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Sample records for storage globulin glo-3a

  1. Seed storage proteins of the globulin family are cleaved post-translationally in wheat embryos

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    Koziol Adam G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 7S globulins are plant seed storage proteins that have been associated with the development of a number of human diseases, including peanut allergy. Immune reactivity to the wheat seed storage protein globulin-3 (Glo-3 has been associated with the development of the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in diabetes-prone rats and mice, as well as in a subset of human patients. Findings The present study characterized native wheat Glo-3 in salt-soluble wheat seed protein extracts. Glo-3-like peptides were observed primarily in the wheat embryo. Glo-3-like proteins varied significantly in their molecular masses and isoelectric points, as determined by two dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-Glo-3A antibodies. Five major polypeptide spots were identified by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing as belonging to the Glo-3 family. Conclusions These results in combination with our previous findings have allowed for the development of a hypothetical model of the post-translational events contributing to the wheat 7S globulin profile in mature wheat kernels.

  2. Electron microscopy of seed-storage globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, P A; Blagrove, R J

    1985-09-01

    The quaternary structures of a range of seed globulins, including examples of both the so-called 7 S and 11 S types, have been examined by electron microscopy. The legume 7 S proteins, phaseolin (bean), beta-conglycinin (soybean), and vicilin (pea), appear as flat discs of diameter ca. 8.5 nm and thickness ca. 3.5 nm formed by association of three subunit domains. Phaseolin converts to an 18 S tetramer at acid pH, and images recorded under these conditions suggest that four of the 7 S protomer discs associate to form the faces of a regular tetrahedron. The classical 11 S seed globulins, cucurbitin (pumpkin) and legumin (pea), are approximately spherical molecules of diameter ca. 8.8 nm composed of six subunits. In contrast, the hexameric 10 S storage protein from lupin seed, conglutin gamma, appears toroidal in shape with outer diameter ca. 10.3 nm and thickness ca. 2.2 nm. These results indicate that constraints imposed on seed proteins by their role in sustaining the germinating plant may have allowed a variety of different globulin structures to accumulate in the protein-storage bodies of seeds. PMID:4037802

  3. 11S Storage globulin from pumpkin seeds: regularities of proteolysis by papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakova, A S; Rudakov, S V; Kakhovskaya, I A; Shutov, A D

    2014-08-01

    Limited proteolysis of the ?- and ?-chains and deep cleavage of the ??-subunits by the cooperative (one-by-one) mechanism was observed in the course of papain hydrolysis of cucurbitin, an 11S storage globulin from seeds of the pumpkin Cucurbita maxima. An independent analysis of the kinetics of the limited and cooperative proteolyses revealed that the reaction occurs in two successive steps. In the first step, limited proteolysis consisting of detachments of short terminal peptides from the ?- and ?-chains was observed. The cooperative proteolysis, which occurs as a pseudo-first order reaction, started at the second step. Therefore, the limited proteolysis at the first step plays a regulatory role, impacting the rate of deep degradation of cucurbitin molecules by the cooperative mechanism. Structural alterations of cucurbitin induced by limited proteolysis are suggested to generate its susceptibility to cooperative proteolysis. These alterations are tentatively discussed on the basis of the tertiary structure of the cucurbitin subunit pdb|2EVX in comparison with previously obtained data on features of degradation of soybean 11S globulin hydrolyzed by papain. PMID:25365492

  4. Proteolytic Cleavage at Twin Arginine Residues Affects Structural and Functional Transitions of Lupin Seed 11S Storage Globulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R. D.; Duranti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

  5. Effects of Storage Time on Total Protein and Globulin Concentrations in Bovine Fresh Frozen Plasma Obtained for Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D.; Spada, E.; Baggiani, L.; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G.; Roggero, N.; Belloli, A.; Pravettoni, D.; Perego, R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at ?20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P = 0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P = 0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P = 0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P = 0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P = 0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P = 0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P = 0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P = 0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P = 0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P = 0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P = 0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at ?20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at ?20°C.

  6. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Amanda J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

  7. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... Get Tested? To evaluate whether the concentration of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is affecting the amount ...

  8. The molecular biology and biochemistry of rice endosperm ?-globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's first objective was to isolate a cDNA clone that encodes the rice endosperm ?-globulin. Purified antibodies against a rice storage protein, ?-globulin, were used to screen a ?gt11 cDNA expression library constructed from immature rice seed endosperm. The cDNA insert of clone 4A1 (identified by antibody screening) was used as a probe to identify long cDNA inserts in the library. The deduced amino acid sequence of clone A3-12 cDNA insert (identified by cDNA screening) contained the amino acid sequences of three cyanogen bromide peptides fragment of ?-globulin. The calculated molecular weight and amino acid composition of the deduced amino acid sequence were similar to the ?-globulin protein. Northern blot analysis indicated that mRNA of one size, approximately 1.0 kb, is expressed. Southern genomic blot analysis revealed one band with EcoRI or Hind III digestion. Cell-free translation and immunoprecipitation showed that the initial translation product is approximately 2,000 daltons larger than the mature protein. The amino acid sequence of ?-globulin revealed limited regions of similarities with wheat storage proteins. The author concludes that the cDNA insert in clone A3-12 contained the entire coding region of ?-globulin protein and that ?-globulin is encoded by a single gene. My second objective was to inhibit the degradation of ?-globulin in the salt extract of rice flour. The salt extract of rice flour contained an acid protease whose optimal d an acid protease whose optimal pH was 3 for 3H-casein hydrolysis. A polypeptide with molecular weight of 20,000 was immunologically reactive with ?-globulin antibodies and is produced by limited proteolysis in the extract. Pepstatin inhibited the proteolysis of 3H-casein and slowed the proteolysis of ?-globulin

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet lupin, chickpea, and lentil 11S globulins decreases their antigenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormus de Castro Pinto, Silvia Elaine; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Machado de Medeiros, Beatriz Maria

    2009-02-11

    We investigated the effects of treatments with the enzymes pepsin and trypsin on the in vitro immunological reactivity of the major globulins found in the seeds of sweet lupin, chickpea, and lentil. Polyclonal major globulin-specific antiserum was obtained by immunization of rabbits with a solution of the 11S globulin of each legume. The globulins were hydrolyzed with pepsin and trypsin for 1, 5, 15, and 30 min. The native globulins and their hydrolysates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify the polypeptide bands with antigenic activity, and the hypoantigenicity of the hydrolysates was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that enzymatic treatment of the major storage protein (11S globulin) of sweet lupin, chickpea, and lentil with pepsin or trypsin lead to the formation of large amounts of short peptides and free amino acids that do not allow antibody binding, resulting in a weakened immunoreactivity. PMID:19170500

  10. Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.P., Sales; P.P., Pimenta; N.S., Paes; M.F., Grossi-de-Sá; J., Xavier-Filho.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicil [...] ins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  11. Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Sales

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  12. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation, shock and death in human patients with massive actin release caused by severe tissue injuries like physical trauma, sepsis, endotoxemia, or liver failure. Gc-globulin is consumed in this process, and the plasma concentration of free Gc-globulin hence decreases rapidly after tissue injury and has shown to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration of Gc-globulin in colic horses with intestinal ischemia were Gc-globulin might be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Horses with intestinal ischemia often die, despite of expensive surgical treatment, because of endotoxemia and shock, therefore these horses potentially could benefit from Gc-globulin infusions.

  13. Successful transport to the vacuole of heterologously expressed mung bean 8S globulin occurs in seed but not in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junqi; Shen, Jinbo; Cai, Yi; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the subcellular location of mung bean (Vigna radiata) 8S globulin in transient expression systems as well as in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and different tissues from a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) line stably expressing this storage globulin. When transiently expressed in protoplasts from both BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells, the 8S globulin located to structures that were neither Golgi nor pre-vacuolar compartments (PVCs). Immunogold electron microscopy of the transgenics reveals the 8S globulin-positive structures to be small, spherical, ribosome-covered endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived bodies. In BY-2 cells and all vegetative cells, the 8S globulin was present as a pro-form. However, in Arabidopsis embryos, with the onset of endogenous storage protein synthesis, the 8S globulin exited the ER and passed through the PVC to the protein storage vacuole where it was processed to its smaller mature form. These results clearly demonstrated that, when taken out of context and expressed in vegetative cells, the mung bean 8S storage globulin cannot exit the ER, and indicate that natural targeting of storage proteins to the vacuole should be better studied in the maturing seed. PMID:23382549

  14. Studies of human anti-gamma-globulin factors reacting with pepsin-digested gamma-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T G; Williams, R C

    1967-02-01

    Many sera from normal individuals as well as patients with various disease states contain agglutinating antibodies which show specificity for antigenic determinants of gamma-globulin revealed by pepsin digestion at pH 4.1. Sera containing such agglutinating activity as well as sera negative for these agglutinators contain low molecular weight (3S-5S) components of slow gamma-mobility which inhibit these agglutination reactions. Low molecular weight inhibitors show both auto- and isospecificity, and are antigenically related to the 5S pepsin fragment of gamma-globulin. A common situation is thereby revealed in which human anti-gamma-globulin antibodies showing specificity for pepsin-digested gamma-globulins are present in serum along with low molecular weight gamma-globulin components capable of inhibition. Autoreactivity or autospecificity of such anti-gamma-globulin factors is a phenomenon shared by both normal human sera and sera from patients with various disease states. PMID:4163708

  15. Anti-hyperglycaemic globulins from selected Cucurbitaceae seeds used as antidiabetic medicinal plants in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Africa, coupled with rampant poverty, is an indication of the urgent need to develop new efficacious, cheaper and more available drugs to face this growing public health challenge. A number of plants products among which the protein-rich Cucurbitaceae seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine with increasing acclaimed efficacy against DM. The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of storage proteins of five species of Cucurbitaceae, which include Telfairia occidentalis, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucurbita moschata. Methods The different families of storage proteins were extracted following differential solubility, and their contents were estimated using the Bradford method. The analysis of these proteins was done by electrophoresis in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions. The evaluation of hypoglycaemic properties of various globulins extracted was performed on male Wistar rats by the oral glucose tolerance test. Results The results showed that among the proteins extracted, globulins constitute the most abundant class of storage proteins in all five species selected. Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita moschata presented the highest levels of globulin (275.34 and 295.11 mg/g dry matter, respectively). The results of electrophoresis showed that all species possess acidic and neutrals albumins and globulins, with molecular weight of protein subunits ranging from 6.36-44.11 kDa for albumins, 6.5-173.86 kDa for globulins and 6.5-49.66 kDa for glutelins. The 6.36 kDa of albumin subunit protein and the 6.5 kDa of globulin subunit protein were present in all the species. The oral glucose tolerance test showed that the globulins of the seeds of all species except Cucumeropsis mannii caused significant drop in blood sugar (88 – 137.80%, compared to the controls, pseeds contained globulins with significant anti-hyperglycaemic activity. It is therefore highly encouraged to pursue investigations towards development of peptide-drugs and/or phytomedicines from these bioactive proteins which could be used as affordable alternative therapy against DM. PMID:23506532

  16. Structural and functional analysis of various globulin proteins from soy seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Meena, Megha; Kumar, Dhiraj; Dubey, Ashok K; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-09-19

    Storage proteins of soybean mostly consist of globulins, which are classified according to their sedimentation coefficient. Among 4 major types: 2S, 7S, 11S, and 15S of globulins, 7S and 11S constitute major fraction. The 11S fraction consists only of glycinin and 7S fraction majorly consists of ?-conglycinin, small amounts of ?-conglycinin and basic 7S globulin (Bg7S). Glycinin exist as a hexamer while ?-conglycinin as a trimer and Bg7S as a tetramer. Glycinin subunits are coded by 5 genes of a family, whereas about 15 genes are present for ?-conglycinin subunits. Bg7S gene is present in four copies in soybean genome. Synthesis of all proteins takes place as a single polypeptide chain, which is cleaved after folding to yield different chains or subunits. Glycinin and ?-Conglycinin are made for storage purpose. However, Bg7S has potential xylanase inhibition activity and protein kinase activity. Primary structure of Bg7S reveals 12 conserved cysteine residues involved in forming 6 disulfide bonds, which provides appreciable stability to protein. Secondary structure is predominately rich in ?-sheets with few alpha helices. Bg7S shares structural similarity with various aspartic-proteases. In this review, our aim is to discuss sequence, structure, and function of various globulins present in Glycine max. PMID:24915310

  17. Genetic variation in pea seed globulin composition

    OpenAIRE

    Tzitzikas, E.; Vincken, J. P.; Groot, J.; Gruppen, H.; Visser, R. G. F.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of seeds from 59 pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines and relative taxa with various external characteristics and wide geographical origin was performed to explore the genetic variation of pea concerning its starch and protein contents and globulin composition. Pea lines, which produce round, wrinkled, flat, and round-dimpled seeds, have starch as the major reserve, with an average content of 46%. Protein content varied from 13.7 to 30.7% of the seed dry matter, with a...

  18. Radioimmune assay of heterologous serum ?-globulin in patients receiving rabbit antihuman thymocyte globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmune assay (RIA) method for detecting heterologous serum rabbit ?-globulin (RG) and antibody to this protein is described. The methodology is used for monitoring serum levels of rabbit globulin in patients receiving rabbit ATG (RATG). In 7 cardiac recipients receiving RATG, maximum serum levels of RG were achieved 1 to 3 days after administration of final dose. RG half-life subsequent to peak serum levels was rapid (X = 36 hr) in 4 patients and prolonged (X = 18 days) in 3 patients. Patient antibody to rabbit ?-globulin was detectable only in those patients with short RG half-life. Antirabbit antibody titers in these patients were extremely low and barely detectable by RIA

  19. How to Keep an Infusion Log: Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may be treated with Immune Globulin include Pediatric AIDS and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Immune Deficiency Diseases Many of these immune deficiency diseases can be treated very successfully ...

  20. Therapy of aplastic anemia with sequential antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, G C; Bodensteiner, D C; Skikne, B S; Amare, M

    1991-02-01

    Five consecutive patients with severe aplastic anemia were treated with antithymocyte globulin followed by cyclosporin A. All received antithymocyte globulin initially, and because of lack of response within a 4 week period, cyclosporin was administered subsequently. Hematologic improvement occurred within four months of initiation of cyclosporin. Four patients no longer require blood product support, while one remains transfusion-dependent. In two patients, thrombocytopenia developed when the cyclosporin was tapered but re-institution of the drug resulted in a prompt improvement of counts. These observations indicate that the sequential use of antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin may be an effective therapeutic approach in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia. PMID:2012065

  1. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Immune Globulin (Human). 640.100 Section 640.100 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune...

  2. Purification and biophysical characterization of an 11S globulin from Wrightia tinctoria exhibiting hemagglutinating activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Yernool, Dinesh; Singh, Nirpendra; Dasauni, Pushpanjali; Kundu, Suman; Kumar, Pravindra

    2013-05-01

    Wrightia tinctoria globulin (WTG), one of the major seed storage proteins, was isolated for the first time from seeds of the medicinal plant. WTG was extracted and purified to homogeneity in two steps using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatographies. On an SDS-PAGE gel under non-reducing conditions, a major band of ~56 kDa was observed; under reducing conditions, however, two major polypeptides, one with molecular weight ~32-34 kDa and the other with molecular weight ~22-26 kDa were observed. Intact mass determination by MALDI-TOF supported this observation. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WTG matched in NCBI database with an expressed sequence tag obtained from the c-DNA of developing embryo m-RNA of Wrightia tinctoria. The EST sequence was further substantiated by partial de novo internal sequencing using MALDI-TOF/TOF. The high sequence homology with seed storage protein 11S globulin confirmed that WTG is a type of 11S globulin. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the secondary structure of WTG consists predominantly of ?-sheets (44.2%) and moderate content of ?-helices (10.3%). WTG showed hemagglutinating property indicating that the protein may possess lectin-like activity. WTG was crystallized at 20 Å°C by the vapour diffusion method using PEG 400 as precipitant. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with cell dimensions of a=109.9Å, b=113.2Å and c=202.2Å with six molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.2Å under cryocondition. Preliminary structure solution of WTG indicated the possibility of a hexameric assembly in its asymmetric unit. PMID:22973842

  3. Human serum gamma-globulin binds copper cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, E E; Vorobyova, U A; Zharkova, M S; Cheknyov, S B

    2006-01-01

    Binding of copper cations to human serum gamma-globulin was studied using molecular ultrafiltration. The content of free metal in the filtrate was evaluated by the reaction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Conformation characteristics of the protein were evaluated by UV spectrophotometry. gamma-Globulin molecule has several copper-binding sites differing by binding constants and filled one-by-one as the content of bound metal increased. PMID:16929964

  4. PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS ANTI-GAMMA-GLOBULIN FACTORS IN HUMAN SERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARBOE, M; RAU, B; AHO, K

    1965-04-01

    The serological and physicochemical properties of the following three forms of human anti-gamma-globulin factors were compared: (a) rheumatoid factors; (b) Milgrom type anti-gamma-globulin factors; and (c) factors directed against an antigen in human gammaG-globulin that is hidden in the intact molecule and revealed by enzymatic digestion at low pH. The property common to these factors is ability to interact with human gammaG-globulin; they are distinguishable because they react with different antigenic groups on this molecule. In all of five sera, the Milgrom type anti-gamma-globulin factors were gammaM-globulins. They reacted with various human gammaG-globulin antibodies but failed to interact with gammaM-globulin type antibodies in agglutination and absorption experiments. When isolated from other anti-gamma-globulin factors, they agglutinated red cells coated with intact anti-Rh antibodies, but failed to react with cells cells coated with pepsin-digested anti-Rh antibody. These observations indicate that the agglutinator reacts with the crystallizable, inert fragment of gammaG-globulin. Anti-gamma-globulin activity directed against an antigen in human gammaG-globulin revealed by pepsin digestion was demonstrated in gammaG-, gammaA-, and gammaM-globulins. This anti-gamma-globulin factor could be absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody, which shows that the hidden antigen in human gammaG-globulin is revealed not only by enzymatic digestion at low pH, but also when gammaG-globulin is present as antibody in an antigen-antibody precipitate. Rheumatoid factors and Milgrom type anti-gamma-globulin factors were also absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody. The results indicate that the three distinct forms of antigamma-globulin factors may all be produced as a result of antigenic stimulation by autologous antigen-antibody complexes. PMID:14276773

  5. Crystallization of pumpkin seed globulin: growth and dissolution kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Alexander J.; McPherson, Alexander

    1993-10-01

    Quasi-elastic light scattering was used to investigate the nucleation and crystallization of pumpkin ( Cucurbita) seed globulin. The diameter of the pumpkin globulin monomer was measured to be ? 5-6 nm. The supersaturation dependence of critical nucleus size was obtained, and this allowed an estimate of the interfacial free energy to be ? ? 6.1 x 10 -2 erg/cm 2. The crystallization and dissolution kinetics were investigated for 4.9-16 mg/ml protein solutions containing 1-7% NaCl. The solubility data as a function of precipitant concentration and temperature were obtained and these will be utilized for optimization of the crystallization conditions for the pumpkin globulin.

  6. Disulfide interchange reactions in 11S globulin subunits of Cruciferae seeds. Relationships to gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inquello, V; Raymond, J; Azanza, J L

    1993-11-01

    Cruciferin, the main storage protein in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), is a legumin-like 11S globulin. Using SDS/PAGE cruciferin was shown to be composed of different subunits consisting of alpha S and beta S polypeptides, which were disulfide linked, and also closely related free alpha f and beta f polypeptides which were not covalently linked. The origin of these latter free chains was found to be the result of disulfide interchange reactions occurring during SDS-induced dissociation of the hexameric 11S complex. These reactions involved the rupture of the alpha S-beta S interchain disulfide link and, as shown by specific thiol fluorescent labeling, the subsequent formation of an intra-beta-chain disulfide bond. N-terminal amino acid sequence determinations revealed that these reactions were related to particular cruciferin subunit beta chains having an additional cysteine residue (position 11) near the residue (position 7) implicated in the inter-chain disulfide bridges. Such a sequence could explain the origin of the free and linked polypeptides as also shown in SDS/PAGE analysis of radish (Raphanus sativum L.) and Arabidopsis thaliana H. cruciferins. These two polypeptide classes may be considered to represent phenotypic biochemical markers of two different Cruciferae globulin gene families. PMID:8223645

  7. Changes of gamma-globulin optical spectra and possible mechanisms of its physiological action in organism under gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma-radiation on the solutions of bull gamma-globulin (?-Gl) is studied. 57Co source with the rate of gamma radiation 630 Gy/h was used for irradiation. Absorption spectra and their derivatives of high orders (SHOD) were recorded in numerical form by means of UV-VIS-spectrophotometer based on a computer. It is shown that SHOD firstly described in this work are the prospective method for characteristics of the state of ?-Gl preparations, assessment of the presence of impurities in them, and revealing the structural alterations in ?-Gl during storage or under environmental emergency conditions

  8. Effect of pH and ionic strength modifications on thermal denaturation of the 11S globulin of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, María Isabel; Petruccelli, Silvana; Añón, María Cristina

    2004-09-22

    Helianthinin, the main storage protein of sunflowers, has low water solubility and does not form a gel when heated; this behavior is different from other 11S globulins and limits its food applications. To understand this particular behavior, changes on helianthinin association-dissociation state induced by modifications in pH and ionic strength were analyzed. The influence of these different medium conditions on its thermal stability and tendency to form aggregates was also studied. Helianthinin behavior at different pH values and ionic strengths is similar to other 11S globulins except that it remains in a trimeric form at pH 11. Helianthinin thermal stability is higher than other 11S globulins but is lower than oat 11S globulin. Alkaline pH produces a 10 degrees C decrease of its denaturation temperature and also of the cooperativity of denaturation process, but it does not affect the denaturation activation energy. The decrease in thermal stability with the pH increase is also manifested by its tendency to form aggregates by SH/SS interchange reactions. When thermal treatments at alkaline pH are performed, all helianthinin subunits form aggregates, characterized by a higher proportion of beta-polypeptides than alpha-polypeptides, which is an indication that aggregation is accompanied by dissociation. Treatments at 80 degrees C are sufficient to induce aggregation but not to produce denaturation, and in these conditions hexameric forms remain after the treatment. PMID:15366858

  9. Globulin gene expression in embryos of maize viviparous mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, A.R.; Wallace, M.S.; Paiva, R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the major Zea mays embryo globulins was examined in the maize precocious germination viviparous (vp) mutants. Comparison of globulin protein profiles of precociously germinating mutant embryos with those of normally germinating mature embryos revealed substantial differences with respect to the proteins encoded by the Glb1 gene. Analysis of Glb1 transcript levels in vp/vp embryos suggests that these mutants do not fully switch from a program of embryo maturation to one of germination. These preliminary studies indicate that the vp mutants provide an excellent system for the study of embryo maturation in maize. We also provide evidence for the positive regulation of Glb1 expression by the plant growth regulator abscisic acid.

  10. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), Estradiol And Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fortunati, N.; Catalano, M. G.; Boccuzzi, G.; Frairia, R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The human serum Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) plays an important role in breast cancer pathophysiology and risk definition, since it regulates the bioavailable fraction of circulating estradiol. We here summarize data reported over the years concerning the involvement of SHBG and SHBG polymorphisms in the definition of breast-cancer risk. We also report what is known about the direct action of SHBG in breast cancer cells, illustrating its interaction with these cells ...

  11. Functionality of succinylated Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa HBK) kernel globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Ramos, Cíntia Maria; Bora, Pushkar Singh

    2005-03-01

    One of the possible ways to improve the utilisation of defatted Brazil nut kernel flour, a by-product of oil extraction industries, is to improve its functional properties by chemical modification as it possesses very modest functional characteristics. Succinylated Brazil nut kernel globulin at 55.8%, 62.4% and 72.0% level showed a positive effect on functionality. The solubility of acylated globulin was improved above pH 4.0 but was reduced in the pH range of 3.0-4.0. Water absorption (1.96-4.00, 4.12, and 4.21 ml/g protein), oil absorption capacity (1.44-2.72, 2.80 and 2.94 ml/g protein) and apparent viscosity of the succinylated globulin increased with increase in the level of succinylation. The extent of modification also influenced emulsifying capacity, which showed a decrease at pH 3.0, but was increased at pH 5.0,7.0 and 9.0. Highest emulsion activity (approximately 63.0%) was observed at pH 3.0, followed by pH 9.0 and pH 7.0 and, least (about 11.8%) at pH 5.0. Emulsion stability also followed similar behaviour as that of emulsion activity. The improved functional properties of succinylated Brazil nut kernel globulin could be explored in a variety of food formulations such as high protein drinks, soups, bakery and meat products as well as in salad dressings and mayonnaise as an emulsifier. PMID:15898352

  12. Cutaneous Finding in Anti Thymocyte Globulin Induced Serum Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Karimi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG is used as an immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of aplastic anemia (AA. Serum sickness is a recognized side effect of ATG. We observed abnormal skin manifestation in patient with aplastic anemia who had been treated with ATG. We conclude that abnormal immune function caused by aplastic anemia and ATG and corticosteroids may aggravate the signs of serum sickness.

  13. Simplified method for measuring sex-hormone binding globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple, rapid method for measurement of sex-hormone binding globulin. Serial dilutions of pregnancy serum are prepared in serum from males that has been pre-treated by heating to 60 degrees C for 1 h to destroy endogenous binding globulin, which is then determined by a long-used technique to yield a set of ''standards.'' In the assay itself, a fixed amount of [3H]-labeled and unlabeled dihydrotestosterone is incubated with standard or unknown, and the bound fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate. A plot of percent of the steroid bound vs standard dilution yields a sigmoid curve, from which the results in unknowns can be read by simple extrapolation. Within-assay CVs for pools of serum from men, women, and women in late pregnancy were 6.56, 9.59, and 8.4%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for the same pools were 8.05, 9.5, and 11.5%, respectively. The correlation between results obtained by this method and those of the older technique was 0.95 for samples from non-pregnant subjects and 0.73 for those from pregnant women. Our procedure is simpler and faster than previous methods and accurately measures the differences in the globulin in sera from men, women, and pregnant women. Forty to 50 samples can be assayed in a working day

  14. The effect of 60Co gamma radiation on human serum gamma-globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 60Co gamma radiation on human serum gamma-globulin was studied in vitro experiments. Solutions of 0.5 percent gamma-globulin were exposed to 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad doses 60Co gamma irradiation. Experiments showed that electrophoretic mobility of serum gamma-globulin decreased after gamma irradiation. No significant change in gamma-globulin UV absorption spectrum was observed at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad doses. Gamma-globulin becomes progressively less soluble in water as the radiation doses is increased. Radiation induced transformation into insoluble gamma-globulin agregates and scission products. (author)

  15. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses : A Ph.d. project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    Group specific (Gc) globulin also known as vitamin D-binding protein is part of the extracellular actin-scavenging system that removes actin from the circulation. Actin is an intracellular structural protein, which is released to blood in patients with tissue injury and cell death. Circulating actin forms filaments, which cause microthrombi and endothelial injury. These effects of circulating actin are extremely harmful, and high levels of free actin are potentially lethal. Gc-globulin binds to actin and removes it from the circulation via the reticuloendothelial system. Plasma concentrations of Gc-globulin decrease after conditions causing tissue injury and cell death, for example physical trauma, sepsis, experimentally induced endotoxemia or liver failure. In humans, decreases in Gc-globulin levels are observed within 60 minutes after trauma. Studies in humans and laboratory rodents have shown that very low concentration of plasma Gc-globulin are related to an increased risk of developing shock and lethal complications of trauma. Gc-globulin is thus a prognostic marker in intensive care medicine. It has been suggested that treatment with Gc-globulin to patients with severe tissue injury can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc-globulin concentrations in horses under clinical conditions have never previously been investigated. The Ph.D. project focuses on Gc-globulin as a prognostic marker in horses with acute abdominal pain.

  16. Expression and characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana 11S globulin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Allison F; Aitken, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    The 11S globulins are the principal seed storage proteins in a variety of major crop species, including members of the legume and mustard families. They are targets for protein engineering studies attempting to alter the physicochemical properties of seed protein extracts (e.g. soybean) and to improve the nutritional quality of important agricultural crops. A key factor that has limited the success of this approach to date is insufficient accumulation of the engineered protein variants in vivo due to their improper folding and/or reduced stability, compared to the native protein. We have developed the Arabidopsis thaliana 11S proglobulins as a model system to enable studies exploring the factors underlying structural stability in this family of proteins. Yields of 1.5-4 mg/L were achieved for the three A. thaliana 11S proglobulins expressed in the Origami Escherichia coli cell line in super broth media at 20°C for 16 h and purified via immobilized-metal affinity chromatography. We also demonstrate that differential scanning fluorimetry is an effective and accessible technique to facilitate the screening of variants to enable the successful engineering of 11S seed storage proteins. The relative in vitro stability of the A. thaliana 11S proglobulins (proAtCRU1>proAtCRU3>proAtCRU2) is consistent between chemical and thermal denaturation studies. PMID:24530827

  17. Calculation of an estimate of throxine-binding globulin capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusynowitz, M I; Benedetto, A R

    1975-11-01

    An estimate of the serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) may be computed from determinations of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine uptake. A general equation for this computation is presented and a computer program for the calculation of the estimating parameters is dicussed. With these methods, the regression equation for the calculated TBG and the observed TBG is the line of identity, and the correlation coefficients from determinations on data from two laboratories were +0.88 and +0.96. The calculated TBG may be used as a screening test for abnormalities of thryoxinebinding protein and as an aid in the proper interpretation of thyroid function studies. PMID:810548

  18. Processing and assembly in vitro of engineered soybean beta-conglycinin subunits with the asparagine-glycine proteolytic cleavage site of 11S globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz O; Nam, Young-Woo; Jung, Rudolf; Nielsen, Niels C

    2002-02-28

    A short interdomain sequence between the N- and C-terminal domains of beta-conglycinin, the major 7S seed storage protein of soybean, was selected as a target for insertion of amino acid residues specifically cleaved by an asparaginyl endopeptidase that processes globulins into acidic and basic chains. Modified beta-conglycinin subunits containing the proteolytic cleavage site self-assembled into trimers in vitro at an efficiency similar to that of the unmodified subunit. In contrast to the absence of cleavage of the unmodified subunits, however, the modified beta-conglycinin trimers were processed by purified soybean asparaginyl endopeptidase into two polypeptides, each the size expected for the beta-conglycinin N- and C-terminal domains, respectively. The cleavage did not alter the assembly of mutant beta-conglycinins and the cleaved mutant trimers remained stable to further proteolytic attack. To examine the possibility of coassembly between the cleaved 11S and 7S subunits, in vitro processed mutant beta-conglycinin subunits were mixed with native dissociated 11S globulin preparations. Reassembly at a high ionic condition did not induce the 7S subunits to interact with 11S subunits to form hexameric complexes. Thus, cleavage of 7S globulin subunits into acidic and basic domains may not be sufficient for hexamer assembly to occur. Biotechnological implications of the engineered proteins are discussed. PMID:11911473

  19. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PRODUK INTERAKSI FRAKSI GLOBULIN 7S KOMAK (Dolichos lablab DAN GUM XANTAN [Functional Properties of the Interaction Product Between Globulin of 7S Fraction of Lablab Bean (Dolichos lablab with Xantan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab seeds is a potential source of protein globulin.The bean’s protein content is 20.86 %, and the amount of globulin was more than 60% from the total protein, having major fractions of 7S and 11S. The objectives of this research were to explore the 7S globulin fractions, to study interaction between 7S globulin fractions with xanthan gum, and to observe the functional properties of the product of the interaction. The research was conducted in 2 steps. The first step was to fractionate the 7S fractions from globulin. The second steps was to interact 7S globulin fraction with xanthan gum. The yield of these interaction were examined for its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that the 7S globulin fractions could be interacted by xanthan gum at pH 7. The interacted product of globulin 7S fraction 10 % with xanthan gum 0,75 % had good functional properties than globulin 7S fraction, such as oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, and emulsion activity. Water holding capacity could not be detected because the yield became soluble. However,the foaming and emulsifying stability were still lower than those of soybean protein isolates. The research concluded that xanthan gum could be used to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of globulin 7S fraction.

  20. Gc globulin as a diagnostoc and prognostic marker in horses : A Ph.d. project

    OpenAIRE

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    2008-01-01

    Group specific (Gc) globulin also known as vitamin D-binding protein is part of the extracellular actin-scavenging system that removes actin from the circulation. Actin is an intracellular structural protein, which is released to blood in patients with tissue injury and cell death. Circulating actin forms filaments, which cause microthrombi and endothelial injury. These effects of circulating actin are extremely harmful, and high levels of free actin are potentially lethal. Gc-globulin binds ...

  1. Possible Association between Dysfunction of Vitamin D Binding Protein (GC Globulin) and Migraine Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Eiichiro; Fujii, Natsuko; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yoichi; Mashimo, Yoichi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Satoh, Tadayuki; Osawa, Motoki; Inoue, Ituro; Hata, Akira; Takizawa, Shunya

    2014-01-01

    To identify the genetic causality of migraine and acute, severe melalgia, we performed a linkage analysis and exome sequencing in a family with four affected individuals. We identified a variant (R21L) in exon 2 of the GC globulin gene, which is involved in the transportation of vitamin D metabolites and acts as a chemotaxic factor; this variant was co-segregated within the family. To investigate the relationship between GC globulin and melalgia, we investigated the cytokine levels in serum s...

  2. Safety Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Human Gc Globulin (Vitamin D Binding Protein)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; JØrgensen, Charlotte Svaerke

    2010-01-01

    Gc globulin is an important protein of the plasma actin-scavenger system. As such, it has been shown to bind free actin and prevent hypercoagulation and shock in patients with massive actin release resulting from severe tissue injuries. Treatment of such patients with Gc globulin could therefore potentially be life-saving. This article presents pre-clinical toxicology experiments conducted on purified plasma-derived human Gc globulin. The Gc globulin formulation was shown to be stable for at least 4 years with full retention of actin-binding capacity. In vitro studies did not reveal activation of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day toxicity studies in rats and horses did not show any unwanted reactions. In a 14-day toxicology study in beagle dogs, formation of antibodies was seen and in the end of the study period, three out of four dogs showed clinical immunological reactions, which could be ascribed to the formation of antibodies. The half-life, T, for human Gc globulin was 12 hr in rats, 16 hr in horses and 30 hr in dogs. The safety profile of plasma-derived Gc globulin is concluded to be consistent to that required for use in man.

  3. Expression of corticosteroid binding globulin in the rat olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölz, Wilfried; Eitner, Annett; Caldwell, Jack D; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to act on the olfactory system although their mode of action is still unclear since nuclear glucocorticoid receptors are mostly absent in the olfactory mucosa. In this study we used immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR to study the expression and distribution of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) in the rat olfactory system. Mucosal goblet cells could be immunostained for CBG. Nasal secretion contained measurable amounts of CBG suggesting that CBG is liberated. CBG immunoreactivity was localized in many of the basal cells of the olfactory mucosa, while mature sensory cells contained CBG only in processes as determined by double immunostaining with the olfactory marker protein OMP. This staining was most pronounced in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The appearance of CBG in the non-sensory and sensory parts of the VNO and in nerve terminals in the accessory bulb indicated axonal transport. Portions of the periglomerular cells, the mitral cells and the tufted cells were also CBG positive. CBG encoding transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR in homogenates of the olfactory mucosa and VNO. Olfactory CBG may be significant for uptake, accumulation and transport of glucocorticoids, including aerosolic cortisol. PMID:23141917

  4. Reference intervals for total protein concentration, serum protein fractions, and albumin/globulin ratios in clinically healthy dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberghina, Daniela; Giannetto, Claudia; Vazzana, Irene; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate total serum protein concentration measured by the biuret reaction as well as albumin and globulin protein fractions determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. These data were used to establish reference intervals in dairy cows of different ages. Blood was collected from 111 clinically healthy Modicana dairy cows by means of jugular venipuncture. Reference intervals (mean ± standard deviation) were determined for total protein (67.54 ± 11.53 g/l), albumin (31.86 ± 4.60 g/l), ?(1)-globulin (5.77 ± 2.20 g/l), ?(2)-globulin (5.84 ± 1.90 g/l), ?-globulin (7.46 ± 1.94 g/l), and ?-globulin (16.73 ± 4.54 g/l) concentrations as well as for albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio (0.88 ± 0.43). Values from 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old cows were compared statistically. One-way analysis of variance showed age-related differences for ?-globulin and ?-globulin fractions only. The results of the current study provide reference intervals for total protein concentration as well as albumin and globulin protein fractions in 2- to 6-year-old dairy cows. PMID:21217039

  5. ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Sultana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin and highly significant decrease in Albumin after 15 and 30 days of dosing of Aloe vera in comparison to control animals group. It is concluded that the long-term use of Aloe vera may cause hypoglobinemia and hypoalbuminemia at 30 days of dosing and it could be due to the liver diseases, evidence of hepatotoxicity induced Aloe vera also reported in previous studies.

  6. Comparison of horse and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in immunosuppressive therapy for refractory cytopenia of childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshimi, Ayami; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2014-01-01

    Refractory cytopenia of childhood is the most common subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome in children. In this paper, we compared the outcome of immunosuppressive therapy using horse anti-thymocyte globulin (n = 46) with that using rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (n = 49) in 95 patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood and hypocellular bone marrow. The response rate at 6 months was 74% for horse anti-thymocyte globulin and 53% for rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (p = 0.04). The inferior response in the rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin group resulted in lower 4-year-transplantation-free (69% vs. 46%; p = 0.003) and failure-free (58% vs. 48%; p = 0.04) survival in this group compared with those in the horse anti-thymocyte globulin group. However, because of successful second-line hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, overall survival was comparable between groups (91% vs. 85%, p = ns). The cumulative incidence of relapse (15% vs. 9%, p = ns) and clonal evolution (12% vs. 4%, p = ns) at 4 years was comparable between groups. Our results suggest that the outcome of immunosuppressive therapy with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin is inferior to that of horse anti-thymocyte globulin. Although immunosuppressive therapy is an effective therapy in selected patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood, the long-term risk of relapse or clonal evolution remains. (ClinicalTrial.gov identifiers: NCT00662090).

  7. Studies on a possible using of penicillin and specific globulin for treatment of Siberia ulcer infection in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of anti-anthracic globulin and penicillin for treating infectious anthrax was compared in experiments on 160 guinea pigs and 400 white mice irradiated with sub-lethal doses of cobalt-60 gamma rays. It was found that penicillin retained its effectiveness in the irradiated animals whereas anti-anthracic globulin lost much of its therapeutic efficiency. (auth.)

  8. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dziuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Material and methods. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. Results. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins. Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of -4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of -50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of -20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of -13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Conclusions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for identifying pea proteins. Patterns of spots with similar isoelectric points and different molecular weights or spots with different isoelectric points and similar molecular weights play an important role in proteome analysis. The regions characteristic of albumin, globulin and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulin with typical MW and pi values were identified as the results of performed 2D electrophoretic separations of pea proteins. 2D gel electrophoresis of albumins and the vicilin fraction of globulins revealed the presence of 4 and 2 spots, respectively, representing potentially allergenic proteins. They probably corresponded to vicilin fragments synthesized during post-translational modification of the analysed protein.

  9. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty.

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma developing after antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine therapy for aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Maki; Sakai, Rika; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Iemoto, Youichi; Kanamori, Heiwa; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2003-03-01

    We report a patient who developed Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) after treatment with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for aplastic anemia. The clinical course was progressive and poor prognosis. Although MCC is relatively rare in second cancers arising after immunosuppressive therapy, patients should be closely monitored for the development of this complication as well as other second malignancies. PMID:12634621

  11. One-step purification and structural characterization of a recombinant His-tag 11S globulin expressed in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín; Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Sinagawa-García, Sugey R; Valverde-González, María E; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2005-02-23

    Amarantin, an 11S globulin, is one of the most important storage proteins of amaranth seeds, with relevant nutritional-functional and nutraceutical characteristics. Its cDNA was cloned in-frame with a sequence encoding a polyhistidine tag and expressed under the direction of a 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco seeds. The presence of a (His)(6) tag on the polypeptide permitted a high-yield single-step purification using immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and rapid characterization. Purified His-tag amarantin accounted for up to 5% of total soluble seed protein. Biochemical characterization indicated that purified His-tag amarantin migrated with the expected molecular weight (53 kDa) and was correctly processed into an acidic polypeptide (32 kDa) with isoelectric point (pI) of 5.58 and a basic polypeptide (21 kDa) with pI of 9.24, linked by a disulfide bridge. Moreover, His-tag amarantin was assembled into both homo- and hetero-hexameric 11S structures. These results show that the His tag did not change the biochemical and physicochemical properties of amarantin. The strategy presented here for rapid and high-yield expression and purification procedure should facilitate structure-function studies for this nutritional protein. PMID:15639103

  12. Is the sex hormone binding globulin related to preeclampsia independent of insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the association between Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and preeclampsia in Iranian women considering the probable confounding effect of insulin resistance. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and comprised pregnant women who received prenatal care at Amiralmomenin Hospital in 2011. Cases represented patients admitted because of preeclampsia, while controls were randomly selected eligible pregnant women without hypertension and/or proteinuria. Fasting blood sugar and insulin were assessed for all participants as well as their blood concentration of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin. The Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Score was used. The correlation between dependant and independent variables was reported by crude and adjusted odds ratio applying logistic regression models. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 100 pregnant women in the study, 45(45%) were cases. Insulin resistance was found to be significantly more frequent in the cases compared to the controls (adjusted odds ratio=2.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.11, 6.90; p<0.01). There was a significant reverse correlation between level of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in blood and being a case of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio=0.99; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.98, 1.00; p=0.04). Conclusion: Independent of insulin resistance, every 1nmol/l increase in Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, decreases the odds of preeclampsia by 1%, notifying Sex Hormone Binding Globulin as an important biomarker about its etiology and prediction. (author)

  13. Serum opsonin, bacteria, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte interactions in subacute bacterial endocarditis. Anti-gamma-globulin factors and their interaction with specific opsonins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, R P; Laxidal, T; Quie, P G; Williams, R C

    1968-05-01

    The effect of anti-gamma-globulin factors on 7S gamma-globulin opsonins from patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis has been examined with a quantitative in vitro phagocytosis system. Human anti-gamma-globulin factors from patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis and rheumatoid arthritis inhibited the opsonic action of 7S gamma-globulin specifically bound to bacteria. A similar antiopsonic effect was obtained with rabbit antiserum to human gammaG globulin. The antiopsonic effect of anti-gamma-globulin factors did not correlate with their ability to potentiate agglutination of bacteria by 7S antibody. Competition was demonstrated between the antiopsonic effect of anti-gamma-globulin factors and the phagocytosis-promoting action of heat-labile serum factors containing hemolytically active complement. PMID:5645856

  14. Purification and biochemical characterization of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa L.) seed storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Mundoma, Claudius; Seavy, Margaret; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2010-05-12

    Brazil nut storage proteins, 2S albumin, 7S vicilin, and an 11S legumin, were purified using column chromatography. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the purified albumin, vicilin, and legumin proteins, respectively, registered sedimentation coefficients of 1.8, 7.1, and 11.8 S. Under reducing conditions, the major polypeptide bands in 2S albumin were observed at 6.4, 10-11, and 15.2 kDa. The 7S globulin was composed of one 12.6 kDa, two approximately 38-42 kDa, and two approximately 54-57 kDa polypeptides, whereas the 11S globulin contained two major classes of polypeptides: approximately 30-32 and approximately 20-21 kDa. The 7S globulin stained positive when reacted with Schiff reagent, indicating that it is a glycoprotein. The estimated molecular mass and Stokes radius for 2S albumin and 7S and 11S globulins were 19.2 kDa and 20.1 A, 114.8 kDa and 41.1 A, and 289.4 kDa and 56.6 A, respectively. Circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis indicated the secondary structure of the three proteins to be mainly beta-sheets and turns. Emission fluorescence spectra of the native proteins registered a lambda(max) at 337, 345, and 328 nm for 2S albumin and 7S and 11S globulins, respectively. When probed with anti-Brazil nut seed protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies, 7S globulin exhibited higher immunoreactivity than 2S albumin and 11S globulin. PMID:20405841

  15. Transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin messenger RNA activities during turpentine-induced inflammation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faict, D; Verhoeven, G; Mertens, B; De Moor, P

    1985-09-01

    Previously we have shown that the serum concentration of transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin markedly decreases during turpentine-induced inflammation. In the present study transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin mRNA from healthy rats and from animals with inflammation was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Female rats had higher levels of translatable transcortin mRNA than male animals and the level of mRNA for transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin decreased rapidly during inflammation. These results indicate that the sex difference in the serum level of transcortin and the changes in serum transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin during inflammation are mainly determined by differences in the mRNAs in the liver. PMID:2413280

  16. A simple ligand-binding assay for thyroxine-binding globulin on reusable Sephadex columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the assay of thyroxine-binding globulin on reusable Sephadex G-25 columns is described. It depends upon elution by diluted iodothyronine-free serum of protein-bound [125I]thyroxine from the columns under conditions where binding to thyroxine-binding prealbumin and albumin are abolished. It is simple, rapid and precise, and permits determinations inlarge numbers of samples. Values (mg/l; mean +- S.D.) were: normals 31.6+-5.4, hyperthyroid 28.3+-4.8, hypothyroid 40.6+-7.5, oral contraceptives 40.1+-6.8, pregnant 50.3+-5.4, cirrhotics 20.7+-4.3. Concentrations were reduced in serum heated at 56degC, while the uptake of [125I]triiodothyronine was increased. There was a significant negative correlation between thyroxine-binding globulin concentration and triiodothyronine uptake in the heated serum samples and in euthyroid subjects

  17. New Directions for Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin (Thymoglobulin®) in Solid Organ Transplants, Stem Cell Transplants and Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohty, Mohamad; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Saliba, Faouzi; Zuckermann, Andreas; Morelon, Emmanuel; Lebranchu, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    In the 30 years since the rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) Thymoglobulin® was first licensed, its use in solid organ transplantation and hematology has expanded progressively. Although the evidence base is incomplete, specific roles for rATG in organ transplant recipients using contemporary dosing strategies are now relatively well-identified. The addition of rATG induction to a standard triple or dual regimen reduces acute cellular rejection, and possibly humoral rejection. It is an ap...

