG, sendo as variações mais importantes devidas a defeitos genéticos. Como a TBG é codificada por gene localizado no cromossomo X, os defeitos se manifestam mais facilmente no sexo masculino. Descrevemos o desenvolvimento de ensaio imunofluorométrico para a medida de TBG com base em anticorpos monoclonais, sendo um desenvolvido em nosso laboratório e outro comercial. O método apresenta sensibilidade de 0,8mg/l e coeficientes de variação intra e interensaio inferiores a 10%. O estudo comparativo com método comercial mostrou alta correlação (r = 0,93; n = 48), sendo os valores normais obtidos de 10mg/l a 29mg/l. Estudamos também 20 indivíduos portadores de deficiência congênita de TBG, 19 homens e uma mulher, que apresentavam valores normais de TSH e baixos de T4 total; em todos eles os níveis de TBG foram indetectáveis. Já os níveis de T4 livre medidos por método indireto em 16 desses indivíduos mostraram-se elevados em todos, ao passo que, quando medidos por método direto pós-diálise nos quatro restantes, mostraram-se normais. Nossos resultados reforçam a necessidade prática da disponibilidade de ensaio para a medida de TBG para esclarecimento e definição diagnóstica de alguns casos especiais, principalmente quando o ensaio de T4 livre direto, pós-diálise, não é disponível. Abstract in english Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is the main responsible for serum thyroid hormone transport. Serum variations in TBG concentrations determine proportional variations in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, without implications to function, since the free fraction remains normal. Several frequent c [...] linical conditions lead to significant alterations in the TBG levels, being the most important variations due to genetic defects. Since TBG is codified by a gene localized in the X chromosome, the defects are more often found in males. We describe the development of an immunofluorometric assay for the measurement of TBG based on monoclonal antibodies, being one developed at our laboratories and the other obtained from commercial sources. The method presents sensitivity of 0.8mg/l and intra and inter-assay coefficients of variation of less than 10%. Comparison with a commercial assay showed high correlation (r = 0.93, n = 48), with normal values between 10mg/l and 29 mg/l. We also studied 20 individuals with congenital deficiency of TBG, 19 men and one woman, that presented normal TSH values and low total T4 values; in all of them the TBG values were undetectable. Free T4 values otherwise were high when measured with an indirect method in 16 of the individuals, and normal in the other four patients where they were measured with a direct post-dialysis method. Our results reinforce the practical need for an assay for the measurement of serum TBG for the diagnostic definition of some special cases, mainly when a direct free T4 assay is not available.

José Gilberto H., Vieira; Teresinha T., Tachibana; Leda H., Obara; Sônia K., Nishida; Maria Tereza, Lombardi; Rui M.B., Maciel.

362

Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and metabolic syndrome among men / Associação entre globulina de ligação a hormônio sexual (SHBG) e síndrome metabólica em homens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A síndrome metabólica (SM) consiste em um conjunto de fatores que implicam risco elevado para doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre a globulina ligadora de esteroides sexuais (SHBG), hormônios sexuais e a SM em homens. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: [...] Análise retrospectiva de dados do estudo "Estradiol mas não testosterona se correlaciona com doença arterial coronariana em homens", conduzido em um hospital em São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes do sexo masculino com idade entre 40 e 70 anos, submetidos a angiografia coronária. A idade, a prevalência de dislipidemia, hipertensão e diabetes, o peso, a altura, cintura e o índice de massa corpórea de cada paciente foram coletados. A definição de SM seguiu os critérios do NCEP-ATPIII. Amostras séricas foram coletadas para análises da glicose, colesterol total, colesterol-HDL (high density lipoprotein), triglicerídeos, albumina, SHBG, estradiol e testosterona total (TT). O colesterol-LDL (low density lipoprotein) foi calculado pela fórmula de Friedewald e as testosteronas livre (TL) e biodisponível (TB) pela fórmula de Vermeulen. RESULTADOS: Entraram no estudo 141 pacientes. A prevalência de SM foi significativamente maior no primeiro tercil de SHBG em comparação ao segundo e terceiro tercis. Foi verificada uma associação positiva e significativa ente os valores de SHBG e TT, porém essa associação não foi verificada entre SHBG e TB e TL. CONCLUSÃO: Baixos níveis séricos de SHBG estiveram associados com alta prevalência da SM em pacientes do sexo masculino. Faz-se necessário que estudos avaliem essa associação. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retros [...] pective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70) who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII). Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein), triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT). The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

Emmanuela Quental Callou de, Sá; Francisco Carleial Feijó de, Sá; Kelly Cristina, Oliveira; Fausto, Feres; Ieda Therezinha Nascimento, Verreschi.