  18. Verification of a method for sexual hormone-binding globulin analysis and estimation of free testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a protein that binds to androgens and oestrogens, especially testosterone. The fraction of testosterone that is not bound to SHBG is the biologically active fraction which makes its determination more relevant than determining the total amount of circulating testosterone. It is difficult to measure the plasma concentration of free testosterone; therefore calculations using the concentrations of testosterone and SHBG are used to estimate ...

  19. Associations between sex hormone binding globulin and metabolic syndrome parameters in premenopausal obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Akin Fulya; Bastemir Mehmet; Alkis Esma; Kaptanoglu Bunyamin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to determine sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in premenopausal obese women and to evaluate the relationships between sex hormones and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Settings and Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 350 obese patients aged 25 to 69 years referred to the Department of Endocrinology, Pamukkale University in 2002-2003. Materials and Methods: 125 premenopausal euthyroid pa...

  20. Genetic variants of sex hormone-binding globulin and their biological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xita, Nectaria; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Several hormonal and metabolic factors have been found to influence the production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In addition, twin studies have suggested that genetic factors may also contribute to variation in SHBG levels. Given the clinical significance of SHBG in regulating bioavailable sex steroid hormones, a number of studies examined the potential association between polymorphisms of SHBG gene and serum SHBG levels as well as their possible contribution in ...

  1. Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction in renal transplantation: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Andress L; Gupta A; Siddiqi N; Marfo K

    2014-01-01

    Leah Andress,1 Anjali Gupta,2 Nida Siddiqi,3 Kwaku Marfo2,3 1University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Buffalo, 2Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Department of Abdominal Organ Transplant Program, Bronx, 3Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) has proven benefit as induction therapy in renal transplant...

  2. Modification of solubility and heat-induced gelation of amaranth 11S globulin by protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazco-Peña, Laura; Osuna-Castro, Juan A; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F; Morales-Rueda, Juan A; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2013-04-10

    The primary structure of amaranth 11S globulin (Ah11S) was engineered with the aim to improve its functional properties. Four continuous methionines were inserted in variable region V, obtaining the Ah11Sr+4M construction. Changes on protein structure and surface characteristics were analyzed in silico. Solubility and heat-induced gelation of recombinant amaranth 11S proglobulin (Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4M) were compared with the native protein (Ah11Sn) purified from amaranth seed flour. The Ah11Sr+4 M showed the highest surface hydrophobicity, but as consequence the solubility was reduced. At low ionic strength (? = 0.2) and acidic pH (formed gels at 90 °C and low ionic strength, but Ah11Sn produced the weakest and Ah11Sr the strongest gels. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis under gel forming conditions revealed only exothermic transitions for all amaranth 11S globulins analyzed. In conclusion, the 3D structure analysis has revealed interesting molecular features that could explain the thermal resistance and gel forming ability of amaranth 11S globulins. The incorporation of four continuous methionines in amaranth increased the hydrophobicity, and self-supporting gels formed had intermediate hardness between Ah11Sn and Ah11Sr. These functional properties could be used in the food industry for the development of new products based on amaranth proteins. PMID:23495835

  3. COMPARATIVE ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS OF ALBUMINS/ GLOBULINS EXTRACTED FROM DRY GRAINS AND GREEN MALTS OF BARLEY VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of electrophoretic separations of albumins/globulins, followed by nonspecific protein staining and specific glycoprotein and aminopeptidase detection has been examined for barley variety discrimination. Albumins/globulins extracted from dry grains and green malt of six barley varieties were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10 % T, pH=8.9 of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate denatured proteins, and by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient of 3.5-9.5 and 4.0-6.5. Analysis of dry grain extracts gave better results than green malt extracts. Obtained data indicate that SDS-PAGE of albumins/globulins and IEF in pH gradient 3.5-9.5 followed by Coomassie Blue staining could be useful in Croatian barley variety discrimination. Angora barley could be clearly distinguished from the other varieties which were grouped as follows: Rodnik/Sladoran, Barun/Rex, and Martin. Glycoprotein patterns did not improve the recognition of individual varieties. Broad specificity, phenylalanine and leucine preferring, and arginine specific aminopeptidase were not found as applicable markers for discrimination of examined barley varieties.

  4. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  5. Two naturally occurring deletion mutants of 12S seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Anfu; Liu, Kede; Catawatcharakul, Niramol; Tang, Xurong; Nguyen, Vi; Keller, Wilfred A; Tsang, Edward W T; Cui, Yuhai

    2005-10-01

    Two naturally occurring Arabidopsis mutants, Cape Verde Islands and Monte (Mr-0), with aberrant 12S seed storage protein (SSP) profiles have been identified by SDS-PAGE. In both mutants, one of the 12S globulin bands is missing while a new band of lower molecular mass is present. Tandem mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses of the mutant peptides have revealed that both are shorter variants of 12S globulin with deletion sites detected within the alpha-subunits of 12S globulin cruciferin B (CRB) and C (CRC), respectively. Sequence analyses of the genomic DNA flanking the deletion sites have demonstrated that both deletions occurred at the genomic level. These two mutants are referred to as CRBDelta12 and CRCDelta13 with the delta sign indicating a deletion and the number indicating amino acids deleted. Alignment of these two mutant sequences with that of soybean A3B4 subunit, for which the crystal structure was determined recently, have revealed that the CRCDelta13 deletion is located in a hypervariable/disordered region, and will probably not affect the structure of the hexameric globulin. The CRBDelta12 deletion, however, is located in a binding region that is thought to be important for the hexamer formation. However, CRBDelta12 appears to accumulate normally as judged by its band intensity relative to the other SSP subunits on the protein gels. Thus it seems that the seed can, to a certain extent, tolerate some mutations in its storage proteins. PMID:15912356

  6. Isolation, characterization and radioimmunoassay of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) in human serum - clinical significance and comparison to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolation of the corticosteroid-binding globulin CBG was achieved by 5 chromatographical steps on cortisol Sepharose, QAE-Sephadex A-50, Con A-Sepharose and hydroxylapatite. The purity of the isolated CBG was demonstrated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and ultracentrifugation. Microheterogeneity was shown in isoeletric focusing by 5 bands in the pH range of 3.7-4.2, which could be reduced to one major band after neuraminidase treatment. The equimolar binding of cortisol to CBG was demonstrated by binding studies. The association constant for cortisol was 2.8 x 108M-1, for progesterone 1.7 x 106M-1. From analytical ultracentrifugation, the molecular weight was calculated on 50 700; the sedimentation coefficient was 3.6 S, the partial specific volume 0.690 ml/g, the Stokes radius 38 A and the frictional coefficient ratio 1.5. A specific radioimmunoassay for CBG was established using the purified CBG for immunization, radioiodination and for calibration standards. The normal range of CBG levels in human serum was 2.4-4.4 mg/100 ml (mean +- 2SD). Studies were performed to compare the levels of CBG and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). No sex differences but a significant biphasic age dependence were observed for both proteins. In pregnancy and under oestrogen treatment of women and men, CBG was demonstrated to be the more distinct indicator of oestrogenic activity as compared with TBG oestrogenic activity as compared with TBG, whereas the sensitivity of TBG was more pronounced to supposedly antioestrogenic substances like Danazol, and in severe disease. No coincidence of genetic CBG and TBG deficiencies have been found so far. (author)

  7. Structure of ?-conglutin: insight into the quaternary structure of 7S basic globulins from legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Barciszewski, Jakub; Gilski, Miroslaw; Szpotkowski, Kamil; Debski, Janusz; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2015-02-01

    ?-Conglutin from lupin seeds is an unusual 7S basic globulin protein. It is capable of reducing glycaemia in mammals, but the structural basis of this activity is not known. ?-Conglutin shares a high level of structural homology with glycoside hydrolase inhibitor proteins, although it lacks any kind of inhibitory activity against plant cell-wall degradation enzymes. In addition, ?-conglutin displays a less pronounced structural similarity to pepsin-like aspartic proteases, but it is proteolytically dysfunctional. Only one structural study of a legume 7S basic globulin, that isolated from soybean, has been reported to date. The quaternary assembly of soybean 7S basic globulin (Bg7S) is arranged as a cruciform-shaped tetramer comprised of two superposed dimers. Here, the crystal structure of ?-conglutin isolated from Lupinus angustifolius seeds (LangC) is presented. The polypeptide chain of LangC is post-translationally cleaved into ? and ? subunits but retains its covalent integrity owing to a disulfide bridge. The protomers of LangC undergo an intricate quaternary assembly, resulting in a ring-like hexamer with noncrystallographic D3 symmetry. The twofold-related dimers are similar to those in Bg7S but their assembly is different as a consequence of mutations in a ?-strand that is involved in intermolecular ?-sheet formation in ?-conglutin. Structural elucidation of ?-conglutin will help to explain its physiological role, especially in the evolutionary context, and will guide further research into the hypoglycaemic activity of this protein in humans, with potential consequences for novel antidiabetic therapies. PMID:25664733

  8. Apoptosis and complement-mediated lysis of myeloma cells by polyclonal rabbit antithymocyte globulin

    OpenAIRE

    Zand, Martin S.; Vo, Thuong; Pellegrin, Tina; Felgar, Raymond; Liesveld, Jane L.; Ifthikharuddin, Jainulabdeen J.; Abboud, Camille N.; Sanz, Ignacio; Huggins, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Current monoclonal antibody therapies for multiple myeloma have had limited success, perhaps due to narrow target specificity. We have previously described the ability of polyclonal rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) to induce caspase- and cathepsin-mediated apoptosis in human B and plasma cells. We now extend this observation to myeloma cells. Complement independent cell death was measured after addition of rATG (1-1000 ?g/mL) to cultures of myeloma cell lines or primary CD138+ isolates f...

  9. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, calculated free testosterone, and oestradiol in male vegans and omnivores.

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Tj; Roe, L.; Thorogood, M.; Moore, Jw; Clark, Gm; Wang, Dy

    1990-01-01

    Total testosterone (T), total oestradiol (E2) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were measured in plasma samples from fifty-one male vegans and fifty-seven omnivores of similar age. Free T concentration was estimated by calculation. In comparison with the omnivores, the vegans had 7% higher total T (P = 0.250), 23% higher SHBG (P = 0.001), 3% lower free T (P = 0.580), and 11% higher E2 (P = 0.194). In a subset of eighteen vegans and twenty-two omnivores for whom 4 d diet r...

  10. [Testosterone, albumin and sex steroid-binding globulin in the blood serum of patients with laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlinski?, N E; Bassalyk, L S; Alferov, V S; Ogol'tsova, E S; Savinskaia, A P

    1985-01-01

    Since endocrine factors play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of precancerous and tumor diseases of the pharynx, the study was concerned with assays of total testosterone, albumin, sex steroid-binding globulin and free and protein-bound androgens in the blood serum of patients with malignant and benign tumors of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer patients revealed raised levels of total, free and albumin-bound testosterone matched by a lower concentration of sex steroid-binding globulin. Maximum differences between the study groups were established in the relationship between the fraction of testosterone associated with sex steroid-binding globulin and that of free androgen. An important role of androgens in the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer was inferred. Further studies of androgen secretion and transport by blood proteins in laryngeal cancer patients are essential for the investigations of pathways of sex steroid hormones action. PMID:4041091

  11. Trends in anti-D immune globulin for childhood immune thrombocytopenia: Usage, response rates, and adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Michelle; Kalish, Leslie A.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Grace, Rachael F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added a black box warning to anti-D immune globulin (Rho(D) immune globulin, anti-D) for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) to warn of the complications related to severe hemolysis. The objective of this retrospective medical record review was to examine recent trends in anti-D use to treat ITP and rates of adverse events in a single large pediatric hematology program. Over a 7-year period, 176 (35%) of 502 ITP patients at our center received anti-D....

  12. Dynamic properties of soy globulin adsorbed films at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Patino, Juan M; Molina Ortiz, Sara E; Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio; Rodríguez Niño, Maria Rosario; Añón, Maria Cristina

    2003-12-01

    In this paper we present surface dilatational properties of soy globulins (beta-conglycinin, glycinin, and reduced glycinin with 10 mM of dithiothreitol (DTT)) adsorbed onto the air-water interface, as a function of adsorption time. The experiments were performed at constant temperature (20 degrees C), pH (8.0), and ionic strength (0.05 M). The surface rheological parameters were measured as a function of protein concentration (ranging from 1 to 1x10(-3)% wt/wt). We found that the surface dilatational modulus, E, increases, and the phase angle, phi, decreases with time, theta, which may be associated with protein adsorption. These phenomena have been related to protein adsorption, unfolding, and/or protein-protein interactions (at long-term adsorption) as a function of protein concentration in solution. From a rheological point of view, the surface viscoelastic characteristics of soy globulin films adsorbed at the air-water interface are practically elastic. The main conclusion is that the dilatational properties of the adsorbed films depend on the molecular structure of the protein. PMID:14611771

  13. Radioimmunoassay of testosterone and of sexual hormone-binding globulin in plasma of women with hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma-borne testosterone was determined in 176 women with hirsutism, and in 47 patients sexual hormone-binding globulin was determined as well. The highest average testosterone values were recorded from cases with congenital adrenogenital syndrome (AGS). In cases of postnatal AGS values were much lower, but they were clearly in excess of those recordable from Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Plasma borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism came very close to testosterone levels established in the context of Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Testosterone levels dropped with significance, following AGS treatment, using cortisol derivatives, and following wedge-shaped ovariectomy. Sexual hormone binding-globulin was found to be strongly reduced in almost all women with hirsutism. Such reduction seemed to suggest the presence of increased amounts of free active testosterone in the blood of those patients. Determination of plasma-borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism is considered to be essential to both diagnosis of the endocrinological syndromes and monitoring of therapy. (author)

  14. Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction in renal transplantation: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andress L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah Andress,1 Anjali Gupta,2 Nida Siddiqi,3 Kwaku Marfo2,3 1University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Buffalo, 2Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Department of Abdominal Organ Transplant Program, Bronx, 3Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG has proven benefit as induction therapy in renal transplant recipients, achieving reduced acute rejection rates and better short-term allograft function, with slightly higher rates of complications such as infections and malignancy. Compared with other agents, the most benefit from rATG induction has been observed in renal transplant recipients at high immunologic risk for rejection. However, in special populations, such as pediatrics, the elderly, and hepatitis C-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-positive renal transplant recipients, additional information is needed to delineate the absolute benefit of rATG induction compared with other induction agents. Selection of rATG as the choice of induction therapy in renal transplant recipients should be guided by a cost-effective approach in balancing efficacy, safety, and cost. This review summarizes the published literature on efficacy, safety, and cost of rATG induction in renal transplantation. Keywords: anti-thymocyte globulin, renal transplantation, induction therapy

  15. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin) impairs the thymic output of both conventional and regulatory CD4+ T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Il-Kang; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Dziubianau, Mikalai; Herholz, Anne; Mensen, Angela; Kunkel, Désirée; Blau, Olga; Blau, Igor; Thiel, Eckhard; Uharek, Lutz; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Rieger, Kathrin; Thiel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Common disadvantages of treatment are infectious complications. The effects of rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ on thymic function have not been well-studied. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to analyze the kinetics of conventional and regulatory T cells in adult patients treated (n=12) or not treated (n=8) with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ during the first 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ had almost undetectable levels of recent thymic emigrants (CD45RA(+)CD31(+)) of both conventional and regulatory CD4T cells throughout the 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation whereas CD4(+)CD45RA-memory T cells were less affected, but their levels were also significantly lower than in patients not treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™. In vitro, rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ induced apoptosis and cytolysis of human thymocytes, and its cytotoxic effects were greater than those of rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Fresenius™. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ in combination with a conditioning regimen strongly impairs thymic recovery of both conventional and regulatory CD4(+) T cells. The sustained depletion of conventional and regulatory CD4(+)T cells carries a high risk of both infections and graft-versus-host disease. Our data indicate that patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ could benefit from thymus-protective therapies and that trials comparing this product with other rabbit antithymocyte globulin preparations or lymphocyte-depleting compounds would be informative. PMID:22801968

  16. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin®) impairs the thymic output of both conventional and regulatory CD4+ T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Il-Kang; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Dziubianau, Mikalai; Herholz, Anne; Mensen, Angela; Kunkel, Désirée; Blau, Olga; Blau, Igor; Thiel, Eckhard; Uharek, Lutz; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Rieger, Kathrin; Thiel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Common disadvantages of treatment are infectious complications. The effects of rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ on thymic function have not been well-studied. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to analyze the kinetics of conventional and regulatory T cells in adult patients treated (n=12) or not treated (n=8) with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ during the first 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ had almost undetectable levels of recent thymic emigrants (CD45RA+CD31+) of both conventional and regulatory CD4T cells throughout the 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation whereas CD4+CD45RA-memory T cells were less affected, but their levels were also significantly lower than in patients not treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™. In vitro, rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ induced apoptosis and cytolysis of human thymocytes, and its cytotoxic effects were greater than those of rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Fresenius™. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ in combination with a conditioning regimen strongly impairs thymic recovery of both conventional and regulatory CD4+ T cells. The sustained depletion of conventional and regulatory CD4+T cells carries a high risk of both infections and graft-versus-host disease. Our data indicate that patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ could benefit from thymus-protective therapies and that trials comparing this product with other rabbit antithymocyte globulin preparations or lymphocyte-depleting compounds would be informative. PMID:22801968

  17. Abnormal puberty in paediatric Cushing's disease: relationship with adrenal androgen, sex hormone binding globulin and gonadotrophin concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Cc; Storr, Hl; Perry, La; Ho, Jt; Ahmed, L.; Ong, Kk; Dunger, DB; Monson, Jp; Grossman, Ab; Besser, Gm; Savage, Mo

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Paediatric Cushing's disease is frequently associated with abnormal puberty. We addressed the hypothesis that prepubertal patients show excessive virilization and pubertal patients show suppression of LH and FSH secretion. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Serum androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), testosterone (T), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were determined at diagnosis and converted to standard deviation scores. LH, FSH concentrations were also deter...

  18. Preparation of anti-CEA and anti-goat ?-globulin sera for radioimmunologic assay of carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goats were immunized with purified carcinoembryonic antigen, and the suitability of the antisera for clinical assays of carcinoembryonic antigen was characterized. Reactivity of equine sera to goat ?-globulin as a precipitating factor in the radioimmunologic double antibody technique was also evaluated. (author)

  19. Control of adhesion of human induced pluripotent stem cells to plasma-patterned polydimethylsiloxane coated with vitronectin and ?-globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryotaro; Hattori, Koji; Tachikawa, Saoko; Tagaya, Motohiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising source of cells for medical applications. Recently, the development of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microdevices to control the microenvironment of hiPSCs has been extensively studied. PDMS surfaces are often treated with low-pressure air plasma to facilitate protein adsorption and cell adhesion. However, undefined molecules present in the serum and extracellular matrix used to culture cells complicate the study of cell adhesion. Here, we studied the effects of vitronectin and ?-globulin on hiPSC adhesion to plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces under defined culture conditions. We chose these proteins because they have opposite properties: vitronectin mediates hiPSC attachment to hydrophilic siliceous surfaces, whereas ?-globulin is adsorbed by hydrophobic surfaces and does not mediate cell adhesion. Immunostaining showed that, when applied separately, vitronectin and ?-globulin were adsorbed by both plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces. In contrast, when PDMS surfaces were exposed to a mixture of the two proteins, vitronectin was preferentially adsorbed onto plasma-treated surfaces, whereas ?-globulin was adsorbed onto untreated surfaces. Human iPSCs adhered to the vitronectin-rich plasma-treated surfaces but not to the ?-globulin-rich untreated surfaces. On the basis of these results, we used perforated masks to prepare plasma-patterned PDMS substrates, which were then used to pattern hiPSCs. The patterned hiPSCs expressed undifferentiated-cell markers and did not escape from the patterned area for at least 7 days. The patterned PDMS could be stored for up to 6 days before hiPSCs were plated. We believe that our results will be useful for the development of hiPSC microdevices. PMID:24656306

  20. Therapeutic effect of spleen cells incubated with placental globulin and dexamethasone on mice irradiated with ?-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male (C57 x LACA) F1 mice were irradiated with 9.5 Gy of ?-rays and injected with spleen cells, either non-incubated or incubated with placental globulin (PG) and dexamethasone (DXM). Mice of the control group were irradiated only. All animals in the control group died within 28 days after irradiation, while all mice treated with non-incubated spleen cells died even much earlier than the controls-within 9 days after irradiation. The 30-day-survival rate of mice injected with incubated spleen cells was 77.1%. The spleen index in mice treated with non-incubated spleen cells (2.44 ± 0.27) was higher than that in mice injected with incubated spleen cells (1.25 ± 0.14). These experiments showed that PG and DXM could reduce the severencess of GVHD in the treated mice, and, therefore, in creased their survival rate

  1. Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis with ganciclovir and cytomegalovirus immune globulin in liver and intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzakis, A G

    2001-01-01

    Liver and intestinal transplant recipients at the University of Miami receive an intensive regimen of cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylactic therapy consisting of a combination of CMV immune globulin intravenous (CMV-IGIV, CytoGam) and ganciclovir. The 5-year experience with this regimen in liver transplant patients showed effective CMV prophylaxis in this patient population. The importance of an effective prophylactic strategy was underscored by higher observed rates of chronic rejection and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in CMV-infected patients. The use of CMV-positive donors for intestinal transplants did not increase the incidence of CMV disease. Intestinal transplant recipients had improved survival rates, reflecting an aggressive policy of monitoring, immunosuppression, and CytoGam plus ganciclovir prophylaxis. PMID:11926748

  2. Historical overview of the use of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snydman, D R

    2001-01-01

    A historical review of the development of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-IG, CytoGam) shows its increasing use in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, either alone or in combination with ganciclovir. A review of clinical trials of CytoGam in renal transplant recipients shows reductions in CMV-associated syndromes and fungal and parasitic superinfections, and increases in graft survival, while CytoGam prophylaxis trials in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients have produced reductions in severe CMV-associated disease and invasive fungal disease. A combination of CytoGam plus ganciclovir in OLT recipients has resulted in reductions in CMV hepatitis and infection, and CMV disease and viremia, plus a trend in improved 1- and 2-year survival rates. PMID:11926753

  3. Zygomycosis in aplastic anaemia: response to a combined regimen of amphotericin B and antilymphocyte globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahemtulla, A; Durrant, S T; Coonar, H S; Lee, K W; Gordon-Smith, E C

    1988-04-01

    A 22-yr-old man with aplastic anaemia was treated with high dose methylprednisolone. A month later he developed severe epistaxis which was not controlled by regular platelet transfusions. A balloon catheter inserted into the left nostril caused necrosis of the left ala nasi accompanied by gross facial oedema. He received treatment with horse ALG for aplastic anaemia but developed gross facial oedema and anaesthesia of incisor and canine teeth on the right side. Radiographs initially showed thickening of the maxillary antral mucosa and later erosion of the maxilla over the anaesthetic region. A biopsy specimen of this region contained hyphae of zygomycetes. He was treated with amphotericin B and a second course of antilymphocyte globulin followed by oxymetholone. He has made a satisfactory clinical and haematological recovery. PMID:3366221

  4. Detection of opsonic antibodies against Enterococcus faecalis cell wall carbohydrates in immune globulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, M; Sixel, K; Hammer, F; Kropec, A; Sava, I G; Theilacker, C; Berner, R; Huebner, J

    2014-08-01

    Three different commercially available polyvalent immune globulins (IG) were investigated for the existence of antibodies against cell wall carbohydrates of four different E. faecalis serotypes (using a cell wall carbohydrate-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and whether these antibodies mediated opsonic killing (using an opsonic-killing assay). All three IG preparations contained antibodies against all four serotypes (CPS-A to CPS-D). However, only one of the three IG preparations showed opsonic killing against all four serotypes. Average killing was higher against serotypes A and B (72 and 79 %, respectively) than against serotypes C and D (30 and 37 %, respectively). Such IG preparations could play a role as an adjuvant therapeutic option in life-threatening infections with E. faecalis, particularly when resistant strains are involved. PMID:24854332

  5. Genetic variants of sex hormone-binding globulin and their biological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xita, Nectaria; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles

    2010-03-01

    Several hormonal and metabolic factors have been found to influence the production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In addition, twin studies have suggested that genetic factors may also contribute to variation in SHBG levels. Given the clinical significance of SHBG in regulating bioavailable sex steroid hormones, a number of studies examined the potential association between polymorphisms of SHBG gene and serum SHBG levels as well as their possible contribution in the pathogenesis of common diseases. Thus, polymorphisms of SHBG, altering either the production or the metabolism of the protein, may represent part of the genetic background of sex steroid hormone activity in humans. There is considerable heterogeneity in the results of these studies indicating the multiplicity of the factors influencing SHBG variation. However, the weight of evidence suggests that some common genetic variants of SHBG may influence SHBG levels and in part contribute to the phenotypic expression of human diseases. PMID:19733622

  6. Chicken anti-rat lymphocyte globulin: dose response study and determination of strain-specific alloantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R E

    1979-08-01

    Chicken anti-rat lymphocyte globulin (CARLG) is a new and uniquely specific immunosuppressant for which the mechanisms of immunosuppressive action are not yet known. This study defines its in vivo therapeutic dose range and in vitro allospecificity. A dose response study, using CARLG or normal chicken globulin (NCG), as the sole immunosuppressant, was conducted in Lewis (Ag-B1) recipients of Buffalo (Ag-B6) rat cardiac allografts. Groups of Lewis recipients were treated with 175 mg of NCG per kg or 30, 100, 175, or 300 mg of CARLG per kg for the first 8 post-transplant days. Doses of 175 and 300 mg of CARLG per kg resulted in significantly longer (P less than 0.01) prolongation of graft survival than doses of 30 and 100 mg of CARLG per kg, which were not significantly different (P less than 0.05) in their ability to prolong graft survival than a dose of 175 mg of NCG per kg. In vitro and in vivo absorption studies revealed that CARLG does not contain strain-specific alloantibody. When Lewis lymphoid cells were used to absorb, in vitro, a batch of CARLG produced with Brown Norway (Ag-B3) lymphoid cells as immunogen, all antibody activity toward Brown Norway cells as quantitated by a two-stage lymphocytotoxicity assay was completely removed. In another experiment, a preparation of CARLG, produced using Buffalo lymphoid cells as immunogen, underwent in vivo absorption as a result of i.v. injection into Lewis rats. Serum levels of CARLG-binding activity to Lewis or Buffalo lymphoid cells were quantitated in vitro at intervals after injection by an isotopic antiglobulin assay. Lewis rat tissues were able to remove completely serum CARLG-binding activity toward Buffalo antigens. A mechanism of action for CARLG derived from these observations is proposed and discussed. PMID:384623

  7. Response of transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin to turpentine-induced inflammation in the rat: influence of corticosteroids and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faict, D; Vandoren, G; De Moor, P; Lesaffre, E; Verhoeven, G

    1983-12-01

    Evidence is presented that (transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin react as negative acute-phase proteins in the rat. Thirty-six hours after turpentine injection, the serum concentration of these proteins showed a two- to threefold decrease. Thereafter, transcortin rapidly returned to normal values, whereas alpha 2u-globulin remained low. This reaction pattern was still present after adrenalectomy, adrenalectomy and administration of glucocorticoids, and after treatment with bromocriptine, a suppressor of prolactin secretion. It is concluded that changes in the secretion of glucocorticoids and prolactin are not required for the observed turpentine-induced decrease of transcortin and alpha 2u-globulin. PMID:6196428

  8. NCI-Black-Reiter (NBR) male rats fail to develop renal disease following exposure to agents that induce alpha-2u-globulin (alpha2u) nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Daniel R.; Swenberg, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The NCI-Black-Reiter (NBR) rat is the only strain of male rat known not to synthesize the hepatic form of the low molecular weight protein, ?2u-globulin. In previous studies, NBR rats were shown not to develop renal disease when exposed to decalin, a compound known to induce ?2u-globulin nephropathy in other rat strains. The objective of this study was to show that the presence of ?2u-globulin (?2u) is essential for the development of this syndrome in rats exposed to 2,2,4-trimethylpentan...

  9. Limited proteolysis regulates massive degradation of glycinin, storage 11S globulin from soybean seeds: an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutov, Andrei; Rudakova, Angela; Rudakov, Sergei; Kakhovskaya, Irina; Schallau, Anna; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Wilson, Karl

    2012-09-01

    The time course of glycinin hydrolysis by papain was followed using densitometry of SDS-PAGE patterns, quantification of the residual protein and determination of its molecular mass by gel filtration, and by other appropriate methods. The hydrolysis occurs in two steps. In the first step, a limited proteolysis was observed consisting of a gradual detachment of the ?-chain C-terminal sequence region, leading to the formation of glycinin-P, a relatively stable proteolysis product retaining the primordial hexameric structure. Glycinin-P was found to be composed of the intact ?-chains covalently bound with the C-terminally truncated ?-chains lacking the helix domain, strand J', and the C-terminal disordered region. Glycinin-P is further hydrolyzed in the second step exclusively by a one-by-one mechanism. Comparison of the kinetics of the limited and one-by-one proteolyses analyzed separately indicated that the decrease of protein concentration by 24-25% in the first step occurs almost exclusively due to the decrease of the molecular mass of the residual protein. Thus, the onset of the one-by-one proteolysis is delayed, suggesting a regulatory role of the preceding limited proteolysis in the subsequent massive degradation of glycinin. Probable structural alterations of glycinin generated by this limited proteolysis are discussed. PMID:22795747

  10. Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Toru; Nambara, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kazutoshi; Goto, Derek B.; Naito, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Plants accumulate storage substances such as starch, lipids and proteins in certain phases of development. Storage proteins accumulate in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and serve as a reservoir to be used in later stages of plant development. The accumulation of storage protein is thus beneficial for the survival of plants. Storage proteins are also an important source of dietary plant proteins. Here, we summarize the genome organization and regulation of gene expression of storage ...

  11. New aspects of storage protein accumulation in pea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain legumes are important not only because they rank fifth in world-wide production behind wheat, maize, rice and barley, but also because they have higher protein contents (20-40%) than most other seed types. The goal of our work is to obtain a more complete understanding of the cell biology of legume seed protein accumulation. To this end, we have used immunogold labeling techniques to study the localization of storage proteins in developing seeds of Pisum sativum. This presentation focuses on two novel observations related to the intracellular transport and storage of these seed proteins. Since continuities between the electron-dense cisternae and vacuoles may be disrupted by directional changes in the streaming cytoplasm during fixation, I re-examined the relationship between these two organelles in seeds in which cytoplasmic streaming was inhibited by chilling on ice. In a separate study, the distribution of both globulin (legumin and vicilin) and albumin (PA1) storage proteins in axis tissue of developing seeds was investigated. Using double labeling with 10 and 20 nm colloidal gold, compartmentation of a sulfur-rich albumin (PA1) and a globulin (vicilin) was demonstrated within individual vacuolar protein deposits in cells at the base of the epicotyl

  12. Induction of an inhibitor antibody to factor XI in a patient with severe inherited factor XI deficiency by Rh immune globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Michal; Zivelin, Ariella; Teitel, Jerome; Seligsohn, Uri

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report an inhibitor antibody to factor XI (FXI) in a woman with severe inherited FXI deficiency, induced by FXI present in an Rh immune globulin preparation. The patient is homozygous for the Glu117Stop mutation, associated with a FXI level of less than 1 U/dL. Unlike all previously described patients with severe FXI deficiency and an inhibitor, the patient had never been exposed to blood products. Following 3 injections of Rh immune globulin during pregnancy, she developed an inhibitor to FXI (8 Bethesda units) that was shown to bind specifically to FXI and inhibit factor IX cleavage by purified FXIa. The administered Rh immune globulin and 2 other similar products were shown to contain FXI. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for immunization of severely FXI-deficient patients by FXI present in Rh immune globulin preparations. PMID:18029554

  13. Preferential interaction of ?-globulin from sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) with cosolvents is accompanied by the protein structural reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, P M Guna; Yadav, Jay Kant

    2013-05-01

    The effect of a cosolvent on the structure and stability of a protein depends upon the nature of preferential protein- water, protein-cosolvent or cosolvent-water interactions. The preferential interaction parameters of glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose with ?-globulin (from Sesamum indicum L. seeds) were evaluated and the results showed the exclusion of cosolvents and preferential hydration of the protein. Data from fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and thermal stability measurements inferred that the preferential hydration had a considerable effect on the structure of protein under native conditions. Such cosolvent-protein interactions bring out a previously unnoticed, but outstanding phenomenon of cosolvent induced structural effects on the protein. This study reveals that these cosolvents interact with ?-globulin in such a way that they induce a structural reshuffling to enhance the protein stability, mostly by intensifying intra-molecular hydrophobic interactions. PMID:23061669

  14. Fasting induces the generation of serum thyronine-binding globulin in Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five-month-old lean and obese Zucker rats were fasted for up to 7 days (lean rats) or 28 days (obese rats), and serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations, percent free T4 and T3 by equilibrium dialysis, and the binding of [125I] T4 to serum proteins by gel electrophoresis were measured. In the lean rats, a 4- or 7-day fast resulted in significant decreases in serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations. There was a decrease in the percent free T3 after 7 days of starvation. In contrast, a 4- or 7-day fast did not alter any of these variables in the obese rats. However, after 14 or more days of starvation, serum total T4 and T3 concentrations increased, and the percent free T4 and T3 decreased, resulting in no change in the serum free T4 or T3 concentrations in the obese rats. The percent of [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin increased and the percent bound to thyronine-binding prealbumin decreased with the duration of the fast in both the lean and obese rats. The increase in serum thyronine-binding globulin binding of T4 can explain the increase in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, the decrease in percent free T4 and T3, and the normal free hormone concentration in the long term fasted obese rats. The findings in the lean rats appear to be due to a combination of the known central hypothyroidism that occurs during 4-7 days of fasting and the fasting-induced changes in T4 binding in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in serum during fasting in the rat must be considered when the effects of fasting on serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone kinetics, and the peripheral action of the thyroid hormones are evaluated

  15. Hospitalisation for RSV infection in ex-preterm infants—implications for use of RSV immune globulin

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, M.; Bedford-russell, A.; Sharland, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) specific immune globulin is now being marketed for prevention of RSV infection in ex-preterm infants. However, there are no published UK data on the morbidity or mortality from RSV in these infants.?AIMS—To determine the morbidity and mortality from RSV infection in a cohort of infants previously treated at a regional neonatal unit, and compare the cost of hospitalisation for RSV with the potential cost of administering RSV ...

  16. Hapten-specific T-Cell Unresponsiveness Induced by Benzylpenicilloyl Autologous Gamma Globulin Conjugates in Human Lymphocytes In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Geha, Raif S.; Fruchter, Lazar; Borel, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to determine whether unresponsiveness to the main determinant of penicillin, benzylpenicilloyl, can be induced in human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro by conjugates of benzylpenicilloyl (BPO) autologous gamma globulin (HGG). Initially it was shown that conjugates of BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) elicited lymphocyte proliferation in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of six out of nine adult individuals in vitro. In contrast, conjugates of dinitrophenylated KL...

  17. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Obtained after In Vitro Hydrolysis of Pea (Pisum sativum var. Bajka) Globulins

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Jakubczyk; Barbara Baraniak

    2014-01-01

    Pea seeds represent a valuable source of active compounds that may positively influence health. In this study, the pea globulins were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal condition and potentially bioaccessible angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were identified. The degree of hydrolysis after pepsin, 14.42%, and pancreatin, 30.65%, were noted. The peptides with the highest ACE inhibitory properties were separated using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. ...

  18. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, A

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  19. Retrospective diagnosis of Q fever in a country abattoir by the use of specific IgM globulin estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.M.; Hunt, J.G.

    1981-10-03

    Twenty-two cases of pyrexial illness which occurred amongst workers in a country abattoir were investigated retrospectively for Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. In 18, the illness was shown to be Q fever. No diagnoses were established for the other four. The demonstration of circulating Q-fever-specific IgM globulin was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis in many of the cases.

  20. Thermal denaturation of pea globulins (Pisum sativum L.)-molecular interactions leading to heat-induced protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mession, Jean-Luc; Sok, Nicolas; Assifaoui, Ali; Saurel, Rémi

    2013-02-13

    The heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of mixed pea globulins (8%, w/w) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SDS-PAGE, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC). DSC data showed that the pea proteins denaturation temperature (T(d)) was heating-rate dependent. The T(d) value decreased by about 4 °C by lowering the heating rate from 10 to 5 °C/min. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that protein denaturation upon heating at 90 °C was mainly governed by noncovalent interaction. The SEC-HPLC measurements indicated that low-denatured legumin (?350-410 kDa) and vicilin/convicilin (?170 kDa) globulins were heat-denatured and most of their subunits reassociated into high-molecular weight, soluble aggregates (>700 kDa). The addition of N-ethylmaleimide slightly modified the aggregation route of pea globulins. However, partially insoluble macroaggregates were produced in the presence of dithiothreitol, reflecting the stabilizing effect of disulfide bonds within legumin subunits. PMID:23298167

  1. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-+g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state

  2. Modelling the binding affinity of steroids to zebrafish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Devillers, J; Pery, A R R; Beaudouin, R; Balaramnavar, V M; Ahmed, S

    2014-01-01

    The circulating endogenous steroids are transported in the bloodstream. These are bound to a highly specific sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and in lower affinity to proteins such as the corticosteroid-binding protein and albumin in vertebrates, including fish. It is generally believed that the glycoprotein SHBG protects these steroids from rapid metabolic degradation and thus intervenes in its availability at the target tissues. Endocrine disrupters binding to SHBG affect the normal activity of natural steroids. Since xenobiotics are primarily released in the aquatic environment, there is a need to evaluate the binding affinity of xenosteroid mimics on fish SHBG, especially in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish originating in India and widely employed in ecotoxicology, toxicology, and genetics. In this context, a zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) homology model was developed using the human SHBG (hSHBG) receptor structure as template. It was shown that interactions with amino acids Ser-36, Asp-59 and Thr-54 were important for binding affinity. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was also developed for both zfSHBG and hSHBG inhibitors that differentiated binders from non-binders, but also demonstrated structural requirements for zfSHBG and hSHBG ligands. The study provides insights into the mechanism of action of endocrine disruptors in zebrafish as well as providing a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic compounds inhibiting zfSHBG. PMID:24874994

  3. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Nels; Ban, Fuqiang; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Tabaei, Seyed M H; Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Underhill, Caroline; Cherkasov, Artem; Hammond, Geoffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [(3)H]5alpha-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 microM concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost. PMID:18725242

  4. Hyporesponsiveness to glucocorticoids in mice genetically deficient for the corticosteroid binding globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Heibroch; Andreassen, Thomas K

    2006-01-01

    Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) is the carrier for glucocorticoids in plasma. The protein is believed to keep the steroids inactive and to regulate the amount of free hormone acting on target tissues (free hormone hypothesis). Here, we generated a mouse model genetically deficient for CBG to test the contribution of the carrier to glucocorticoid action and adrenocortical stress response. The absence of CBG resulted in a lack of corticosterone binding activity in serum and in an approximately 10-fold increase in free corticosterone levels in CBG-null mice, consistent with its role in regulation of circulating free hormone levels. Surprisingly, cbg(-/-) animals did not exhibit features seen in organisms with enhanced glucocorticoid signaling. Rather, the mice exhibited increased activity of the pituitary axis of hormonal control, normal levels of gluconeogenetic enzymes, and fatigue, as well as an aggravated response to septic shock, indicating an inability to appropriately respond to the excess free corticosterone in the absence of CBG. Thus, our data suggest an active role for CBG in bioavailability, local delivery, and/or cellular signal transduction of glucocorticoids that extends beyond a function as a mere cargo transporter.

  5. Clinical evaluation of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) as a marker of liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB) as a marker of liver tumors, in conjection with the liver scintigram. Of 30 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), 22 (73.3%) showed significantly higher TBG concentrations. Eight patients (26.7%) showed normal TBG concentrations. In the case of 27 our of 30 patients with definite liver tumors, defects were apparent on the scintigrams. But seven of them had normal TBG concentrations in spite of the defects on the scintigrams. Out of 33 postoperative patients with liver metastasis, 28 (84%) had a raised TBG concentration. Only five (15.2%) had a normal TBG level. In 31 patients (93.9%) out of 33 with liver metastasis, a definite diagnosis was made on the basis of the liver scintigram. In 28 (90.3%) of these 31 people, the TBG concentration was higher than normal. Among 63 patients with liver tumors, both primary and metastatic, the test sensitivity for liver tumors was 92.1% (58/63) based on the accuracy of the liver scintigram. It was 79.4% (50/63) based on the TBG measurement. Why TBG increases to such an extent in spite of the euthyroid state remains unexplained. But it may be concluded that elevated TBG with positive liver scintigram furnishes a sensitive, fairly reliable, nonspecific tumor marker to determine liver tumors, especially in the case of liver metastasis. (orig.)

  6. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with serum levels of sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado José A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen activity plays a critical role in bone homeostasis. The serum levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG influence free estrogen levels and activity on target tissues. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of common polymorphisms of the SHBG gene on serum SHBG, bone mineral density (BMD, and osteoporotic fractures. Methods Four biallelic polymorphisms of the SHBG gene were studied by means of Taqman assays in 753 postmenopausal women. BMD was measured by DXA and serum SHBG was measured by ELISA. Results Age, body weight, and two polymorphisms of the SHBG gene (rs6257 and rs1799941 [A/G] were significantly associated with serum SHBG in unadjusted and age- and weight-adjusted models. Alleles at the rs1799941 locus showed the strongest association with serum SHBG (p = 0.0004. The difference in SHBG levels between women with AA and GG genotypes at the rs1799941 locus was 39%. There were no significant differences in BMD across SHBG genotypes. The genotypes showed similar frequency distributions in control women and women with vertebral or hip fractures. Conclusion Some common genetic variants of the SHBG gene, and particularly an A/G polymorphism situated in the 5' region, influence serum SHBG levels. However, a significant association with BMD or osteoporotic fractures has not been demonstrated.

  7. Serum corticosteroid binding globulin expression is modulated by fasting in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Obbard, Martyn E; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from several subpopulations undergo extended fasting during the ice-free season. However, the animals appear to conserve protein despite the prolonged fasting, though the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We hypothesized that elevated concentrations of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary cortisol binding protein in circulation, lead to cortisol resistance and provide a mechanism for protein conservation during extended fasting. The metabolic state (feeding vs. fasting) of 16 field sampled male polar bears was determined based on their serum urea to creatinine ratio (>25 for feeding vs. female polar bears sampled. Serum CBG expression was greater in lactating females relative to non-lactating females and males. CBG expression was significantly higher in fasting males when compared to non-fasting males. This leads us to suggest that CBG expression may serve as a mechanism to conserve protein during extended fasting in polar bears by reducing systemic free cortisol concentrations. This was further supported by a lower serum glucose concentration in the fasting bears. As well, a lack of an enhanced adrenocortical response to acute capture stress supports our hypothesis that chronic hunger is not a stressor in this species. Overall, our results suggest that elevated serum CBG expression may be an important adaptation to spare proteins by limiting cortisol bioavailability during extended fasting in polar bears. PMID:20883811

  8. The effect of rabbit antithymocyte globulin on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquesa, Marcella; Baan, Carla C; Korevaar, Sander S; Engela, Anja U; Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H; Grinyo, Josep M; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties which are of key interest for their application in autoimmunity and transplantation. In transplantation, administration of MSCs has shown promising results in preclinical models and has recently moved to clinical trials. Therefore, it is important to study the interactions between MSCs and immunosuppressive drugs currently used in transplantation. We aimed to analyze the effect of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) MSCs. MSCs were obtained from perirenal fat of kidney donors and exposed to ranging doses of rATG (Thymoglobulin(®) , Genzyme; 0.5-100 ?g/ml). Binding of rATG, effects on viability and susceptibility to be killed by cytotoxic lymphocytes as well as effects on their immunosuppressive potential of MSCs were tested. rATG binds dose-dependently to MSCs. This binding was associated with slightly impaired viability after 48 and 72 h when compared with nonexposed MSCs. In contrast to nontreated MSCs, rATG preexposed MSCs were susceptible to be lysed by cytokine-activated CD8(+) cytotoxic cells and NKT cells. The capacity of MSCs to suppress the proliferation of anti-CD3/CD28 activated CD4 and CD8 T cells were reduced by the presence of rATG in the culture. rATG reduces the viability and antiproliferative capacity of MSCs in a dose-dependent manner and converts them into targets for CD8 T cells and NKT cell lysis. PMID:23682671

  9. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  10. Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine-binding globulin: evaluation of a kit and diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by using a radioimmunoassay method. The within-batch of variation (CV) of the assay was 5% or less at different TBG concentrations with a between-batch variation of less than 10%. The mean TBG concentration in hypothyroidism (28.5 plus or minus 6.7 mg/l) was significantly higher, and that in hyperthyroidism (22.3 plus or minus 3.5 mg/l) was significantly lower, than the euthyroid mean (25.4 plus or minus 6.9 mg/l). Acutely ill patients suffering from various non-thyroid illnesses were found to have significantly low mean TBG (13.8 plus or minus 4.3 mg/l). A group of women in late pregnancy had a higher mean value, as expected. Serum TBG level, however, was ineffective as a thyroid function test because of overlapping concentrations between groups. The derived index T4:TBG ratio was found to be superior to free thyroxine index (FTI) in many cases of acutely ill patients, pregnancy and hereditary TBG abnormality. The 95% confidence limit for the ratio in euthyroids, was 2.3 to 7.1. Serum TBG level with T4:TBG ratio is recommended as a replacement for the T3-uptake test and FTI. (author)

  11. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [3H]5?-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 ?M concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at sed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost

  12. Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (?20%), pauci-mannosidic (?40%), and complex forms (?40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants ?-1,2-xylose and ?-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectincontaining two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy.

  13. Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stenkjær, Eva; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Packer, Nicolle H; Stougaard, Jens

    2013-07-01

    Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (?20%), pauci-mannosidic (?40%), and complex forms (?40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants ?-1,2-xylose and ?-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectin containing two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy. PMID:23799247

  14. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  15. Globulin-platelet model predicts minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To establish a simple model consisting of the routine laboratory variables to predict both minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 114 chronic HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy in two different hospitals. Thirteen parameters were analyzed by step-wise regression analysis and correlation analysis. A new fibrosis index [globulin/platelet (GP model] was developed, including globulin (GLOB and platelet count (PLT. GP model = GLOB (g/mL × 100/PLT (× 109/L. We evaluated the receiver operating characteristics analysis used to predict minimal fibrosis and compared six other available models. RESULTS: Thirteen clinical biochemical and hematological variables [sex, age, PLT, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, albumin, GLOB, total bilirubin (T.bil, direct bilirubin (D.bil, glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, HBV DNA and prothrombin time (PT] were analyzed according to three stages of liver fibrosis (F0-F1, F2-F3 and F4. Bivariate Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed that six variables, including age, PLT, T.bil, D.bil, GLOB and PT, were correlated with the three fibrosis stages (FS. Correlation coefficients were 0.23, -0.412, 0.208, 0.220, 0.314 and 0.212; and P value was 0.014, < 0.001, 0.026, 0.018, 0.001 and 0.024, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that only PLT and GLOB were significantly different in the three FS (PLT: F = 11.772, P < 0.001; GLOB: F = 6.612, P = 0.002. Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that PLT and GLOB were also independently correlated with FS (R2 = 0.237. By Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, GP model was significantly correlated with the three FS (r = 0.466, P < 0.001. The median values in F0-F1, F2-F3 and F4 were 1.461, 1.720 and 2.634. Compared with the six available models (fibrosis index, AST-platelet ratio, FIB-4, fibrosis-cirrhosis index and age-AST model and age-PLT ratio, GP model showed a highest correlation coefficient. The sensitivity and positive predictive value at a cutoff value < 1.68 for predicting minimal fibrosis F0-F1 were 72.4% and 71.2%, respectively. The specificity and negative predictive value at a cutoff value < 2.53 for the prediction of cirrhosis were 84.5% and 96.7%. The area under the curve (AUC of GP model for predicting minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis was 0.762 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.676-0.848] and 0.781 (95% CI: 0.638-0.924. Although the differences were not statistically significant between GP model and the other models (P all > 0.05, the AUC of GP model was the largest among the seven models. CONCLUSION: By establishing a simple model using available laboratory variables, chronic HBV-infected patients with minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis can be diagnosed accurately, and the clinical application of this model may reduce the need for liver biopsy in HBV-infected patients.

  16. New directions for rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin(®)) in solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohty, Mohamad; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Saliba, Faouzi; Zuckermann, Andreas; Morelon, Emmanuel; Lebranchu, Yvon

    2014-09-01

    In the 30 years since the rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) Thymoglobulin(®) was first licensed, its use in solid organ transplantation and hematology has expanded progressively. Although the evidence base is incomplete, specific roles for rATG in organ transplant recipients using contemporary dosing strategies are now relatively well-identified. The addition of rATG induction to a standard triple or dual regimen reduces acute cellular rejection, and possibly humoral rejection. It is an appropriate first choice in patients with moderate or high immunological risk, and may be used in low-risk patients receiving a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-sparing regimen from time of transplant, or if early steroid withdrawal is planned. Kidney transplant patients at risk of delayed graft function may also benefit from the use of rATG to facilitate delayed CNI introduction. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, rATG has become an important component of conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens, following demonstration of reduced acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. More recently, a role for rATG has also been established in reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. In autoimmunity, rATG contributes to the treatment of severe aplastic anemia, and has been incorporated in autograft projects for the management of conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, and systemic sclerosis. Finally, research is underway for the induction of tolerance exploiting the ability of rATG to induce immunosuppresive cells such as regulatory T-cells. Despite its long history, rATG remains a key component of the immunosuppressive armamentarium, and its complex immunological properties indicate that its use will expand to a wider range of disease conditions in the future. PMID:25164240

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of sex hormone binding globulin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Knowlton, Michelle; Avvakumov, George V; Al-Nouno, Rana; Kelly, Greg M; Hammond, Geoffrey L

    2004-11-01

    SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) transports androgens and estrogens in the blood of vertebrates including fish. Orthologs of SHBG in fish are poorly defined, and we have now obtained a zebrafish SHBG cDNA and characterized the zebrafish SHBG gene and protein through molecular biological, biochemical, and informatics approaches. Amino-terminal analysis of zebrafish SHBG indicated that its deduced precursor sequence includes a 25-residue secretion polypeptide and exhibits 22-27% homology with mammalian SHBG sequences and 41% with a deduced fugufish SHBG sequence. The 356-residue mature zebrafish SHBG (39,243 Da) sequence comprises a tandem repeat of laminin G-like domains typical of SHBG sequences; contains three N-glycosylation sites; and exists as a 105,000 +/- 8700 Da homodimer. Zebrafish SHBG exhibits a high affinity and specificity for sex steroids. An RT-PCR indicated that SHBG mRNA first appears in zebrafish larva, and SHBG mRNA was localized within the liver and gut at this stage of development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In adult fish, SHBG mRNA was found in liver, testis, and gut. In the liver, immunoreactive SHBG was present in hepatocytes and concentrated in intrahepatic bile duct cells, whereas in the testis it was confined to cells surrounding the seminiferous tubule cysts. In the intestine, immunoreactive SHBG was present in the stroma and epithelial cells of the villous projections and the surrounding muscle. The production and presence of SHBG in the gut of developing and adult zebrafish suggests a novel role for this protein in regulating sex steroid action at this site. PMID:15284198

  18. Intravenous immune globulin in hereditary inclusion body myopathy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorward Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM is an autosomal recessive, adult onset, non-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder with no effective treatment. The causative gene, GNE, codes for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyzes the first two reactions in the synthesis of sialic acid. Reduced sialylation of muscle glycoproteins, such as ?-dystroglycan and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, has been reported in HIBM. Methods We treated 4 HIBM patients with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG, in order to provide sialic acid, because IgG contains 8 ?mol of sialic acid/g. IVIG was infused as a loading dose of 1 g/kg on two consecutive days followed by 3 doses of 400 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Results For all four patients, mean quadriceps strength improved from 19.0 kg at baseline to 23.2 kg (+22% directly after IVIG loading to 25.6 kg (+35% at the end of the study. Mean shoulder strength improved from 4.1 kg at baseline to 5.9 kg (+44% directly after IVIG loading to 6.0 kg (+46% at the end of the study. The composite improvement for 8 other muscle groups was 5% after the initial loading and 19% by the end of the study. Esophageal motility and lingual strength improved in the patients with abnormal barium swallows. Objective measures of functional improvement gave variable results, but the patients experienced improvements in daily activities that they considered clinically significant. Immunohistochemical staining and immunoblotting of muscle biopsies for ?-dystroglycan and NCAM did not provide consistent evidence for increased sialylation after IVIG treatment. Side effects were limited to transient headaches and vomiting. Conclusion The mild benefits in muscle strength experienced by HIBM patients after IVIG treatment may be related to the provision of sialic acid supplied by IVIG. Other sources of sialic acid are being explored as treatment options for HIBM.

  19. A sensitive and specific method for determining testosterone estradiol binding globulin (TeBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive method for measuring TeBG and how it can be used for obtaining a Free Testosterone Index (FTI) is described. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is used instead of testosterone owing to its higher affinity for this globulin. Non-specific binding (NSB) is estimated by incubating the plasma samples in parallel, with and without a 100-fold excess of cold DHT. To determine the level at which TeBG becomes saturated and to work far from this region of the curve, where sensitivity diminishes, hot-only experiments were performed. Saturation was found to occur beyond 1000 pg DHT. Control normal sera were compared with samples from hypogonadic patients and Scatchard plots were done to find a parallel between the two groups and a point of maximal discrimination among them at about 500 pg DHT. Since an excellent reproducibility between experiments was found, Scatchard plots were not routinely done and only the binding capacity of a control normal pool at the point of maximal discrimination was compared to that of the unknown sample and calculated as follows: TeBG binding capacity = DHT bound by the normal pool/DHT bound by the unknown. The FTI is obtained by multiplying the total testosterone by the TeBG binding capacity. Total testosterone (Tt), TeBG and FTI were analysed in 38 normal volunteers classified according to age in four groups: 20-30 (n=13), 40-50 (n=7), 50-60 (n=8), 60-70 (n=10). Although a slight difference was observed when Tt was compareifference was observed when Tt was compared between the different age groups (P<0.05), there was a much higher significant difference for TeBG and FTI (P<0.0001). (author)

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase disrupts the cortisol-binding activity of corticosteroid-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Marc; Hill, Lesley A; Underhill, Caroline M; Keller, Bernd O; Villanueva, Ivan; Hancock, Robert E W; Hammond, Geoffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) family member corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the main carrier of glucocorticoids in plasma. Human CBG mediates the targeted release of cortisol at sites of inflammation through cleavage of its reactive center loop (RCL) by neutrophil elastase. The RCLs of SERPIN family members are targeted by diverse endogenous and exogenous proteases, including several bacterial proteases. We tested different bacteria for their ability to secrete proteases that disrupt CBG cortisol-binding activity, and characterized the responsible protease and site of CBG cleavage. Serum CBG integrity was assessed by Western blotting and cortisol-binding capacity assay. Effects of time, pH, temperature, and protease inhibitors were tested. Proteolytically active proteins from bacterial media were purified by fast protein liquid chromatography, and the active protease and CBG cleavage sites were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the bacteria tested, medium from Pseudomonas aeruginosa actively disrupted the cortisol-binding activity of CBG. This proteolytic activity was inhibited by zinc chelators and occurred most efficiently at pH 7 and elevated physiological temperature (ie, 41°C). Mass spectrometric analysis of a semi-purified fraction of P. aeruginosa media identified the virulence factor LasB as the responsible protease, and this was confirmed by assaying media from LasB-deficient P. aeruginosa. This metalloprotease cleaves the CBG RCL at a major site, distinct from that targeted by neutrophil elastase. Our results suggest that humoral responses to P. aeruginosa infection are influenced by this pathogen's ability to secrete a protease that promotes the release of the anti-inflammatory steroid, cortisol, from its plasma transport protein. PMID:24848868

  1. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

  2. Associations between sex hormone binding globulin and metabolic syndrome parameters in premenopausal obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Fulya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to determine sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG concentrations in premenopausal obese women and to evaluate the relationships between sex hormones and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Settings and Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 350 obese patients aged 25 to 69 years referred to the Department of Endocrinology, Pamukkale University in 2002-2003. Materials and Methods: 125 premenopausal euthyroid patients were eligible for this study. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI: Group I, women with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 (n = 17 and Group II,, women with BMI ? 30 kg/m 2 (n = 108. Median SHBG concentration of Group I was 50.1 nmol/L. Group II was divided into two subgroups according to the median SHBG concentration of Group I: subjects with high SHBG levels (SHBG concentration ? median level of the control group, i.e ? 50.1 nmol/L and subjects with low SHBG levels (< 50.1 nmol/L. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 9.0 software (SPSS Inc.. Results: No significant difference was found in mean age between the low and high SHBG groups. The low SHBG group was significantly heavier, and with higher waist circumference than the high SHBG group. In the low SHBG group, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT and free androgen index (FAI were significantly higher. Lipid profile, blood pressure, uric acid, insulin and HOMA were found similar between two groups. Linear regression analyses revealed that body mass index and FAI were significant, being independent predictors of SHBG concentrations in premenopausal women. (r = 0.365, r square = 0.134. Conclusions: It is concluded that low SHBG concentrations may indicate visceral obesity and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women.

  3. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin as first-line therapy for severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jing, Liping; Zhou, Kang; Wang, Huijun; Peng, Guangxin; Li, Yang; Li, Yuan; Li, Jianping; Ye, Lei; Shi, Lihui; Fan, Huihui; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Jianxiang; Zhang, Fengkui

    2015-04-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) was proven effective as salvage therapy for refractory aplastic anemia (AA), or for relapse after initial therapy with horse ATG (hATG). Several clinical trials were performed to assess the efficiency of rATG as a first-line therapy for AA patients; however, their results were variable. The aim of the present study was to assess hematologic response and survival in severe AA (SAA) and very severe AA (VSAA) patients treated with rATG and cyclosporin A (CsA) in our center. The factors involved in these outcomes were also explored. A total of 292 patients with newly diagnosed, acquired SAA or VSAA received a combination of rATG and CsA as first-line therapy, and the results were retrospectively assessed. The median age was 18 years (range = 2-73 years). The early death rate was 5.5%, and the total response rates were 49.0% (143 responders), 60.3% (176 responders), 65.8% (192 responders), and 68.5% (200 responders) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively, after immunosuppressive therapy. In multivariate analysis, initial response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was the predictive factor for response to therapy at 12 months. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 34 months (range = 0-117 months). Five-year overall survival was 83.2%, and the 5-year, event-free survival was 67.2%. Independent prognostic factors for overall survival were neutrophil count and achievement of any response following rATG therapy. Our results indicate that rATG/CsA is a safe and effective first-line treatment for SAA/VSAA. PMID:25583265

  4. Purification and properties of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) corticosteroid binding globulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), a serum glycoprotein which binds glucocorticoids and progestins with high affinity, is widely distributed throughout the animal world. Although its charge and size characteristics have largely been conserved across species, the authors found the behavior of CBG in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) serum during fractionation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or Sephadex chromatography was consistent with a molecule about twice the size of that found in most species. To more fully understand the basis for this difference, they purified the protein by sequential affinity and DEAE-Sepharose chromatographies. The final product was obtained in greater than 60% yield and was found to migrate as a single homogeneous band when examined by electrophoresis. The steroid binding specificity of the purified protein was identical with that of the protein in the starting serum. In contrast to the single protein band observed following electrophoresis under normal conditions, separations in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resolved the pure protein into two bands: one at 54,000 daltons and one at 57,000 daltons. Unlike other species, squirrel monkey CBG exists as a dimer in its native state. Antibodies were generated against the purified material and tested for cross-reactivity against the sera from other species by both radioimmunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay techniques. Only serum from titi monkeys was observed to cross-reactm titi monkeys was observed to cross-react when examined by radioimmunoassay. Taken together, the results suggest that New World monkey CBG's are distinct from those of other species in both size and immunologic characteristics

  5. Purification and properties of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) corticosteroid binding globulins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, R.W.; Weber, C.V.; Siiteri, P.K.

    1988-04-05

    Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), a serum glycoprotein which binds glucocorticoids and progestins with high affinity, is widely distributed throughout the animal world. Although its charge and size characteristics have largely been conserved across species, the authors found the behavior of CBG in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) serum during fractionation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or Sephadex chromatography was consistent with a molecule about twice the size of that found in most species. To more fully understand the basis for this difference, they purified the protein by sequential affinity and DEAE-Sepharose chromatographies. The final product was obtained in greater than 60% yield and was found to migrate as a single homogeneous band when examined by electrophoresis. The steroid binding specificity of the purified protein was identical with that of the protein in the starting serum. In contrast to the single protein band observed following electrophoresis under normal conditions, separations in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resolved the pure protein into two bands: one at 54,000 daltons and one at 57,000 daltons. Unlike other species, squirrel monkey CBG exists as a dimer in its native state. Antibodies were generated against the purified material and tested for cross-reactivity against the sera from other species by both radioimmunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay techniques. Only serum from titi monkeys was observed to cross-react when examined by radioimmunoassay. Taken together, the results suggest that New World monkey CBG's are distinct from those of other species in both size and immunologic characteristics.

  6. Atomic storage

    CERN Multimedia

    Ricadela, A

    2003-01-01

    IBM is supplying CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, with its Storage Tank file system virtualization software, 20 terabytes of storage capacity, and services under a three-year deal to build computer systems that will support the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (1 paragraph).

  7. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. Irish Hepatology Research Group.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny-Walsh, E

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In February 1994, batches of anti-D immune globulin used in Ireland during 1977 and 1978 to prevent Rh isoimmunization were found to be contaminated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a single infected donor. In March 1994, a national screening program was initiated for all women who had received anti-D immune globulin between 1970 and 1994. Of the 62,667 women who had been screened when this study began, 704 (1.1 percent) had evidence of past or current HCV infection, and 390 of those 704 (55 percent) had positive tests for serum HCV RNA on reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction analysis. All 390 were offered a referral for clinical assessment and therapy. We evaluated 376 of these 390 women (96 percent); the other 14 were not seen at one of the designated treatment centers. RESULTS: The mean (+\\/-SD) age of the 376 women was 45+\\/-6 years at the time of screening. They had been infected with hepatitis C for about 17 years. A total of 304 women (81 percent) reported symptoms, most commonly fatigue (248 [66 percent]). Serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were slightly elevated (40 to 99 U per liter) in 176 of 371 women (47 percent), and the concentrations were 100 U per liter or higher in 31 (8 percent). Liver biopsies showed inflammation in 356 of 363 women (98 percent); in most cases the inflammation was slight (41 percent) or moderate (52 percent). Although the biopsy samples from 186 of the 363 women (51 percent) showed evidence of fibrosis, only 7 women (2 percent) had probable or definite cirrhosis. Two of the seven reported excessive alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the women with HCV infection 17 years after receiving HCV-contaminated anti-D immune globulin had evidence of slight or moderate hepatic inflammation on liver biopsy, about half had fibrosis, and 2 percent had probable or definite cirrhosis.

  8. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin induces rapid expansion of effector memory CD8 T cells without accelerating acute graft versus host disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Rieger, Kathrin; Dziubianau, Mikalai; Herholz, Anne; Mensen, Angela; Blau, Igor Wolfgang; Uharek, Lutz; Dörken, Bernd; Thiel, Andreas; Na, Il-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin®) is commonly used as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. Since we found similar total CD8 T cell numbers in patients with and without Thymoglobulin® therapy within the first six months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we have analyzed the reconstitution of the CD8 T cell compartment in detail. After T cell-depletion, higher and more sustained proliferative capacity of memory CD8 T cells resulted in their rapid expansion, whereas the fraction of naive CD8 T cells decreased. Importantly, this shift towards effector memory CD8 T cells did not accelerate the incidence of GvHD. PMID:24371789

  9. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin induces rapid expansion of effector memory CD8 T cells without accelerating acute graft versus host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Rieger, Kathrin; Dziubianau, Mikalai; Herholz, Anne; Mensen, Angela; Blau, Igor Wolfgang; Uharek, Lutz; Dörken, Bernd; Thiel, Andreas; Na, Il-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin(®)) is commonly used as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. Since we found similar total CD8 T cell numbers in patients with and without Thymoglobulin(®) therapy within the first six months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we have analyzed the reconstitution of the CD8 T cell compartment in detail. After T cell-depletion, higher and more sustained proliferative capacity of memory CD8 T cells resulted in their rapid expansion, whereas the fraction of naive CD8 T cells decreased. Importantly, this shift towards effector memory CD8 T cells did not accelerate the incidence of GvHD. PMID:24371789

  10. Apparent effect of immune serum globulin prophylaxis in the military on viral hepatitis incidence in the civilian population in Israel.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M. S.; Block, C.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1969, extensive use of immune serum globulin in the Israel Defence Force for prophylaxis against hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has produced a sharp decline in the incidence of the disease. However, it is not clear whether this policy has affected the susceptibility of Israeli adults to HAV infection. In this study, we examined the effect of the immunisation policy on the incidence of hepatitis A virus infection in the civilian population in the 15-44 year age group, which includes a...

  11. The role of alpha2u-globulin in ochratoxin A induced renal toxicity and tumors in F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ra?sonyi, Thomas; Schlatter, Josef; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) was shown to be a potent kidney carcinogen in rats demonstrating a marked sex difference in the response. Compared to female rats, male rats had a 10-fold higher incidence of kidney carcinomas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this sex difference in tumor response is due to an exacerbation of effect resulting from the interaction of the male rat specific urinary protein ?2u-globulin (?2u) with OTA. Male and female rats were treated by o...

  12. The Presence of alpha2u-Globulin is Necessary for d-Limonene Promotion of Male Rat Kidney Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Daniel R.; Swenberg, James A.

    1991-01-01

    In a 2-year carcinogenesis bioassay, d-limonene (dL) induced kidney tumors in male F344 rats, but not in female F344 rats or either sex of mice. d-Limonene-1,2-oxide, a metabolite of dL, has been shown to bind reversibly to the male rat-specific urinary protein, ?2u-globulin (?2u-G), resulting in an ?2u-G-chemical complex that is more resistant to lysosomal degradation than ?2u-G alone. This reduced degradation of ?2u-G-chemical complex leads to an accumulation of this protein in the pr...

  13. Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin: steroid transport by a laminin G-like domain

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkovskaya, Irina; Avvakumov, George V.; Sklenar, Gisela; Dales, David; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Muller, Yves A.

    2000-01-01

    Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) transports sex steroids in blood and regulates their access to target tissues. In biological fluids, SHBG exists as a homodimer and each monomer comprises two laminin G-like domains (G domains). The crystal structure of the N–terminal G domain of SHBG in complex with 5?–dihydrotestosterone at 1.55 ? resolution reveals both the architecture of the steroid-binding site and the quaternary structure of the dimer. We also show that G domains have je...

  14. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Danilowicz; Oscar D, Bruno; Daniela, Mana; Hector A, Serra; Graciela, Cross; Jorge A, Rey.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia los valores de referencia utilizados para las evaluaciones bioquímicas endocrinológicas son los sugeridos por los kits utilizados, a pesar de las recomendaciones de que cada laboratorio debiera obtener sus propios valores de normalidad. Nuestros objetivos fueron (i) analizar los rango [...] s de referencia para testosterona (T) y globulina ligadora de esteroides sexuales (SHBG) apropiados para nuestro laboratorio y población, y (ii) analizar su influencia en la evaluación de la hiperandrogenemia. Se midió T y SHBG y se calculó testosterona libre y biodisponible en un grupo (a) control de 30 mujeres no hiperandrogénicas, (b) 87 mujeres no seleccionadas donantes de sangre, (c) 53 mujeres con hiperandrogenismo, y (d) 38 mujeres con desórdenes hiperandrogénicos pero sin hiperandrogenemia de acuerdo a los rangos de normalidad sugeridos por el kit. La concentración media de SHBG fue significativamente diferente entre los cuatro grupos. Los niveles de SHBG fueron significativamente más altos en las mujeres controles seleccionadas (grupo a). Tomando en consideración los resultados obtenidos en este grupo y estableciendo los rangos de referencia adecuados, 12 de 38 mujeres (31.6%) hiperandrogénicas sin hiperandrogenemia (grupo d) fueron recategorizadas como con exceso androgénico bioquímico. De igual manera, al analizar mujeres normopesas no seleccionadas, en edad reproductiva (grupo b), 4 de 63 (6.4%) pudieron ser definidas como hiperandrogénicas. Utilizando valores adecuados de referencia para SHBG, se mejora la precisión del diagnóstico de exceso androgénico. Abstract in english It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i) determine reference ranges for serum te [...] stosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii) to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a) 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b) 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c) 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d) 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a). Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6%) women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d) were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4%) non-selected, normal weight, women (group b), were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in men : The role of gonadal steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.

  16. Role of corticosteroid binding globulin in emotional reactivity sex differences in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minni, A M; de Medeiros, G F; Helbling, J C; Duittoz, A; Marissal-Arvy, N; Foury, A; De Smedt-Peyrusse, V; Pallet, V; Moisan, M P

    2014-12-01

    Sex differences exist for stress reactivity as well as for the prevalence of depression, which is more frequent in women of reproductive age and often precipitated by stressful events. In animals, the differential effect of stress on male's and female's emotional behavior has been well documented. Crosstalk between the gonadal and stress hormones, in particular between estrogens and glucocorticoids, underlie these sex differences on stress vulnerability. We have previously shown that corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) deficiency in a mouse model (Cbg k.o.) leads, in males, to an increased despair-like behavior caused by suboptimal corticosterone stress response. Because CBG displays a sexual dimorphism and is regulated by estrogens, we have now investigated whether it plays a role in the sex differences observed for emotional reactivity in mice. By analyzing Cbg k.o. and wild-type (WT) animals of both sexes, we detected sex differences in despair-like behavior in WT mice but not in Cbg k.o. animals. We showed through ovariectomy and estradiol (E2) replacement that E2 levels explain the sex differences found in WT animals. However, the manipulation of E2 levels did not affect the emotional behavior of Cbg k.o. females. As Cbg k.o. males, Cbg k.o. females have markedly reduced corticosterone levels across the circadian cycle and also after stress. Plasma free corticosterone levels in Cbg k.o. mice measured immediately after stress were blunted in both sexes compared to WT mice. A trend for higher mean levels of ACTH in Cbg k.o. mice was found for both sexes. The turnover of a corticosterone bolus was increased in Cbg k.o. Finally, the glucocorticoid-regulated immediate early gene early growth response 1 (Egr1) showed a blunted mRNA expression in the hippocampus of Cbg k.o. mutants while mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors presented sex differences but equivalent mRNA expression between genotypes. Thus, in our experimental conditions, sex differences for despair-like behavior in WT mice are explained by estrogens levels. Also, in both sexes, the presence of CBG is required to attain optimal glucocorticoid concentrations and normal emotional reactivity, although in females this is apparent only under low E2 concentrations. These findings suggest a complex interaction of CBG and E2 on emotional reactivity in females. PMID:25244639

  17. Transient liver function abnormality following treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin for nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Abraham; Lee-Lam, Fu-Ying; Wang, Joanna; Cheng, Ya-Hwei

    2015-02-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) is increasingly used in nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Elevated liver function tests (LFTs) have been reported for antithymocyte globulin in the treatment of aplastic anemia, but not when used in a conditioning regimen for HSCT. We describe two cases of patients receiving a conditioning regimen for HSCT containing rATG who developed a transient, severe transaminase elevation. In the first case, a 66-year-old woman with a history of acute myeloid leukemia received the first dose of rATG and the patient's transaminases were found to be extremely elevated within a few hours. The aspartate transaminase (AST) peaked at 1286?U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) peaked at 991?U/L and both resolved within a week. In the second case, a 72-year-old woman with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma received the first dose of rATG and the AST and ALT were found to be 1212?U/L and 689?U/L, respectively, 1?h after finishing the infusion. Like the previous case, the transaminase elevation resolved within a week. LFT abnormalities induced by rATG during conditioning therapy for HSCT may be transient and have a rapid onset after the first dose, but quickly subside without any complications or sequelae. It is important to follow the LFTs closely, as well as monitor for any signs and symptoms of acute liver failure. PMID:24395543

  18. Physicochemical changes taking place in bovine globulins under the influence of gamma irradiation studied by thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation modification of protein based polymers as well as the development of gamma irradiation techniques as a method of food sterilisation and preservation induces necessity of better recognition of the physicochemical changes occurring in proteins after gamma irradiation. Recently differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied widely in structural studies of proteins. Also thermoanalytical methods (TG, DTG) applied for proteins pyrolysis were also found to be useful in characterisation of proteins structure and the properties of proteins containing tissues. In presented paper, the aforementioned methods were applied for investigation of the gamma irradiation influence on thermal decomposition of gamma and alpha globulins and the results were related to their structural modifications. It has been found, that irradiation influences the course of decomposition of gamma and alpha globulins. Irradiation of solid native proteins result in decreased temperature of decomposition, especially decreased temperature of the last stage. The effects of irradiation performed for water suspensions were clearly more significant. The relatively large differences between decomposition of the irradiated and non-irradiated samples were detected by DSC and thermogravimetry already after irradiation of water suspensions

  19. Effects of a major androgen-dependent urinary protein,. alpha. 2u-globulin on the pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic monoamines in adult male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Chandrashekar, V.; Steger, R. Bartke, A. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-2u-globulin, a sex-dependent male rat urinary protein on pituitary-gonadal functions and hypothalamic monamine contents in male mice. Adult male mice, maintained under standardized laboratory conditions were injected subcutaneously with alpha-2u-globulin or with vehicle daily for 14 days and killed 16 h after the last injection. Plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and testicular levels of T were measured by radioimmunoassays. The concentrations of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and anterior hypothalamus (AH) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Administration of alpha-2u-globulin led to a significant increase in plasma FSH and LH levels. In the MBH of alpha-2u-globulin treated mice, there were significant elevations of NE, DA and 5-HT contents. In the AH, both DA and 5-HT contents were decreased while NE content remained unaltered.

  20. Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteriod-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    In swine, more than 60% of cortisol in circulation is bound to its carrier glycoprotein, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (pCBG), and is considered biologically inactive. Limitations exist when only total plasma cortisol levels are used to assess the stress response in swine in situations whe...

  1. LENTIL TANNIN-GLOBULIN INTERACTIONAND AND IN VITRO HYDROLYSIS / INTERAÇÃO TANINO-GLOBULINA DE LENTILHA E HIDRÓLISE IN VITRO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdir A., NEVES; Euclides J., LOURENÇO.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As frações protéicas foram isoladas dos cotiledones e os taninos isolados e purificados da casca da lentilha. A fração globulina correspondeu a 42,7 % do nitrogenio total da farinha de lentilha representando a fração protéica majoritária. Comparativamente ao metanol e metanol-HCl 1% a mistura aceton [...] a:água (7:3) representou o melhor meio extrator para os taninos da casca. A fração globulina isolada, nativa e aquecida (99oC/15 min), e caseína foram hidrolisadas com tripsina e pepsina na ausência de taninos e na presença de relações tanino:proteína de 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5 e 1:2,5. A hidrólise tríptica e péptica das proteínas não-aquecidas foram reduzidas com o aumento da relação tanino-proteína. A caseína não aquecida mostrou ser mais susceptível à tripsina que à globulina, o oposto sendo observado com a pepsina. O aquecimento seguido de interação com os taninos e hidrólise teve um efeito mais pronunciado sobre a digestão com tripsina que com pepsina para ambas proteínas. Abstract in english Protein fractions were isolated from lentil cotyledons and tannins were isolated and purified from lentil seed coats. The globulin fraction corresponded to 42.7% of the total lentil flour nitrogen, representing the major protein fraction. Acetone:water (7:3) was the best extractant for seed coat tan [...] nins compared to methanol or methanol-HCl 1%. Native and heated (99oC/15 min.) isolated lentil globulin and casein were hydrolyzed with trypsin and pepsin in the absence of tannins and at 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:2.5 tannin-to-protein ratios. The tryptic and peptic hydrolysis of the unheated proteins were reduced with increasing tannin-to-protein ratios. Unheated casein showed to be more susceptible to trypsin than globulin and the opposite effect was observed with pepsin. Heating followed by tannin interaction and hydrolysis had a more pronounced effect on tryptic than peptic digestion for both proteins.

  2. d-Limonene-induced male rat-specific nephrotoxicity: Evaluation of the association between d-limonene and alpha 2u-globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d-Limonene is a naturally occurring monoterpene, which when dosed orally, causes a male rat-specific nephrotoxicity manifested acutely as the exacerbation of protein droplets in proximal tubule cells. Experiments were conducted to examine the retention of [14C]d-limonene in male and female rat kidney, to determine whether d-limonene or one or more of its metabolites associates with the male rat-specific protein, alpha 2u-globulin, and if so, to identify the bound material. The results indicated that, 24 hr after oral administration of 3 mmol d-limonene/kg, the renal concentration of d-limonene equivalents was approximately 2.5 times higher in male rats than in female rats. Equilibrium dialysis in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate indicated that approximately 40% of the d-limonene equivalents in male rat kidney associated with proteins in a reversible manner, whereas no significant association was observed between d-limonene equivalents and female rat kidney proteins. Association between d-limonene and male rat kidney proteins was characterized by high-performance gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography. Gel filtration HPLC indicated that d-limonene in male rat kidney is associated with a protein fraction having a molecular weight of approximately 20,000. Separation of alpha 2u-globulin from other kidney proteins by reverse-phase HPLC indicated that d-limonene associated with a protein present only in male rat kidney which was definit only in male rat kidney which was definitively identified as alpha 2u-globulin by amino acid sequencing. The major metabolite associated with alpha 2u-globulin was d-limonene-1,2-oxide. Parent d-limonene was also identified as a minor component in the alpha 2u-globulin fraction

  3. Serum sickness after treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin in a heart transplant recipient with previous rabbit exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P; Castillo, J; Potter, L; Fedson, S

    2015-01-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is a preparation of polyclonal antibodies frequently used to treat acute cellular rejection in organ transplant recipients. Use of rabbit ATG has been associated with serum sickness in liver and kidney transplantation patients previously exposed to rabbits. Here, we report the case of a heart transplantation patient with a history of significant rabbit exposure who had developed migratory diffuse arthralgias 13 days after receiving ATG for acute cellular rejection. Laboratory findings included C-reactive protein elevation, depressed levels of C3 and C4 complement, and strongly positive titers against rabbit immunoglobulin G, all strongly suggestive of serum sickness. To our knowledge, this is the first report of delayed serum sickness related to rabbit ATG after prior rabbit exposure in an adult heart transplantation patient. Early recognition of the symptoms of serum sickness can lead to prompt and appropriate management. PMID:25645803

  4. Role of the sulfhydryl redox state and disulfide bonds in processing and assembly of 11S seed globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R; Nam, Y W; Saalbach, I; Müntz, K; Nielsen, N C

    1997-11-01

    Seed legumins contain two conserved disulfide bonds: an interchain bond (IE) connecting the acidic and basic chains and an intrachain bond (IA) internal to the acidic chain. Mutant subunits were constructed in which these disulfide bonds were disrupted. Oxidized glutathione stimulated the rate of assembly of trimers with unmodified prolegumin subunits. Stimulation was not detected during assembly of IE mutant subunits and was diminished for the IA mutant. Hexamer assembly with trimers of mature unmodified subunits required oxidizing conditions. Trimers composed of mature IE mutants did not form hexamers. Both mutant and non-mutant subunits accumulated in hexamers when the cDNAs were expressed in tobacco. Hexamer assembly in seeds probably involved trimers with a mixture of mutant and non-mutant subunits. Similarly, mixed trimers that were a mixture of mutant and non-mutant subunits assembled into hexamers in vitro. The results demonstrate the importance of disulfide bonds during the assembly of 11S globulins. PMID:9401126

  5. Age-dependent isotype variation during secondary immune response in MRL/lpr mice producing autoanti-gamma-globulin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, A; Bona, C

    1985-07-01

    A profound inability to produce IgG anti-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP) antibodies during the secondary immune response elicited by a T-dependent antigen was observed in aged MLR/lpr mice. This unresponsiveness is associated with a significantly low indirect anti-TNP plaque-forming cell response and a weak in vitro anti-TNP response upon the culture of keyhole limpet hemocyanin-primed T cells and TNP-primed B cells in the presence of TNP. The markedly low IgG anti-TNP response observed in aged MLR/lpr mice cannot be related to the presence of rheumatoid factors which are observed during the secondary response, since MRL +/+ and 129/J mice, (non-autoimmune disease strains), also produce significant amounts of anti-gamma-globulin antibodies yet mount a strong IgG anti-TNP response. PMID:2408902

  6. Fast chromatofocusing of human serum proteins with special reference to alpha 1-antitrypsin and Gc-globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstam, L G; Lizana, J; Axiö-Fredriksson, U B; Wahlström, L

    1983-08-26

    A new chromatofocusing medium, MonoP, was used for fast (60 min or less) separations of human serum proteins. Separations in the broad pH interval 6.0-3.8 were analysed by fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis to identify a number of proteins, and by gradient gel electrophoresis to determine the molecular weight distribution of the eluted material. To illustrate further the high resolving power of chromatofocusing, narrow pH intervals of about 0.5 pH units were used to study the microheterogeneity of alpha 1-antitrypsin and Gc-globulin. Due to its high resolving power and preparative capacity, chromatofocusing is attractive as the first dimension in two-dimensional techniques for the resolution of complex protein mixtures. PMID:6605353

  7. Long-term outcome of 25 children and adolescents with severe aplastic anemia treated with antithymocyte globulin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.R., de-Medeiros; R.C., Ribeiro; M.A., Bittencourt; J., Zanis-Neto; R., Pasquini.

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is probably an immune-mediated disorder, and immunosuppressive therapy is recommended for patients with no available donor for bone marrow transplant. Between October 1984 and November 1987, 25 consecutive children and adolescents with SAA with no HLA-compatible marrow d [...] onor received equine antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (15 mg kg-1 day-1) for 10 days. The patients were evaluated 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after starting ATG treatment. Thereafter, patients were evaluated yearly until July 1998. Median age was 10 years (range, 1.5-20 years), granulocyte counts on referral ranged from 0.032 to 1.4 x 10(9)/l (median 0.256 x 10(9)/l), and 12 patients had granulocyte counts

  8. Elevated pretreatment serum globulin albumin ratio predicts poor prognosis for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yanwen; Zhao, Ming; Yuan, Dongmei; Gu, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to explore the association between the pretreatment globulin albumin ratio (GAR) and the survival of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Patients hospitalized between January 2007 and December 2010 were enrolled and eliminated according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. GAR was defined as the absolute globulin value divided by the absolute albumin value. Chi-squared test was performed to compare clinical characteristics in different groups. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model were used to determine independent prognostic factors. A P value of ?0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Total 316 patients were finally enrolled. The median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 210.0 and 430.0 days, respectively. The statistical analyses indicated that pretreatment GAR >0.58 [hazard ratio (HR) =1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.12-2.08, P=0.008 for PFS, HR =1.65, 95% CI: 1.20-2.26, P=0.002 for OS], and pretreatment albumin ?35 g/L (HR =2.09, 95% CI: 1.20-3.65, P=0.003 for PFS, HR =1.92, 95% CI: 1.10-3.36, P=0.022 for OS) were independent prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. Conclusions Our study first established a connection between pretreatment GAR and advanced NSCLC patients, suggesting that GAR was an independent prognostic factor and could be the biomarker for prognosis. PMID:25276368

  9. Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

  10. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10-6 eV to 3.5 x 1012 eV (LHC, 7 x 1012 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with ra magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams. Storage rings have instrumentation to monitor the electrical and mechanical systems, and the beam quality. Computers are used to control the operation. Large storage rings have millions of control points from all systems. The time dependent beam intensity I(t) can often be approximated by an exponential function I(t) = I(0) exp(-t/?) (1) where the decay time ? and, correspondingly, the store time ranges from a few turns to 10 days (ISR). ? can be dominated by a variety of effects including lattice nonlinearities, beam-beam, space charge, intrabeam and Touschek scattering, interaction with the residual gas or target, or the lifetime of the stored particle. In this case, the beam lifetime measurement itself can be the purpose of a storage ring experiment. The main consideration in the design of a storage ring is the preservation of the beam quality over the store length. The beam size and momentum spread can be reduced through cooling, often leading to an increase in the store time. For long store times vacuum considerations are important since the interaction rate of the stored particles with the residual gas molecules is proportional to the pressure, and an ultra-high vacuum system may be needed. Distributed pumping with warm activated NEG surfaces or cold surfaces in machines with superconducting magnets are ways to provide large pumping speeds and achieve low pressures even under conditions with dynamic gas loads. The largest application of storage rings today are synchrotron light sources, of which about 50 exist world wide. In experiments where the beam collides with an internal target or another beam, a storage ring allows to re-use the accelerated beam many times if the interaction with the target is sufficiently small. In hadron collider and ion storage rings store times of many hours or even days are realized, corresponding to up to 1011 turns and thereby target passages. Ref. (3) is the first proposal for a collider storage ring. A number of storage rings exist where the beam itself or its decay products are

  11. Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Cavin.

    Even as home computers are being equipped with hard drives more massive than most users need, the scientific community is facing challenges of inadequate data storage systems. Experiments conducted in research facilities can produce unimaginable amounts of information, and computer scientists are working on ways to handle and manage it.Virtually every modern computer system incorporates several different storage technologies to process data efficiently. A gentle introduction to registers, caches, and other forms of memory is given on this site (1). A more advanced description of computer architecture and memory hierarchy is offered by Sun Microsystems (2). The paper explains the importance of having small, fast caches in the microprocessor to improve performance and reduce the delay of accessing the large, slow hard drive. Colossal Storage (3) is a company specializing in a new method of holographic data storage. While current technologies are hindered by area density, the proposed technology will expand into three dimensions and use the disk's volume to write data. Although the company's homepage is a bit poorly organized, some interesting insights into the technology and several white papers are available. InPhase Technologies is another company exploring holographic storage; however, its goal is to create a device that could be the successor to the DVD. In this article (4), the potential capabilities and specifications of such a device are discussed. A working prototype has already been demonstrated, paving the way for future commercially viable drives based on the technology. A short paper by the Department of Energy Office of Science (5) describes the impending rush of data generated by future scientific applications. It outlines the obstacles that must be overcome, including data mobility, extraction and analysis, and storage hardware. Possibly the most ambitious storage system ever created will be used to capture data from the world's most advanced particle physics facility. The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) will begin operating its Large Hadron Collider in 2007. The system that will collect and manage data from this instrument is described on this page (6). Documentation about the architecture and operation of the CERN Advanced STORage Manager (CASTOR) is provided. A news article from January 2003 (7) describes a new hard drive that can fit gigabytes of data in a tiny space. Said to measure about an inch wide, the Microdrive will be used in portable multimedia devices like digital video cameras. The second part of the article tells of the IBM Millipede project, which uses nanotechnology to make storage devices with less area than a dime. Satellites that monitor the Earth's environment have provided NASA with over a petabyte (a million gigabytes) of data. This article (8) discusses this remarkable achievement and how the system allows constant access to all of the information.

  12. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  13. Redox changes accompanying storage protein mobilization in moist chilled and warm incubated walnut kernels prior to germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Zeynab; Tamaskani, Fatemeh; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Abdolzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the redox state of storage proteins and the associated proteolytic processes were investigated in moist-chilled and warm-incubated walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels prior to germination. The kernel total protein labeling with a thiol-specific fluorochrome i.e. monobromobimane (mBBr) revealed more reduction of 29-32 kDa putative glutelins, while in the soluble proteins, both putative glutelins and 41, 55 and 58 kDa globulins contained reduced disulfide bonds during mobilization. Thus, the in vivo more reduced disulfide bonds of storage proteins corresponds to greater solubility. After the in vitro reduction of walnut kernel proteins pre-treated by N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) with dithioerythrethiol (DTT) and bacterial thioredoxin, the 58 kDa putative globulin and a 6 kDa putative albumin were identified as disulfide proteins. Thioredoxin stimulated the reduction of the H(2)O(2)-oxidized 6 kDa polypeptide, but not the 58 kDa polypeptide by DTT. The solubility of 6 kDa putative albumin, 58 and 19-24 kDa putative globulins and glutelins, respectively, were increased by DTT. The in vitro specific mobilization of the 58 kDa polypeptide that occurred at pH 5.0 by the kernel endogenous protease was sensitive to the serine-protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and stimulated by DTT. The specific degradation of the 58 kDa polypeptide might be achieved through thioredoxin-mediated activation of a serine protease and/or reductive unfolding of its 58 kDa polypeptide substrate. As redox changes in storage proteins occurred equally in both moist chilled and warm incubated walnut kernels, the regulatory functions of thioredoxins in promoting seed germination may be due to other germination related processes. PMID:22989946

  14. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  15. Coffee and Caffeine Consumption in Relation to Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Atsushi; Song, Yiqing; Chen, Brian H.; Manson, Joann Elisabeth; Buring, Julie Elizabeth; Liu, Simin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. We aimed to examine whether plasma levels of sex hormones and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) may account for the inverse association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in the prospective Women's Health Study (WHS). During a median follow-up of 10 years, 359 postmenopausal ...