363

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08), women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained ~15.6% and ~8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance. PMID:22829776

Coviello, Andrea D; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J; Hankinson, Susan E; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R P; Mellström, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H M; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stöckl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, André G; van Gils, Carla H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B; Hunter, David J; Kähönen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B

2012-01-01

364

Storage Management and Data Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enterprise storage is the computer data storage designed for large-scale, high-technology environments of the modern enterprises which is very time efficient where in stored data can be accessed in less time. When comparing to the consumer storage, it has higher scalability, higher reliability and better fault tolerance. As well, criticality of data varies between enterprises. Challenges faced in current scenario to store big data are in terms of cost, data loss, efficiency while accessing data, maintaining consistency of data and many more. In order to provide better storage solution and data management, the proposed solution came up with platform of Workflow Automation (WFA. WFA is an active management tool which directly allocates storage on storage server based on client request. It depends on a data source i.e., OnCommand Unified Manager (OCUM to monitor the storage components. OCUM acts as a passive reporting tool, which polls all the storage data at different time stamps. The monitored data includes parameters and attributes of storage component like corrupted disk data, normal disk data or may be some lack of storage space. WFA has cache based intelligence and it acquires only relevant data of context from OCUM. Based on this acquired cache data, WFA can provide better storage solutions and data management by which it takes care of conditions like maintaining health of storage and takes appropriate actions like migrating data, replacing corrupted disk etc., The acquired cache data can be queried by filter/ finders to select storage component as a resource on which data is stored. The results of which will work on selective resource, to execute specific task of interest using workflows. Query results return the count of storage components and related information to verify consistency and no data loss from any storage resource. Hence the proposed solution helps in performance tuning of big data storage solutions in terms of data access time, reliability, efficiency, data consistency and security. It reduces the cost of managing storage, enables adherence to best practices for storage processes.

Kavya Bhat

2013-06-01

365

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host technology transfer meetings and occasional field excursions. A total of 15 technology transfer/strategic planning workshops were held.

Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

2010-09-30

366

Plutonium storage study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO2/year

367

Interim storage study report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

Rawlins, J.K.

1998-02-01

368

Regulated underground storage tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

369

SALES, STORAGE AND SALVAGE  

CERN Multimedia

From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari

Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar

2000-01-01

370

Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: concrete storage casks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents design concepts and cost estimates for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility which uses concrete silos for storage. Two separate scenarios are considered: the first is the storage of spent fuel assemblies and the second is the storage of wastes generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel and does not consider spent fuel storage. Two storage options for each scenario were evaluated. One is for maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 1800 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 15,000 MTU. The other option is for a maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 3000 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 72,000 MTU. The construction and operating costs, as well as the life-cycle costs for both scenarios and both the 1800 and 3000 MTU/y throughput rates are summarized. Drawings defining the facility and equipment that are unique to the silo storage concept are included. 26 figures, 34 tables

371

Condensate storage facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a condensate storage facility for storing condensates from a condensator in a BWR type reactor. The condensate storage vessel is partitioned to a main vessel and an auxiliary vessel by a partitioning wall. The upper portion of the partitioning wall is opened, to allow overflow of excess water in the auxiliary vessel to the main vessel. Further, a predetermined amount of condensates discharged from a condensate transfer pump returns to the auxiliary vessel from a minimum flow line. A control rod driving water pump is connected to the bottom of the auxiliary vessel by way of a sucking pipeline. Since a water level of a predetermined height is always maintained in the auxiliary vessel by the partition wall, static water head required for the suction side of the control rod driving water pump can always be ensured. This can moderate restrictions in view of disposition and operation, thereby enabling to attain an optimum design and rationalization for the plant. (I.N.)

372

Magnetic energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fusion program embraces low loss superconductor strand development with integration into cables capable of carrying 50 kA in pulsed mode at high fields. This evolvement has been paralleled with pulsed energy storage coil development and testing from tens of kJ at low fields to a 20 MJ prototype tokamak induction coil at 7.5 T. Energy transfer times have ranged from 0.7 ms to several seconds. Electric utility magnetic storage for prospective application is for diurnal load leveling with massive systems to store 10 GWh at 1.8 K in a dewar structure supported on bedrock underground. An immediate utility application is a 30 MJ system to be used to damp power oscillations on the Bonneville Power Administration electric transmission lines. An off-shoot of this last work is a new program for electric utility VAR control with the potential for use to suppress subsynchronous resonance. This paper presents work in progress, work planned, and recently completed unusual work

373

Optical information storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

Woike, T. [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)

1996-11-01

374

Flywheel energy storage workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

1995-12-31

375

Carbon capture and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) covers a broad range of technologies that are being developed to allow carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel use at large point sources to be transported to safe geological storage, rather than being emitted to the atmosphere. Some key enabling contributions from technology development that could help to facilitate the widespread commercial deployment of CCS are expected to include cost reductions for CO2 capture technology and improved techniques for monitoring stored CO2. It is important, however, to realise that CCS will always require additional energy compared to projects without CCS, so will not be used unless project operators see an appropriate value for reducing CO2 emissions from their operations or legislation is introduced that requires CCS to be used. Possible key advances for CO2 capture technology over the next 50 years, which are expected to arise from an eventual adoption of CCS as standard practice for all large stationary fossil fuel installations, are also identified. These include continued incremental improvements (e.g. many potential solvent developments) as well as possible step-changes, such as ion transfer membranes for oxygen production for integrated gasifier combined cycle and oxyfuel plants