  16. Intravenous immune globulin (10% caprylate-chromatography purified) for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (ICE study): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, R. A. C.; Donofrio, P.; Bril, V.; Dalakas, M. C.; Deng, C.; Hanna, K.; Hartung, H. P.; Latov, N.; Merkies, I. S. J.; Doorn, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Short-term studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin might reduce disability caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) but long-term effects have not been shown. We aimed to establish whether 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immune globulin intravenous (IGIV-C) has short-term and long-term benefit in patients with CIDP. Methods: 117 patients with CIDP who met specific neurophysiological inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT)...

  17. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yeager Meredith; Welch Robert; Peplonska Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska Neonila; Sherman Mark E; Richesson Douglas; Lissowska Jolanta; Brinton Louise A.; Garcia-Closas Montserrat; Zatonski Witold; Chanock Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control stud...

  18. Less Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Conditioning in Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplantation for Leukemia and Myelodysplasia: Comparison with Matched Related Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Atta, Elias Hallack; Oliveira, Danielli Cristina Muniz; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Nucci, Ma?rcio; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks for unrelated donor (UD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Despite results from randomized trials, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is not routinely included for GVHD prophylaxis in UD BMT by many centers. One of ways to demonstrate the usefulness of rabbit ATG in UD BMT is to evaluate how its results approximate to those observed in matched related (MRD) BMT. Therefore, we compared the outcomes between UD BMT with rabbit ATG (Thymog...

  19. Human serum Cohn fraction IV (alpha-globulin [correction of globin] enriched) inhibits ligand binding at neurotransmitter receptors in human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Andorn, A. C.; Pappolla, M. A.; Fox, H.; Klemens, F. K.; Martello, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Human serum proteins are found in significant density in the neuropil in brains of demented individuals. The functional significance of these abnormally distributed proteins has been unknown. We now report that alpha-globulin-enriched fractions of human serum decrease the specific binding of [3H]spiroperidol at its binding sites in postmortem human frontal cortex and caudate. The substances in this serum fraction apparently exert their effect by a direct action on the binding site. Since [3H]...

  20. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Coviello, Ad; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, Kl; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, Nc; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

  1. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Coviello, Andrea D.; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimaki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-moret, N. Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

  2. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirick, G. R.; Bradt, B. M.; Denardo, S. J.; Denardo, G. L. [Calfornia Univ., Sacramento (United States). Davis Medical Center

    2004-12-01

    The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ({sup 9}0yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ({sup 1}31I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades.

  3. Low-dose antithymocyte globulin enhanced the efficacy of tacrolimus and mycophenolate for GVHD prophylaxis in recipients of unrelated SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatharathorn, V; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Cronin, S; Bhutani, D; Lum, L G; Abidi, M; Ventimiglia, M; Mellert, K; Uberti, J P

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of the outcome of 197 consecutive unrelated donor transplant recipients who received GVHD prophylaxis either TM regimen (tacrolimus and mycophenolate) (121 patients) or TM/ATG-G regimen (TM with low-dose antithymocyte globulin (ATG) of 4.5?mg/kg, ATG-G, Genzyme) (76 patients). Cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD for the TM and TM/ATG-G cohorts were 49% and 61% (P=0.11) and grade III-IV acute GVHD for the TM and TM/ATG-G cohorts were 27% and 14% (P=0.02), respectively. There was no difference in the incidence of relapse or disease progression between TM and TM/ATG-G-16% and 23% (P=0.64). TM/ATG-G cohort had lower incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM; 37% vs 20%, P=0.01), chronic GVHD (56% vs 43%, P<0.001) and more favorable global chronic GVHD severity (P<0.001). Univariate analyses showed improved OS and PFS of patients who received TM/ATG-G. Multivariate analysis confirmed TM/ATG-G had a favorable influence on OS (P=0.05) but not on PFS (P=0.07). We concluded that low-dose ATG of 4.5?mg/kg given in conjunction with TM improved GVHD prophylaxis without increased risk of relapse. Lower NRM, lower incidence and severity of chronic GVHD could potentially improve survival. PMID:25285804

  4. Induction of specific unresponsiveness to heart allografts in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival of heterotopic heart allografts was determined in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. TLI alone (total dose, 1800 rad) minimally prolonged graft survival as compared with untreated controls. However, marked synergy was observed when TLI was combined with a 10-day post-transplant course of rabbit anti-dog thymocyte globulin (ATG). Approximately 40% of recipients given TLI and ATG showed specific unresponsiveness, as judged by the lack of rejection on serial biopsies for more than 1 year and the prompt rejection of third party hearts. The addition of post-transplant azathioprine (90 to 180 days) to the TLI and ATG regimen increased the mortality of recipients and reduced the fraction of dogs showing specific unresponsiveness. Infusion of donor bone marrow cells at the time of heart transplantation failed to induced specific unresponsiveness in recipients given TLI alone or TLI in combination with post-transplant methotrexate, cyclosporine A, or ATG. The results indicate that the combination of TLI and a brief course of ATG without marrow transplantation was the most effective regimen for the induction of specific unresponsiveness in mongrel dogs

  5. Induction of specific unresponsiveness to heart allografts in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, S; Modry, D L; Hoppe, R T; Pennock, J L; Bieber, C P; Holm, B I; Jamieson, S W; Stinson, E B; Schroder, J; Suomalainen, H

    1984-02-01

    The survival of heterotopic heart allografts was determined in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. TLI alone (total dose, 1800 rad) minimally prolonged graft survival as compared with untreated controls. However, marked synergy was observed when TLI was combined with a 10-day post-transplant course of rabbit anti-dog thymocyte globulin (ATG). Approximately 40% of recipients given TLI and ATG showed specific unresponsiveness, as judged by the lack of rejection on serial biopsies for more than 1 yr and the prompt rejection of third party hearts. The addition of post-transplant azathioprine (90 to 180 days) to the TLI and ATG regimen increased the mortality of recipients and reduced the fraction of dogs showing specific unresponsiveness. Infusion of donor bone marrow cells at the time of heart transplantation failed to induce specific unresponsiveness in recipients given TLI alone or TLI in combination with post-transplant methotrexate, cyclosporine A, or ATG. The results indicate that the combination of TLI and a brief course of ATG without marrow transplantation was the most effective regimen for the induction of specific unresponsiveness in mongrel dogs. PMID:6361129

  6. Induction of specific unresponsiveness to heart allografts in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strober, S.; Modry, D.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Pennock, J.L.; Bieber, C.P.; Holm, B.I.; Jamieson, S.W.; Stinson, E.B.; Schroder, J.; Suomalainen, H.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-02-01

    The survival of heterotopic heart allografts was determined in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. TLI alone (total dose, 1800 rad) minimally prolonged graft survival as compared with untreated controls. However, marked synergy was observed when TLI was combined with a 10-day post-transplant course of rabbit anti-dog thymocyte globulin (ATG). Approximately 40% of recipients given TLI and ATG showed specific unresponsiveness, as judged by the lack of rejection on serial biopsies for more than 1 year and the prompt rejection of third party hearts. The addition of post-transplant azathioprine (90 to 180 days) to the TLI and ATG regimen increased the mortality of recipients and reduced the fraction of dogs showing specific unresponsiveness. Infusion of donor bone marrow cells at the time of heart transplantation failed to induced specific unresponsiveness in recipients given TLI alone or TLI in combination with post-transplant methotrexate, cyclosporine A, or ATG. The results indicate that the combination of TLI and a brief course of ATG without marrow transplantation was the most effective regimen for the induction of specific unresponsiveness in mongrel dogs.

  7. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were identified using mass spectrometry and data mining. Salt-soluble endosperm proteins from 67 CS deletion lines were also separated by 2DE (four gels per line). Image analysis of the 268 2DE gels as compared to the CS reference proteome allowed the detection of qualitative and quantitative variations in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression of 391 proteins is controlled by one or more chromosome bins with 262 significant increases and 196 significant decreases in spot volume. The spot volume of several proteins was increased or decreased by numerous chromosomal regions and homoeologous-like regulation was revealed for some proteins. Quantitative or qualitative variation in a total of 386 proteins was influenced by genes assigned to at least one chromosomal region, while 66 % of all stained proteins were not found to be influenced by chromosome bins. Proteomics of deletion lines can, therefore, be used to simultaneously analyse the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.

  8. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides obtained after in vitro hydrolysis of pea (Pisum sativum var. Bajka) globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Anna; Baraniak, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Pea seeds represent a valuable source of active compounds that may positively influence health. In this study, the pea globulins were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal condition and potentially bioaccessible angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were identified. The degree of hydrolysis after pepsin, 14.42%, and pancreatin, 30.65%, were noted. The peptides with the highest ACE inhibitory properties were separated using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Thirteen peptides fractions were obtained but only four showed potential antihypertensive properties. The highest inhibitory activity was determined for the fraction F8 (IC50 = 0.0014 mg/mL). This fraction was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptide fractions were obtained. The peptides fraction (B) with the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.073 mg/mL) was identified by ESI-MS/MS. The sequences of ACE inhibitory peptides were GGSGNY, DLKLP, GSSDNR, MRDLK, and HNTPSR. Based on Lineweaver-Burk plots for the fraction B, the kinetic parameters as K m, Vmax, and K i and mode of inhibition were determined. This fraction belongs to uncompetitive inhibitor of ACE activity. The seeds of pea are the source of precursor protein, which releases the ACE inhibitory peptides as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25250321

  9. Response-guided therapy for steroid-refractory acute GVHD starting with very-low-dose antithymocyte globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Koh, Hideo; Nakamae, Mika; Hirose, Asao; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakane, Takahiko; Hino, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    Treatment for steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has not been established yet. In this article, we report a single-center experience with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for the treatment of steroid-refractory acute GVHD. We retrospectively analyzed 11 consecutive patients between December 2009 and December 2013. ATG was given at an initial dose of 1.0 mg/kg for all but one patient with gradual dose escalation while assessing responses. The overall improvement at day 28 was 55% after a median of two treatments (range: 1-5), and a median dose of 3 mg/kg (range: 1.0-11.75 mg/kg) of ATG. Patients with skin (100%, 3/3) and gut (83%, 5/6) responded favorably, whereas the cases with liver involvement showed poor responses (25%, 1/4). The overall survival and transplant-related mortality at 1 year were 55% and 45%, respectively. There were no patients who had developed a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. We suggest that response-guided ATG therapy could be an option for patients with steroid-refractory GVHD, without increasing the incidence of opportunistic infections. PMID:25584866

  10. Measurement for serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and its clinical assessment in diagnosis of thyroid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum levels of thyroxine (T4)-binding globulin (TBG) were determined by a radioimmunoassay using cellulose-linked antibody to TBG. Values obtained in healthy young adults averaged 1.62 +- 0.25 (SD) mg/100 ml, and no significant difference was detected between males and females. The TBG levels remained within the normal limit in hyperthyroidism while they were significantly increased in hypothyroidism. Interestingly enough, TBG levels were significantly elevated in chronic thyroidities with no overt hypothyroidism. In normal pregnancy, TBG was increased slightly in the first trimester, and markedly in the second and third trimesters. In one case of congenital TBG deficiency, no immunoreactive TBG was detected. It was demonstrated, further, that an inverse relationship (r = -0.7593) existed between the TBG level and serum triiodothyronine uptake index, and that a direct relation (r = +0.6557) was present between the TBG level and T4 in sera from normal subjects and pregnancy. Ratios of T4/TBG were markedly increased in hyperthyroidism, and decreased in hypothyroidism, showing no overlap with the normal subjects, whereas they were below the normal limit in half the cases in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The radioimmunoassay for TBG was useful in evaluating hypothyroid states, because it could differentiate the increase in T4 associated with elevated TBG from hyperthyroidism. (author)dism. (author)

  11. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM (90yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM (131I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades

  12. Cathepsin-B-dependent apoptosis triggered by antithymocyte globulins: a novel mechanism of T-cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Saltel, Frederic; Preville, Xavier; Flacher, Monique; Revillard, Jean-Pierre; Genestier, Laurent

    2003-11-15

    Antithymocyte globulins (ATGs), the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction of sera from rabbits or horses immunized with human thymocytes or T-cell lines, are used in conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation, in the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease, in the prevention or treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation, and in severe bone marrow aplasia. In nonhuman primates, ATGs induce rapid, dose-dependent, T-cell depletion in peripheral lymphoid tissues, where apoptotic cells can be demonstrated in T-cell zones. We show here that increasing ATG concentrations in vitro resulted in reduced lymphocyte proliferative responses, associated with a rapid increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis did not require prior exposure to interleukin-2, nor did it result in CD178/CD95 or tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF/TNF-R) interactions; it was therefore clearly different from activation-induced cell death. Cytochrome c release, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation were not implicated, excluding a direct involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The cysteine protease inhibitor E64d and cathepsin-B-specific inhibitors conferred significant protection, whereas apoptosis was associated with the release of active cathepsin B into the cytosol. These data demonstrate a role for cathepsin B in T-cell apoptosis induced by ATGs at concentrations achieved during clinical use. PMID:12893746

  13. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) induction of ?2u-globulin nephropathy in male, but not female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male F-344 rats were administered corn oil (vehicle control), d-limonene (positive control, 300 mg/kg), or MIBK (1000 mg/kg) and female F-344 rats corn oil (vehicle control) or MIBK for 10 consecutive days by oral gavage. Approximately 24 h after the final dose the kidneys were excised and the left kidney prepared and evaluated for histological changes including protein (hyaline) droplet accumulation, immunohistochemical staining for ?2u-globulin (?2u), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to quantitate renal cell proliferation. The right kidney was prepared for quantitation of total protein and ?2u using an ELISA. MIBK elicited an increase in protein droplets, accumulation of ?2u, and renal cell proliferation in male, but not female rats, responses characteristic of ?2u-mediated nephropathy. MIBK produced identical histopathological changes in the male rat kidney when compared to d-limonene, an acknowledged inducer of ?2u-nephropathy except that the grade of severity tended to be slightly lower with MIBK. MIBK did not induce any effects in female rats. Therefore, renal histopathology, along with the other measures of ?2u accumulation, provides additional weight of evidence to support the inclusion of MIBK in the category of chemicals exerting renal effects through a ?2u-nephropathy-mediated mode-of-action

  14. Biological half-life and transfer of maternal corticosteroid-binding globulin to amniotic fluid in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) from the serum of pregnant and nonpregnant females differs in terms of charge microheterogeneity, and both forms were, therefore, radiolabeled and injected iv into 23- to 27-day pregnant rabbits (n = 6) to assess their biological half-lives and possible transfer to the fetal compartment. After an initially rapid distribution phase, the serum half-lives of both forms of [125I]CBG were essentially identical (approximately 13 h) and did not vary at different gestational ages. There was also no difference in the transfer of either form of [125I]CBG from maternal to fetal compartments in any of the animals studied. Moreover, [125I]CBG showed no sign of degradation and retained its steroid-binding activity in fetal urine and amniotic fluid. Twenty-two hours after administration of [125I]CBG to rabbits (n = 2) at 23 days gestation, its mean level in fetal urine (7 cpm/microliter) and amniotic fluid (2.5 cpm/microliter) was much higher than that in fetal blood (0.6 cpm/microliter). More importantly, the specific activities of [125I]CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid were comparable to that in maternal serum, and approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in fetal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid is largely of maternal origin, and that maternal CBG crosses the fetal kidney preferentiallyey preferentially

  15. Globulina antilinfocítica en el tratamiento de la anemia aplásica severa / Antilymphocyte globulin in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor, Ulloa Perez; Wilson, Ruiz Gil; Luz, Bustamante; Carolina, Tokumura Tokumura.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir la experiencia en nuestro hospital en el tratamiento de anemia aplásica severa con globulina antilinfocítica. Materiales y Metodos: Se estudiaron 58 pacientes con AAS diagnosticados entre 1988-1998 de los cuales 25 recibieron Globulina antilinfocítica (GAL), 56% de ellos eran men [...] ores a 20 años de edad,19 de los pacientes tratados con GAL son del sexo masculino . Resultado: Respondieron favorablemente 68%(17pacientes),la mayoría de ellos (64%)alcanzaron esta respuesta durante los primeros 6 meses. Un paciente evolucionó a Hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN), efectos adversos fueron leves y de corta duración. (Rev Med Hered;1999 ;10:132 - 136 ). Abstract in english Objetive: To report the experience with antilymphocyte globulin in the treatment of severe aplastic anemia. Material and methods: We studied 58 patients with SAA between 1988-1998. Twenty five patients were treated with ALG, 56 % of them were less than 20 years old, nineteen of the patients were mal [...] es. Results:We observed good response in 68% of the patients, the majority of the patients (64%) got a good response during the first 6 months of the follow up. Only one patient evolved into Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria. Side effects were mild and short in duration. (Rev Med Hered; 1999;10:132 - 136 ).

  16. Electroimmunoassay of sex hormone binding globulin. Enhanced sensitivity by autoradiography using A-ring 125I-17-?-oestradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four different 125I-iodinated steroids were tested for their binding to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) using an electrophoretic technique. 17-?-oestradiol iodinated in its A-ring bound with high affinity to SHBG. This radioactive steroid was used to increase the sensitivity of the electroimmunoassay of SHBG by adding the steroid to the samples before electroimmunoassay. The radioactive steroid incorporated into the immunoprecipitates could be observed by autoradiography. The sensitivity of the assay, which employed a rabbit antiserum against purified human SHBG and was standardized with pure SHBG, was about 0.2 mg/1. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was 2.4% and 2.6% respectively, for values within the normal range. The mean SHBG concentration in healthy regularly menstruating women was 3.50 +- 0.74 (SD) mg/1 when measured in plasma, and 3.78 +- 0.80 mg/1 when measured in serum. The corresponding mean concentrations in healthy men were 2.26 +- 0.45 and 2.44 +- 0.49 mg/1. The modified electroimmunoassay described is a simple modification, which increases the sensitivity sufficiently to permit reliable quantification of SHBG over the entire range of concentration which could be relevant in clinical practice. (author)

  17. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  18. Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (?20%), pauci-mannosidic (?40%), and complex forms (?40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants ?-1,2-xylose and ?-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectincontaining two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy.

  19. Pumping and Breastmilk Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage More breastfeeding topics ); } Breastfeeding Pumping and breastmilk storage Pumping your breastmilk If you are unable to ... and water and letting the equipment air dry. Storage of breastmilk Store your breastmilk in clean glass ...

  20. Safe Storage of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Storage of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español Improper pesticide storage and disposal can be hazardous to human health ... Follow these safety recommendations: Don't stockpile. Reduce storage needs by buying only the amount of pesticide ...

  1. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  2. Efficient storage management for distributed storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyu, Myat Pwint; Thein, Ni Lar

    2011-12-01

    As storage systems grow larger and more complex, the traditional block-based file systems cannot satisfy the large workload. More recent distributed file systems have adopted architectures based on object-based storage. This paper presents a framework of efficient storage management for distributed storage system. In object storage side, low-level storage tasks and data distribution must be managed and in metadata server side, we will manage how to scale the metadata. Due to the high space efficiency and fast query response, bloom filters have been widely utilized in recent storage systems. So, we will also utilize bloom-filter based approach to manage metadata by taking the advantages of bloom-filter and the semantic-based scheme will also be used to narrow the managed workload. In this paper, we will neglect the data distribution of object-based storage side.

  3. Sex hormone-binding globulins characterization and gonadal gene expression during sex differentiation in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivin, Elisa; Yano, Ayaka; Guérin, Adèle; Nguyen, Thao-Vi; Fostier, Alexis; Bobe, Julien; Guiguen, Yann

    2014-08-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds androgens and estrogens in the blood of many vertebrates, including teleost fish. In mammals, SHBG is synthetized in the liver and secreted into the blood. In fish, shbga also exhibits a hepatic expression. In salmonids, in which the gene has been duplicated, the recently discovered shbgb gene exhibits a predominantly ovarian expression. The present work aimed at gaining new insight into shbgb gene structure and expression during gonadal sex differentiation, a steroid-sensitive process, and Shbgb protein structure and binding characteristics; specifically, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) shbgb was analyzed. shbgb structure was analyzed in silico while expression was characterized during gonadal sex differentiation using all-male and all-female populations. We observed that shbgb gene and cognate-protein structures are similar to homologs previously described in zebrafish and mammals. The shbgb gene is predominantly expressed in differentiating female gonads, with increased expression around the end of ovarian differentiation. In the ovary, shbgb mRNA was detected in a subset of somatic cells surrounding the ovarian lamellae. Furthermore, Shbgb binds steroids with a higher selectivity than Shbga, exhibiting a higher affinity for estradiol compared to Shbga. In conclusion, Shbgb binding characteristics are clearly different from those of Shbga. Shbgb is expressed in the differentiating ovary during a period when the synthesis and action of testosterone and estradiol must be tightly regulated. This strongly suggests that Shbgb participates in the regulation of steroid metabolism and/or mediation, that is, needed during early gonadal development in rainbow trout. PMID:24889418

  4. Somatostatin Is Essential for the Sexual Dimorphism of GH Secretion, Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Production, and Corticosterone Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jessica M; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Qi, Nathan; Low, Malcolm J

    2015-03-01

    Distinct male and female patterns of pituitary GH secretion produce sexually differentiated hepatic gene expression profiles, thereby influencing steroid and xenobiotic metabolism. We used a fully automated system to obtain serial nocturnal blood samples every 15 minutes from cannulated wild-type (WT) and somatostatin knockout (Sst-KO) mice to determine the role of SST, the principal inhibitor of GH release, in the generation of sexually dimorphic GH pulsatility. WT males had lower mean and median GH values, less random GH secretory bursts, and longer trough periods between GH pulses than WT females. Each of these parameters was feminized in male Sst-KO mice, whereas female Sst-KO mice had higher GH levels than all other groups, but GH pulsatility was unaffected. We next performed hepatic mRNA profiling with high-density microarrays. Male Sst-KO mice exhibited a globally feminized pattern of GH-dependent mRNA levels, but female Sst-KO mice were largely unaffected. Among the differentially expressed female-predominant genes was Serpina6, which encodes corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Increased CBG was associated with elevated diurnal peak plasma corticosterone in unstressed WT females and both sexes of Sst-KO mice compared with WT males. Sst-KO mice also had exaggerated ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute restraint stress. However, consistent with their lack of phenotypic signs of excess glucocorticoids, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of free corticosterone in Sst-KO mice were not elevated. In summary, SST is necessary for the prolonged interpulse troughs that define masculinized pituitary GH secretion. SST also contributes to sexual dimorphism of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via GH-dependent regulation of hepatic CBG production. PMID:25551181

  5. Prediagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma : Etiological factors or risk markers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen

    2014-01-01

    Elevated pre-diagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk (OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), ptrend =0.009). As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p=0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with pre-diagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as pre-diagnostic risk marker for HCC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin as an Independent Predictor of Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender

    2010-01-01

    Background. Low levels of sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) and total testosterone (T) in men have been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As total T and SHBG levels are highly correlated, we determined whether SHBG influences the risk of T2DM through T or whether SHBG is an independent predictor of T2DM. Methods. Longitudinal analyses were conducted on men participating in the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, a population-based study of men aged 40–70 years. Of 1,709 men enrolled in 1987–1989, 1,156 were evaluated 7–10 years later and 853 after 15–17 years. Analyses were restricted to 1,128 men without T2DM at baseline. Results. Ninety new cases of T2DM were identified. After adjustment for age, body mass index, hypertension, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity, the hazard ratio (HR) for incident T2DM was 2.0 for each 1 SD decrease in SHBG (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–2.82, p < .001) and 1.29 for each 1 SD decrease in total T (95% CI, 1.01–1.66, p = .04). Free T was not associated with T2DM (HR = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.81–1.31, p = .79). The strong association of T2DM risk with SHBG persisted even after additional adjustment for free T (HR = 2.04, 95% CI, 1.44–2.87, p < .0001) or total T (HR = 1.95, 95% CI, 1.34–2.82, p = .0004). Conclusions. SHBG is an independent predictor of incident T2DM even after adjusting for free T or total T. Free T is not significantly associated with T2DM. SHBG may contribute to the risk of T2DM through nonandrogenic mechanisms, which should be investigated as they may provide novel targets for diabetes prevention. PMID:20106959

  7. Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30–60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  8. Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Hayward, Caroline; Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Hill, Lesley A; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H; Velders, Fleur P; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Bakker, Stephen J L; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P F; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Matthews, Stephen G; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F; Strachan, Mark W J; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  9. Long-term outcome of 25 children and adolescents with severe aplastic anemia treated with antithymocyte globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. de-Medeiros

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe aplastic anemia (SAA is probably an immune-mediated disorder, and immunosuppressive therapy is recommended for patients with no available donor for bone marrow transplant. Between October 1984 and November 1987, 25 consecutive children and adolescents with SAA with no HLA-compatible marrow donor received equine antithymocyte globulin (ATG (15 mg kg-1 day-1 for 10 days. The patients were evaluated 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after starting ATG treatment. Thereafter, patients were evaluated yearly until July 1998. Median age was 10 years (range, 1.5-20 years, granulocyte counts on referral ranged from 0.032 to 1.4 x 10(9/l (median 0.256 x 10(9/l, and 12 patients had granulocyte counts <0.2 x 10(9/l. At a median follow-up of 9.6 years (range, 8.6-11.8 years, 10 patients (40% remained alive with good marrow function. No morphologic evidence of hematological clonal disorders has been observed, although two patients probably have acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities (trisomy 8 and del(6q21, respectively. Responses to ATG were observed between 6 weeks and 6 months from the start of treatment in 60% of evaluable patients. The response rate was not different in patients whose granulocyte count at diagnosis was <0.2 x 10(9/l, or in those who were <10 years of age. This study supports the view that, when compared with supportive measures, ATG is an effective treatment for children or adolescents with SAA. Although these results are inferior to those reported for marrow transplantation or more intensive immunosuppressive regimens, these patients who responded to ATG are long-term survivors with stable peripheral blood counts and a low rate of relapse.

  10. A retrospective comparison of cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulin with cyclophosphamide plus busulfan as the conditioning regimen for severe aplastic anemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.V.M., Ommati; C.A., Rodrigues; A.R., Silva; L.P., Silva; M.L.L.F., Chaufaille; J.S.R., Oliveira.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is the treatment of choice for young patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The association of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclophosphamide (CY) is the most frequently used conditioning regimen for this disease. We performed this r [...] etrospective study in order to compare the outcomes of HLA-matched sibling donor AHSCT in 41 patients with SAA receiving cyclophosphamide plus ATG (ATG-CY, N = 17) or cyclophosphamide plus busulfan (BU-CY, N = 24). The substitution of BU for ATG was motivated by the high cost of ATG. There were no differences in the clinical features between the two groups, including age, gender, cytomegalovirus status, ABO match, interval between diagnosis and transplant, and number of total nucleated cells infused. No differences were observed in the time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment, or in the risk of veno-occlusive disease and hemorrhage. However, there was a higher risk of mucositis in the BU-CY group (71 vs 24%, P = 0.004). There were no differences in the incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related mortality. There was a higher incidence of late rejection in the ATG-CY group (41 vs 4%, P = 0.009). Although the ATG-CY group had a longer follow-up (101 months) than the BU-CY group (67 months, P = 0.04), overall survival was similar between the groups (69 vs 58%, respectively, P = 0.32). We conclude that the association BU-CY is a feasible option to the conventional ATG-CY regimen in this population.

  11. A retrospective comparison of cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulin with cyclophosphamide plus busulfan as the conditioning regimen for severe aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.M. Ommati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT is the treatment of choice for young patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA. The association of antithymocyte globulin (ATG and cyclophosphamide (CY is the most frequently used conditioning regimen for this disease. We performed this retrospective study in order to compare the outcomes of HLA-matched sibling donor AHSCT in 41 patients with SAA receiving cyclophosphamide plus ATG (ATG-CY, N = 17 or cyclophosphamide plus busulfan (BU-CY, N = 24. The substitution of BU for ATG was motivated by the high cost of ATG. There were no differences in the clinical features between the two groups, including age, gender, cytomegalovirus status, ABO match, interval between diagnosis and transplant, and number of total nucleated cells infused. No differences were observed in the time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment, or in the risk of veno-occlusive disease and hemorrhage. However, there was a higher risk of mucositis in the BU-CY group (71 vs 24%, P = 0.004. There were no differences in the incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related mortality. There was a higher incidence of late rejection in the ATG-CY group (41 vs 4%, P = 0.009. Although the ATG-CY group had a longer follow-up (101 months than the BU-CY group (67 months, P = 0.04, overall survival was similar between the groups (69 vs 58%, respectively, P = 0.32. We conclude that the association BU-CY is a feasible option to the conventional ATG-CY regimen in this population.

  12. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 x 10(-5)], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.

  13. The role of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in conversion of testosterone to 5 ?-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione in skin from suprapubic area of women. Part 1. In vitro study with skin sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) on testosterone metabolism into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione in skin sections from the suprapubic area women of reproductive age was investigated. The SHBG was obtained by precipitating plasma proteins of women in the third trimester of pregnancy with ammonium sulphate. Steroids were isolated from the incubation medium by extraction with acetone and reextraction with ether and purified using column chromatography on aluminum oxide, thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel and following formation of acetyl derivatives the thin layer chromatography on silica gel was again carried out. Individual recovery of androstenedione was calculated using radioisotope and the recovery of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone was determined with gas chromatography. Mean value of identified 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the presence of inactive globulin was 52.77 fg/mg, whereas following the addition of active globulin the value decreased to 19.62 fg/mg. Mean value of identified androstenedione in preparations with inactive globulin (62.97 fg/mg), in the presence of active globulin was also reduced to 18.15 fg/mg. (author)

  14. The Storage Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtually every modern computer system incorporates several different storage technologies to process data efficiently. A gentle introduction to data storage is given on this site, part of Red Hat, Inc.'s Linux System Administration Primer. The topics covered include: "The Storage Spectrum," "CPU Registers," "Cache Memory," "Cache Levels," "Main Memory - RAM," "Hard Drives," and "Off-Line Backup Storage."

  15. Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of a new, heat-treated human rabies immune globulin using a sham, post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Gravenstein, S; Briggs, D; Miller, B; Froeschle, J; Dukes, C; Le Mener, V; Lutsch, C

    1998-03-01

    A double-blind, controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a new human rabies immune globulin (HTRIG). This product, manufactured by Pasteur Merieux Connaught, PMC, has undergone a heat-treatment step (10 h at 60 degrees C) and removal of mercurothiolate. The corresponding unheated product available from the same manufacturer (human rabies immune globulin, HRIG, IMOGAM RABIES[spr2]) was used for comparison. These two rabies immune globulins (RIGs) were administered either alone or in association with the human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV, IMOVAX[spr2] RABIES, PMC) according to a standard, post-exposure rabies prophylaxis schedule. Sixty-four healthy adults were randomly assigned to four groups of 16 to receive either HRIG/placebo, HTRIG/placebo, HRIG/HDCV or HTRIG/HDCV. RIG was administered at the recommended dose of 20 IU/kg by three intramuscular (i.m.) injections in the gluteus. HDCV or placebo was given on day (D) 0, D3, D7, D14, and D28 into the deltoid by the intramuscular (i.m.) route. Any local reaction from D0 to D3 at the immune globulin injection site, and any systemic reaction from D0 to D42, were monitored by subject diaries. Rabies-neutralizing serum antibody levels were assessed by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) before treatment and on D3, D7, D14, D28, D35, and D42. No serious adverse reactions and, in particular, no allergic-type reactions were reported. The safety profiles of HTRIG and HRIG were similar, except that complaints of pain, or tenderness at the injection site were half as common in the HTRIG group. Most of the local reactions were mild or moderate. After the administration of HTRIG/placebo or HRIG/placebo, 60% of subjects had detectable rabies antibodies levels, but by D42 all titres were below the seroprotective level (i.e. below 0.5 IU/ml). In the groups HTRIG/HDCV and HRIG/HDCV, the antibody titres rose markedly from D7, and reached a maximum value of 19 IU/ml (95% CI, 11 to 38 IU/ml) and 31 IU/ml (95% CI, 20 to 48 IU/ml), respectively, on day 14. All subjects who received RIG and vaccine maintained a protective antibody level from D14 to D42. No significant difference in immunogenicity results between these two groups (HTRIG/HDCV and HRIG/HDCV) was observed, and no interference of immune globulin with vaccine was reported. The safety and immunogenicity profiles of PMC HTRIG appear comparable with the current reference product. The heat-treatment step will enhance the safety by further reducing the probability of virus transmission through immune globulin treatment. The low levels of rabies antibodies obtained by intramuscular administration of either PMC HTRIG or of PMC HRIG support the recommendations that call for local infiltration of wounds with RIG. PMID:9637744

  16. Sensitization with 7S Globulins from Peanut, Hazelnut, Soy or Pea Induces IgE with Different Biological Activities Which Are Modified by Soy Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; BØgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is not known why some foods sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are prevalent allergenic foods and others are not. Eating habits, processing, and the food matrix have been suggested to influence the allergenicity of a given food. Factors related to protein structure, such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their ‘normal’ matrix. Methods: Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3 times with 100 ?g purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. Results: The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical level of specific antibodies, but peanut 7S induced IgE of higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, hada higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. Soy tolerance reduced the functionality of IgE without influencing antibody titers. Conclusions: Although the 4 7S globulins are structurally related allergens, they induce antibodies with different antigen-binding characteristics. Peanut 7S induces IgE of a higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, has a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. We also show that soy tolerance influences the function of antibodies to peanut 7S. These findings may help explain how antibodies of different clinical significances can develop in different individuals sensitized to the same allergen.Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Mass storage management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the application that the author developed during the time the author worked for Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, which creates an integrated storage environment. The application is built as a layer on top of the current storage manager (OSM), hiding details from the end user and manages access to all storage elements. A simple set of commands allows users to manipulate and move data between all storage elements of the system as well as to storage devices on remote machines

  18. Synthesis and preliminary study of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyl-triglycine (99mTc-MAG3) for radiolabeling of immune globulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of a complex molecule with its coordination center composed by a triamide monomercaptide tetradentate set of donor groups plus a phenyl-acetyl group as protector group of a sulphur atom is reported. This compound has been mixed with immune globulin G, labeled with 99mTc and purified by high resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC). The biological behavior of this labeled compound was evaluated with mice of Balb-C origin, showing the biological properties of a protein. This molecule might be another option for radio-immuno-scintigraphic analysis when using proteins of antigenic nature. (author)

  19. Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A 125I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation. (author)

  20. A case of non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia treated by combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old female Shih Tzu dog was referred with diarrhea. Hematological examination indicated severe non-regenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspiration smears and core biopsy specimens revealed normal bone marrow. Based on those results, non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia was diagnosed. The dog was initially treated using prednisolone and cyclosporine. However, this treatment regimen did not prove effective. Nevertheless, the patient achieved a good hematological response after the administration of a combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil. Such a combination therapy may prove effective against non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia.

  1. Estradiol induction of cAMP in breast cancer cells is mediated by foetal calf serum (FCS) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).

    OpenAIRE

    Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Frairia, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG or SBP), the specific carrier for estradiol and androgens, after binding to its membrane receptor (SHBG-R), causes a significant increase of cAMP in the presence of estradiol, in both breast (MCF-7) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells maintained in serum-free medium. On the other hand, it has been proposed that estrogens, in addition to the well-known nuclear receptor pathway, exert their biological effect inducing cAMP, as a consequence of a direct mem...

  2. Spent fuel storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares a small onsite wet storage pool to a dry cask storage facility in order to determine what type of spent fuel storage alternatives would best serve the utilities in consideration of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The Act allows the DOE to provide a total of 1900 metric tons (MT) of additional spent fuel storage capacity to utilities that cannot reasonably provide such capacity for themselves. Topics considered include the implementation of the Act (DOE away-from reactor storage), the Act's impact on storage needs, and an economic evaluation. The Waste Act mandates schedules for the determination of several sites, the licensing and construction of a high-level waste repository, and the study of a monitored retrievable storage facility. It is determined that a small wet pool storage facility offers a conservative and cost-effective approach for many stations, in comparison to dry cask storage

  3. Identification, characterization and expression of novel Sex Hormone Binding Globulin alternative first exons in the human prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Torres Inés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG gene, located at 17p13.1, comprises, at least, two different transcription units regulated by two different promoters. The first transcription unit begins with the exon 1 sequence and is responsible for the production of plasma SHBG by the hepatocytes, while the second begins with an alternative exon 1 sequence, which replaces the exon 1 present in liver transcripts. Alternative exon 1 transcription and translation has only been demonstrated in the testis of transgenic mice containing an 11-kb human SHBG transgene and in the human testis. Our goal has been to further characterize the 5' end of the SHBG gene and analyze the presence of the SHBG alternative transcripts in human prostate tissue and derived cell lines. Results Using a combination of in silico and in vitro studies, we have demonstrated that the SHBG gene, along with exon 1 and alternative exon 1 (renamed here exon 1A, contains four additional alternative first exons: the novel exons 1B, 1C, and 1E, and a previously identified exon 1N, which has been further characterized and renamed as exon 1D. We have shown that these four alternative first exons are all spliced to the same 3' splice site of SHBG exon 2, and that exon 1A and the novel exon 1B can be spliced to exon 1. We have also demonstrated the presence of SHBG transcripts beginning with exons 1B, 1C and 1D in prostate tissues and cell lines, as well as in several non-prostatic cell lines. Finally, the alignment of the SHBG mammalian sequences revealed that, while exons 1C, 1D and 1E are very well conserved phylogenetically through non-primate mammal species, exon 1B probably aroused in apes due to a single nucleotide change that generated a new 5' splice site in exon 1B. Conclusion The identification of multiple transcription start sites (TSS upstream of the annotated first exon of human SHBG, and the detection of the alternative transcripts in human prostate, concur with the prediction of the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements project, and suggest that the regulation of SHBG is much more complex than previously reported.

  4. Safety and efficacy of indigenous equine antithymocyte globulin along with cyclosporine in subjects with acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, M B; Jijina, Farah; Shah, Sandip; Malhotra, Pankaj; Damodar, Sharat; Ross, Cecil

    2015-06-01

    To confirm the safety and efficacy of an indigenous equine antithymocyte globulin (eATG) along with cyclosporine in Indian subjects with acquired aplastic anaemia. Subjects >2 years old with acquired aplastic anaemia were enrolled at six hospitals between April 2011 and February 2013, after approval from respective Ethics Committees. Equine ATG at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day was infused for 4 days. Efficacy analysis defined a priori, was in subjects, who had completed eATG treatment and followed-up on day 90 and/or 180. Complete response (CR) was defined as-transfusion independent, haemoglobin ?11 g/dL, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1.5 10(9)/L and platelet ?150 10(9)/L; partial response (PR) was transfusion independent, haemoglobin ?8 g/dL, ANC >0.5 10(9)/L and platelet ?20 10(9)/L; non responders were transfusion dependent. Lymphocyte subsets (CD 2, 3, 4 and 8) in the blood were tested on days 0 (pre eATG infusion), 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 after eATG. Of the 30 subjects (two children pneumonia, one was withdrawn after the first dose of eATG due to jaundice and eight were lost to follow-up. The median age was 30 (9-58) years and weight was 57 (26-84) kg. On day 90, 12 of 30 subjects responded (CR 1, PR 11) and 15 of 30 (CR 2, PR 13) on day 180. The most common adverse event was fever related to eATG infusion. There were two serious adverse events (acute renal failure, febrile neutropenia) and both recovered with treatment. There were no unusual adverse events noted during the study period. Blood T lymphocytes showed a mean decrease of 91 % from baseline that recovered by day 21. We conclude that eATG is safe and in combination with cyclosporine showed overall response in 50 % of enrolled subjects. The trial was registered with the clinical trial registry-india (Registration no. CTRI/2012/03/002498). PMID:25825555

  5. Rationality analysis of delivery method for hepatitis B immune globulin in patients with chronic HBV infection after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Xianyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the rationality of delivery method for hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection after liver transplantation and to investigate the guiding principle for medication. MethodsForty-four cases of hepatitis B-related liver transplantation who participated in the phase IV clinical trial of HBIG for intravenous injection from August 2008 to December 2010 were analyzed. These patients were divided into severe liver disease group, liver cancer group, and liver cirrhosis group. The positive rates of HBV DNA and HBeAg were compared between groups by chi-square test. The HBV DNA level was compared by analysis of variance. The correlation between blood concentration and half-life of HBIG at different doses and dosing intervals was analyzed by Pearson?s correlation test. The titer of anti-HBs at one week after operation was compared between HBeAg-negative group and HBeAg-positive group and between high-HBV DNA group and low-HBV DNA group by t test. Cases of reinfection were also monitored. Results There were no significant differences in the positive rates of HBV DNA and HBeAg between the severe liver disease group, liver cancer group, and liver cirrhosis group (?2=4.871, P=0.088; ?2=1.079, P=0.583. No significant differences in mean HBV DNA level were found between these groups (F=0.895, P=0.418. The Pearson?s correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the blood concentration and half-life of HBIG (r=0.988, P=0.012. The tier of anti-HBs showed no significant differences between HBeAg-negative group and HBeAg-positive group and between high-HBV DNA group and low-HBV DNA group one week after operation (t=1.757, P=0.087. No cases of reinfection were found during the observation period. ConclusionIt is necessary to give HBIG 4000 IU during operation and 2000 IU daily for 6 days after operation, and the dose should be increased appropriately when the patients have relatively high viral load in serum. For the patients whose serological markers of hepatitis B become negative, the antibody level can be maintained at about 100 IU/L until the next administration if 600 IU of HBIG is given once a month by intramuscular injection.

  6. Characteristics of chemical binding to alpha 2u-globulin in vitro--evaluating structure-activity relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    alpha 2u-Globulin (alpha 2u) has been shown to accumulate in the kidneys of male rats treated with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP). 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentanol (TMP-2-OH), a metabolite of TMP, is found reversibly bound to alpha 2u isolated from the kidneys of these treated rats. The objectives of the following study were to characterize the ability of [3H]TMP-2-OH to bind to alpha 2u in vitro and to determine whether other compounds that cause this protein to accumulate have the same binding characteristics. Although compounds that have been shown to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u in male rat kidneys compete in vitro with [3H]TMP-2-OH for binding to alpha 2u, they do so to varying degrees. The binding affinity (Kd) of the [3H]TMP-2-OH-alpha 2u complex was calculated to be on the order of 10(-7) M. The inhibition constant values (Ki) determined for d-limonene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol were all in the range 10(-4) M, whereas the Ki values for isophorone, 2,4,4- or 2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pentanol, and d-limonene oxide were determined to be in the range 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, respectively. TMP and 2,4,4- and 2,2,4-trimethylpentanoic acid did not compete for binding. This suggests that other factors, besides binding, are involved in the accumulation of alpha 2u. In this study the ability of a chemical to bind to alpha 2u was used as a measure of biological activity to assess structure-activity relationships among the chemicals tested and known to cause the accuemicals tested and known to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u. The results so far suggest that binding is dependent on both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding

  7. Differential binding of thyroxine and triiodothyronine to acidic isoforms of thyroid hormone binding globulin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential availability of thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) to liver from the circulating thyroid hormone binding globulin (TBG)-bound pool suggests that the two thyroid hormones may bind to different TBG isoforms in human serum. In the present study, the binding of [125I]T4 and [125I]T3 to human serum proteins was investigated by using slab gel isoelectric focusing and chromatofocusing. In normal human male serum, [125I]T4 was localized to four isoforms of TBG called TBG-I, -II, -III, and -IV, with isoelectric points (pI's) of 4.30, 4.35, 4.45, and 4.55, respectively. [125I]T3 was localized to only two isoforms of TBG, TBG-III, and -IV, with pI's that were identical with those for [125I]T4. In normal female serum, [125I]T4 was localized to the same four isoforms of TBG as those of normal male serum, while [125I]T3 was localized to TBG-II, -III, -IV, and -V (pI = 4.65). In pregnant female serum, [125I]T4 was localized to five isoforms, whereas [125I]T3 was localized to four. IEF was also performed with male serum loaded with various concentrations of unlabeled T3. The K/sub i/ values of T3 binding to TBG-I, -II, -III, and -IV were 5.0, 2.4, 0.86, and 0.46 nM, respectively. The TBG isoforms in normal male serumely. The TBG isoforms in normal male serum were also separated by sequential concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatography and the chromatofocusing (pH range of 3.5-5.0). T4 preferentially bound to the most acidic isoforms of TBG in the pI range of 3.8-4.0, whereas the less acidic fractions (pH 4.0-4.2) bound both T4 and T3. In conclusion, this study shows that T4 and T3 do not bind to a single competitive binding site on TBG. Instead, T4 is preferentially bound by the most acidic TBG isoforms owing to a 10-fold lower affinity of T3 for these proteins

  8. Sunflower storage proteins are transported in dense vesicles that contain proteins homologous to the pumpkin vacuolar sorting receptor PV 72

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Isabel, Molina; Marisa, Otegui; Silvana, Petruccelli.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Storage proteins are transported to a special storage compartments in seeds by Golgi dependent or independent pathways depending on the plant species. The aim of this work was to study the sunflower storage protein transport pathway and identified component of the sorting machinery. Immature sunflow [...] er seeds were analyzed by subcellular fractionation (using percoll and sucrose gradients) and electron microscopy. The vesicles isolated with percoll, have precursors of 11S globulins, ?-TIP, ?-TIP, BiP, and two proteins that have homology to the pumpkin vacuolar sorting receptor PV72. Sucrose isolated vesicles have the same composition than percoll ones, except for the lack of BiP and the presence of only one protein that has reactivity with pea VSR BP80. Electronic micrographies of developing seeds show that the formation of electron dense aggregates starts in the endoplasmic reticulum, and that these aggregates are very abundant in the trans-Golgi apparatus, where release of dense vesicles happens. These vesicles contain a homolog of PV72 in their membranes. Storage proteins are also detected in multivesicular bodies whose membranes have reactivity with PV72 serum. All these results indicated that sunflower storage proteins are transported to protein storage vacuoles by a Golgi dependent pathway in a process in which homologous of PV72 are involved.

  9. Safer Science: Chemical Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Roy

    2009-10-01

    Using chemicals safely requires a number of things, including current inventory control, appropriate labeling and storage segregation, ongoing inspections, and more. How can a science teacher find the appropriate storage information? Read on. This month's

  10. Abstract Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert; Maurer, Ueli; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about...

  11. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  12. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled stornergy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  13. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG)

  14. Cloud storage for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Linda; Loughlin, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Understand cloud computing and save your organization time and money! Cloud computing is taking IT by storm, but what is it and what are the benefits to your organization? Hitachi Data Systems' Cloud Storage For Dummies provides all the answers, With this book, you discover a clear explanation of cloud storage, and tips for how to choose the right type of cloud storage for your organization's needs. You also find out how cloud storage can free up valuable IT resources, saving time and money. Cloud Storage For Dummies presents useful information on setting up a

  15. Intravenous and standard immune serum globulin preparations interfere with uptake of 125I-C3 onto sensitized erythrocytes and inhibit hemolytic complement activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes were used as a model to determine the effects of therapeutic immune serum globulin (ISG) preparations on the ability of this particulate activator to fix C3 and initiate hemolysis. Both standard and intravenous forms of ISG inhibit uptake of 125I-C3, presumably by competing for the deposition of ''nascent'' C3b molecules onto the erythrocytes. Both forms of ISG also inhibit hemolytic activity of whole serum or purified complement components. The inhibition appears to be a specific property of IgG itself, since similar inhibition was not caused by equivalent concentrations of human serum albumin, and was not affected by the buffer in which the ISG was dissolved. Interference with C3 uptake onto antibody-sensitized platelets and/or inhibition of hemolytic complement activity could contribute to the efficacy of high dose intravenous ISG in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

  16. Effect of ionizing whole-body irradiation on the primary and secondary antibody reaction of cows to injection of human gamma globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 3 experiments 29 cows were exposed to whole-body irradiation, using 9 MeV X-rays of a linear accelerator, with doses of 1.50 and 2.00 Gy or 60Co gamma rays with a dose of 2.75 Gy, as a midline dose. 2 weeks prior to irradiation the first immunization was applied using human gamma globulin. 4 or 5 weeks after irradiation a second immunization was carried out. The antibody titres were investigated. The irradiation failed to affect the antibody titres after the first immunization. After the second immunization the antibody titres of the irradiated animals remained diminished significantly (? = 0.05). This has been attributed to a damage of the memory cell pool. (author)

  17. Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E2), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m2; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E2 levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. High resolution isoelectric focusing in a narrow pH interval for the phenotyping of vitamin D-binding protein (Gc-globulin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, J; Olsson, I

    1984-08-01

    A routine method for the analysis of Vitamin D-binding protein (Gc-globulin) phenotypes has been developed. The assay is based on isoelectric focusing in a narrow pH interval (4.5-5.4) using Agarose IEF (1%) or polyacrylamide (T5% C3%) gels, followed by immunofixation. When focused in this pH gradient the anodal and cathodal bands of the phenotype Gc 1-2 are separately by 16-18 mm. The "fast" and "slow" bands of the phenotype Gc 1-1 can also be easily distinguished from each other. The isoelectric focusing technique which has been developed resolves the Vitamin D-binding protein phenotypes in a fast, convenient and reproducible manner. Since agarose gels are so easy to cast and process, Agarose IEF is recommended as the matrix of choice. PMID:6541678

  19. Humoral immunity conferred by the HDCS rabies vaccine Mérieux administered after exposure: 151 cases with and without specific immune globulin of human origin. Preliminary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méan, F; Steck, F; Tanner, F

    1978-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the neutralizing antibodies measured at days 30 and 90 after vaccination are described in brief. Different lots of Mérieux vaccine were used, of which two were checked separately for relative antigenic value by the Federal Public Health Service (CH). The lowest antigenic value (lot 0420 M) was 1.6 in relation to the standard NIH vaccine No.182. The inhibiting effect of immune globulin was shown to be significant with this lot, but not with the other, more powerful lots. The attention is drawn to isolated cases which did not present antibodies--or not a sufficient count--on days 30 or 90 according to the RFFI test. PMID:680389

  20. The effect of triiodothyronine (L-T3) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T3 (200 ?g/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S leves. There was changes in serum T3 rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of de 60-day period of L-T3 administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals. (M.A.C.)

  1. Energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book takes stock of the advantages and drawbacks of the different energy storage solutions apart from the classical fossil fuels (oil, uranium, gas), and details the technologies developed for an electric end-use. Storage is one of the most critical point for the development of new energy technologies, in particular those that use the electricity vector all along the energy source chain (generation, production, transport, utilisation). Storage is important not only for individual or independent applications, that use renewable energies or not, often intermittent, but also to secure coupled systems like power transportation and distribution systems. The development and choice of the most relevant technologies is dependent of technical-economical parameters. It can also supply new services, in particular in the framework of new electricity markets. Content: power film-capacitors, magnetic storage, kinetic energy storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), hydro-pneumatic storage, high-temperature thermal storage of electricity, hydraulic gravity storage, power electronic systems for energy storage. (J.S.)

  2. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage in...

  3. T-cell-replete haploidentical HSCT with low-dose anti-T-lymphocyte globulin compared with matched sibling HSCT and unrelated HSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Xiao, Haowen; Lai, Xiaoyu; Shi, Jimin; Tan, Yamin; He, Jingsong; Xie, Wanzhuo; Zheng, Weiyan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Ye, Xiujin; Yu, Xiaohong; Cai, Zhen; Lin, Maofang; Huang, He

    2014-10-23

    We developed an approach of T-cell-replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with low-dose anti-T-lymphocyte globulin and prospectively compared outcomes of all contemporaneous T-cell-replete HSCT performed at our center using matched sibling donors (MSDs), unrelated donors (URDs), and haploidentical related donors (HRDs). From 2008 to 2013, 90 patients underwent MSD-HSCT, 116 underwent URD-HSCT, and 99 underwent HRD-HSCT. HRDs were associated with higher incidences of grades 2 to 4 (42.4%) and severe acute graft-versus-host disease (17.2%) and nonrelapse mortality (30.5%), compared with MSDs (15.6%, 5.6%, and 4.7%, respectively; P < .05), but were similar to URDs, even fully 10/10 HLA-matched URDs. For high-risk patients, a superior graft-versus-leukemia effect was observed in HRD-HSCT, with 5-year relapse rates of 15.4% in HRD-HSCT, 28.2% in URD-HSCT (P = .07), and 49.9% in MSD-HSCT (P = .002). Furthermore, 5-year disease-free survival rates were not significantly different for patients undergoing transplantation using 3 types of donors, with 63.6%, 58.4%, and 58.3% for MSD, URD, and HRD transplantation, respectively (P = .574). Our data indicate that outcomes after HSCT from suitably matched URDs and HRDs with low-dose anti-T-lymphocyte globulin are similar and that HRD improves outcomes of patients with high-risk leukemia. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry) as #ChiCTR-OCH-12002490. PMID:25214441

  4. Accumulation of plant small heat-stress proteins in storage organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaretz, Olga; Zur Nieden, Uta

    2002-06-01

    Plant small heat-stress proteins (sHSPs) have been shown to be expressed not only after exposure to elevated temperatures, but also at particular developmental stages such as embryogenesis, microsporogenesis, and fruit maturation. This paper presents new data on the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative tissues, their tissue-specific distribution, and cellular localization. We have found sHSPs in 1-year-old twigs of Acer platanoides L. and Sambucus nigra L. and in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla Lamk. exclusively in the winter months. In tendrils of Aristolochia, sHSPs were localized in vascular cambium cells. After budding, in spring, these proteins were no longer present. Furthermore, accumulation of sHSPs was demonstrated in tubers and bulbs of Allium cepa L., Amaryllis ( Hippeastrum hybridum hort.), Crocus albiflorus L., Hyacinthus orientalis L., Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Tulipa gesneriana L., and Solanum tuberosum L. (potato). In potato tubers and bulb scales of Narcissus the stress proteins were localized in the central vacuoles of storage parenchyma cells. In order to obtain more information on a possible functional correlation between storage proteins and sHSPs, the accumulation of both types of protein in tobacco seeds during seed ripening and germination was monitored. The expression of sHSPs and globulins started simultaneously at about the 17th day after anthesis. During seed germination the sHSPs disappeared in parallel with the storage proteins. Furthermore, in embryos of transgenic tobacco plants, which do not contain any protein bodies or storage proteins, no sHSPs were found. Thus, the occurrence of sHSPs in perennial plant storage organs seems to be associated with the presence of storage proteins. PMID:12029471

  5. Monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility surge storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility includes surge storage for canistered commercial spent fuels and associated wastes. This storage is provided by air-cooled vaults and passive-cooled concrete storage casks. This paper, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, discusses the design and analysis for these storage systems

  6. Underground thermal energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun Sang

    2012-01-01

    ""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" (UTES) provide us with a flexible tool to combat global warming through conserving energy while utilizing natural renewable energy resources. Primarily, they act as a buffer to balance fluctuations in supply and demand of low temperature thermal energy. ""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" provides an comprehensive introduction to the extensively-used energy storage method. ""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" gives a general overview of UTES from basic concepts and classifications to operation regimes. As well as discussing general procedures for des

  7. Transportable storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two at-reactor dry storage options are currently being considered for storing spent nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. One of these options involves so-called Storage Only Casks (SOC), while the other option envisions the use of a dual-purpose Transport Storage Cask (TSC). A computer model has been developed which can be used to calculate life-cycle costs (LCC) and radiological life-cycle dose (LCD) for these two options. The model has been applied to compare these two storage options for various postulated scenarios

  8. Effect of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germination on the major globulin content and in vitro digestibility / Efeito da germinação de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L.) na globulina majoritária e digestibilidade in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Vanucchi, Portari; Olga Luisa, Tavano; Maraiza A. da, Silva; Valdir Augusto, Neves.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A germinação das sementes de grão-de-bico foi acompanhada por um período de 6 dias, no qual pequenas variações nos teores de nitrogênio e globulina total foram registradas. A globulina majoritária (tipo 11 S) apresentou maiores variações após o quarto dia de germinação. A natureza e distribuição da [...] fração globulina majoritária isolada na cromatografia em Sepharose CL-6B mostrou pequenas modificações ao final do período de germinação. A eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilssulfato de sódio do pico eluído na cromatografia em Sepharose CL-6B demonstra modificações nas bandas de proteínas entre os pesos moleculares de 20 e 30 kDa e acima de 60 kDa, indicando degradação protéica durante o período. Atividade proteolítica foi detectada na fração albumina da semente que aumentou até o quarto dia, seguido de queda até o sexto dia de germinação, quando da utilização de globulina total isolada da semente e caseína como substratos. Farinha de grão-de-bico, frações albumina e globulina total isoladas não apresentaram aumento na digestibilidade in vitro; entretanto, a fração globulina majoritária isolada foi mais suscetível à hidrólise após germinação. Abstract in english Chickpea seed germination was carried out over a period of 6 days. Little variation in the nitrogen and total globulin content was observed. The major globulin (11 S type) showed higher variation after the 4th day of germination. The elution behaviour and distribution of the isolated major globulin [...] fraction on Sepharose CL-6B chromatography showed little modification at the end of germination. On SDS-PAGE the peak eluted from Sepharose CL-6B showed changes in protein bands between 20 and 30 kDa and above 60 kDa, indicating protein degradation during the period. Proteolytic activity was detected in the albumin fraction of the seeds, which increased up to the fourth and then decreased up to the sixth day, when isolated chickpea total globulin and casein were used as substrates. Chickpea flour, isolated albumin and total globulin fractions did not show an increase for in vitro digestibility; however, the isolated major globulin was more susceptible to hydrolysis after germination.

  9. Colossal Storage Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colossal Storage is a company specializing in a new method of holographic data storage. While current technologies are hindered by area density, the proposed technology will expand into three dimensions and use the disk's volume to write data. Visitors will find some interesting insights into the technology and several white papers are available.

  10. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  11. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  12. Storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard applies to the storage of radioactive materials, excluding nuclear fuels, ('other radioactive materials' within the purview of sec. 2, sub-sec. (1), no. 1 AtG), as e.g. for applications in industry or medicine. The standard is also applicable to storage of nuclear fuels up to the tenth of the value granted general exemption from licensing requirements, but not from notification, excluding UF6 (sec. 4 Radiation Protection Ordinance) and interim storage of radioactive wastes in accordance with sec. 9a AtG, ultimate disposal and storage being excluded. The standard defines safety requirements within the purview of sections 6 and 74 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of October 13, 1976, as far as the storage of 'other radioactive materials' is concerned. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  14. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  15. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable natural storage sites. Electrical batteries have a large potential with a number of new materials and technologies under development to improve performance and reduce costs. Heat storage is practical in CSP plants. The choice between large-scale storage facilities and small-scale distributed storage depends on the geography and demography of the country, the existing grid and the type and scale of renewable technologies entering the market. While the energy storage market is quickly evolving and expected to increase 20-fold between 2010 and 2020, many electricity storage technologies are under development and need policy support for further commercial deployment. Electricity storage considerations should be an integral part of any plans for electric grid expansion or transformation of the electricity system. Storage also offers key synergies with grid interconnection and methods to smooth the variability of electricity demand (demand side management)

  16. Storage resource manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelmutov, T.; Bakken, J.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management on shared storage components on the Grid[1,2]. SRMs support protocol negotiation and reliable replication mechanism. The SRM standard supports independent SRM implementations, allowing for a uniform access to heterogeneous storage elements. SRMs allow site-specific policies at each location. Resource Reservations made through SRMs have limited lifetimes and allow for automatic collection of unused resources thus preventing clogging of storage systems with ''orphan'' files. At Fermilab, data handling systems use the SRM management interface to the dCache Distributed Disk Cache [5,6] and the Enstore Tape Storage System [15] as key components to satisfy current and future user requests [4]. The SAM project offers the SRM interface for its internal caches as well.

  17. Electricity: the necessary storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As they are intermittent, renewable energies raise the issue of energy storage. A first article evokes the existence of energy-transfer pumping stations in France (they are associated with dams) and outlines that energy storage requires important investments. It also evokes the different considered and currently tested energy storage technologies (compressed air, hydrogen, flywheels, methane, batteries, or phase-change materials) and outlines that each of them is associated to a specific application. A second article discusses the issue of a precise control of the coupling between energy production and storage. Some experiments are evoked. A last article addresses the development of positive-energy buildings which require energy storage solutions which are based on smart grids

  18. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  19. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cie?lak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  20. Sex hormone binding globulin decrease as potential pathogenetic factor for hirsutism in adolescent girls / Disminución de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales como factor patogénico de hirsutismo en la adolescencia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graciela, Cross; Karina, Danilowics; Martha, Kral; Anne, Caufriez; Georges, Copinschi; Oscar D., Bruno.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se investigaron 252 mujeres con peso normal, de 13 a 39 años de edad, para evaluar si un descenso exagerado en los niveles de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales ("sex hormone binding globulin"; SHBG) puede tener un rol en el desarrollo de hirsutismo. Este signo fue evaluado con la esca [...] la de Ferriman y Gallwey (FG), empleando un criterio riguroso de normalidad 4) y controles (FG Abstract in english We investigated 252 non-obese female subjects aged 13-39 years to evaluate if an exaggerated descent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels during adolescence can play a role in the development of hirsutism. Body hair was assessed according to Ferriman and Gallwey (FG), with a stringent crite [...] rion of normality of 4) and controls (FG

  1. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  2. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  4. A simple and rapid Hepatitis A Virus (HAV titration assay based on antibiotic resistance of infected cells: evaluation of the HAV neutralization potency of human immune globulin preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Gerardo G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV, the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in general does not cause cytopathic effect and is detected by immunochemical or molecular probes. Simple HAV titration assays could be developed using currently available viral construct containing selectable markers. Results We developed an antibiotic resistance titration assay (ARTA based on the infection of human hepatoma cells with a wild type HAV construct containing a blasticidin (Bsd resistance gene. Human hepatoma cells infected with the HAV-Bsd construct survived selection with 2 ?g/ml of blasticidin whereas uninfected cells died within a few days. At 8 days postinfection, the color of the pH indicator phenol red in cell culture media correlated with the presence of HAV-Bsd-infected blasticidin-resistant cells: an orange-to-yellow color indicated the presence of growing cells whereas a pink-to-purple color indicated that the cells were dead. HAV-Bsd titers were determined by an endpoint dilution assay based on the color of the cell culture medium scoring orange-to-yellow wells as positive and pink-to-purple wells as negative for HAV. As a proof-of-concept, we used the ARTA to evaluate the HAV neutralization potency of two commercially available human immune globulin (IG preparations and a WHO International Standard for anti-HAV. The three IG preparations contained comparable levels of anti-HAV antibodies that neutralized approximately 1.5 log of HAV-Bsd. Similar neutralization results were obtained in the absence of blasticidin by an endpoint dilution ELISA at 2 weeks postinfection. Conclusion The ARTA is a simple and rapid method to determine HAV titers without using HAV-specific probes. We determined the HAV neutralization potency of human IG preparations in 8 days by ARTA compared to the 14 days required by the endpoint dilution ELISA. The ARTA reduced the labour, time, and cost of HAV titrations making it suitable for high throughput screening of sera and antivirals, determination of anti-HAV antibodies in human immune globulin preparations, and research applications that involve the routine evaluation of HAV titers.

  5. Functional characterization of acetylated Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa HBK kernel globulin Caracterizaçao funcional das globulinas de amêndoa de castanha-do-Pará após a acetilação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Pinto Ramos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Defatted Brazil nut kernel flour, a rich source of high quality proteins, is presently being utilized in the formulation of animal feeds. One of the possible ways to improve its utilization for human consumption is through improvement in its functional properties. In the present study, changes in some of the functional properties of Brazil nut kernel globulin were evaluated after acetylation at 58.6, 66.2 and 75.3% levels. The solubility of acetylated globulin was improved above pH 6.0 but was reduced in the pH range of 3.0-4.0. Water and oil absorption capacity, as well as the viscosity increased with increase in the level of acetylation. Level of modification also influenced the emulsifying capacity: decreased at pH 3.0, but increased at pH 7.0 and 9.0. Highest emulsion activity (approximately 62.2% was observed at pH 3.0 followed by pH 9.0 and pH 7.0 and least (about 11.8% at pH 5.0. Emulsion stability also followed similar behavior as that of emulsion activity.Farinha desengordurada de amêndoa de castanha-do-Pará, fonte rica de proteína de alta qualidade, vem sendo, atualmente, aproveitada apenas na formulação de ração animal. Uma das possíveis maneiras de melhorar seu aproveitamento para o consumo humano é através do melhoramento de suas propriedades funcionais. No presente trabalho, mudanças em algumas propriedades funcionais da globulina de castanha-do-Pará, após acetilação, aos níveis de 58,6, 66,2 e 75,3% foram estudadas. A solubilidade da globulina acetilada aumentou acima de pH 6,0, porém diminuiu na faixa de pH 3,0 a 4,0. As capacidades de absorção de água e de óleo como também a viscosidade, melhoraram com o aumento de grau de acetilação. O grau de modificação também influenciou a capacidade de emulsificação: reduziu em pH 3,0, e aumentou nos pHs 7,0 e 9,0. A máxima atividade de emulsão (aproximadamente 62,2% foi observada em pH 3,0 seguida de pH 9,0 e a mínima foi observada (11,8% em pH 5,0. A estabilidade de emulsão também apresentou o comportamento similar à atividade de emulsão.

  6. Functional characterization of acetylated Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa HBK) kernel globulin / Caracterizaçao funcional das globulinas de amêndoa de castanha-do-Pará após a acetilação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cíntia Maria Pinto, Ramos; Pushkar Singh, Bora.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Farinha desengordurada de amêndoa de castanha-do-Pará, fonte rica de proteína de alta qualidade, vem sendo, atualmente, aproveitada apenas na formulação de ração animal. Uma das possíveis maneiras de melhorar seu aproveitamento para o consumo humano é através do melhoramento de suas propriedades fun [...] cionais. No presente trabalho, mudanças em algumas propriedades funcionais da globulina de castanha-do-Pará, após acetilação, aos níveis de 58,6, 66,2 e 75,3% foram estudadas. A solubilidade da globulina acetilada aumentou acima de pH 6,0, porém diminuiu na faixa de pH 3,0 a 4,0. As capacidades de absorção de água e de óleo como também a viscosidade, melhoraram com o aumento de grau de acetilação. O grau de modificação também influenciou a capacidade de emulsificação: reduziu em pH 3,0, e aumentou nos pHs 7,0 e 9,0. A máxima atividade de emulsão (aproximadamente 62,2%) foi observada em pH 3,0 seguida de pH 9,0 e a mínima foi observada (11,8%) em pH 5,0. A estabilidade de emulsão também apresentou o comportamento similar à atividade de emulsão. Abstract in english Defatted Brazil nut kernel flour, a rich source of high quality proteins, is presently being utilized in the formulation of animal feeds. One of the possible ways to improve its utilization for human consumption is through improvement in its functional properties. In the present study, changes in so [...] me of the functional properties of Brazil nut kernel globulin were evaluated after acetylation at 58.6, 66.2 and 75.3% levels. The solubility of acetylated globulin was improved above pH 6.0 but was reduced in the pH range of 3.0-4.0. Water and oil absorption capacity, as well as the viscosity increased with increase in the level of acetylation. Level of modification also influenced the emulsifying capacity: decreased at pH 3.0, but increased at pH 7.0 and 9.0. Highest emulsion activity (approximately 62.2%) was observed at pH 3.0 followed by pH 9.0 and pH 7.0 and least (about 11.8%) at pH 5.0. Emulsion stability also followed similar behavior as that of emulsion activity.

  7. On Storage Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Karim

    2009-01-01

    In 1990 Krivine introduced the notion of storage operators. They are $\\lambda$-terms which simulate call-by-value in the call-by-name strategy. Krivine has shown that there is a very simple type in the AF2 type system for storage operators using G\\"odel translation from classical to intuitionistic logic. Parigot and Krivine have shown that storage operators play an important tool in classical logic. In this paper, we present a synthesis of various results on this subject.

  8. Memory mass storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campardo, Giovanni [Numonyx, Agrate Brianza Milano (Italy); Tiziani, Federico; Iaculo, Massimo (eds.) [Micron, Arzano Napoli (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Memory Mass Storage describes the fundamental storage technologies, like Semiconductor, Magnetic, Optical and Uncommon, detailing the main technical characteristics of the storage devices. It deals not only with semiconductor and hard disk memory, but also with different ways to manufacture and assembly them, and with their application to meet market requirements. It also provides an introduction to the epistemological issues arising in defining the process of remembering, as well as an overview on human memory, and an interesting excursus about biological memories and their organization, to better understand how the best memory we have, our brain, is able to imagine and design memory. (orig.)

  9. MUCK STORAGE PAD ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to define the spatial requirements of the area (pad) for storage of muck removed from the tunnel area during the construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). This analysis uses the estimate for the amount of material to be removed and determines the required area of the storage pad. Two different areas, Areas 1 and 2, considered as primarily suitable areas, will be analyzed (see Attachment I). An Optional Muck Storage Area, to be located to the east of the ESF pad, will also be analyzed for available volume, with an option of raising the stockpile of muck to 49 feet (see Attachments II and III)

  10. The role of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in conversion of testosterone to 5 ?-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione in skin from suprapubic area of women. Part 2. In vitro study with skin homogenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and of microsomal supernatant (cytosol) on 3H-testosterone transformation into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone by skin microsomes of the suprapubic area of women in reproductive age was studied. Microsomal fractions were incubated with different forms of cytosol and with active and inactive globulin. Steroids, following isolation from the incubation material, were purified with the use of column and thin layer chromotographies. Individual recovery of identified androstenedione was calculated using radioisotopes, and the recovery of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone was determined with gas chromatography. The transformation of 3H-testosterone into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione by skin microsomes in the presence of active globulin has become significantly reduced. Microsomal supernatant (cytosol) has not changed the quantity of identified 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, whereas the quantity of formed androstenedione has slightly decreased. The lack of cyprosterone influence on 5 alpha reductase activity and a slight decrease in 17-dehydrogenase activity in the skin microsomal fraction were found. (author)

  11. Costs of Archival Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were to determine the costs of establishing and maintaining a preservation solution destined for long-term preservation of digital materials and to develop a tool capable of doing this operation. In order to fulfill the purposes, the project employed a combination of own and external experience as well as the OAIS Reference Model as a framework to fully understand and identify the cost critical activities of bit-preservation as described in Archival Storage. We found that the costs of Archival Storage are obviously closely linked to the data volume, but also to the required preservation quality, especially with regard to the required number of copies and the type of storage solution.

  12. Cryptography from Noisy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Schaffner, Christian; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2008-06-01

    We show how to implement cryptographic primitives based on the realistic assumption that quantum storage of qubits is noisy. We thereby consider individual-storage attacks; i.e., the dishonest party attempts to store each incoming qubit separately. Our model is similar to the model of bounded-quantum storage; however, we consider an explicit noise model inspired by present-day technology. To illustrate the power of this new model, we show that a protocol for oblivious transfer is secure for any amount of quantum-storage noise, as long as honest players can perform perfect quantum operations. Our model also allows us to show the security of protocols that cope with noise in the operations of the honest players and achieve more advanced tasks such as secure identification.

  13. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  14. Spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To increase the capacities of spent fuel pools in the reactor building by dividing a pair, left and right, of pools communicating with the reactor well pool into two, upper and lower, stages and storing spent fuels in the lower stage. Constitution: At the lower part of a pool communicating with the reactor well pool through pool gates and shield blocks there are provided storage racks thereby to use the pool as an auxiliary machine tentatively set pool concurrently used as a spent fuel storage pool. Furthermore, a pair of spent fuel storage pools are provided at the left and right hand sides of the well pool thereby to double the storage capacity. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. Nuclear Materials Storage

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Creation of System for Storage, Operative Control and Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Ampoule Sources of Ionizing Radiation (ASIR) on "Baikal-1" stand Complex Meeting the International Requirements of Radioactive Materials Control...

  16. Nanoscale data storage

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The object of this article is to review the development of ultrahigh-density, nanoscale data storage, i.e., nanostorage. As a fundamentally new type of storage system, the recording mechanisms of nanostorage may be completely different to those of the traditional devices. Currently, two types of molecules are being studied for potential application in nanostorage. One is molecular electronic elements including molecular wires, rectifiers, switches, and transistors. The other...

  17. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR)

  18. Analog storage integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  19. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mellia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and -- most of all -- performance implications of design choices. This paper presents a methodology to study cloud storage services. We apply our methodology to compare 5 popular offers, revealing different system architectu...

  20. Cloud Storage Vault

    OpenAIRE

    Haver, Eirik; Melvold, Eivind; Ruud, Pa?l

    2011-01-01

    Today, major IT-companies, such as Microsoft, Amazon and Google, are offering online storage services to their customers. This is a favourable solution -- as opposed to regular storage -- in terms of low costs, reliability, scalability and capacity. However, important security features such as data privacy and integrity are often absent.To address these issues, a cryptographic architecture is proposed that ensures the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored by users, independent of t...

  1. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  2. Energy Storage: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Verma,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and economic energy storage, if implemented in the current power infrastructure on a large scale, could bring about some of the greatest changes in the power industry in decades. Additionally, energy storage would improve the reliability and dynamic stability of the power system by providing stable, abundant energy reserves that require little ramp time and are less susceptible to varying fuel prices or shortages. Energy storage can shift the higher peak load to off-peak hours in order to level the generation requirement, allowing generators to run more efficiently at a stable power level, potentially decreasing the average cost of electricity. Additionally, increased energy storage capacity can avoid generation capacity, decrease transmission congestion, and help enable distributed generation such as residential solar and wind systems.In this paper energy storage methods are discussed in such a way to provide a detailed overview of how each of the energy storage devices work so that the reader is able to get a better feel for the potential benefits and drawbacks of each device.

  3. Aboveground storage tank regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are critical differences between the potential for environmental impact of aboveground and underground oil storage. For example, while leaks from underground storage tanks (USTs) seep into soil or aquifers, the concern with aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) is that an overfill or tank rupture can cause product to escape into a navigable stream and immediately create an oil spill pollution incident. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has very distinct programs outlining regulation parameters for each type of storage, including source of authority, regulatory cutoffs and exclusions, definitions, prevention and response requirements, and penalties, etc. Engineers considering changes or recommending a change in type of storage, particularly from a UST to an AST, need to be aware of existing federal regulations. Since the federal UST program began, remediation costs have skyrocketed as a result of the need to clean up leaking tank and piping sites, backfill and surrounding soil or groundwater. Compliance with federal and state UST regulations has not been cheap, and is expected to top $23 billion, according to some estimates. Partly as a result, market demand has shifted toward use of aboveground storage tanks, a trend that is expected to continue. Industry figures show a 100% increase in factory fabricated aboveground tank activity during the last four years

  4. Optical Disk Storage Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman, B. H.

    Optical disk technology is the only optical data storage technology with a notable market. After more than a decade of persistent struggle, optical disk storage has established itself as a significant, albeit not dominant, segment of the computer data storage industry. Worldwide revenue for optical disk drives in 1998 was 6.1 billion, which compares with 34.2 billion for magnetic hard disk drives [1]. The success and growth of optical storage in the last few years has been strongly fueled by the emergence and acceptance of the CD-ROM device and media as the de facto standard for software distribution on mass market desktop computer systems. CD-ROM drives accounted for 92% of the optical drive units shipped in 1998, although this represented only 75% of the overall optical drive revenue [1]. For software distribution, the attractive features of CD-ROM are that it is a removable storage medium with very low cost and very high capacity, which can be easily mass-replicated. The ubiquitous presence of CD-ROM drives in desktop computer systems has in turn provided a foundation for the recent growth of recordable and rewritable devices in the CD form factor. This strong, established base will have an important influence on the future development of optical disk storage.

  5. Storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish system of handling and storage of nuclear wastes is well-developed. Existing plants and systems provide great freedom of action and flexibility regarding future development and decisions of ultimate storage of the spent fuel. The interim storage in CLAB - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - could continue without any safety related problems for more than 40 years. In practice the choice of ultimate treatment system is not locked until the encapsulation of the fuel starts. At the same time it is of importance that the generation benefiting by the nuclear power production also be responsible for the development of the ultimate storage system and not unnecessarily postpones important decisions. The ultimate storage system for spent fuel could and should be developed within existing schedule. At the same time is should be worked out to provide coming generations with possibilities to do the type of supervision they like without maintenance and supervision requiring to become a prerequisite for a safe function. (O.S.)

  6. Effect of atrazine and fenitrothion at no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on amphibian and mammalian corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2014-11-01

    This study determines the effect of atrazine and fenitrothion no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on the binding of corticosterone (B) to corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG) in an amphibian and a mammal. Plasma from five cane toads and five Wistar rats was exposed to atrazine and fenitrothion at the NOEL approved for Australian fresh water residues and by the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration required to displace 50% (IC50) of B binding to CBG was determined by a competitive microdialysis protein assay. Competition studies showed that both atrazine and fenitrothion at NOEL are able to compete with B for CBG binding sites in toad and rat plasma. The IC50 levels for atrazine in toads and rats were 0.004 nmol/l and 0.09 nmol/l respectively. In the case of fenitrothion the IC50 level found in toads was 0.007 nmol/l, and 0.025 nmol/l in rats. Plasma dilution curves showed parallelism with the curve of B, demonstrating that these agro-chemicals are competitively inhibiting binding to CBG. The displacement of B by atrazine and fenitrothion would affect the total:free ratio of B and consequently disrupt the normal stress response. This is the first time that the potential disruptive effect of atrazine and fenitrothion on B-CBG interaction at the NOELs has been demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian models. PMID:25138046

  7. Interaction of Jatrorrhizine with Human Gamma Globulin in membrane mimetic environments: Probing of the binding mechanism and binding site by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Chao, Wang; Guanghua, Lu

    2010-09-01

    The interaction between Jatrorrhizine and Human Gamma Globulin (HGG) in AOT/isooctane/water microemulsions was studied by using fluorescence quenching, UV absorption spectroscopy, circular dischroism (CD) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Fluorescence data in water-surfactant molar ratio ( ?0) 25 microemulsions revealed the presence of the binding site of Jatrorrhizine on HGG and its binding constants at four temperatures were obtained. The affinities in microemulsions were similar to that in buffer solution. The alterations of ?GG secondary structure in the microemulsions in the absence and presence of Jatrorrhizine compared with the free form of HGG in buffer were analyzed by CD spectroscopy. In addition, the DLS data suggested that HGG may locate inside the microemulsion and Jatrorrhizine could interact with them. Furthermore, the thermodynamic functions, i.e. standard enthalpy ( ?H0) and standard entropy ( ?S0) for the reaction were also calculated, according to Van't Hoff equation. These data showed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction played the main role in the binding of Jatrorrhizine to HGG.

  8. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeager Meredith

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. Results None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259 and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941. However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. Conclusion These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk.

  9. Vaccination of seropositive subjects with CHIRON CMV gB subunit vaccine combined with MF59 adjuvant for production of CMV immune globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drulak, M W; Malinoski, F J; Fuller, S A; Stewart, S S; Hoskin, S; Duliege, A M; Sekulovich, R; Burke, R; Winston, S

    2000-01-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of four different regimens of CHIRON cytomegalovirus (CMV) gB subunit vaccine combined with MF59 adjuvant and administered to seropositive plasma donors were evaluated to ascertain whether vaccination of seropositive subjects would significantly increase antibody titer to gB glycoprotein. This was done to select the best vaccination regimen for generating high-titered plasma for manufacture of CMV immune globulin. No serious adverse events were attributed to this vaccine, and the vaccine was well tolerated. Only the first dose of vaccine in each regimen stimulated a four-fold or greater antibody response to gB glycoprotein and each regimen induced similar antibody titers. However, initial vaccination followed by a 1 week rest from plasmapheresis and two booster vaccinations at 8 and 24 weeks, each followed with another 1 week rest from plasmapheresis, maintained the highest geometric mean gB ELISA titer of the four regimens over the 34-week post-vaccination period. CMVIG manufactured from a pool of high titered plasma units from two of four subject groups had gB ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers nine and six times higher, respectively, compared to Cytogam, indicating that vaccination of seropositive subjects with CHIRON gB vaccine combined with MF59 adjuvant prior to harvesting plasma can enhance functional antibody in a CMVIG product. PMID:10733168

  10. Transient Grades 3 to 4 Acute Hepatitis Is a Common Complication of Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin (Thymoglobulin) Administered before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médiavilla, Clémence; Vigouroux, Stéphane; Tabrizi, Reza; Pigneux, Arnaud; Duclos, Cédric; Mohr, Catherine; Robles, Margot; Milpied, Noël

    2015-04-01

    Because antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is increasingly used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we performed a retrospective study in adult patients transplanted at our center between January 2008 and December 2012 to explore incidence, characteristics, potential risk factors, and consequences of severe acute hepatotoxicity (SAH) of rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) defined as a grade 3 to 4 increase of transaminases. Two hundred twelve patients were included. SAH was diagnosed in 55 patients, representing an incidence of 26%. SAH occurred at a median time of 2 days (range, 1 to 3) after ATG administration, reaching maximum median levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of 8.7 × upper limit of normal (ULN; range, 1.2 to 160) and 11.7 × ULN (range, 4-100), respectively. The International Normalized Ratio was beyond the normal range in 44% of patients. Transaminases decreased below 2 × ULN after a median time of 9 days. We do not report any deleterious impact of SAH on survival, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, or GVHD. Blood systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg during administration of ATG and 2 previous autologous SCT were identified as risk factors for SAH. We believe physicians should be aware of this common toxicity immediately after the administration of ATG to avoid any potential hepatotoxic drug before the resolution and to prevent any risk of hemorrhagic accident. PMID:25536216

  11. Early CMV viremia is associated with impaired viral control following nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation with a total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin preparative regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaenman, Joanna M; Shashidhar, Sumana; Rhee, Chanu; Wong, Jonathan; Navato, Shelly; Wong, Ruby M; Ho, Dora Y; Arai, Sally; Johnston, Laura; Brown, Janice M

    2011-05-01

    The reconstitution of immune function after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) plays an important role in the control of viral infections. Both donor and recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus has been shown to contribute to effective immune function; however, the influence of a nonmyeloablative preparative (NMA) regimen using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) on antiviral immune reconstitution has not yet been described. In 117 recipients of NMA HCT patients following ATG and TLI, not unexpectedly, CMV viremia was seen in approximately 60% of the seropositive patients regardless of donor serostatus, and recipient seropositivity significantly increased the odds of CMV viremia after transplant in a multivariate analysis. The administration of ATG and TLI resulted in a strikingly earlier viremia in the posttransplant period when compared to the previously reported timing of viremia following myeloablative preparative regimens, especially for transplant recipients who were seropositive for CMV with seronegative donors. Furthermore, early viremia in the setting of a CMV naïve donor was associated with a delay in functional antiviral control. These observations demonstrate the dynamic nature of immunity in relation to CMV antigen exposure in the complex environment resulting from NMA conditions where both donor and residual recipient immune response affect viral control. PMID:20736077

  12. Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, R J; Kattesh, H G; Roberts, M P; Carroll, J A; Saxton, A M; Kojima, C J

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to document changes in plasma concentrations of total cortisol, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (pCBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 6-h period in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression. Twenty-four 8-week old pigs allotted in equal numbers were administered ACTH, dexamethasone or saline, and blood samples were collected every 15 min via an indwelling jugular catheter for 1 h prior to and 5 h following treatment. Total plasma cortisol increased in ACTH-treated pigs and decreased in dexamethasone-treated pigs within 0.25 and 0.5 h, respectively. In contrast, pCBG concentration was altered in an inverse fashion subsequent to the changes exhibited in total cortisol. FCI reflected the changes observed in total cortisol. These results further document the negative relationship that exists between circulating concentrations of plasma cortisol and pCBG, and illustrate that this association exists under conditions of acute stress in the pig. PMID:17613944

  13. Primary structure of human corticosteroid binding globulin, deduced from hepatic and pulmonary cDNAs, exhibits homology with serine protease inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs for corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) prepared from human liver and lung mRNAs. The results indicate that CBG mRNA is relatively abundant in the liver but is also present in the lung, testis, and kidney. The liver CBG cDNA contains an open reading frame for a 405-amino acid (M/sub r/ 45,149) polypeptide. This includes a predominantly hydrophobic, leader sequence of 22 residues that precedes the known NH2-terminal sequence of human CBG. We, therefore, predict that the mature protein is composed of 383 amino acids and is a polypeptide of M/sub r/ 42,646. A second, in-frame, 72-base-pair cistron of unknown significance exists between the TAA termination codon for CBG and a possible polyadenylylation signal (AATAAA) located 16 nucleotides before the polyadenylylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of mature CBG contains two cysteine residues and consensus sequences for the attachment of six possible N-linked oligosaccharide chains. The sequences of the human lung and liver CBG cDNAs differ by only one nucleotide within the proposed leader sequence,and they attribute this to a point mutation. No sequence homology was found between CBG and other steroid binding proteins, but there is a remarkable similarity between the amino acid sequences of CBG and of ?1-antitrypsin, and this extends to other members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) superfamily

  14. Stable long-term pulmonary function after fludarabine, antithymocyte globulin and i.v. BU for reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirou, S; Malard, F; Chambellan, A; Chevallier, P; Germaud, P; Guillaume, T; Delaunay, J; Moreau, P; Delasalle, B; Lemarchand, P; Mohty, M

    2014-05-01

    Lung function decline is a well-recognized complication following allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and in vivo T-cell depletion by administration of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) may have a protective role in the occurrence of late pulmonary complications. This retrospective study reported the evolution of lung function parameters within the first 2 years after allo-SCT in a population receiving the same RIC regimen that included fludarabine and i.v. BU in combination with low-dose ATG. The median follow-up was 35.2 months. With a median age of 59 years at the time of transplant, at 2 years, the cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality was as low as 9.7%. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 33%. At 2 years, the cumulative incidences of extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and of pulmonary cGVHD were 23.1% and 1.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of airflow obstruction and restrictive pattern were 3.8% and 9.6%, respectively. Moreover, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio remained stable from baseline up to 2 years post transplantation (P=0.26, P=0.27 and P=0.07, respectively). These results correspond favorably with the results obtained with other RIC regimens not incorporating ATG, and suggest that ATG may have a protective pulmonary role after allo-SCT. PMID:24535125

  15. Elevation of corticosteroid-binding globulin in Obese strain (OS) chickens: possible implications for the disturbed immunoregulation and the development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basal plasma levels of corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) have been investigated in Obese strain (OS) chickens afflicted with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT). Corticosterone was determined radioimmunologically, and CBG by using a highly sensitive radioligand saturation assay. OS chickens displayed total corticosterone levels not different from healthy normal White Leghorn (NWL) chickens. CBG, however, was found to be twice as high in OS chickens as compared with their healthy counterparts, irrespective of sex or age. This quantitative difference in the CBG level is not compensated for by either altered affinity or specificity of the molecule. Furthermore, no differences were found in the response of OS and NWL lymphocytes to the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids in vitro. It was therefore assumed that OS animals are deficient in free, hormonally active corticosterone. An additional indication for such a diminished glucocorticoid tonus was that in vivo treatment of OS chickens with glucocorticoid hormones, thus increasing the free and active hormone fraction, normalizes the T cell hyperreactivity and significantly reduces thyroid infiltration. Possible pathophysiological implications of a diminished glucocorticoid tonus for spontaneous autoimmunity, as well as possible explanations for the beneficial effects of glucocorticoid treatment on the development of SAT, are discussed

  16. Prediction of non-responsiveness to standard high-dose gamma-globulin therapy in patients with acute Kawasaki disease before starting initial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tetsuya; Kurotobi, Shunji; Matsuzaki, Kouji; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Maki, Ichiro; Miki, Kazunori; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Hara, Junichi

    2007-02-01

    Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data were retrospectively analyzed in 112 patients with acute Kawasaki disease who received high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous gamma-globulin (IVIG) treatment within 2 days and were compared for those who were responsive and non-responsive to initial IVIG treatment. Coronary arteries adjusted for body surface area (BSA) were evaluated quantitatively by comparison with the mean dimensions for 85 normal control subjects. The incidence of coronary abnormalities was higher in IVIG-non-responsive patients as compared to IVIG-responsive patients (71% versus 5%, plevels of C-reactive protein (CRP), total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly higher in IVIG-non-responsive versus responsive patients. Multivariate analysis selected CRP (p=0.009), TB (por=7.0 mg, TB>or=0.9 mg, or AST>or=200 IU/L) are considered to be non-responsive to IVIG for acute Kawasaki disease. Alternatively, more intense initial therapy may be a promising therapeutic strategy for patients who are predicted to be IVIG-non-responsive. PMID:16896641

  17. Boron labeled rabbit anti-rat fibrin and goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin antibodies and their potential for slow neutron capture therapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic effectiveness of slow neutron capture therapy is currently dependent upon achieving a high concentration gradient of boron between tumor and normal tissue. Labeling of anti-tumor or anti-tumor site antibodies with boron containing compounds could provide this high therapeutic value. Anti-rat fibrin antibodies, which show considerable localization at the site of several transplantable rat tumors, were labeled with 4-boronophenylalanine (4-BPA) using the N-carboxy anhydride procedure. Activity of these labeled antibodies was studied by modifying the test for fibrinogen concentration of hemophiliac blood. The number of 4-BPAs bound to each active antibody was determined indirectly using the fluorimetric test for phenylalanine concentration in serum. These tests showed that labeled antibodies retained their activity, and it was possible to add up to fifty 4-BPAs per active antibody. The indirect approach to achieving a high therapeutic value of boron was also investigated. This procedure involves labeling anti-immunoglobulin antibodies that bind to anti-tumor antibodies which are already bound to their respective antigens. Indirect labeling has the potential of increasing the therapeutic value by a factor of ten over the direct approach. Activity of labeled goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin (RGG) antibodies was studied by radial immunodiffusion and passive hemagglutination. The number of 4-BPAs bound to each active antibody was determined indirectly by fluorntibody was determined indirectly by fluorimetry. These labeled antibodies also retained their activity, and it was possible to add upwards of forty 4-BPAs per active antibody

  18. Synchronous replication of remote storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr Timur

    2014-01-01

    Storage replication is one of the essential requirements for network environments. While many forms of Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and other forms of network storage exist, there is a need for a reliable synchronous storage replication technique between distant sites (less than 1 mile). Such technology allows setting new standards for network failover and failback systems for virtual servers; specifically, addressing the growing need for effec...