376

Carbon capture and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) covers a broad range of technologies that are being developed to allow carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel use at large point sources to be transported to safe geological storage, rather than being emitted to the atmosphere. Some key enabling contributions from technology development that could help to facilitate the widespread commercial deployment of CCS are expected to include cost reductions for CO2 capture technology and improved techniques for monitoring stored CO2. It is important, however, to realise that CCS will always require additional energy compared to projects without CCS, so will not be used unless project operators see an appropriate value for reducing CO2 emissions from their operations or legislation is introduced that requires CCS to be used. Possible key advances for CO2 capture technology over the next 50 years, which are expected to arise from an eventual adoption of CCS as standard practice for all large stationary fossil fuel installations, are also identified. These include continued incremental improvements (e.g. many potential solvent developments) as well as possible step-changes, such as ion transfer membranes for oxygen production for integrated gasifier combined cycle and oxyfuel plants. (author)

377

Article for thermal energy storage  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

2000-06-27

378

Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organoti

Dr. Digby Macdonald

2010-08-09

379

Advanced materials for energy storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. PMID:20217798

Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

2010-02-23

380

The Fermilab data storage infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

Jon A Bakken et al.

2003-02-06

 
 
 
 
381

Prevención de la isoinmunización materna al RhD, con gamma-globulina anti-D / Prevention of maternal RhD isoimmunization with anti-D gamma globulin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Presentar la experiencia institucional en la prevención de la isoinmunización al RhD, mediante el empleo de 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D en las mujeres Rh negativo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se registraron los antecedentes inmunohematológicos de los casos consecutivos de todas las mujeres Rh [...] negativo que acudieron, para su atención médica, al Instituto Nacional de Perinatología entre 1982 y 1995. A las mujeres con riesgo de isoinmunización se les aplicó 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D, con fines preventivos. RESULTADOS: En el periodo de estudio ingresaron 4 857 mujeres Rh negativo (4.85% del total de mujeres), de las cuales 629 (13.0%), presentaron isoinmunización al RhD. De estas últimas, 542 (86.2%) ya se encontraron isoinmunizadas desde antes de su ingreso al Instituto. En 22 casos (3.5%), la isoinmunización ocurrió a pesar de que recibieron la dosis adecuada de gamma-globulina anti D. De las 2 605 pacientes (53.6%) sometidas a prevención, a 2 039 se les aplicó una sola dosis, y a 475, hasta dos dosis. En 22 casos se documentó la falla de la prevención; sin embargo, en cuatro de ellos, se registraron embarazos múltiples, y los restantes 18 presentaron patología obstétrica asociada. CONCLUSIONES: Mediante este programa de prevención, consistente en administrar 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D por dosis, es posible reducir la isoinmunización a menos de un caso por cada 1 000 mujeres. Los fracasos en la prevención de la isoinmunización se asociaron a condiciones obstétricas agregadas y al incumplimiento de las guías o lineamientos del programa. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in preventing RhD maternal isoimmunization by using anti-D gamma globulin among Rh-negative women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 1995, immunologic and hematologic data were collected from all Rh-negative women seen at Mexico's National Perinatology Instit [...] ute. Women at risk of Rh isoimmunization were given a prophylactic dose of 150 µg of anti-D gamma globulin. RESULTS: A total of 4 857 Rh-negative women were seen during the study period (4.85% of the total population of women seen at the Institute), 629 (13.0%) of whom developed RhD isoimmunization; 542 (86.2%) of these women were already isoimmunized when first seen at our Institute. Twenty-two women (3.5%) developed isoimmunization even after receiving a proper dose of anti-D gamma globulin. Prophylaxis was given to 2 605 women (53.6%); 2 039 received a single dose, and 475 two doses. Prophylaxis failed in 22 cases; four were women with multiple pregnancy and 18 developed obstetric pathologic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The use of anti-D gamma globulin resulted in a reduction of maternal Rh isoimmunization to less than one case per 1 000 women. Failures to prevent isoimmunization were associated to additional obstetric conditions and to lack of adherence to prevention guidelines. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

Héctor Alfredo, Baptista-González; Fany, Rosenfeld-Mann; Teresita, Leiss-Márquez.

382

Prevención de la isoinmunización materna al RhD, con gamma-globulina anti-D Prevention of maternal RhD isoimmunization with anti-D gamma globulin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar la experiencia institucional en la prevención de la isoinmunización al RhD, mediante el empleo de 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D en las mujeres Rh negativo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se registraron los antecedentes inmunohematológicos de los casos consecutivos de todas las mujeres Rh negativo que acudieron, para su atención médica, al Instituto Nacional de Perinatología entre 1982 y 1995. A las mujeres con riesgo de isoinmunización se les aplicó 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D, con fines preventivos. RESULTADOS: En el periodo de estudio ingresaron 4 857 mujeres Rh negativo (4.85% del total de mujeres, de las cuales 629 (13.0%, presentaron isoinmunización al RhD. De estas últimas, 542 (86.2% ya se encontraron isoinmunizadas desde antes de su ingreso al Instituto. En 22 casos (3.5%, la isoinmunización ocurrió a pesar de que recibieron la dosis adecuada de gamma-globulina anti D. De las 2 605 pacientes (53.6% sometidas a prevención, a 2 039