  19. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.

  20. Distributed Storage Allocations

    CERN Document Server

    Leong, Derek; Ho, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    We examine the problem of allocating a given total storage budget in a distributed storage system for maximum reliability. A source has a single data object which it can code and store over a set of storage nodes; it is allowed to store any amount of coded data in each node, as long as the total amount of storage used does not exceed the given budget. A data collector subsequently attempts to recover the original data object by accessing only the data stored in a random subset of the nodes. By using an appropriate code, successful recovery can be achieved whenever the total amount of data accessed is at least the size of the original data object. The goal is to find an optimal storage allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery. This optimization problem is challenging in general because of its discrete and nonconvex nature, despite its simple formulation. We study several variations of the problem, assuming different allocation models and access models. The optimal allocation and the opt...

  1. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  2. Nuclear fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable a great amount of fuels to be stored in a separate building from an earthquake-proof building, by floating and anchoring, in a lake, a storage facility comprising a housing having a fuel containing pool and a building covering the pool. Constitution: A housing having a fuel storage pool in the inside is constituted with inner and outer shells and a plurality of partition plates provided between them, and a building is mounted above the housing for covering the pool. The storage facility having such housing and building is floated and anchored in a lake. This enables to provide a floatable housing for the fuel storage building which flows on the lake of sea-water or river water, whereby storage facility of optional capacity with no restriction on its circumference can be designed. Further, since the facility is of a floating type, no earthquake-proof design is required where it is placed in a lake with no waves. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Centralised spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France has a large nuclear power programme with about 50 nuclear power plants generating roughly 1300t of spent fuel a year. She has decided to continue reprocessing and recycling the recovered plutonium. This is being done for LWR fuels at La Hague, where the existing plant has been already carried out prompt reprocessing of more than 1300t. Two additional large 800tU/year plants, UP3 and UP2 800, will be on line in 1988 and 1991 respectively, to accommodate domestic fuel and meet the needs of foreign clients. To receive these fuels, a major spent fuel reception and storage programme has been implemented at La Hague. This facility is described and each stage from reception and unloading and storage in pools is explained. At La Hague there is dry reception for unloading the fuels into the new pools. For smaller storage capacities, dry storage is cheaper but for large capacities the pool is less expensive. Loading and unloading can be automated. Centralised storage prior to reprocessing reduces the amount of handling and reshuffling required. (UK)

  4. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  5. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (?50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  7. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA RADUCAN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc. increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever then, the storage of electrical energy has become a necessity.

  8. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  9. Neptunium Storage at Hanford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Carol. J.; Shiraga, Scott. S.; Schwartz, Randolph. A.; Smith, Richard. J.; Wootan, David. W.

    1994-07-01

    A decision must be made regarding whether the United States' stockpile of neptunium should be discarded into the waste stream or kept for the production of Pu-238. Although the cost of long term storage is not inconsequential, to dispose of the material means the closing of our option to maintain control over our Pu-238 stockpile. Within the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at Hanford there exists a remotely operated facility that can be converted for neptunium storage. This paper describes the facility and the anticipated handling requirements.

  10. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  11. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  12. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ?126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ?200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and ?-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  13. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sex hormone binding globulin: molecular and biochemical properties and phylogenetic comparison of its orthologues in multiple fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Avvakumov, George V; Blázquez, Mercedes; Piferrer, Francesc; Hammond, Geoffrey L

    2005-01-14

    Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) binds and transports androgens and estrogens in the blood of vertebrate species including fish. We have used oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved regions of the SHBG coding sequences within the zebrafish and fugufish genomes to obtain a 1528 bp cDNA encoding SHBG from tissue RNA extracts from the European sea bass. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of recombinant sea bass SHBG indicated that its deduced precursor polypeptide includes a 35-residue secretion signal polypeptide, and the 361-residue mature sea bass SHBG sequence exhibits 45-67% sequence identity with SHBGs from other fish species that have been determined directly (for zebrafish) or deduced (for rainbow trout, medaka and fugufish) from sequences within public databases. The sea bass SHBG (39,894 Da) comprises a tandem repeat of laminin G-like domains typical of SHBG sequences; contains three N-glycosylation sites, and exists as a 118,300 +/- 11,500 Da homodimer. Sea bass SHBG exhibits a high affinity (K(d) = 8.8 nM for 17beta-estradiol) and specificity for gonadal steroids and their precursors (e.g., 17beta-estradiol > testosterone > dehydroepiandrosterone > 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone > androstenedione >11-ketotesterone). Interestingly, the affinity of sea bass SHBG for the synthetic estrogen, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol was found to be essentially identical to that for 17beta-estradiol. The availability of SHBG sequences in sea bass and other fish set the stage for detailed studies of SHBG function in fish reproductive physiology, as well as its potential role as a target of endocrine disruptors. PMID:15607525

  14. Pilot study using tacrolimus rather than cyclosporine plus antithymocyte globulin as an immunosuppressive therapy regimen option for severe aplastic anemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianmin; Guan, Jun; Xu, Jinhuan; Wei, Jia; Jiang, Lijun; Yin, Jin; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Yicheng

    2014-09-01

    Severe aplastic anemia (SAA), which is considered to be an immune-mediated destruction of bone marrow stem cells with pancytopenia and hypoplasia, can be successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between January 2009 and December 2012, thirteen patients diagnosed with SAA were treated with tacrolimus plus rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based immunosuppressive therapy (IST). The outcomes were then compared with our previous data for twenty-four patients administered with cyclosporine (CsA) plus rabbit ATG-based IST. All 37 cases accepted methylpredenisolone and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) from the first day that rabbit ATG was initiated. A total of 7 (54%) of the 13 patients in the tacrolimus group and 10 (42%) of the 24 cases in the ATG+CsA group achieved the criteria for complete response (CR); the partial response (PR) rate was 31% in the tacrolimus group and 33% in the ATG+CsA group. The median follow-up duration of the tacrolimus group and ATG+CsA group patients was 28 months and 27 months, respectively. Two patients in the tacrolimus group who were red blood cell- and platelet transfusion-dependent died, one of sepsis and the other of cerebral hemorrhage, whereas one patient died from serious infection on the 5th day after ATG was initiated in the ATG+CsA group. No clonal transformation to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) was observed in either group. Our data provide a possibility of using tacrolimus as part of an IST regimen for SAA in adults who have no opportunity of HSCT from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. PMID:24931461

  15. Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F., Reis; W.L., Miranda; A.R., Chacra.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity) both absolute and relative [...] increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years) with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI) ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8) and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10) groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

  16. Comparison of Conditioning Regimens with or without Antithymocyte Globulin for Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation in Children with High-Risk or Advanced Hematological Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changcheng; Luan, Zuo; Fang, Jianpei; Sun, Xin; Chen, Jing; Li, Chi Kong; Hu, Shaoyan; Zhu, Yiping; Sun, Zimin

    2015-04-01

    The role and potential efficacy of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in patients receiving cord blood transplantation (CBT) remain controversial. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of ATG on patient outcomes in 207 children with high-risk or advanced hematological malignancies at 8 child blood disease centers in China. The cumulative incidence of platelet recovery on day 100 was significantly lower in the ATG cohort compared with the non-ATG cohort (77.3% versus 89.8%) (P = .046). There was no significant difference in the incidence of grade II to IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) between the 2 groups (P = .76, P = .57, and P = .46, respectively). The incidence of CMV infection was significantly higher among the ATG group compared with that among the non-ATG group (P = .003). The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was significantly higher in the ATG cohort (30.7% versus 15.4%) (P = .009). Overall survival in the non-ATG group was slightly higher than that of the ATG cohort (64.1% versus 52.1%, P = .093) and leukemia-free survival in the non-ATG cohort was significantly higher than in the ATG cohort (56.6% versus 37.7%, P = .015). Our study demonstrated that, for high-risk or advanced childhood hematological malignancies receiving unrelated CBT, patients who received conditioning that omitted ATG had a faster platelet recovery, a comparable GVHD and TRM, a significantly lower relapse risk, and an improved long-term survival compared with those patients who received ATG in the conditioning. PMID:25598277

  17. Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Reis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity both absolute and relative increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8 and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10 groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

  18. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

  19. Switchgrass harvest and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feedstock characteristics of the conversion platform will influence the optimal harvest and post harvest management practices for switchgrass. However, many of the harvest management practices are tied to plant phenology and will be similar across platforms. Proper harvest and storage of switchg...

  20. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  1. Beyond DVD: Holographic Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Clair

    InPhase Technologies is exploring holographic storage; however, its goal is to create a device that could be the successor to the DVD. In this article, the potential capabilities and specifications of such a device are discussed. A working prototype has already been demonstrated, paving the way for future commercially viable drives based on the technology.

  2. Hydrogen Storage Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation looks at the topic of storing hydrogen for use as fuel. Compressed, liquid and other storage methods are examined. This presentation includes useful graphics to help your students understand the various methods of storing and using hydrogen. This presentation may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

  3. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  4. Inertial storage for satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D.

    1984-01-01

    A new system is being developed that performs satellite attitude control, attitude reference, and energy storage utilizing inertia wheels. The baseline approach consists of two counter rotating flywheels suspended in specially designed magnetic bearings, spin axis motor/generators, and a control system. The control system regulates the magnetic bearings and spin axis motor/generators and interacts with other satellite subsystems (photovoltaic array, star trackers, Sun sensors, magnetic torquers, etc.) to perform the three functions. Existing satellites utilize separate subsystems to perform attitude control, provide attitude reference, and store energy. These functions are currently performed using reaction or momentum wheels, gyros, batteries, and devices that provide an absolute reference (Sun sensors and star trackers). A Combined Attitude, Reference, and Energy Storage (CARES) system based on high energy density inertial energy storage wheels (flywheels) has potential advantages over existing technologies. Even when used only for energy storage, this system offers the potential for substantial improvements in life, energy efficiency, and weight over existing battery technologies. Utilizing this same device for both attitude control and attitude reference would result in significant additional savings in overall satellite weight and complexity.

  5. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

  6. Nuclear fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel storage rack comprising a rigid honeycomb formed of checkerboard-arrayed, corner-joined elongated tubular enclosures is described. Each enclosure comprises a structural wall section containing embedded poison material. Additional poison filled tubes may be located in the spaces formed between the connected enclosures

  7. Storage ring beam tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage ring beam tests since the Second Workshop on RF-Superconductivity (July 1984) are discussed in this report. The experiments are listed in chronological order. Details depend on information given in papers and/or by private communication. 14 references, 22 figures, 5 tables

  8. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  9. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation, along with protocols for using the encoding scheme in practice. Protocols for cloud storage find applicationin the cloud setting, where clients store their files on a remote server and need to be ensured that the cloud provider will not delete their data illegitimately. Current solutions, e.g., based on Provable Data Possession and Proof of Retrievability, catch a malicious server “after-the-fact”, meaning that the server needs to be challenged regularly to provide evidence that the clients’ files are stored at a given time. Entangled storage makes all clients equal and with the same rights: It makes it financially inconvenient for a cloud provider to alter specific files and exclude certain “average” customers, since doing so would undermine all customers in the system, even those considered “important” and, thus, profitable. Therefore, entangled storage schemes offer security “before-the-fact”.

  10. Thermal energy storage application areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The use of thermal energy storage in the areas of building heating and cooling, recovery of industrial process and waste heat, solar power generation, and off-peak energy storage and load management in electric utilities is reviewed. (TFD)

  11. Computer controlled target storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hygroscopic or readily oxidizing targets need an appropriate and secure storage system. This is a description of a computer controlled target storage facility at ANL. The facility provides protection against vacuum failures and disruption of utilities

  12. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  13. A Review of Encryption Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Chaowen Chang; Min Liang; Hongzhao Kou; Zhigang Si

    2010-01-01

    Information leakage leads to very serious consequences. Encryption storage is an effective means of ensuring information security. We summarize several typical encryption storage methods: application layer encryption, filter driver encryption, virtual disk encryption and full disk encryption. At last this paper compares these methods in some respects and provides the references for design and research of encryption storage systems.

  14. A Review of Encryption Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowen Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information leakage leads to very serious consequences. Encryption storage is an effective means of ensuring information security. We summarize several typical encryption storage methods: application layer encryption, filter driver encryption, virtual disk encryption and full disk encryption. At last this paper compares these methods in some respects and provides the references for design and research of encryption storage systems.

  15. Caracterização e hidrólise in vitro da globulina principal de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L., var. IAC-Marrocos Characterization and in vitro tryptic hydrolysis of the major globulin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Neves

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo procedeu-se ao isolamento e caracterização da fração globulina majoritária (11 S de grão-de-bico, var. IAC-Marrocos. A globulina majoritária extraída foi isolada por cromatografia de filtração em gel e de troca-iônica mostrando apenas uma banda de proteína na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. A globulina majoritária, após passagem em coluna de Sephadex, revelou duas bandas protéicas de 55 e 52,5kDa e três bandas menores em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio. Na presença de 2-mercaptoetanol 6 polipeptídios na faixa de 18 a 42kDa foram revelados na eletroforese. A globulina isolada foi submetida à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina onde a forma nativa mostrou-se resistente à ação enzimática enquanto o aquecimento (96 e 121°C/15min não foi suficiente para aumentar a susceptibilidade à hidrólise, significativamente. Adição de NaCl 0,3M levou a um aumento da estabilidade estrutural com menor susceptibilidade à digestão proteolítica, fato em parte perdido com o aquecimento. As hidrólises foram acompanhadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio.The isolation and characterization of the major globulin fraction (11 S from Chickpea, vc IAC-Marrocos, were evaluated. The major globulin was extracted, isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography showing only one protein band on PAGE. The globulin, after Sephadex elution, revealed two protein bands of 55 and 52.5kDa and three minor bands on SDS-PAGE. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol six polypeptides were revealed on SDS-PAGE in the range of 18 to 42kDa. The isolated native globulin shown to be resistant to trypsin and chymotrypsin however heating at 96 and 121ºC/15min was not sufficient to increase the hydrolysis significantly. The proteolytic susceptibility of the enzymes was reduced by 0.3M NaCl addition at the assay. The salt concentration was sufficient to stabilize the native protein structure that was lost after heating as demonstrated on SDS-PAGE.

  16. Caracterização e hidrólise in vitro da globulina principal de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L.), var. IAC-Marrocos / Characterization and in vitro tryptic hydrolysis of the major globulin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdir A., Neves; Maraiza A. da, Silva; Euclides J., Lourenço.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo procedeu-se ao isolamento e caracterização da fração globulina majoritária (11 S) de grão-de-bico, var. IAC-Marrocos. A globulina majoritária extraída foi isolada por cromatografia de filtração em gel e de troca-iônica mostrando apenas uma banda de proteína na eletroforese em gel [...] de poliacrilamida. A globulina majoritária, após passagem em coluna de Sephadex, revelou duas bandas protéicas de 55 e 52,5kDa e três bandas menores em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio. Na presença de 2-mercaptoetanol 6 polipeptídios na faixa de 18 a 42kDa foram revelados na eletroforese. A globulina isolada foi submetida à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina onde a forma nativa mostrou-se resistente à ação enzimática enquanto o aquecimento (96 e 121°C/15min) não foi suficiente para aumentar a susceptibilidade à hidrólise, significativamente. Adição de NaCl 0,3M levou a um aumento da estabilidade estrutural com menor susceptibilidade à digestão proteolítica, fato em parte perdido com o aquecimento. As hidrólises foram acompanhadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio. Abstract in english The isolation and characterization of the major globulin fraction (11 S) from Chickpea, vc IAC-Marrocos, were evaluated. The major globulin was extracted, isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography showing only one protein band on PAGE. The globulin, after Sephadex elution, revealed [...] two protein bands of 55 and 52.5kDa and three minor bands on SDS-PAGE. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol six polypeptides were revealed on SDS-PAGE in the range of 18 to 42kDa. The isolated native globulin shown to be resistant to trypsin and chymotrypsin however heating at 96 and 121ºC/15min was not sufficient to increase the hydrolysis significantly. The proteolytic susceptibility of the enzymes was reduced by 0.3M NaCl addition at the assay. The salt concentration was sufficient to stabilize the native protein structure that was lost after heating as demonstrated on SDS-PAGE.

  17. Construction of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M R; Coleman, C E; Parkinson, S E; Maughan, P J; Zhang, H-B; Balzotti, M R; Kooyman, D L; Arumuganathan, K; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D J; Jellen, E N; Stevens, J J

    2006-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36) with a di-haploid genome of 967 Mbp (megabase pair), or 2C=2.01 pg. We constructed two quinoa BAC libraries using BamHI (26,880 clones) and EcoRI (48,000 clones) restriction endonucleases. Cloned inserts in the BamHI library average 113 kb (kilobase) with approximately 2% of the clones lacking inserts, whereas cloned inserts in the EcoRI library average 130 kb and approximately 1% lack inserts. Three plastid genes used as probes of high-density arrayed blots of 73,728 BACs identified approximately 2.8% of the clones as containing plastid DNA inserts. We estimate that the combined quinoa libraries represent at least 9.0 di-haploid nuclear genome equivalents. An average of 12.2 positive clones per probe were identified with 13 quinoa single-copy ESTs as probes of the high-density arrayed blots, suggesting that the estimate of 9.0x coverage of the genome is conservative. Utility of the BAC libraries for gene identification was demonstrated by probing the library with a partial sequence of the 11S globulin seed storage protein gene and identifying multiple positive clones. The presence of the 11S globulin gene in four of the clones was verified by direct comparison with quinoa genomic DNA on a Southern blot. Besides serving as a useful tool for gene identification, the quinoa BAC libraries will be an important resource for physical mapping of the quinoa genome. PMID:16586115

  18. Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    rabi prasad padhy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS) to Network Attached Storage (NAS) and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN). Traditional storage subsystems like Serve...

  19. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  20. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  1. Nanoscale data storage

    CERN Document Server

    Li, J C

    2007-01-01

    The object of this article is to review the development of ultrahigh-density, nanoscale data storage, i.e., nanostorage. As a fundamentally new type of storage system, the recording mechanisms of nanostorage may be completely different to those of the traditional devices. Currently, two types of molecules are being studied for potential application in nanostorage. One is molecular electronic elements including molecular wires, rectifiers, switches, and transistors. The other approach employs nanostructured materials such as nanotubes, nanowires, and nanoparticles. The challenges for nanostorage are not only the materials, ultrahigh data-densities, fabrication-costs, device operating temperatures and large-scale integration, but also the development of the physical principles and models. There are already some breakthroughs obtained, but it is still unclear what kind of nanostorage systems can ultimately replace the current silicon based transistors. A promising candidate may be a molecular-nanostructure hybri...

  2. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to provide multi-stream transfers for high performance wide area access, support for third party copies, credential delegation or the required changes in the experiment and fabric management frameworks and tools. We describe new functionality that has been added to ease system administration, such as different filesystem weights and a faster disk drain, and new configuration and monitoring solutions based on the industry standards Puppet and Nagios. Finally, we explain some of the internal changes we had to do in the DPM architecture to better handle the additional load from the analysis use cases.

  3. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA RADUCAN; LUMINITA MORARU

    2011-01-01

    In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc.) increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever t...

  4. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  5. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits ac...

  6. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  7. Flexible Secure Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Our life without Internet-based services is hard to imagine: We search for information with Google, share thoughts on Facebook, buy at Amazon and store our pictures on Flickr. Many of these Internet-based services focus on easy exchange of information, providing comfortable and ubiquitous storage and sharing. Relieved from hardware purchases, software bug fixes and infrastructure maintenance, users as well as companies use these cloud-based stores either for free or at low-cost. The price is ...

  8. VEPP-4 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on start-up of the VEPP-4 storage ring at an energy of 7 GeV and a maximum luminosity of 1x1032 cm-2s-1 are described. A preliminary start-up has been performed to check the main storage ring systems. Storage ring magnet and vacuum elements and their geodetic position have been checked. A system of pickup electrodes used to observe the distorted orbit and a system for correction of the orbit and nonlinearities have been tested. As a positron source use was made of a 40 MeV electron linear accelerator. Positrons obtained after conversion have been injected into the B-4 synchrotron and accelerated there to an energy of 400-500 MeV sufficient for injection into the VEPP-3. At an energy of 1.8 GeV the positrons stored in the VEPP-3 are injected through an electron optical channel into the VEPP-4. In the VEPP-4 an electron circulating beam with an energy of 1.5 GeV has been obtained. Beam envelopes and parameters of interaction points are given

  9. JAERI storage ring JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study for a next generation 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility is in progress in Japan, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) have join forces in this project. A compact electron storage ring JSR has been under construction in the linac building in the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI to serve for studies of various kind of accelerator technologies, examination of insertion devices and beam monitors, and training of young researchers. This paper describes the lattice design, injection system, magnets, vacuum system, RF system, control system and beam monitors and presents some operation results regarding the electron beam injection and storage. The JSR is presently in good condition concerning it's fundamental functions such as injection, storage at around 150 MeV and 300 MeV, and acceleration from 150 MeV and 300 MeV. Photon induced gas desorption is still large because the vacuum chamber has not been aged heavily by synchrotron radiation. (N.K.)

  10. Linear capacity storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linearity of information storage in capacitor storage circuits is discussed. The paper describes two storage circuits whose operation is linear over a wide range of output-signal amplitudes. In one of the circuits the error signal is measured by a differential amplifier and, thanks to the high amplification factor of the amplifier, good linearity is obtained. The second circuit was designed for work in the nanosecond pulse-width range. Input pulses of standard width cut off a pentode, in the anode of which there is a memory capacitor. Since the capacitor is charged from the anode supply through a current generator, the charging current remains almost constant during measurement of the capacitor voltage. The pentode has a large internal resistance so that after the end of the input pulse the magnitude of the current through the pentode is almost equal to its initial value, and the charge stored by the capacitor is remembered. The width of the information memory is limited by the output resistance of the current generator and the internal resistance (Ri) of the pentode. To increase the memory width, a diode may be inserted before the capacitor. (author)

  11. Fuel performance in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

  12. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  13. A direct effect of hyperinsulinemia on serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, J E; Powers, L P; Matt, D W; Steingold, K A; Plymate, S R; Rittmaster, R S; Clore, J N; Blackard, W G

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether hyperinsulinemia can directly reduce serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, six obese women with this disorder were studied. Before study, ovarian steroid production was suppressed in each woman by the administration of 7.5 mg of a long-acting GnRH agonist, leuprolide depot, im, on days -56, -28, and 0. This resulted in substantial reductions in serum concentrations of testosterone (from 1.72 +/- 0.29 nmol/L on day -56 to 0.32 +/- 0.09 nmol/L on day 0), non-SHBG-bound testosterone (from 104 +/- 16 pmol/L on day -56 to 19 +/- 5 pmol/L on day 0), androstenedione (from 7.25 +/- 1.65 nmol/L on day -56 to 2.78 +/- 0.94 nmol/L on day 0), estrone (from 371 +/- 71 pmol/L on day -56 to 156 +/- 29 pmol/L on day 0), estradiol (from 235 +/- 26 pmol/L on day -56 to 90 +/- 24 pmol/L on day 0), and progesterone (from 0.28 +/- 0.12 nmol/L on day -56 to 0.08 +/- 0.02 nmol/L on day 0). Serum SHBG levels, however, did not change (18.8 +/- 2.8 nmol/L on day -56 vs. 17.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/L on day 0). While continuing leuprolide treatment, the women were administered oral diazoxide (300 mg/day) for 10 days to suppress serum insulin levels. Diazoxide treatment resulted in suppressed insulin release during a 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (insulin area under the curve, 262 +/- 55 nmol/min.L on day 0 vs. 102 +/- 33 nmol/min.L on day 10; P less than 0.05) and deterioration of glucose tolerance. Serum testosterone, androstenedione, estrone, estradiol, and progesterone levels did not change during combined diazoxide and leuprolide treatment. In contrast, serum SHBG levels rose by 32% from 17.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/L on day 0 to 23.5 +/- 2.0 nmol/L on day 10 (P less than 0.003). Due primarily to the rise in serum SHBG levels, serum non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels fell by 43% from 19 +/- 5 pmol/L on day 0 to 11 +/- 4 pmol/L on day 10 (P = 0.05). These observations suggest that hyperinsulinemia directly reduces serum SHBG levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome independently of any effect on serum sex steroids. PMID:1898744

  14. A Randomized 2×2 Factorial Trial, Part 1: Single-Dose Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Induction May Improve Renal Transplantation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R. Brian; Foster, Kirk W.; Miles, Clifford D.; Lane, James T.; Kalil, Andre C.; Florescu, Diana F.; Sandoz, John P.; Rigley, Theodore H.; Nielsen, Kathleen J.; Skorupa, Jill Y.; Kellogg, Anna M.; Malik, Tamer; Wrenshall, Lucile E.

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a randomized and unblinded 2×2 sequential-factorial trial, composed of an induction arm (part 1) comparing single-dose (SD) versus divided-dose rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG), and a maintenance arm (part 2) comparing tacrolimus minimization versus withdrawal. We report the long-term safety and efficacy of SD-rATG induction in the context of early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus minimization or withdrawal. Methods Patients (n=180) received 6 mg/kg rATG, SD or four alternate-day doses (1.5 mg/kg/dose), with early steroid withdrawal and tacrolimus or sirolimus maintenance. After 6 months targeted maintenance levels were tacrolimus, 2 to 4 ng/mL and sirolimus, 4 to 6 ng/mL or, if calcineurin inhibitor–withdrawn, sirolimus 8 to 12 ng/mL with mycophenolate mofetil 2 g two times per day. Primary endpoints were renal function (abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease) and chronic graft histopathology (Banff). Secondary endpoints included patient survival, graft survival, biopsy-proven rejection, and infectious or noninfectious complications. Results Follow-up averaged longer than 4 years. Tacrolimus or sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil exposure was identical between groups. The SD-rATG associated with improved renal function (2-36 months; P<0.001) in deceased donor recipients. The SD-rATG associated with quicker lymphocyte, CD4 T cell, and CD4-CD8 recovery and fewer infections. Cox multivariate hazard modeling showed divided-dose–rATG (P=0.019), deceased donor (P=0.003), serious infection (P=0.0.018), and lower lymphocyte count (P=0.001) associated with increased mortality. Patients with all four covariates showed a 27-fold increased likelihood of death (P=0.00002). Chronic graft histopathology, rejection rates, and death-censored graft survival were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion The SD-rATG induction improves the 3-year renal function in recipients of deceased donor kidneys. This benefit, along with possibly improved patient survival and fewer infections suggest that how rATG is administered may impact its efficacy and safety. PMID:25083614

  15. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: transportable storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual designs of three Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) cask storage facilities have been prepared along with an estimate of life cycle costs for each. The designs are for two all spent fuel storage facilities and one high-level waste and transuranic waste facility with capacities of 15,000 equivalent metric tons of uranium (MTU) and 72,000 equivalent MTU. These designs were developed using criteria and assumptions provided by PNL. Each storage facility consists of a generic Receiving and Handling Facility (designed by Kaiser Engineers) with modifications for storage cask handling (and unloading damaged casks), on-site handling and transportation equipment (low-bed trailer and tractor, and mobile crane), a storage facility consisting of an array of concrete storage pads, and the support facilities and equipment (security, utilities, etc.) needed to maintain facility operations. The high-level waste and transuranic waste storage facility includes a prefabricated concrete storage building for the contact-handled transuranic waste received. Detailed cost estimates have been developed for these facilities which include costs for construction, operation and decommissioning for the 15,000 MTU capacity facility. Total costs and present worth costs in mid-1983 dollars for these facilities have been estimated. In addition, costs have been developed for the incremental expansion of these facilities to a 72,000 MTU storage capacity. 3 references, 17 figures, 4 tablesty. 3 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  16. Modificaçoes bioquímicas e físicas em grãos de feijão durante o armazenamento Biochemical and physical modifications of bean seeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se estudar parâmetros químicos e físicos que pudessem avaliar, em três épocas, a qualidade de grãos de feijão durante onze meses de armazenamento, utilizando os cultivares Carioca e Rico 23. Eletroforese das frações globulinas em gel de poliacrilamida com sulfato dodecil sódico (SDS, indicou um aumento no final do número de bandas, porém o fato poderia ser conseqüência de uma maior concentração protéica da amostra, sendo praticamente mantidos durante o estudo os pesos moleculares das subunidades polipeptídicas principais das proteínas G1 e G2, de cerca de 50.000-43.000 e 18.000 respectivamente. As porcentagens de proteína, umidade e açúcar solúvel não sofreram alterações sensíveis, enquanto a de lipídio diminuiu e a de fibra aumentou. O teor de amido também aumentou, provavelmente em vista da maior extratibilidade. O índice de peróxido e o teor de ácidos graxos livres aumentaram, sendo comprovada, por este último, a elevação do índice de acidez. A capacidade de hidratação aumentou inicialmente, permanecendo depois constante, e a porcentagem de sementes com tegumento duro não pareceu sofrer alteração. O comportamento dos dois cultivares foi semelhante.Seeds of dry beans cvs Rico 23 and Carioca, were chemical and physically characterized three times during eleven months of storage. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with SDS of the globulin fraction showed an increase in the number of bands at the third sampling, probably due to a more efficient protein extraction. However, molecular weight of the G1 and G2 subunits were constant, about 50,000 -43,000 and 18,000, respectively. Total protein, soluble sugars and water contents did not change during storage, while fiber increased and lipids decreased. Starch content, as in case of globulin fraction, also increased due to greater extractability. Both free fatty acids content and peroxide value increased, according to the increase of the acidity value. Water absorption capability increased initially and leveled off thereafter. The percentage of seeds with hard coat was not affected by storage. The behaviour of the two cultivars was very similar.

  17. Modificaçoes bioquímicas e físicas em grãos de feijão durante o armazenamento / Biochemical and physical modifications of bean seeds during storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Haiko Enok, Sawazaki; João Paulo Feijão, Teixeira; Roberto Machado de, Moraes; Eduardo Antônio, Bulisani.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Procurou-se estudar parâmetros químicos e físicos que pudessem avaliar, em três épocas, a qualidade de grãos de feijão durante onze meses de armazenamento, utilizando os cultivares Carioca e Rico 23. Eletroforese das frações globulinas em gel de poliacrilamida com sulfato dodecil sódico (SDS), indic [...] ou um aumento no final do número de bandas, porém o fato poderia ser conseqüência de uma maior concentração protéica da amostra, sendo praticamente mantidos durante o estudo os pesos moleculares das subunidades polipeptídicas principais das proteínas G1 e G2, de cerca de 50.000-43.000 e 18.000 respectivamente. As porcentagens de proteína, umidade e açúcar solúvel não sofreram alterações sensíveis, enquanto a de lipídio diminuiu e a de fibra aumentou. O teor de amido também aumentou, provavelmente em vista da maior extratibilidade. O índice de peróxido e o teor de ácidos graxos livres aumentaram, sendo comprovada, por este último, a elevação do índice de acidez. A capacidade de hidratação aumentou inicialmente, permanecendo depois constante, e a porcentagem de sementes com tegumento duro não pareceu sofrer alteração. O comportamento dos dois cultivares foi semelhante. Abstract in english Seeds of dry beans cvs Rico 23 and Carioca, were chemical and physically characterized three times during eleven months of storage. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with SDS of the globulin fraction showed an increase in the number of bands at the third sampling, probably due to a more efficien [...] t protein extraction. However, molecular weight of the G1 and G2 subunits were constant, about 50,000 -43,000 and 18,000, respectively. Total protein, soluble sugars and water contents did not change during storage, while fiber increased and lipids decreased. Starch content, as in case of globulin fraction, also increased due to greater extractability. Both free fatty acids content and peroxide value increased, according to the increase of the acidity value. Water absorption capability increased initially and leveled off thereafter. The percentage of seeds with hard coat was not affected by storage. The behaviour of the two cultivars was very similar.

  18. Storage Management and Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Bhat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise storage is the computer data storage designed for large-scale, high-technology environments of the modern enterprises which is very time efficient where in stored data can be accessed in less time. When comparing to the consumer storage, it has higher scalability, higher reliability and better fault tolerance. As well, criticality of data varies between enterprises. Challenges faced in current scenario to store big data are in terms of cost, data loss, efficiency while accessing data, maintaining consistency of data and many more. In order to provide better storage solution and data management, the proposed solution came up with platform of Workflow Automation (WFA. WFA is an active management tool which directly allocates storage on storage server based on client request. It depends on a data source i.e., OnCommand Unified Manager (OCUM to monitor the storage components. OCUM acts as a passive reporting tool, which polls all the storage data at different time stamps. The monitored data includes parameters and attributes of storage component like corrupted disk data, normal disk data or may be some lack of storage space. WFA has cache based intelligence and it acquires only relevant data of context from OCUM. Based on this acquired cache data, WFA can provide better storage solutions and data management by which it takes care of conditions like maintaining health of storage and takes appropriate actions like migrating data, replacing corrupted disk etc., The acquired cache data can be queried by filter/ finders to select storage component as a resource on which data is stored. The results of which will work on selective resource, to execute specific task of interest using workflows. Query results return the count of storage components and related information to verify consistency and no data loss from any storage resource. Hence the proposed solution helps in performance tuning of big data storage solutions in terms of data access time, reliability, efficiency, data consistency and security. It reduces the cost of managing storage, enables adherence to best practices for storage processes.

  19. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  20. Low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage - Heat storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhat, A.

    1983-01-01

    Heat-of-fusion storage materials for low temperature latent heat storage in the temperature range 0-120 C are reviewed. Organic and inorganic heat storage materials classified as paraffins, fatty acids, inorganic salt hydrates and eutectic compounds are considered. The melting and freezing behavior of the various substances is investigated using the techniques of Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The importance of thermal cycling tests for establishing the long-term stability of the storage materials is discussed. Finally, some data pertaining to the corrosion compatibility of heat-of-fusion substances with conventional materials of construction is presented.

  1. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: concrete storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents design concepts and cost estimates for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility which uses concrete silos for storage. Two separate scenarios are considered: the first is the storage of spent fuel assemblies and the second is the storage of wastes generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel and does not consider spent fuel storage. Two storage options for each scenario were evaluated. One is for maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 1800 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 15,000 MTU. The other option is for a maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 3000 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 72,000 MTU. The construction and operating costs, as well as the life-cycle costs for both scenarios and both the 1800 and 3000 MTU/y throughput rates are summarized. Drawings defining the facility and equipment that are unique to the silo storage concept are included. 26 figures, 34 tables

  2. Antihypertensive Peptides from Vicilin, the Major Storage Protein of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.N. Angelia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is among the leading diseases afflicting humans and the search for cheap and alternative modes of treatment is of primary importance. This study investigated the potential of vicilin, the major storage protein of mung bean, to generate antihypertensive peptides. The total soluble proteins of mung bean var. Pag-asa 7 were extracted using 35 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0 containing 0.40 M NaCl. Vicilin (8S globulin was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, selective precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. Trypsin and chymotrypsin digests of vicilin, for a 24 h period, yielded Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of 83.95 and 93.68%, respectively. Both digests were further purified using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. RP-HPLC fractions obtained from trypsin digests have IC50 values of 1.325, 1.151 and 1.367 mg mL-1 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Meanwhile, RP-HPLC fractions of chymotrypsin digests have IC50 values of 0.826, 0.203, 0.286 and 0.852 mg mL-1 for C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Chymotrypsin was better in releasing more potent ACE inhibitory peptides than trypsin. Therefore, vicilin contains antihypertensive peptides that exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

  3. Control of storage protein metabolism in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans: role of endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrispeels, M J; Boulter, D

    1975-06-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either alpha-mannosidase or N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  4. Heavy ion storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  5. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  6. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  7. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  8. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host technology transfer meetings and occasional field excursions. A total of 15 technology transfer/strategic planning workshops were held.

  9. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented

  10. LWR spent fuel storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By 2003, the year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) predicts a repository will be available, 58 domestic commercial nuclear-power plant units are expected to run out of wet storage space for LWR spent fuel. To alleviate this problem, utilities implemented advances in storage methods that increase storage capacity as well as reduced the rate of generating spent fuel. Those advances are discussed. They include transshipping spent-fuel assemblies between pools within the same utility system, reracking pools to accommodate additional spent-fuel assemblies, taking credit for fuel burnup in pool storage rack design, extending fuel burnup, rod consolidation, and dry storage. The focus of this paper is on advances in rod consolidation and dry storage

  11. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times...

  12. Article for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  14. Storage Phosphors for Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Willems; Dirk Vandenbroucke; Paul Leblans

    2011-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) uses storage phosphor imaging plates for digital imaging. Absorbed X-ray energy is stored in crystal defects. In read-out the energy is set free as blue photons upon optical stimulation. In the 35 years of CR history, several storage phosphor families were investigated and developed. An explanation is given as to why some materials made it to the commercial stage, while others did not. The photo stimulated luminescence mechanism of the current commercial storage phos...

  15. Assessment of energy storage technologies and systems. Phase I. Electric storage heating, storage air conditioning, and storage hot water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.; Giese, R.; Nelson, S.; Akridge, L.; Graf, P.; Heitner, K.

    1976-08-01

    The study analyzes the commercial feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings; TES applications examined include storage electric (resistance) heating, storage air conditioning, and storage hot water heating. A system model, SIMSTOR, is employed to simulate TES-related effects upon daily and annual utility load profiles and to compare utility fuel and capital cost savings with TES-system costs. Case-study analyses of TES applications for a representative set of utility service areas indicate that several already- and near-commercial TES systems are cost-effective. Alternative strategies to commercialize these systems are examined and the preferred strategies are identified.

  16. Aquifer Elasticity and Specific Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb Wang

    The goal of this experiment is to measure the specific storage Ss of a balloon, which simulates aquifer elasticity. The experiment is designed to give observational meaning to the variable, increment of fluid content, and the influence of the state of stress on the specific storage. Increment of fluid content is the poroelastic variable defined as the amount of water added to storage per unit bulk volume. It is analogous to quantity of heat added to a unit volume of a material. Specific storage can then be expressed rigorously as the ratio of increment of fluid content divided by the change in head with specified external stress or strain conditions on the REV.

  17. Optical information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woike, T. [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

  18. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  19. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  20. Magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion program embraces low loss superconductor strand development with integration into cables capable of carrying 50 kA in pulsed mode at high fields. This evolvement has been paralleled with pulsed energy storage coil development and testing from tens of kJ at low fields to a 20 MJ prototype tokamak induction coil at 7.5 T. Energy transfer times have ranged from 0.7 ms to several seconds. Electric utility magnetic storage for prospective application is for diurnal load leveling with massive systems to store 10 GWh at 1.8 K in a dewar structure supported on bedrock underground. An immediate utility application is a 30 MJ system to be used to damp power oscillations on the Bonneville Power Administration electric transmission lines. An off-shoot of this last work is a new program for electric utility VAR control with the potential for use to suppress subsynchronous resonance. This paper presents work in progress, work planned, and recently completed unusual work

  1. Storage ring injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic issues involved in injecting the beam into storage rings with the principal parameters of those studied at the workshop have been considered. The main conclusion is that straightforward adjustments of the storage ring parameters makes injection easy. The largest number of injected turns is fourteen, and the phase space dilution allowance seems adequate to ensure very small beam loss during injection. The adjustments also result in lower bending magnet fields, and high field superconducting magnets (e.g., 5 Tesla) are not necessary. The design changes do not necessarily affect the Keil-Schnell criterion for stability of the longitudinal microwave instability, although that criterion appears to be irrelevant. Because the beams are expected to be unstable, but with slow growth rates, the vacuum chamber impedances required to give equal risetimes for the various designs are compared for systems posing various degrees of difficulty for injection. Finally, the impact of the parameters on cost is noted, and a system is considered that cuts the length of the linac in half by using doubly charged ions

  2. Hydrogen storage methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Trecycled in a closed loop and react with the metal. Finally, the metal hydroxides can be thermally reduced to metals in a solar furnace. This paper reviews the various storage methods for hydrogen and highlights their potential for improvement and their physical limitations.

  3. Advanced spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Spent fuel from Power Reactors is currently stored either in at-reactor pools or in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) using wet or dry storage technology. During the past 15 years, storage capacity of at reactor pools was increased using high density spent fuel storage technology. To achieve maximum capacity, storage racks were replaced in many of the power reactors in operation at least once, some of them went through even various reracking cycles. Independent spent fuel storage installations were established either at the site of power reactors of away from them. They use either storage pools or dry technology, the latter in form of metal casks and concrete silos or vaults. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors must be safe for the public and must protect the environment from its radioactive content. For this purpose, adequate regulation was developed and is available to be applied. However, advances in fuel and core design as well the need for extended storage periods require frequent re-assessment of the available spent fuel storage technology. Improved fuel utilization leads to elevated burn-up resulting in higher heat generation of the spent fuel in the longer term. Also spent MOX fuel generates considerable more heat than spent uranium fuel unloaded from the power reactors 15 years ago. As most of the mechanisms which could endanger fuel integrity are temperature dependent, effective heat removal is one of the challenges spent at removal is one of the challenges spent fuel storage systems have to face. In order to make most efficient use out of high density storage equipment, designer want to take credit from the actual burn-up of the spent fuel. Existing methodology to analyze burn-up credited spent fuel storage racks for criticality safety is being further developed to be applied in the design of dual-purpose casks or multi-purpose-canisters. For poisoned high density storage equipment, long term stability of the material as well as efficient neutron absorption is required. Degrading absorbers which contaminate the coolant of fuel pools and primary circuits and fuel assemblies getting stuck in swollen storage cells are well known problems which already caused considerable headaches to many operators and still continue to do so. Although limited in boron content, borated stainless steel has extensively proved as sufficiently effective and extremely stable neutron poison material. Over and above the basic requirements for maximum safety for operators and the public, logistic in fuel reception is an important aspect to be addressed with the design of independent spent fuel storage facilities. The aspect to keep the operators exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable requires expeditious reception of spent fuel and its transfer to the dedicated storage location. Independent wet storage facilities are known for many years to comply best with most of the expectations as described above. However, the assumption to need active cooling systems and to generate secondary waste had caused vendors and users to look favorably at dry storage systems. Despite the remarkable development achieved in dry storage technology, most of the spent fuel generated up to now is stored in fuel pools, either at the reactors or in independent installations. One of the latest achievements in wet storage technology is used in Framatome-ANP's wet storage facility design as currently being performed for the new spent fuel pool building to be constructed at the Goesgen Nuclear Power Station in Switzerland. The advanced design of this independent spent fuel storage facility provides a passive cooling system which reliably removes the heat generated by the spent fuel by natural circulation through air cooled heat exchangers. This progressive design makes extensive use of well balanced safety technology with largely passive safety features developed for Framatome-ANP's Boiling Water Reactor SWR1000. Clearly designed to enable the enforcement of strict foreign material exclusion strategies and state of the

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organoti

  5. Presencia de cbg (corticosteroid binding globulin) y receptores de estrógeno (fracción alfa) y progesterona en el sistema reproductor de ovejas en distintos estadios del ciclo reproductivo. Estudio inmunohistoquímico / Presence of CBG (Corticosteroid binding globulin) Estrogen Receptors Alpha and Progesterone Receptors Along the Reproductive Tract in Sheep During Different Stages of the Reproductive Cycle. Inmunohistochemestry Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Vasconcellos Costa; Patricio, Peña Salazar; Néstor, Sepúlveda Becker; Werner, Miska.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las hormonas esteroidales sexuales actúan a través de sus receptores permitiendo el desarrollo del tracto genital y determinando su estado morfofuncional. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estudiar la presencia de CBG (corticosteroid binding globulin) y de los receptores de estrógenos alfa y prog [...] esterona en el útero, oviducto y ovario de ovejas cíclicas (n = 3), gestantes (n = 3), y en anestro (n = 3). La evaluación morfológica se realizó con tinción de hematoxilina - eosina (H-E) e inmunohistoquímica, según técnica de Sternberger. Los resultados revelaron para receptores de estrógenos en oveja cíclicas, inmunorreactividad positiva moderada en el epitelio glandular y estroma endometrial y en epitelio superficial y corión de la mucosa oviductal; siendo la inmunorreactividad leve en ovejas gestantes y anéstricas. Los receptores de progesterona mostraron en los 3 órganos inmunorreactividad positiva moderada en ovejas cíclicas e inmunorreactividad leve o negativa en animales acíclicos. La inmunorreactividad para CBG en endometrio fue marcada en ovejas cíclicas, y leves o negativa en gestantes y anéstricas. En ovario se observó en ovejas durante el ciclo, reacción inmunopositiva a la CBG en células foliculares, en el fluido folicular y en células estromales llenas de material granular inmunopositivo dispuestas en forma grupal o aislada. Se concluye que la presencia de los receptores de estrógenos alfa y de progesterona es siempre detectable en útero, oviducto y ovario variando su concentración según el estadio. La presencia de CBG fue constante en los tres órganos durante el ciclo estral y variable en los otros estadios, siendo su participación dentro del proceso reproductivo tema de próximos estudios Abstract in english The steroids hormones operate through their receptors in the development of the genital tract and determine it morphofuncional state. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of CBG (corticosteroid binding globulin), estrogens alpha and progesterone receptors in the uterus, [...] oviduct and ovary of sheep during oestrous cycle (n = 3), pregnancy (n = 3), and in anoestrous (n = 3). Cross sections were stained with Hematoxylin-eosin and Inmunohistochemical (ICQ) study was made according to the technique of Sternberger. The results showed for estrogens receptors in sheep on cycle estral, moderate positive immunoreaction in the estroma and on the epithelial cells of endometrial glands and in oviductal superficial epithelium and estroma; the immunoreaction in pregnant and anestrics sheep was low. The progesterone receptors had in the 3 organs moderate immunorreactivity in cycling sheep and immunorreactivity low or negative in acycling animals. The CBG endometrial immunorreaction was high in cycling sheep and low or negative in pregnant and anestrics. The CBG in sheep during the cycle demonstrated a positive reaction at ovarian level in follicular cells, inside follicular liquid, and in stromal cells filled with granulate material disseminated in groups or isolated. In conclusion, the presence of estrogens alpha and progesterone receptors are always detectable in uterus, oviduct and ovary varying their concentration according to the stage The presence of CBG was constant in the three organs during the oestral cycle and variable in the other stages, its participation in the reproductive process is topic for next studies

  6. Desenvolvimento de ensaio imunofluorométrico para a medida da globulina ligadora de tiroxina (thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG) e sua aplicação em casos de deficiência desta proteína / Development of an immunofluorometric assay for thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and its application in cases of protein deficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Gilberto H., Vieira; Teresinha T., Tachibana; Leda H., Obara; Sônia K., Nishida; Maria Tereza, Lombardi; Rui M.B., Maciel.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A globulina ligadora de tiroxina (thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG) é a principal transportadora de hormônios tiroidianos no soro. Variações na concentração sérica de TBG determinam variações proporcionais nas concentrações séricas totais de T4 e T3, sem implicar alterações de função, desde que a fra [...] ção livre permaneça normal. Várias condições clínicas comuns levam a alterações significativas nos níveis de TBG, sendo as variações mais importantes devidas a defeitos genéticos. Como a TBG é codificada por gene localizado no cromossomo X, os defeitos se manifestam mais facilmente no sexo masculino. Descrevemos o desenvolvimento de ensaio imunofluorométrico para a medida de TBG com base em anticorpos monoclonais, sendo um desenvolvido em nosso laboratório e outro comercial. O método apresenta sensibilidade de 0,8mg/l e coeficientes de variação intra e interensaio inferiores a 10%. O estudo comparativo com método comercial mostrou alta correlação (r = 0,93; n = 48), sendo os valores normais obtidos de 10mg/l a 29mg/l. Estudamos também 20 indivíduos portadores de deficiência congênita de TBG, 19 homens e uma mulher, que apresentavam valores normais de TSH e baixos de T4 total; em todos eles os níveis de TBG foram indetectáveis. Já os níveis de T4 livre medidos por método indireto em 16 desses indivíduos mostraram-se elevados em todos, ao passo que, quando medidos por método direto pós-diálise nos quatro restantes, mostraram-se normais. Nossos resultados reforçam a necessidade prática da disponibilidade de ensaio para a medida de TBG para esclarecimento e definição diagnóstica de alguns casos especiais, principalmente quando o ensaio de T4 livre direto, pós-diálise, não é disponível. Abstract in english Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is the main responsible for serum thyroid hormone transport. Serum variations in TBG concentrations determine proportional variations in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, without implications to function, since the free fraction remains normal. Several frequent c [...] linical conditions lead to significant alterations in the TBG levels, being the most important variations due to genetic defects. Since TBG is codified by a gene localized in the X chromosome, the defects are more often found in males. We describe the development of an immunofluorometric assay for the measurement of TBG based on monoclonal antibodies, being one developed at our laboratories and the other obtained from commercial sources. The method presents sensitivity of 0.8mg/l and intra and inter-assay coefficients of variation of less than 10%. Comparison with a commercial assay showed high correlation (r = 0.93, n = 48), with normal values between 10mg/l and 29 mg/l. We also studied 20 individuals with congenital deficiency of TBG, 19 men and one woman, that presented normal TSH values and low total T4 values; in all of them the TBG values were undetectable. Free T4 values otherwise were high when measured with an indirect method in 16 of the individuals, and normal in the other four patients where they were measured with a direct post-dialysis method. Our results reinforce the practical need for an assay for the measurement of serum TBG for the diagnostic definition of some special cases, mainly when a direct free T4 assay is not available.

  7. Multi personal computer storage system. The solution of PACS storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: According to the characteristics of digital medicine and demand of digitized management in hospital, the authors establish a storage system which is cheap, highly expansible, and reliable. Methods: The multi personal computer storage system (MPCSS) was constructed by assembling the hardware and software. The image data were archived from major server to storage PC by using NEUSOFT-PACS archiving manage system and backup on storage PC. The authors simulated the situation that the data on storage PC was lost and restored the data. The authors also expanded the storage system to enlarge its capacity. Results: Average transfer rate from MPCSS was 27.7 Mbit/s(1 byte = 8 bit); average cost for this system was 74 RMB/G; six cases in the 187 repeated reading of 100 patients failed. MPCSS can store backup and restore the image data, and can expand the storage size. Conclusion: MPCSS is very cheap compared with other high capacity systems or devices. It is feasible and suitable for digital image storage

  8. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and metabolic syndrome among men / Associação entre globulina de ligação a hormônio sexual (SHBG) e síndrome metabólica em homens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emmanuela Quental Callou de, Sá; Francisco Carleial Feijó de, Sá; Kelly Cristina, Oliveira; Fausto, Feres; Ieda Therezinha Nascimento, Verreschi.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A síndrome metabólica (SM) consiste em um conjunto de fatores que implicam risco elevado para doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre a globulina ligadora de esteroides sexuais (SHBG), hormônios sexuais e a SM em homens. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: [...] Análise retrospectiva de dados do estudo "Estradiol mas não testosterona se correlaciona com doença arterial coronariana em homens", conduzido em um hospital em São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes do sexo masculino com idade entre 40 e 70 anos, submetidos a angiografia coronária. A idade, a prevalência de dislipidemia, hipertensão e diabetes, o peso, a altura, cintura e o índice de massa corpórea de cada paciente foram coletados. A definição de SM seguiu os critérios do NCEP-ATPIII. Amostras séricas foram coletadas para análises da glicose, colesterol total, colesterol-HDL (high density lipoprotein), triglicerídeos, albumina, SHBG, estradiol e testosterona total (TT). O colesterol-LDL (low density lipoprotein) foi calculado pela fórmula de Friedewald e as testosteronas livre (TL) e biodisponível (TB) pela fórmula de Vermeulen. RESULTADOS: Entraram no estudo 141 pacientes. A prevalência de SM foi significativamente maior no primeiro tercil de SHBG em comparação ao segundo e terceiro tercis. Foi verificada uma associação positiva e significativa ente os valores de SHBG e TT, porém essa associação não foi verificada entre SHBG e TB e TL. CONCLUSÃO: Baixos níveis séricos de SHBG estiveram associados com alta prevalência da SM em pacientes do sexo masculino. Faz-se necessário que estudos avaliem essa associação. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retros [...] pective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70) who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII). Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein), triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT). The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

  9. The comparison of the measurement of human serum thyroid globulin auto-antibodies and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies by CLIA and RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum levels of thyroid globulin auto-antibodies (Anti-TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies (Anti-TpoAb) in 37 patients with hyperthyroidism, 30 with chronic lymphocytic thyroidism, 36 with other endocrine diseases and 35 healthy persons were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and RIA, and the results were compared with each other. The results showed: (1) The within-batch CVs of CLIA and RIA were 3.0% and 10.0%, and the between-batch CVs were 3.9% and 15.0%, respectively; (2) The levels of serum anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb in healthy people were 25.9±9.6 U/mL and 31.4±6.7U/mL by CLIA, while those were 11.2±2.8% and 8.7±3.0% by RIA; (3) The levels of serum anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb of chronic lymphocytic thyroidism were 292.6±334.1U/mL and 5043.3±3196.1U/mL (n=17) by CLIA, while those were 56.4±11.2% (n=21) and 35.4±6.9% (n=21) by RIA. It showed that levels of anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb of chronic lymphocytic thyroidism were much higher than that in healthy people by CLIA (P<0.001). Furthermore, the levels of Anti-TpoAb were more than 100 times of that in health people by CLIA and the specificity of Anti-TpoAb was higher; (4) The levels of anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb in hyperthyroid patients were 202.3±506.3U/mL and 452.9±645.8U/mL by CLIA, while those were 28.8±20.0% and 22.6±14.2% by RIA. The levels of Anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb in patients with other endocrine disease were 28.7±15.0U/mL and 58.8±45.7U/mL by CLIA, while those were 10.2 CLIA, while those were 10.2±13.3% and 7.9±7.7% by RIA; (5) These is a significant correlation between the two methods: Anti TgAb r=0.695; and Anti-TpoAb r=0.489. This results show that it may be more sensitive and specific test of Anti-TpoAb with CLIA than with RIA. CLIA should be used as a powerful diagnostic tool in clinical because it is simple, quick and without radioisotope

  10. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  11. Projected spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis identifies the post-reactor basin storage capacity requirements between now and 1990 for various combinations of utility actions in order to establish the full range of possible storage requirements. The combined actions of reracking reactor basins, transferring spent fuel within utilities, and relaxing the policy of reserving reactor basin capacity for a full core discharge are insufficient to meet pre-1985 spent fuel storage capacity requirements. Additional storage capacity is required before 1985 for at least 1000 BWR assemblies and 2000 PWR assemblies. Storage capacity must be provided for a minimum of 12,000 BWR assemblies and 7,000 PWR assemblies by 1990. If none of the possible industry actions are taken, additional storage capacity is required for over 23,000 BWR and 17,000 PWR assemblies before 1985 and over 63,000 BWR and 40,000 PWR assemblies by 1990. The amount of spent fuel which would be shipped to a post reactor basin storage facility between 1985 and 1990 depends on whether utilities continue the activities and policies required to meet spent fuel storage requirements before 1985 (no full core reserve, intra-utility fuel shipments) or seek to regain their pre-storage shortage posture (full core reserve capacity, no intra-utility fuel shipments). If utilities take the former approach, storage capacity is required between 1985 and 1990 for approximately 11,000 BWR assemblies and 5,000 PWR assemblies. If the latter philososphy prevails, storage capacity must be provided between 1895 and 1990 for approximately 27,000 BWR assemblies and 23,000 PWR assemblies

  12. A review of pumped energy storage schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative advantages and costs of pumped water storage, steam accumulators, storage of boiler feedwater , and compressed air storage in caverns are described. Boiler feedwater storage in caverns and pumped water storage are most economical. All systems are costly enough to justify developing reactors with load following capabilities. (E.C.B.)

  13. Cornell Electron Storage Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Website of the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), a high-luminosity 6+6 GeV electron-positron collider at the Wilson Synchrotron Laboratory, Cornell University. Highlights of the site include a searchable index of colliding beam notes (.ps) from 1975 to the present, descriptions and examples of computer codes developed by the lab's Superconducting Radio-Frequency Group, and daily CESR status. Also featured is a page on CESR operating parameters such as bending radius, energy width, beam emittance, etc., and a CESR parameter plot page where users can choose plot style and content (radiation, beam size, or temperature). Some useful information, such as electronic reprints and images, can also be found on the CESR staff pages.

  14. Inductive energy storage commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply

  15. Spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve bandability and weldability and also increasing neutron absorption capacity, thereby greatly improving the density of fuel storage. Constitution: Cells come in three types: cells formed by square cylinders set on the foundation, staggered by each pitch in longitudinal and lateral directions; cells formed among these square cylinders; and cells formed by enclosing with a vertical plate, one of the outermost sides among the square cylinders. Furthermore, between the corners of each cylinder, angles are longitudinally attached by welding where needed. Each cylinder is constituted by assembling four B-10 austenite stainless steel plates into a square form and attaching B-10 austenite stainless steel patches longitudinally at their angles by electron-beam welding and laser welding. For the abovementioned stainless steel plates, patches and angles, austenite stainless steel added with 0.10 - 0.45 % of B-10 is used. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. Superconducting energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  17. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  18. Study of mined storage caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available information concerning 75 mined storage caverns as well as the investigative techniques utilized to determine the feasibility of a cavern site is presented. Potential new storage caverns may be for products such as high or low vapor pressure petroleum products, other chemical products, aid industrial or nuclear waste

  19. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes. versions of linac seeding schemes.

  20. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  1. Advanced spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel from power reactors is currently stored either in at-reactor spent fuel storage pools or in independent spent fuel storage installations using wet or dry storage technology. Most of the spent fuel generated up to now is stored in spent fuel pools. The assumption that wet storage is expensive due to the need of active cooling systems and generation of waste had caused vendors to look favorable at dry storage systems. One of the latest achievements in wet storage technology is used in FRAMATOME ANP's wet storage facility as currently designed for the new spent fuel storage building at Goesgen Nuclear Power Station Switzerland. It provides a passive cooling system which reliably removes the heat generated by the spent fuel by natural circulation through air cooled heat exchanger. Due to the passive nature of the operating system, the number of active components which require maintenance is substantially reduced. The frequency of maintenance activities can be determined under consideration of actual usage due to advanced acquisition methodology of operational data. This usually leads to a considerable reduction of human intervention and the time needed to act in radiation areas reducing considerably waste generation and dose burden to personnel. Due to the fact that maintenance and repair concepts are available, it can be predicted, if correctly applied, such pools to be operable for extended periods of time. (author)

  2. Status of US storage efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasks involved in the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. The need for speedy action on applications to deal with spent fuel storage problems is stressed. The problems faced by the Virginia Electric and Power Company, where full core discharge capability at the 1600-megawatt Surry power station is expected to be reached in early 1986, are reviewed. It is pointed out that although the Nuclear Waste Policy Act does not apply in this case, the problems illustrate the situation that may be faced after the Act is implemented. Problems involved in intro-utility transhipments and dry cask storage of spent fuel from Surry, including transportation ordinances at state and local levels and approval for the use of dry casks for storage, are reported. The suggestion that dry casks be used for interim storage and eventual transport to monitored retrievable storage facilities or permanent storage sites is considered. It is pointed out that data from a proposed 3-utility demonstration program of dry cask storage of consolidated fuels and the storage of fuels in air should give information applicable to the timely implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

  3. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  4. Benefits from energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, R J; Kannberg, L D; O' Connell, L G; Eisenhaure, D; Hoppie, L O; Barlow, T M; Steele, R S; Strauch, S; Lawson, L J; Sapowith, A P

    1983-11-01

    The United States is continuing to rely upon nondomestic and nonsecure sources of energy. Large quantities of energy are lost as a result of time mismatches between the supply and the demand for power. Substantial improvements in energy efficiency are possible through the use of improved energy storage; advanced energy storage can also improve the utilization of domestic energy resources (coal, geothermal, solar, wind, and nuclear) by providing energy in accordance with a user's time-varying needs. Advanced storage technologies offer potentially substantial cost and performance advantages but also have significant technical risk. If even a fraction of the proposed technologies reach fruition, they will make an important contribution to better use of our domestic energy resources. The Energy Storage and Transport Technologies Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers encourages research, development, and application of energy storage technologies to reduce imports and energy costs.

  5. Transphase cool storage test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1993-12-01

    The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial cool storage systems. Transphase, Inc. provided a prototype of a new storage tank design equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system and filled with a eutectic designed to freeze at 41{degree}F. The Transphase cool storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank with relatively constant brine temperatures over most of the charging cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was governed mainly by the brine flow rate and the tank`s remaining charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. This prototype unit experienced several operational problems, not unexpected for the first full-size execution of a new design. Such prototype testing was one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

  6. Lunox storage and transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This semester, efforts were concentrated on the design of the Lunox transfer line from the storage area to the launch site. Emphasis was placed on flow and heat transfer problems and their remedies by reducing the effect of radiation by selecting materials for storage tanks, transfer lines and insulation. The design for the storage tank was based on a medium sized Lunox production facility of 6,000 metric tons per year and the frequency of transportation of Lunox from lunar launch site to lower lunar orbit of four launches per month. The design included the selection of materials for cryogenic storage, insulation and radiation shielding. Lunox was pumped to the storage area near the launch site through a piping network designed for maximum mass flow rate with a minimum boil off. The entire network incorporated specially designed radiation shields made of material which was lightweight and low in secondary radiation.

  7. The LSU electron storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Richard

    1991-05-01

    The Brobeck Division of Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., is building an electron storage ring for Louisiana State University. This turnkey project, the first storage ring to be built commercially in the United States, will be located at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices in Baton Rouge. The storage ring system consists of a 1.2 GeV, 400 mA storage ring and a 200 MeV linac injector, and it will provide intense beams of X-rays for research in X-ray lithography and in other areas. The magnet lattice has a Chasman-Green design. Four 3 m, zero-dispersion straight sections are incorporated in the storage ring, which has a 55.2 m circumference. The design phase of the construction project has been completed, and major components are being fabricated.

  8. Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, Dror; McCarthy, Brendan; Jabbour, Ghassan

    This chapter considers atomic force microscopy (AFM) as an enabling technology for data storage applications, considering already existing technologies such as hard disk drives (HDD), optical disk drives (ODD) and flash memories that currently dominate the nonvolatile data storage market, together with future devices based on magnetoresistive and phase change effects. The issue at hand is the question of whether the novel AFM-based storage, dubbed probe storage, can offer a competing approach to the currently available technologies by playing the role of a disruptive technology. Probe storage will be contrasted to HDD and ODD, which are purely mechanical as they are based on a rotating disk that uses just a single probe to address billions of bits of data, and nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) that has no moving parts yet requires billions of interconnects. In particular, capacity, areal density, transfer rate, form factor and the cost of various data storage devices will be discussed and the unique opportunity offered by probe storage in employing massive parallelism will be outlined. It will be shown that probe storage bridges the gap between HDD, ODD and other nonvolatile RAM, drawing from the strength of each one of these and adding a significant attribute neither of these has; namely, the possibility of addressing a very large number of nanoscale bits of data in parallel. This chapter differs from the other chapters in this book in that it addresses the important issue of whether a given scientific effort, namely, probe storage, is mature enough to evolve into a commercially viable technology. The answer seems to indicate that there is indeed a huge niche in the data storage arena that such a technology is uniquely qualified to fill, which is large enough to justify a major investment in research and development. Indeed, as other chapters indicate, such an effort is developing at a rapid pace, with hopes of having a viable product within a few years.

  9. 7 CFR 58.153 - Dry storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Dry storage. 58.153 Section 58...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED...Inspection and Grading Service 1 Storage of Finished Product § 58.153 Dry storage. The product...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Cholesteryl ester storage disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Cholesteryl ester storage disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed October 2007 What is cholesteryl ester storage disease? Cholesteryl ester storage disease is a ...

  11. A retrospective analysis of long-term survival in severe aplastic anemia patients treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert J; Kahn, Qamar; Skikne, Barry S; Mayo, Mathew S; Allgood, John W; Bodensteiner, David M; Deauna-Limayo, Delva; Cook, James D

    2002-07-01

    Severe aplastic anemia can be treated with either bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or immunosuppressive therapy (IST). A retrospective review of patients with severe aplastic anemia treated with both of these modalities was conducted. Fifteen BMT and 16 IST patients were available for analysis, and follow-up of 22 and 15 years was available for the BMT and IST groups, respectively. Median survival was limited to 4.3 months in BMT patients vs. 135.2 months in IST patients, despite the older median age of the latter (22 vs. 55 years). Actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 87% and 78% for the IST patients and 40% and 33% for the BMT patients. Hematologic response rates, as defined by achievement of transfusion independence, were similar for the two groups. Long-term responses and survival are possible with antithymocyte globulin/cyclosporin A. PMID:12125844

  12. Prevención de la isoinmunización materna al RhD, con gamma-globulina anti-D / Prevention of maternal RhD isoimmunization with anti-D gamma globulin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor Alfredo, Baptista-González; Fany, Rosenfeld-Mann; Teresita, Leiss-Márquez.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Presentar la experiencia institucional en la prevención de la isoinmunización al RhD, mediante el empleo de 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D en las mujeres Rh negativo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se registraron los antecedentes inmunohematológicos de los casos consecutivos de todas las mujeres Rh [...] negativo que acudieron, para su atención médica, al Instituto Nacional de Perinatología entre 1982 y 1995. A las mujeres con riesgo de isoinmunización se les aplicó 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D, con fines preventivos. RESULTADOS: En el periodo de estudio ingresaron 4 857 mujeres Rh negativo (4.85% del total de mujeres), de las cuales 629 (13.0%), presentaron isoinmunización al RhD. De estas últimas, 542 (86.2%) ya se encontraron isoinmunizadas desde antes de su ingreso al Instituto. En 22 casos (3.5%), la isoinmunización ocurrió a pesar de que recibieron la dosis adecuada de gamma-globulina anti D. De las 2 605 pacientes (53.6%) sometidas a prevención, a 2 039 se les aplicó una sola dosis, y a 475, hasta dos dosis. En 22 casos se documentó la falla de la prevención; sin embargo, en cuatro de ellos, se registraron embarazos múltiples, y los restantes 18 presentaron patología obstétrica asociada. CONCLUSIONES: Mediante este programa de prevención, consistente en administrar 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D por dosis, es posible reducir la isoinmunización a menos de un caso por cada 1 000 mujeres. Los fracasos en la prevención de la isoinmunización se asociaron a condiciones obstétricas agregadas y al incumplimiento de las guías o lineamientos del programa. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in preventing RhD maternal isoimmunization by using anti-D gamma globulin among Rh-negative women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 1995, immunologic and hematologic data were collected from all Rh-negative women seen at Mexico's National Perinatology Instit [...] ute. Women at risk of Rh isoimmunization were given a prophylactic dose of 150 µg of anti-D gamma globulin. RESULTS: A total of 4 857 Rh-negative women were seen during the study period (4.85% of the total population of women seen at the Institute), 629 (13.0%) of whom developed RhD isoimmunization; 542 (86.2%) of these women were already isoimmunized when first seen at our Institute. Twenty-two women (3.5%) developed isoimmunization even after receiving a proper dose of anti-D gamma globulin. Prophylaxis was given to 2 605 women (53.6%); 2 039 received a single dose, and 475 two doses. Prophylaxis failed in 22 cases; four were women with multiple pregnancy and 18 developed obstetric pathologic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The use of anti-D gamma globulin resulted in a reduction of maternal Rh isoimmunization to less than one case per 1 000 women. Failures to prevent isoimmunization were associated to additional obstetric conditions and to lack of adherence to prevention guidelines. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  13. Prevención de la isoinmunización materna al RhD, con gamma-globulina anti-D / Prevention of maternal RhD isoimmunization with anti-D gamma globulin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor Alfredo, Baptista-González; Fany, Rosenfeld-Mann; Teresita, Leiss-Márquez.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Presentar la experiencia institucional en la prevención de la isoinmunización al RhD, mediante el empleo de 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D en las mujeres Rh negativo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se registraron los antecedentes inmunohematológicos de los casos consecutivos de todas las mujeres Rh [...] negativo que acudieron, para su atención médica, al Instituto Nacional de Perinatología entre 1982 y 1995. A las mujeres con riesgo de isoinmunización se les aplicó 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D, con fines preventivos. RESULTADOS: En el periodo de estudio ingresaron 4 857 mujeres Rh negativo (4.85% del total de mujeres), de las cuales 629 (13.0%), presentaron isoinmunización al RhD. De estas últimas, 542 (86.2%) ya se encontraron isoinmunizadas desde antes de su ingreso al Instituto. En 22 casos (3.5%), la isoinmunización ocurrió a pesar de que recibieron la dosis adecuada de gamma-globulina anti D. De las 2 605 pacientes (53.6%) sometidas a prevención, a 2 039 se les aplicó una sola dosis, y a 475, hasta dos dosis. En 22 casos se documentó la falla de la prevención; sin embargo, en cuatro de ellos, se registraron embarazos múltiples, y los restantes 18 presentaron patología obstétrica asociada. CONCLUSIONES: Mediante este programa de prevención, consistente en administrar 150 µg de gamma-globulina anti-D por dosis, es posible reducir la isoinmunización a menos de un caso por cada 1 000 mujeres. Los fracasos en la prevención de la isoinmunización se asociaron a condiciones obstétricas agregadas y al incumplimiento de las guías o lineamientos del programa. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in preventing RhD maternal isoimmunization by using anti-D gamma globulin among Rh-negative women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 1995, immunologic and hematologic data were collected from all Rh-negative women seen at Mexico's National Perinatology Instit [...] ute. Women at risk of Rh isoimmunization were given a prophylactic dose of 150 µg of anti-D gamma globulin. RESULTS: A total of 4 857 Rh-negative women were seen during the study period (4.85% of the total population of women seen at the Institute), 629 (13.0%) of whom developed RhD isoimmunization; 542 (86.2%) of these women were already isoimmunized when first seen at our Institute. Twenty-two women (3.5%) developed isoimmunization even after receiving a proper dose of anti-D gamma globulin. Prophylaxis was given to 2 605 women (53.6%); 2 039 received a single dose, and 475 two doses. Prophylaxis failed in 22 cases; four were women with multiple pregnancy and 18 developed obstetric pathologic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The use of anti-D gamma globulin resulted in a reduction of maternal Rh isoimmunization to less than one case per 1 000 women. Failures to prevent isoimmunization were associated to additional obstetric conditions and to lack of adherence to prevention guidelines. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  14. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. Debottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, techn replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  15. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  16. Radioactive material dry storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a storage chamber for storing tubes for densely containing radioactive materials, the containing tubes are supported by a floor wall and a ceiling wall of the storage chamber, and the storage chamber is connected with a sucking portion for taking air from the outside to an upstream portion and with an air exhaustion portion for releasing the air warmed by heat exchange with the containing tubes to a downstream portion. A bypass flow channel is disposed to the circumferential walls for introducing a portion of external air, and a blowing port is disposed to the bypass flow channel, so that the bypass stream is blown out into the storage chamber. In addition, the diameter of the blowing port of the bypass flow channel is made greater toward backward of the storage chamber. A resistance body is disposed to an upstream portion on the side wall of the storage chamber. In addition, a deflection plate supported by the ceiling wall and the floor wall is disposed in the vicinity of the side wall of the storage chamber. The temperature distribution of the containing tubes and the floor wall/ceiling wall can be made uniform thereby enabling to mitigate thermal stresses. (N.H.)

  17. Interim and final storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of radioactive waste is a huge social challenge in Germany and all over the world. As is well known the search for a site for a final repository for high-level waste in Germany is not complete. Therefore, interim storage facilities for radioactive waste were built at plant sites in Germany. The waste is stored in these storage facilities in appropriate storage and transport casks until the transport in a final repository can be carried out. Licensing of the storage and transport casks aimed for use in the public space is done according to the traffic laws and for handling in the storage facility according to nuclear law. Taking into account the activity of the waste to be stored, different containers are in use, so that experience is available from the licensing and operation in interim storage facilities. The large volume of radioactive waste to be disposed of after the shut-down of power generation in nuclear power stations makes it necessary for large quantities of licensed storage and transport casks to be provided soon.

  18. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  19. Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

  20. Dry metal cask storage for independent spent fuel storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the background for and the description of Transnuclear's advanced metal storage casks which are specifically designed for long term dry storage of 10 year cooled spent fuel assemblies. The metal cask provides the primary spent fuel containment module in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. The capacity of these cask designs can vary from 26 to 40 for various PWR fuel. The main cask components are the containment vessel, steel gamma shield, neutron shield, fuel basket, sealing system, trunnions and weather protective cover. The containment vessel is designed with material having excellent fracture toughness. The immediate predecessor of the advanced cask designs is the TN-24P Dry Storage Cask. The TN-24P has undergone extensive thermal and shielding tests at INEL and the successful results have been documented. The TN-24P Standard for which a Topical Report has been reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  1. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  2. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  3. Capacitor storage voltage stabilization device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electric circuit of a device designed for charging and stabilizing a capacitor storage is described. A phase-pulse method for thyristor control in the power transformer first circuit is used. In the process of storage charging the triggering angle of thyristors linearly grows, that excludes the necessity of application of current-limiting elements in the charging circuit. The averaged charging voltage of the storage linearly dependce on charging time. Charging is realized by a series of short-time current pulses. Output voltage is controlled within 10...95% limits of the rated value. Voltage instability is ?0.5% at power supply voltage variation of ±10%

  4. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  5. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  6. Neutron scattering and hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has been identified as a fuel of choice for providing clean energy for transport and other applications across the world and the development of materials to store hydrogen efficiently and safely is crucial to this endeavour. Hydrogen has the largest scattering interaction with neutrons of all the elements in the periodic table making neutron scattering ideal for studying hydrogen storage materials. Simultaneous characterisation of the structure and dynamics of these materials during hydrogen uptake is straightforward using neutron scattering techniques. These studies will help us to understand the fundamental properties of hydrogen storage in realistic conditions and hence design new hydrogen storage materials.

  7. Energy Storage Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideyuki; Hatori, Hiroaki

    Electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have excellent properties in power density and durability compared with rechargeable batteries. The single-walled carbon nanotubes have high surface area theoretically up to 2600 m2/g inside and outside of the tubes. The material is considered to be ideal for EDLC electrodes and hence the development of advanced capacitors using carbon nanotubes is active recently. On the other hand, hydrogen storage into carbon nanotubes has been a topic in last decade after some reports which showed a very high storage capacity of hydrogen. The present performance and the prospect of carbon nanotubes as capacitor electrodes and materials for hydrogen storage are introduced in the report.

  8. Dictionary of Storage Networking Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot standby? Beat Effort? Parity Raid? What are we talking about? These are storage networking terms, all defined in the online dictionary provided by Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA). Members of SNIA have contributed to and reviewed this site, with the result being a comprehensive dictionary of common storage networking terms. Each entry has hyperlinked cross references, and many entries include a context keyword. SNIA notes that users should recognize that, in this rapidly evolving field, new terminology is constantly being introduced, and common usage is shifting, so the dictionary is updated regularly.

  9. Energy storage a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale.  This revolutionary book describes   technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years, but presents new material that could transform the energy industry.  Regardless where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources- energy storage is something that the industry MUST learn and practice.  With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in China

  10. Dry storage technology from Transnuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transnuclear's dry storage technology is presented from the perspectives of its past, present and future. Predecessor dry transport designs from the TN-8, TN-9 and TN-12 series show the demonstrated and operationally proven bases of current dry storage cask designs such as the TN-BRP and TN-REG. These current designs are reviewed in the context of their present application and utilization in development programs. Future expansion of the capabilities of current cask designs and examples of new developments in dry storage casks are also discussed

  11. Flywheels for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudkowski, T.W.; Dennis, A.J.; Meyer, T.G.; Wawrzonek, P.H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Advanced flywheel technology offers a competitive technique for storing energy for electric utility and hybrid or electric vehicle applications. The relatively recent availability of suitable and affordable high strength, lightweight composite materials for construction of the rotating wheel is a major reason for recent technical developments. This paper will briefly describe the major applications of flywheel technology, design considerations for the composite wheel and other portions of the systems, and the status of current device developments. United Technologies Corporation (UTC) has concentrated on an automotive Flywheel Surge Power Unit (FSPU) and utility power quality unit having a rated power of 25 to 50 kW and an energy storage capability of 800 Wh at 35,000 RPM. Other developments of larger units for buses and utility load leveling applications have also begun. Several failure mode tests of composite wheels have been demonstrated. Efforts to intentionally fail these filament wound graphite/thermo-plastic wheels at operational speeds have so far been unsuccessful, indicating a robust design. The technology is ready for producing initial prototype flywheel systems. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Superconducting energy storage magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, Roger W. (Inventor); Eyssa, Yehia M. (Inventor); Abdelsalam, Mostafa K. (Inventor); Huang, Xianrui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting magnet is formed having composite conductors arrayed in coils having turns which lie on a surface defining substantially a frustum of a cone. The conical angle with respect to the central axis is preferably selected such that the magnetic pressure on the coil at the widest portion of the cone is substantially zero. The magnet structure is adapted for use as an energy storage magnet mounted in an earthen trench or tunnel where the strength the surrounding soil is lower at the top of the trench or tunnel than at the bottom. The composite conductor may be formed having a ripple shape to minimize stresses during charge up and discharge and has a shape for each ripple selected such that the conductor undergoes a minimum amount of bending during the charge and discharge cycle. By minimizing bending, the working of the normal conductor in the composite conductor is minimized, thereby reducing the increase in resistance of the normal conductor that occurs over time as the conductor undergoes bending during numerous charge and discharge cycles.

  13. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

    2014-10-07

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries.

  14. Fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural materials of a fuel assembly containing pipe are prepared by integrally joining four angled members by an upper end joint plate, a lower end joint plate and an intermediate joint member. A side window is formed by the integration on the side surface of the structural materials. Alternatively, a metal square cylinder is perforated to define a side window with perforation and define structural materials with the remaining materials of the metal square cylinder. A neutron absorbing plate containing cadmium, boron, gadolinium or the like other neutron absorbers is attached to a necessary portion of the side window. Further, in order not to incorporate a portion protruding out of the outer surface of the channel box of the fuel assembly such as pads or fasteners in the fuel assembly containing pipe, the containing pipe is shortened or notches are formed to the containing pipe to reduce the inner margin of the containing pipe. With such a constitution, a great neutron absorbing performance and a strong mechanical strength can be ensured. Further, fuel storage density can be increased and a critical safety can be improved. (I.N.)

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

    2014-10-07

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries.

  16. Liquid metal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a liquid metal storage tank used for an FBR type reactor plant. It comprises a tank main body disposed in a pit chamber, a sealing tub disposed at an upper outer circumferential surface of the tank main body, a roof portion which closes the opening a the upper end of the pit chamber, a sealing partitioning cylinder suspended from the lower surface of the roof and having its lower end extended to the inside of the tub and a sealing liquid metal filled in the tub. The tank main body is kept at a high temperature by the liquid metal while the roof in the upper portion of the pit chamber is kept at a low temperature. Further, since the tank main body and the inside of the pit chamber are sealed by the sealing partitioning cylinder, no large thermal stresses are caused to the wall of the tank main body. Even if hydrogen gases are generated in the tank main body, since they can be released to the inside of the pit chamber, the integrity of the tank can be maintained, even if abrupt pressure elevation is caused in the tank main body. (I.S.)

  17. Minimization of Storage Cost in Distributed Storage Systems with Repair Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Quan; Shum, Kenneth W.; Sung, Chi Wan

    2011-01-01

    In a distributed storage system, the storage costs of different storage nodes, in general, can be different. How to store a file in a given set of storage nodes so as to minimize the total storage cost is investigated. By analyzing the min-cut constraints of the information flow graph, the feasible region of the storage capacities of the nodes can be determined. The storage cost minimization can then be reduced to a linear programming problem, which can be readily solved. Mo...

  18. Storage of Weapon Plutonium Waste

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of quantitative criteria of suitability of rock massif for safe long-term storage of waste from weapon Plutonium production illustrated by the underground mining working at Krasnoyarsk Integrated Mining and Chemical Works.

  19. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  20. Type I Glycogen Storage Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common form of glycogen storage disease, accounting for 25% of all cases. It is an ... Map | About This Site | Privacy Policy | RSS Feeds | Careers | Tax Information | Media and Press Room © Copyright 2015 ...

  1. ALICE bags data storage accolades

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ComputerWorld has recognized CERN with an award for the 'Best Practices in Storage' for ALICE's data acquisition system, in the category of 'Systems Implementation'. The award was presented to the ALICE DAQ team on 18 April at a ceremony in San Diego, CA. (Top) ALICE physicist Ulrich Fuchs. (Bottom) Three of the five storage racks for the ALICE Data Acquisition system (Photo Antonio Saba). Between 16 and19 April, one thousand people from data storage networks around the world gathered to attend the biannual Storage Networking World Conference. Twenty-five companies and organizations were celebrated as finalists, and five of those were given honorary awards-among them CERN, which tied for first place in the category of Systems Implementation for the success of the ALICE Data Acquisition System. CERN was one of five finalists in this category, which recognizes the winning facility for 'the successful design, implementation and management of an interoperable environment'. 'Successful' could include documentati...

  2. Adaptable area for image storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method and apparatus for increasing the effective data storage transfer rate in a system to permit the recording of a rapid sequence of high resolution images by eliminating and hence not transferring designated portions of each image in the sequence

  3. Lih thermal energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Mitchell (Knoxville, TN); Morris, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  4. International developments in seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyuk, I.; Shivers, R.

    1984-08-01

    With thermal energy sources such as cogeneration or waste incineration, there is considerable disparity between potential heat supply and possible application. A similar problem exists for the utilization of winter chill for summer air conditioning. Seasonal thermal energy storage would be an essential factor in enhancing the cost effectiveness of such schemes. We shall review characteristic experimental facilities for large scale thermal energy storage in Canada, Scandinavia and the rest of Europe.

  5. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Yue; Hill James

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the ba...

  6. Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnel Susanne; Kupfer Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropi...

  7. Analysis of cloud storage prices

    OpenAIRE

    Mastroeni, Loretta; Naldi, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Cloud storage is fast securing its role as a major repository for both consumers and business customers. Many companies now offer storage solutions, sometimes for free for limited amounts of capacity. We have surveyed the pricing plans of a selection of major cloud providers and compared them using the unit price as the means of comparison. All the providers, excepting Amazon, adopt a bundling pricing scheme; Amazon follows instead a block-declining pricing policy. We compar...

  8. CASTOR: CERN Advanced Storage Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possibly the most ambitious storage system ever created will be used to capture data from the world's most advanced particle physics facility. The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) will begin operating its Large Hadron Collider in 2007. The system that will collect and manage data from this instrument is described on this page. Documentation about the architecture and operation of the CERN Advanced STORage Manager (CASTOR) is provided.

  9. Towards a community cloud storage

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying; Vlassov, Vladimir; Navarro Moldes, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Community Clouds, usually built upon community networks, operate in a more disperse environment compared to a data center Cloud, with lower capacity and less reliable servers separated by a more heterogeneous and less predictable network interconnection. These differences raise challenges when deploying Cloud applications in a community Cloud. Open Stack Swift is an open source distributed storage system, which provides stand alone highly available and scalable storage from Open Stack Cloud c...

  10. Advances in information storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1995-01-01

    The series Advances in Information Storage Systems covers a wide range of interdisciplinary technical areas, related to magnetic or optical storage systems. The following nonexhaustive list is indicative of the scope of the topics: Friction, Adhesion, Wear and Lubrications, Coatings, Solid Mechanics, Air Flow, Contamination, Instrumentation, Dynamics, Shock and Vibration, Controls, Head and Suspension Design, Actuators, Spindle and Actuator Motors and Bearings, Structure of Thin Films, Corrosion, Long-Term Reliability, Materials and Processing, Manufacturing and Automation, Economics.This volu

  11. Data Storage Control System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Yurievich Shumilov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for evaluating and improving the effectiveness of storage management during the development of automated control systems. The description of the storage management system in terms of queuing theory is proposed. The model of the system and the criteria for efficient processing of requests to read and write data are provided. The authors also propose the partitioning of stored data and the use of several software solutions to improve the system performance.

  12. Autoradiography using storage phosphor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of photostimulable storage phosphor imaging plates to autoradiography of a sample of 32P, 14C, and 35S offer several advantages when compared to traditional film autoradiography. Imaging plates can detect a 32P-labeled sample at an exposure level of 1 dpm/mm2, and 14C and 35S at 25 dpm/mm2. Compared to X-ray film, imaging plates offer increased sensitivity of 15- to 250-fold for 32P and 20- to 100-fold for 14C and 35S. Sensitivity levels for the storage phosphor plates, equivalent to film can be obtained in one-tenth to one-hundredth the exposure time required for film and require neither pre-flashing nor sub-ambient temperature exposure. The storage phosphor plates are also free of the background fogging inherent with film. The storage phosphor plates also exhibit a much wider dynamic range than film. Film provides about 2.5 to 2.7 orders of linear dynamic range whereas the storage phosphor plates are linear over better than 5 orders of magnitude. The sensitivity and wide dynamic range appear to be valid for all isotopes to which the storage phosphor plates are sensitive, which in addition to those already mentioned include 125I, 18F, 55FE, 65NI, as well as X-ray energy and UV radiation below 380 nm. Tritium is the only common isotope that cannot be used with the storage phosphor plates. Re used with the storage phosphor plates. Resolution is in the 0.3 mm range and is therefore suitable for any gel or blot application

  13. Lightweight hydride storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The need for lightweight hydrides in vehicular applications has prompted considerable research into the use of magnesium and its alloys. Although this earlier work has provided some improved performance in operating temperature and pressure, substantial improvements are needed before these materials will significantly enhance the performance of an engineered system on a vehicle. We are extending the work of previous investigators on Mg alloys to reduce the operating temperature and hydride heat of formation in light weight materials. Two important results will be discussed in this paper: (1) a promising new alloy hydride was found which has better pressure-temperature characteristics than any previous Mg alloy and, (2) a new fabrication process for existing Mg alloys was developed and demonstrated. The new alloy hydride is composed of magnesium, aluminum and nickel. It has an equilibrium hydrogen overpressure of 1.3 atm. at 200{degrees}C and a storage capacity between 3 and 4 wt.% hydrogen. A hydrogen release rate of approximately 5 x 10{sup -4} moles-H{sub 2}/gm-min was measured at 200{degrees}C. The hydride heat of formation was found to be 13.5 - 14 kcal/mole-H{sub 2}, somewhat lower than Mg{sub 2}Ni. The new fabrication method takes advantage of the high vapor transport of magnesium. It was found that Mg{sub 2}Ni produced by our low temperature process was better than conventional materials because it was single phase (no Mg phase) and could be fabricated with very small particle sizes. Hydride measurements on this material showed faster kinetic response than conventional material. The technique could potentially be applied to in-situ hydride bed fabrication with improved packing density, release kinetics, thermal properties and mechanical stability.

  14. The High Performance Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyne, R.A.; Hulen, H. [IBM Federal Systems Co., Houston, TX (United States); Watson, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The National Storage Laboratory (NSL) was organized to develop, demonstrate and commercialize technology for the storage system that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Within the NSL four Department of Energy laboratories and IBM Federal System Company have pooled their resources to develop an entirely new High Performance Storage System (HPSS). The HPSS project concentrates on scalable parallel storage system for highly parallel computers as well as traditional supercomputers and workstation clusters. Concentrating on meeting the high end of storage system and data management requirements, HPSS is designed using network-connected storage devices to transfer data at rates of 100 million bytes per second and beyond. The resulting products will be portable to many vendor`s platforms. The three year project is targeted to be complete in 1995. This paper provides an overview of the requirements, design issues, and architecture of HPSS, as well as a description of the distributed, multi-organization industry and national laboratory HPSS project.

  15. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  16. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial storage of CO2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  17. Cask storage of MOX spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in cask storage of mixed oxide spent fuels in Japan is presented. The authors discuss and compare wet storage and dry storage, concluding that a trench type cask storage facility is considered one of the most promising methods in Japan

  18. Isolamento da globulina majoritária, digestibilidade in vivo e in vitro das proteínas do tremoço-doce (Lupinus albus L., var. Multolupa Isolation of major globulin, in vivo and in vitro digestibility of proteins from sweet lupin (Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Augusto Neves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram isolar, purificar e estudar algumas propriedades da fração globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce, var. Multolupa; assim como avaliar as características de digestibilidade da farinha e frações isoladas. As frações protéicas foram separadas por fracionamento diferencial com uso de diferentes solventes. A globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce foi isolada, purificada por cromatografia em Q-Sepharose, revelando um único pico de proteína. Apresentou um peso molecular de 162,5 ± 10,0 kDa, determinado por cromatografia em Sephacryl S-300, e subunidades entre 20-70 kDa em PAGE-SDS. A solubilidade em função do pH e concentrações de NaCl revelaram curva típica dessa fração. A digestibilidade da proteína da farinha e das frações albumina, globulina e glutelina foi avaliada por experimentos in vitro e in vivo e se revelou alta para a fração globulina, seguida pela glutelina, albumina e farinha. A digestibilidade in vivo da fração globulina, tanto aparente quanto verdadeira, não diferiu significativamente daquela determinada para a caseína. Apesar da alta digestibilidade da fração majoritária e frações protéicas, a utilização como única fonte de proteína nas dietas revelou valores baixos de RPLR (razão protéica líquida relativa, indicando ser insuficiente para sustentar o crescimento dos animais, comparativamente à caseína.The aim of the present work was to isolate, purify and study some properties of the major globulin fraction from sweet lupin, var. Multolupa; as well as to evaluate the digestibility features of flour and isolated fractions. The protein fractions were separated by differential fractionation with different solvents. The lupin major globulin was isolated, purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography when it showed only one protein peak. The major protein presented a molecular weight of 162.5 ± 10.0 kDa, determined on Sephacryl S-300 chromatography; and subunits between 20 to 70 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The protein solubility in relation to pH and NaCl concentrations showed a typical S-like curve for globulins. The flour and the isolated protein fractions, albumins, globulins and glutelins were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility assays revealed a high digestibility for the globulin, followed by glutelin, albumin and the flour. The globulin in vivo digestibility did not differ significantly from that obtained to casein. Despite the high digestibility encountered for the major protein fraction and protein fractions, the use as the only protein source in the diets revealed low values for RNPR (relative net protein ratio, showing it to be insufficient in terms of sustaining the growth of animals, comparatively to casein.

  19. Isolamento da globulina majoritária, digestibilidade in vivo e in vitro das proteínas do tremoço-doce (Lupinus albus L.), var. Multolupa / Isolation of major globulin, in vivo and in vitro digestibility of proteins from sweet lupin (Lupinus albus L.) var. Multolupa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdir Augusto, Neves; Sinézio Inácio, Silva Jr.; Maraiza Aparecida da, Silva.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram isolar, purificar e estudar algumas propriedades da fração globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce, var. Multolupa; assim como avaliar as características de digestibilidade da farinha e frações isoladas. As frações protéicas foram separadas por fracionamento diferencial [...] com uso de diferentes solventes. A globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce foi isolada, purificada por cromatografia em Q-Sepharose, revelando um único pico de proteína. Apresentou um peso molecular de 162,5 ± 10,0 kDa, determinado por cromatografia em Sephacryl S-300, e subunidades entre 20-70 kDa em PAGE-SDS. A solubilidade em função do pH e concentrações de NaCl revelaram curva típica dessa fração. A digestibilidade da proteína da farinha e das frações albumina, globulina e glutelina foi avaliada por experimentos in vitro e in vivo e se revelou alta para a fração globulina, seguida pela glutelina, albumina e farinha. A digestibilidade in vivo da fração globulina, tanto aparente quanto verdadeira, não diferiu significativamente daquela determinada para a caseína. Apesar da alta digestibilidade da fração majoritária e frações protéicas, a utilização como única fonte de proteína nas dietas revelou valores baixos de RPLR (razão protéica líquida relativa), indicando ser insuficiente para sustentar o crescimento dos animais, comparativamente à caseína. Abstract in english The aim of the present work was to isolate, purify and study some properties of the major globulin fraction from sweet lupin, var. Multolupa; as well as to evaluate the digestibility features of flour and isolated fractions. The protein fractions were separated by differential fractionation with dif [...] ferent solvents. The lupin major globulin was isolated, purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography when it showed only one protein peak. The major protein presented a molecular weight of 162.5 ± 10.0 kDa, determined on Sephacryl S-300 chromatography; and subunits between 20 to 70 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The protein solubility in relation to pH and NaCl concentrations showed a typical S-like curve for globulins. The flour and the isolated protein fractions, albumins, globulins and glutelins were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility assays revealed a high digestibility for the globulin, followed by glutelin, albumin and the flour. The globulin in vivo digestibility did not differ significantly from that obtained to casein. Despite the high digestibility encountered for the major protein fraction and protein fractions, the use as the only protein source in the diets revealed low values for RNPR (relative net protein ratio), showing it to be insufficient in terms of sustaining the growth of animals, comparatively to casein.

  20. Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dmour, Eshraq; Ahlback, Jonny; Einfeld, Dieter; Tavares, Pedro Fernandes; Grabski, Marek

    2014-09-01

    Some of the characteristics of recent ultralow-emittance storage-ring designs and possibly future diffraction-limited storage rings are a compact lattice combined with small magnet apertures. Such requirements present a challenge for the design and performance of the vacuum system. The vacuum system should provide the required vacuum pressure for machine operation and be able to handle the heat load from synchrotron radiation. Small magnet apertures result in the conductance of the chamber being low, and lumped pumps are ineffective. One way to provide the required vacuum level is by distributed pumping, which can be realised by the use of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating of the chamber walls. It may not be possible to use crotch absorbers to absorb the heat from the synchrotron radiation because an antechamber is difficult to realise with such a compact lattice. To solve this, the chamber walls can work as distributed absorbers if they are made of a material with good thermal conductivity, and distributed cooling is used at the location where the synchrotron radiation hits the wall. The vacuum system of the 3?GeV storage ring of MAX?IV is used as an example of possible solutions for vacuum technologies for diffraction-limited storage rings. PMID:25177979

  1. Formats and data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The currently used ENDF-6 format has a number of shortcomings that originate from the punch-card legacy. Some, such as redundancy, counting lines, too short MAT number and too many options could be resolved within the current format. The more critical issues, such as rigidity to extensions, limited accuracy due to fixed number of digits, difficulty of reading by humans, lack of native software support, and lack of integration with EXFOR and ENSDF libraries, would require such considerable efforts that migration to a new and modern format, offering additional advantages, is a more attractive option. Actually, such an option is even more justified by the existence of the well advanced General Nuclear Data (GND) format being developed by LLNL. This XML based framework is easily extensible, its numerical precision is not fixed, it is easier to edit, can store additional information (e.g. renormalized experimental data used in the evaluation), allows for storing various versions side by side (e.g. reconstructed data, group-wise data, alternative evaluations), it may include hyperlinks to documentation or another set of data (e.g. covariances). Two additional advantages are the possibility of using native Python support software and already available conversion (in both directions) to the binary HDF5 format which allows to organize, store, access, analyze, share, and preserve data huge in both size and complexity. The GND format comes with the processing software FUDGE, whoes with the processing software FUDGE, whose class structure mirrors the GND format. It provides for arbitrary alteration of the data, energy deposition/kermas, data checking, translation to different format (ENDF-6, HDF5, ENDL), grouping, resonance reconstruction, visualization and sampling from covariances. It is deemed advantageous to the Nuclear Data community to adopt this new system and develop interfaces to the currently used processing codes and retrieval systems to take full advantage of the evolving technology. Such modernization is needed to allow for the storage of large covariances, ensuring evolution of the stored data, and for attracting to the field young experts

  2. Dynamic Storage Assurance on Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanalakshmi, P.; Ramesh, V.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing investigate the problem of data security in cloud data storage, which is essentially a distributed storage system. Distributed storage integrity auditing mechanism, utilizes the homomorphic token and distributed erasure-coded data. The proposed design allows users to audit the cloud storage with very lightweight communication and computation cost. The auditing result not only ensures strong cloud storage correctness guarantee, but also simultaneously achieves fast data error l...

  3. Thermal Energy Storage: Fourth Annual Review Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The development of low cost thermal energy storage technologies is discussed in terms of near term oil savings, solar energy applications, and dispersed energy systems for energy conservation policies. Program definition and assessment and research and technology development are considered along with industrial storage, solar thermal power storage, building heating and cooling, and seasonal thermal storage. A bibliography on seasonal thermal energy storage emphasizing aquifer thermal energy is included.

  4. Seasonal sensible thermal energy storage solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Socaciu, Lavinia Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The thermal energy storage can be defined as the temporary storage of thermal energy at high or low temperatures. Thermal energy storage is an advances technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Seasonal thermal energy storage has a longer thermal storage period, generally three or more months. This can contribute significantly to meeting society`s need for heating and cooling. The objectives of thermal...

  5. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8degree angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3degree angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design

  6. Legumin-like and vicilin-like seed storage proteins: evidence for a common single-domain ancestral gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutov, A D; Kakhovskaya, I A; Braun, H; Bäumlein, H; Müntz, K

    1995-12-01

    Legumin-like 11S and vicilin-like 7S globulins are the main storage proteins of most angiosperms and gymnosperms. The subunits of the hexameric legumin are synthesized as a precursor comprising a N-terminal acidic alpha- and a C-terminal basic beta-chain. The trimeric vicilin molecule consists of subunits composed of two symmetrical N- and C-terminal structural domains. In a multiple alignment we have compared the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of 11 legumins and seven vicilins of several dicot, monocot, and gymnosperm species. The comparisons using all six possible pairwise combinations reveal that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of both protein families are similar to each other. These results together with data on the distribution of variable and conserved regions, on the positions of susceptible sites for proteolytic attack, as well as on the published 7S protein tertiary structure suggest that both protein families share a common single-domain ancestor molecule and lead to the hypothesis that a triplication event has occurred during the evolution of a putative legumin/vicilin ancestor gene. Moreover, the comparison of the intron/exon pattern reveals that at least three out of five intron positions are precisely conserved between the genes of both protein families, further supporting the idea of a common evolutionary origin of recent legumin and vicilin encoding genes. PMID:8587104

  7. Storage fee analysis for a retrievable surface storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual design studies are in progress for a Water Basin Concept (WBC) and an alternative Sealed Storage Cask Concept (SSCC) of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) intended as a Federal government facility for storing high-level radioactive wastes until a permanent disposal method is established. The RSSF will be a man-made facility with a design life of at least 100 y, and will have capacity to store all of the high-level waste from the reprocessing of nuclear power plant spent fuels generated by the industry through the year 2000. This report is a basic version of ARH-2746, ''Retrievable Surface Storage Facility, Water Basin Concept, User Charge Analysis.'' It is concerned with the issue of establishing a fee to cover the cost of storing nuclear wastes both in the RSSF and at the subsequent disposal facility. (U.S.)

  8. Symmetric Allocations for Distributed Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Leong, Derek; Ho, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimally allocating a given total storage budget in a distributed storage system. A source has a data object which it can code and store over a set of storage nodes; it is allowed to store any amount of coded data in each node, as long as the total amount of storage used does not exceed the given budget. A data collector subsequently attempts to recover the original data object by accessing each of the nodes independently with some constant probability. By using an appropriate code, successful recovery occurs when the total amount of data in the accessed nodes is at least the size of the original data object. The goal is to find an optimal storage allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery. This optimization problem is challenging because of its discrete nature and nonconvexity, despite its simple formulation. Symmetric allocations (in which all nonempty nodes store the same amount of data), though intuitive, may be suboptimal; the problem is nontrivial even i...

  9. Storage ring working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last two decades great progress has been made in the development of storage rings with small transverse emittance. It is now a good time to consider the possibility of achieving very short bunches m storage rings. From the perspective of synchrotron radiation source development, there are at least two motivations for obtaining short electron bunches: (1) the generation of sub- picosecond x-ray pulses and (2) the coherent emission of sub- picosecond pulses of far infrared radiation. A useful short-term goal is the experimental study of bunches with 1 ps rms length both at high (approx-gt 1 GeV) and low (approx-lt 150 MeV) electron energies. Experiments on 1 ps bunches are now feasible and can yield new insight into the high frequency impedance of storage rings and the associated phenomena which can result in bunch lengthening. Achievement of 1 ps bunches can also be expected to allow the first observation of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring, in the millimeter wavelength regime. A longer-term objective is the realization of 100 fs bunches. Achievement of this goal not only will advance understanding of storage rings but will open up new opportunities in synchrotron radiation based research at both x-ray and far infrared wavelengths. It is now an appropriate time to carry forward theoretical investigations clarifying the fundamental limitations on bunch length, and to devise schemes to minimize it

  10. Female sperm storage in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Hamlett, William C

    2002-02-01

    Internal fertilization and oviparity most likely are symplesiomorphies for modern reptiles, and viviparity has evolved independently numerous times in Sauria and Serpentes. Oviducal sperm storage is known in females of all taxa except Amphisbaenia. However, in Rhynchocephalia and Crocodilia, sperm storage is poorly studied, and specialized sperm storage tubules (Ssts) are unknown. We use the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis [(Chelonia+Archosauria) (Squamata)] to trace evolution of sperm storage characters. Ssts arose independently in Chelonia and Squamata. Turtles possess albumen-secreting glands in the anterior half of the oviduct (the tuba or isthmus), and the most distal of these glands also serve as Ssts; in addition, some turtles possess Ssts in the adjacent segment of the oviduct, the uterus. Squamates lack albumen-secreting glands, and the ancestral state is possession of Ssts in the posterior infundibulum (uterine tube). Secondarily, iguanids have evolved vaginal Ssts. In this paper, we present the first ultrastructural observations on vaginal Ssts in lizards, using Anolis sagrei (Polychrotidae). Proximally, the neck of these simple tubular glands continues the alternation of ciliated and secretory cells lining the lumen of the vagina. However, the epithelial cells of the distal sperm storage area are neither secretory nor ciliated. The Ssts of Anolis are more similar to those of birds more than to infundibular receptacles in snakes and lizards. PMID:11754034

  11. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  12. Space-Time Storage Codes for Wireless Distributed Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hollanti, Camilla; Karpuk, David; Barreal, Amaro; Lu, Hsiao-feng Francis

    2014-01-01

    Distributed storage systems (DSSs) have gained a lot of interest recently, thanks to their robustness and scalability compared to single-device storage. Majority of the related research has exclusively concerned the network layer. At the same time, the number of users of, e.g., peer-to-peer (p2p) and device-to-device (d2d) networks as well as proximity based services is growing rapidly, and the mobility of users is considered more and more important. This motivates, in contr...

  13. Chaotic dynamics in a storage-ring Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    De Ninno, G; Bruni, C; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of a storage-ring Free Electron Laser is here investigated with particular attention to the case in which an external modulation is applied to the laser-electron beam detuning. The system is shown to produce bifurcations, multi-furcations as well as chaotic regimes. The peculiarities of this phenomenon with respect to the analogous behavior displayed by conventional laser sources are pointed out. Theoretical results, obtained by means of a phenomenological model reproducing the evolution of the main statistical parameters of the system, are shown to be in a good agreement with experiments carried out on the Super-ACO Free Electron Laser.

  14. Application of Energy Storage in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqunun, Khalid M.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the advantages of using energy storage systems. This study presents a model for energy storage in electric power systems. The model involves methods of reducing the operation cost of a power network and the calculation of capital cost of energy storage systems. Two test systems have been considered, the IEEE six-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system, to analyze the impact of energy storage on power system economic operation. Properties of energy storage have been considered such as rated power investment cost and rated energy investment cost. Mixed integer programming has been used to formulate the model. A comparison between centralized energy storage system and distributed energy storage system have been proposed. The results show that distributed energy storage system has more impact on reducing total operation cost. Also, an analysis on optimal sizing of energy storage system with fixed investment cost is provided.

  15. Caracterización electroforética de las globulinas del grano fermentado de tres tipos de cacao / ELECTROPHORETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOBULINS FROM FERMENTED GRAINS OF THREE TYPES OF COCOA / CARACTERIZAÇÃO ELETROFORÉTICA DAS GLOBULINAS DO GRÃO FERMENTADO DE TRES TIPOS DE CACAU

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ligia, Ortiz de Bertorelli; Henry, Maldonado; Pablo, Parra; Lucía, Graziani de Fariñas.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se eletroforéticamente as globulinas do grão fermentado dos cacaus tipo crioulo, forasteiro e trinitário da localidade de Cumboto, estado Aragua, Venezuela, para o qual foram colhidas vagens de duas plantas por cada tipo de cacau, na razão de três frutos por planta, nos lotes El Paraí [...] so, La Vega de Santa Cruz e La Isleta. Vagens sãs de cada tipo de cacau foram processadas manualmente para retirada dos grãos e submetidas a um processo de fermentação durante 5 dias. A polpa dos grãos fermentados foi eliminada, e os cotilédones foram secados em uma estufa por 48h a 40°C, seguido de um processo de moenda. As globulinas foram extraídas com solução 0,5M NaCl e analisadas eletroforéticamente por PAGE-SDS unidimensional em gel de placa de poliacrilamida 20%. Os resultados revelaram variações significativas (p Abstract in spanish Se caracterizaron electroforéticamente las globulinas del grano fermentado de los cacaos tipo criollo, forastero y trinitario de la localidad de Cumboto, estado Aragua, Venezuela, para lo cual fueron cosechadas mazorcas de dos plantas por cada tipo de cacao, a razón de tres frutos por planta, en las [...] parcelas El Paraíso, La Vega de Santa Cruz y La Isleta. Mazorcas sanas de cada tipo de cacao fueron desgranadas manualmente y sometidas a un proceso de fermentación durante 5 días. A los granos fermentados se les eliminó la pulpa, y los cotiledones fueron secados en una estufa por 48h a 40ºC, seguido de un proceso de molienda. Las globulinas fueron extraídas con solución 0,5M NaCl y analizadas electroforéticamente por PAGE-SDS unidimensional en gel de placa de poliacrilamida 20%. Los resultados revelaron variaciones significativas (p Abstract in english The globulins of the fermented grain of the criollo, forastero and trinitario cocoa types in the Cumboto area, Aragua state, Venezuela were characterized by electrophoresis. Pods from two plants, three fruits per plant, were harvested for each type of cocoa in El Paraíso, La Vega de Santa Cruz and L [...] a Isleta parcels. Healthy pods corresponding to each type of cocoa were manually flailed and underwent a fermentation process for a period of five days. The pulp was removed from the fermented grains, and the cotiledons were dried in an oven for 48h at 40ºC. This was followed by a grinding process. The globulins were extracted using 0.5M NaCl and were analyzed by unidimensional PAGE-SDS electrophoresis in a 20% poliacrilamide plate gel. The results revealed significant variations (p

  16. Nanoconfined hydrides for energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas K; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The world in the 21(st) century is facing increasing challenges within the development of more environmentally friendly energy systems, sustainable and 'green chemistry' solutions for a variety of chemical and catalytic processes. Nanomaterials science is expected to contribute strongly by the development of new nanotools, e.g. for improving the performance of chemical reactions. Nanoconfinement is of increasing interest and may lead to significantly enhanced kinetics, higher degree of stability and/or more favourable thermodynamic properties. Nanoconfined chemical reactions may have a wide range of important applications in the near future, e.g. within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy. This review provides selected examples within nanoconfinement of hydrogen storage materials, which may serve as an inspiration for other research fields as well. Selected nanoporous materials, methods for preparation of nanoconfined systems and their hydrogen storage properties are reviewed.

  17. Nanoindentation and storage of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelitz, Stefan; Marshall, Grayson W; Balooch, Mehdi; Marshall, Sally J

    2002-07-01

    This study determined changes in nanomechanical properties of dentin and enamel during storage in deionized water, calcium chloride buffered saline solution and Hank's balanced salts solution (HBSS). Atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation showed that storing teeth in deionized water or CaCl(2)-solution resulted in a large decrease in elastic modulus and hardness. At 1 day a decrease in the mechanical properties values of up to 20% and 30% was observed for enamel and dentin, respectively. After 1 week, mechanical properties dropped below 50% of their starting values, which is attributed to a demineralization process during storage. In contrast, storing teeth in HBSS did not significantly alter the mechanical properties for a time interval of 2 weeks. The use of HBSS for storage of samples from teeth is recommended. PMID:12052404

  18. Superconductivity, energy storage and switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of superconductivity can contribute to the technology of energy storage and switching in two distinct ways. On one hand the zero resistivity of the superconductor can produce essentially infinite time constants so that an inductive storage system can be charged from very low power sources. On the other hand, the recovery of finite resistivity in a normal-going superconducting switch can take place in extremely short times, so that a system can be made to deliver energy at a very high power level. Topics reviewed include: physics of superconductivity, limits to switching speed of superconductors, physical and engineering properties of superconducting materials and assemblies, switching methods, load impedance considerations, refrigeration economics, limitations imposed by present day and near term technology, performance of existing and planned energy storage systems, and a comparison with some alternative methods of storing and switching energy. (U.S.)

  19. High density energy storage capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nova laser system will use 130 MJ of capacitive energy storage and have a peak power capability of 250,000 MW. This capacitor bank is a significant portion of the laser cost and requires a large portion of the physical facilities. In order to reduce the cost and volume required by the bank, the Laser Fusion Program funded contracts with three energy storage capacitor producers: Aerovox, G.E., and Maxwell Laboratories, to develop higher energy density, lower cost energy storage capacitors. This paper describes the designs which resulted from the Aerovox development contract, and specifically addresses the design and initial life testing of a 12.5 kJ, 22 kV capacitor with a density of 4.2 J/in3 and a projected cost in the range of 5 cents per joule

  20. Onsite LLW storage at Cook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant has gained much experience through the onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste. Owned and operated by the Indiana Michigan Power Company, which is owned by American Electric Power, the plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan, on the southeast side of Lake Michigan, about 50 miles from Chicago. In November 1990, waste generators in the state of Michigan were denied access to licensed low-level waste disposal sites because of a lack of progress by the state in developing its own disposal site. Because of this lack, wastes from the Cook plant have been stored onsite for three years. This article covers four issues related to the Cook nuclear plant's experience in the low-level waste storage: storage capacity and waste generation rates, waste form and packages, regulatory issues, and the monitoring of the waste

  1. Moving Towards SAN Storage: An Enterprise Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rabi prasad padhy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – One of the major components of any enterprise IT infrastructure is data storage. There has been continuous effort to explore new storage technologies to improve performance with respect to input/output operations, data availability, consolidation of storage assets and data protection and archiving. Storage has moved from the traditional Direct Attached Storage (DAS to Network Attached Storage (NAS and now to Storage Area Networks (SAN. Traditional storage subsystems like Server Attached Storage (SAS and Network Attached Storage (NAS use disks directly attached to servers over a Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI bus. However, these have limited capabilities keeping in view the rapidly expanding storage needs. The SAN technology holds great promises to be used for enterprises where issues like data availability, serviceability, consolidation of storage and reliability are major concerns. It can provide high speed data transfer with many other storage services, backboned with a high speed Fibre Channel (FC. Storage-area networks are also more popular and efficient way of building large storage systems both in an enterprise environment and for multi-domain storage service providers. SAN design and implementation requires careful analysis before SAN can be used as an enterprise storage solution. In this paper we provide an overview of SAN technology from the view point of building large storage systems in an enterprise environment. We also discuss on return on investment (ROI which can justify the adoption of SAN in an enterprise. Further, it compares two specific technologies, namely, FC SAN and IP SAN. In the sequel different design considerations are made to recommend suitable SAN implementations in order to meet the requirements of any enterprise.

  2. Lead-Acid battery storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César A.C., Sequeira; Mário R., Pedro.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As baterias de chumbo-ácido são uma das melhores formas de armazenamento químico e que encaramos como uma das mais promissoras para aplicações de armazenamento de energia em larga escala. O presente artigo inclui alguns comentários pertinentes sobre estes sistemas recarregáveis, na sua actual fase d [...] e investigação e desenvolvimento. Abstract in english Lead-acid batteries are a prime form of chemical storage that we regard as holding most promise for large-scale energy storage applications. This paper includes a few pertinent comments on these rechargeable systems in their present stages of research and development. [...

  3. Low energy ion storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While high energy physicists have found it expedient to store ions at increasingly higher energies in devices of greater size and complexity, atomic physicists have generally attempted to store ions at ever lower energies, and often in miniaturized containers. However, many of the techniques used at both high and low energies are analogous or related. Three basic means of ion containment have been used: the dc electrostatic trap, the Penning-type trap with uniform magnetic field and quadrupole dc potential, and the radio-frequency quadrupole trap in either the cylindrically symmetric or storage-ring configurations. Each trapping configuration has characteristic advantages or drawbacks for particular measurements. Each method is described

  4. Storage SPAR for deepwater Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Chevron Genesis SPAR (floating production system), the first deep water development to utilize a spar configured for full drilling and production capabilities and how it was redesigned to include storage for use in offshore Brazil. Three storage volumes were considered. A general description with schematics and the structural configuration were developed. The suggested system operation is discussed as well as additional items relating to the environment, discharge system, wax / paraffin formation, tank inspection and off loading. This paper should be of interest to those involved with deep water developments in general, and specifically those considering the application of the spar concept. (author)

  5. Storage Technology for Data Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nief, Jean-Yves

    Preservation of scientific data aims at storing data for many years or even decades. This is a challenge as hardware and software technologies are changing at a high rate with respect to the time scale involved in data preservation. Moreover, scientific data can be preserved in a distributed and heterogeneous environment involving several data centers. Storage and data policy virtualizations are strongly needed in such an environment, in order to achieve this endeavor. We will show that iRODS middleware can provide a suitable solution to the data storage and policy virtualization.

  6. Advances in Macromolecular Data Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a new method of information storage to replace magnetic hard disk drives and other instruments of secondary/backup data storage. The proposed method stores petabytes of user-data in a sugar cube (1 cm3), and can read/write that information at hundreds of megabits/sec. Digital information is recorded and stored in the form of a long macromolecule consisting of at least two bases, A and B. (This would be similar to DNA strands constructed from the four nu...

  7. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming (Augusta, GA)

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  8. Optical storage in lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Holographic storage and retrieval using photorefractive media (electro-optic ferroelectric materials), particularly iron-doped lithium niobate with its enhanced sensitivity, are discussed. Refractive index changes induced by exposure to light render the materials useful for read-write memories and read-write memory simulation. Resolution, dark storage time, write and erase times, reversibility, and noise levels of the materials are examined. The laser source, deflection system, hololens, page composer, and detector array of the holographic memory system are described. High SNR and two orders of magnitude improvement in speed are reported over earlier experimental prototypes, but the system is still too slow to meet practical needs.

  9. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  10. Seasonal heat storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal storage of hot water in natural aquifers (porous layers of gravel sand) may be used to meet part of the demand of a district heating system in the winter season by means of excess heat produced by combined heat and power plants in the summer season. Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, participates in a joint project on aquifer storage together with laboratories at the Technical University of Denmark and the Geological Survey of Denmark. The project includes geological exploration, construction and test run of a pilot plant and development of mathematical models. (author)

  11. Differential response to sulfur nutrition of two common bean genotypes differing in storage protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Sandercock, Mark; Beyaert, Ronald; Conn, Kenneth L; Hou, Anfu; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively low concentration of sulfur amino acids in legume seeds might be an ecological adaptation to nutrient poor, marginal soils. SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 are genetically related lines of common bean (dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris) differing in seed storage protein composition. In SMARC1N-PN1, the lack of phaseolin and major lectins is compensated by increased levels of sulfur-rich proteins, resulting in an enhanced concentration of cysteine and methionine, mostly at the expense of the abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methylcysteine. To identify potential effects associated with an increased concentration of sulfur amino acids in the protein pool, the response of the two genotypes to low and high sulfur nutrition was evaluated under controlled conditions. Seed yield was increased by the high sulfate treatment in SMARC1N-PN1. The seed concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, and S-methylcysteine were altered by the sulfur treatment in both genotypes. The concentration of total cysteine and extractible globulins was increased specifically in SMARC1N-PN1. Proteomic analysis identified arcelin-like protein 4, lipoxygenase-3, albumin-2, and alpha amylase inhibitor beta chain as having increased levels under high sulfur conditions. Lipoxygenase-3 accumulation was sensitive to sulfur nutrition only in SMARC1N-PN1. Under field conditions, both SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 exhibited a slight increase in yield in response to sulfur treatment, typical for common bean. PMID:25750649

  12. Differential response to sulfur nutrition of two common bean genotypes differing in storage protein composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Sandercock, Mark; Beyaert, Ronald; Conn, Kenneth L.; Hou, Anfu; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively low concentration of sulfur amino acids in legume seeds might be an ecological adaptation to nutrient poor, marginal soils. SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 are genetically related lines of common bean (dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris) differing in seed storage protein composition. In SMARC1N-PN1, the lack of phaseolin and major lectins is compensated by increased levels of sulfur-rich proteins, resulting in an enhanced concentration of cysteine and methionine, mostly at the expense of the abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methylcysteine. To identify potential effects associated with an increased concentration of sulfur amino acids in the protein pool, the response of the two genotypes to low and high sulfur nutrition was evaluated under controlled conditions. Seed yield was increased by the high sulfate treatment in SMARC1N-PN1. The seed concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, and S-methylcysteine were altered by the sulfur treatment in both genotypes. The concentration of total cysteine and extractible globulins was increased specifically in SMARC1N-PN1. Proteomic analysis identified arcelin-like protein 4, lipoxygenase-3, albumin-2, and alpha amylase inhibitor beta chain as having increased levels under high sulfur conditions. Lipoxygenase-3 accumulation was sensitive to sulfur nutrition only in SMARC1N-PN1. Under field conditions, both SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 exhibited a slight increase in yield in response to sulfur treatment, typical for common bean.

  13. Comparison of cask and dry well storage concepts for a stand-alone monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal storage casks are compared with surface dry wells for storage of spent fuel or solidified high-level wastes. Conceptual designs of monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facilities are described and evaluated for both storage concepts. The MRS/IS facilities include systems and storage facilities for transuranic (TRU) waste. The impact of TRU waste on the MRS/IS facility is evaluated. Comparisons of the storage concepts were made for three cases for which different reprocessing and disposal schedules were assumed, thus affecting the size and handling rate of the MRS/IS facility. In all cases, dry wells were more economical than metal storage casks. 6 references, 51 figures, 51 tables

  14. At-reactor dry storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management M ampersand O contractor has undertaken a study of at-reactor dry storage issues to analyze the logistic and economic impacts of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage at reactors. Utilities have thus far selected the use of dry storage technologies to meet additional at-reactor storage capacity needs. Aspects of at-reactor dry storage including dry storage capacity requirements and costs requirements are evaluated for both operating reactors and shutdown reactors. At-reactor dry storage capacity requirements, dry storage capital and operating costs, shutdown pool storage operation costs, and dry storage areal land requirements are specifically evaluated for both the reference scenario and the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) system. Input data are provided on at-reactor storage requirements and costs that will be used directly and indirectly, through the life cycle cost analysis, in the overall evaluation of the MPC system. Other issues addressed are the impact on at-reactor dry storage requirements of not having a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility in the system and the impact of not beginning SNF pick-up from utilities until the year 2000

  15. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author)

  16. Development of organic storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic Storage System is designed to absorb the massive data flow with low TCO. The system scales unlimitedly to store the data that keeps growing, and undergoes metabolic change to provide data longevity. Its high-data-mobility feature enables quick replication and migration for disaster recovery and self-healing. (author)

  17. REMOTE VIRTUAL THE DATA STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra Gustriansyah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all computer users know Windows Explorer. With the windows explorer, a user could do the operation file/directory, such as seeing the structure of the hierarchy from the directory, copied some files et cetera. In other words, a window explorer had file manager facilities. This research will discuss the development of the application of the data storage based on web that had file manager facilities (remote virtual the data storage with the previleges. This research could be applied for the management of the lectures data in the class or in the computer laboratory of a institution. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Hampir setiap pengguna komputer mengenal Windows Explorer. Karena dengan Windows Explorer, user dapat melakukan operasi file/direktori, seperti melihat struktur hirarki dari direktori, menyalin file dan lain sebagainya. Dengan kata lain, window explorer memiliki fasilitas pengaturan file (file manager. Penelitian ini akan membahas pembangunan aplikasi penyimpanan data berbasis web yang mempunyai fasilitas pengaturan file (remote virtual the data storage dengan hak akses yang berbeda (previleges. Penelitian ini dapat diimplementasikan untuk manajemen data perkuliahan di kelas maupun di laboratorium komputer suatu perguruan tinggi. Kata kunci: remote virtual the data storage, file manager, web, NAS.

  18. Topic in Depth - Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even as home computers are being equipped with hard drives more massive than most users need, the scientific community faces challenges of inadequate data storage systems. Research experiments can produce unimaginable amounts of information, and computer scientists are working on ways to manage it.

  19. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  20. Internal targets in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While fixed-target experiments in storage rings were suggested more than twenty-five years ago, little work has been done and virtually none in this country although interest seems to be growing. We survey the advantages, limitations and possibilities. Luminosities of L ? 1033cm-2s-1 for electrons up to 15 GeV should be achievable now with the PEP storage ring at SLAC with good beam lifetime and emittance for target thicknesses n/sub t/ ? 1015/cm2. This is thin but ideal for optically pumped, polarized gas targets. Providing longitudinally polarized beams at such targets would provide a unique facility for high luminosity polarized e/sub +-/ + polarized ?, polarized e/sub +-/ + polarized A and polarized ? + polarized A experiments. Other possibilities include the production of both external and internal beams for basic and applied science. Multiple bypass insertions are considered for thicker targets as well as production and storage of exotic, short-lived beams or for production of photon beams with undulators. The related question of multi-turn injection and extraction is also considered in such a context. Several systematic machine physics studies are suggested, e.g., ion-induced, multi-bunch instabilities with e/sub +-/ beams. The SLAC storage ring PEP is used as an example because it is ideal for simultaneous production of internal target, external target and colliding beam luminosities. The differences between electrons and heavier particles such as protons, antiprotons or heavy ions are discussed where possible

  1. Subseabed storage of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The subject of the storage of nuclear wastes products incites emotional responses from the public, and thus the U.S. Subseabed Disposal Program will have to make a good case for waste storage beneath the ocean floor. The facts attendant, however, describe circumstances necessitating cool-headed analysis to achieve a solution to the growing nuclear waste problem. Emotion aside, a good case indeed is being made for safe disposal beneath the ocean floor.The problems of nuclear waste storage are acute. A year ago, U.S. military weapons production had accumulated over seventy-five million gallons of high-level radioactive liquid waste; solid wastes, such as spent nuclear fuel rods from reactors, amounted to more than 12,000 tons. These wastes are corrosive and will release heat for 1000 years or more. The wastes will remain dangerously radioactive for a period of 10,000 years. There are advantages in storing the wastes on land, in special underground repositories, or on the surface. These include the accessibility to monitor the waste and the possibility of taking action should a container rupture occur, and thus the major efforts to determine suitable disposal at this time are focused on land-based storage. New efforts, not to be confused with ocean dumping practices of the past, are demonstrating that waste containers isolated in the clays and sediments of the ocean floor may be superior (Environ. Sci. Tech., 16, 28A-37A 1982).

  2. X-ray storage phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, J. M.; Hangleiter, Th; Koschnick, F. K.; Pawlik, Th

    In X-ray storage phosphors an image is formed and stored by generation of room temperature stable radiation-induced electron and hole trap centres. The image is read-out by recording a photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) from a doped activator, generally stimulating the electron trap centres. The best-known and hitherto most efficient X-ray storage phosphor is BaFBr:EuZ+. However, the exact mechanism of its functioning is not yet understood. The present discussion of the storage and read-out mechanisms is critically reviewed. New results about the role of oxygen Contamination of BaFBr:Eu2+ are presented: if there is much less oxygen present than Edc, then the PSL efficiency decreases and the stimulation energy increases. A new efficient X-ray storage phosphor is presented: Cs2NaYF6 doped with trivalent rare earth activators. Its properties are described and preliminary results on X-radiation-induced radiation damage centres in undoped Cs2NaYF6 are presented.

  3. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  4. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  5. Krypton-85 removal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey was made in order to predict the atmospheric Kr-85 concentration in the future and it s effect on the population. As a consequence the need for its treatment and removal as a previous step to gaseous waste disposal is justified. A literature review of possible methods of Kr-85 removal and storage is also included. (Author) 43 refs

  6. Above- and underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage tanks are the primary means of storing liquid, fluid and gas products. Federal and state environmental regulations, as well as local building and fire codes, take into account leaks and spills, tank emissions, underground tank seepage and safety issues, and they define standards for tank manufacturers and owners. For specific regulatory information pertaining to your application, contact the local authorities having jurisdiction. Storage tanks listed within this product guide have been classified as underground or aboveground, with subcategories including modular, process and temporary tanks. Tank construction materials include aluminum, carbon steel, concrete, fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and stainless steel. A variety of accessories, including automatic tank gauging systems, level monitors, leak detectors, overfill protection and tank inspection systems, also are listed. Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have less than 10 percent of their tank volume and piping below ground. Available in both vertical and horizontal configurations, they can be either erected in the field or fabricated in a factory. Underground storage tanks (USTs) are primarily used to contain regulated substances; USTs have at least 10% of their tank volume and piping buried belowground. Common UST construction materials include carbon steel, coated steel, cathodically protected steel and FRP. USTs are required to have corrosion protection, spill and overfill prevention and control anill and overfill prevention and control and release detection in place by December 1998

  7. Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehnel Susanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropical caecilian amphibians. Findings In the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, aggregated sperm were present in a distinct region of the posterior oviduct but not in the cloaca in six out of seven vitellogenic females prior to oviposition. Spermatozoa were found most abundantly between the mucosal folds. In relation to the reproductive status decreased amounts of sperm were present in gravid females compared to pre-ovulatory females. Sperm were absent in females past oviposition. Conclusions Our findings indicate short-term oviductal sperm storage in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. We assume that in female caecilians exhibiting high levels of parental investment sperm storage has evolved in order to optimally coordinate reproductive events and to increase fitness.

  8. CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

  9. Information Support for Storage Decommission

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Decision - Making Information Support of Territory Remediation in the Course of Decommissioning Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Sites in the Northwestern Region of Russia. Elaboration of an Environmental Monitoring System for Enterprises Involved in Treating and Storing Low- and Intermediate- Radioactive Wastes in the Region

  10. Reversible storage of boron acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the reversible storage of boron acid with a strong basic ion exchanger were investigated. For high and low pressure systems the operating costs were compared with a fractional destillation un unit of a PWR. A procedure for the determination of the actual boron concentration of the primary water is described, basing on the neutron absorption. (orig.)

  11. Radioimmunoassay of ''free thyroxin'' in dried blood spots on filter paper - preliminary observations on the effective differentiation of subjects with congenital hypothyroidism from those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin and normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this sensitive, simple method for measuring ''free thyroxin'' (FT4) in eluates of dried blood spots on filter paper by use of a radioimmunoassay kit (Amerlex Free T4 RIA), the measurable range of FT4 is 1.8 to 57 ng/L (equivalent to the concentration in serum), or 7 to 237 fg/tube. The mean coefficients of variation for within assay-within spots, within assay-between spots, and between assays were 5.3%, 5.0%, and 6.2%, respectively. FT4 in blood spotted on filter paper is stable for at least a month when dried and kept at either -200C, 40C, room temperature (about 250C), or 370C. The results for FT4 in dried blood spots correlated closely with the free-T4 concentration in serum (r = 0.99). The method can be used to differentiate cases of primary and secondary hypothyroidism from normal subjects and those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin. This method may be useful in screening for congenital hypothyroidism, because sample-retesting is not necessary

  12. Physical and meiotic mapping of the region of human chromosome 4q11-q13 encompassing the vitamin D binding protein DBP/Gc-globulin and albumin multigene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y H; Naumova, A K; Liebhaber, S A; Cooke, N E

    1999-06-01

    The vitamin D binding protein/Gc-globulin (DBP) gene is a member of a multigene cluster that includes albumin (ALB), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and alpha-albumin/afamin (AFM). All four genes have structural and functional similarities and map to the same chromosomal regions in humans (4q11-q13), mice, and rats. An accurate physical map of the region encompassing these genes is a prerequisite for study of their respective transcriptional regulation and identification of potential shared regulatory elements. By refining the physical and meiotic maps of the 4q11-q13 region and creating a local PAC contig, the order and transcriptional orientations of these four genes were determined to be centromere-3'-DBP-5'-5'-ALB-3'-5'-AFP-3'-5'-AFM3'-telomere. The ancestral DBP gene was separated from the ALB gene by >1.5 Mb. This organization and spacing establishes a foundation for ongoing functional studies in this region. PMID:10400926

  13. Net biosynthesis of Antithrombin III by the isolated rat liver perfused for 12--24 hours. Compared with rat fibrinogen and. cap alpha. -2 (acute phase) globulin, Antithrombin III is not an acute phase protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, M.R.; Miller, L.L.

    1978-01-01

    Antithrombin III- heparin cofactor has been isolated from normal rat plasma, purified to homogeniety on acrylamide gel electrophoresis and used to prepare a monospecific antiserum in rabbits. Measurements of rat AT-III were made by a single radial immunodiffusion assay. Net synthesis of AT-III was investigated during 12 or 24 hour perfusions of the isolated rat liver. In perfusions performed under basal conditions cumulative synthesis of AT-III was observed to occur at a rate sufficient to replace the total circulating plasma AT-III in about 6 hours. In perfusions performed under full supplementation conditions which greatly enhanced synthesis of fibrinogen and ..cap alpha..-2 (acute phase) globulin (known acute phase reactant proteins) net synthesis of AT-III was not significantly greater than that observed in control perfusions. Although these prolonged perfusion studies conclusively demonstrate net synthesis of AT-III by the isolated rat liver, they afford no evidence that this protein is an acute phase reactant.

  14. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tibe separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with container fluxes to sodium waste treatment cell: it was decided to initially fill the containers (packaging phase) with dry air (dew point less than -10 deg C) whatever are the sodium waste types, because any gas in the container is rapidly and totally dried by sodium itself. Then, renewal of gas in the containers will be done with dry argon (storage phase), except for sodium film residues (dry air filling). On site feedback experience will confirm the efficiency of these recent rules which have to be adapted to each specific case (sodium waste type, containers) and which can evolve with on site feedback experience. (author)

  15. INTEGRATED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride makes it difficult to remove the heat of reaction, especially in the relatively short target refueling times, see Attachment 3. This document describes a detailed numerical model for general metal hydride beds that couples reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer, for both hydriding and dehydriding of the bed. The detailed model is part of a comprehensive methodology for the design, evaluation and modification of hydrogen storage systems. In Hardy [2007], scoping models for reaction kinetics, bed geometry and heat removal parameters are discussed. The scoping models are used to perform a quick assessment of storage systems and identify those which have the potential to meet DOE performance targets. The operational characteristics of successful candidate systems are then evaluated with the more detailed models discussed in this document. The detailed analysis for hydrogen storage systems is modeled in either 2 or 3-dimensions, via the general purpose finite element solver COMSOL Multiphysics{reg_sign}. The two-dimensional model serves to provide rapid evaluation of bed configurations and physical processes, while the three-dimensional model, which requires a much longer run time, is used to investigate detailed effects that do not readily lend themselves to two-dimensional representations. The model is general and can be adapted to any geometry or storage media. In this document, the model is applied to a modified cylindrical shell and tube geometry with radial fins perpendicular to the axis, see Figures 4.1-1 and 4.1-2. Sodium alanate, NaAlH{sub 4}, is used as the hydrogen storage medium. The model can be run on any DOS, LINUX or Unix based system.

  16. Storage of hemopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamphilon Derwood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autologous, and in some cases allogeneic, hemopoietic stem cells (HSC are stored for varying periods of time prior to infusion. For periods of greater than 48 h, storage requires cryopreservation. It is essential to optimize cell storage and ensure the quality of the product for subsequent reinfusion. Methods: A number of important variables may affect the subsequent quality of infused HSC and therapeutic cells (TC. This review discusses these and also reviews the regulatory framework that now aims to ensure the quality of stem cells and TC for transplantation. Results: Important variables included cell concentration, temperature, interval from collection to cryopreservation, manipulations performed. They also included rate of freezing and whether controlled-rate freezing was employed. Parameters studied were type of cryoprotectant utilized [dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO is most commonly used, sometimes in combination with hydroxyethyl starch (HES]; and storage conditions. It is also important to assess the quality of stored stem cells. Measurements employed included the total cell count (TNC, mononuclear cell count (MNC, CD34+ cells and colony-forming units - granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM. Of these, TNC and CD34+ are the most useful. However, the best measure of the quality of stored stem cells is their subsequent engraftment. The quality systems used in stem cell laboratories are described in the guidance of the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT (Europe and the EBMT (JACIE and the EU Directive on Tissues and Cells plus its supporting commission directives. Inspections of facilities are carried out by the appropriate national agencies and JACIE. Conclusion: For high-quality storage of HSC and TC, processing facilities should use validated procedures that take into account critical variables. The quality of all products must be assessed before and after storage.

  17. Post regulation circuit with energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply and provides energy storage. The charge regulation circuit according to the present invention provides energy storage without unnecessary dissipation of energy through a resistor as in prior art approaches.

  18. Energy conservation through energy storage [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R&D programme Efficient Energy End-Use Technologies contains 14 different Implementing Agreements (IAs) of which one is the IA on energy storage (Energy Conservation through Energy Storage : ECES IA)

  19. Radiological dose assessment for vault storage concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-02-25

    This radiological dose assessment presents neutron and photon dose rates in support of project W-460. Dose rates are provided for a single 3013 container, the ``infloor`` storage vault concept, and the ``cubicle`` storage vault concept.

  20. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility