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1

Proteinase A, a storage-globulin-degrading endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds, is not involved in early steps of storage-protein mobilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase A is a papain-like cysteine endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) which was assumed to initiate storage-globulin breakdown just after the onset of seed germination. This enzyme was purified from cotyledons of vetch seedlings. On gelatin-containg SDS gels, active proteinase A migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 21 kDa, whereas after heat denaturation its molecular size on SDS/PAGE was 29 kDa. Although proteinase A is capable of hydrolyzing storage globulins in vitro it could not be localized in the protein-body fraction of cotyledons from germinating seeds. cDNA clones encoding proteinase A precursor have been obtained by PCR. The precursor is composed of an N-terminal signal sequence followed by a propeptide, the region encoding mature proteinase A, and a C-terminal KDEL sequence. Mature proteinase A with a derived molecular mass of 25,244 Da does not have the KDEL sequence. The derived amino acid sequence of the proteinase A precursor is 78.2% identical to sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (SH-EP), a cysteine endopeptidase from germinating Vigna mungo seedlings. Northern blot analysis indicated that proteinase A mRNA appears de novo in cotyledons of 1-day-germinated vetch seeds, where its amount increases up to day 6. No proteinase A mRNA was detected in other vetch organs, not even in the embryo axis, which contains stored globulins. By means of antibodies raised against the purified and against recombinantly produced proteinase A, the 29-kDa bands of mature proteinase A were detected in cotyledon extracts of 6-day-germinated seeds when globulin degradation has already far proceeded. The reported data do not agree with the proposed triggering role of proteinase A in storage-globulin breakdown during germination. PMID:9346282

Becker, C; Senyuk, V I; Shutov, A D; Nong, V H; Fischer, J; Horstmann, C; Müntz, K

1997-09-01

2

Conserved globulin gene across eight grass genomes identify fundamental units of the loci encoding seed storage proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins are important seed storage proteins that determine bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, detailed comparative sequence analyses of large orthologous HMW glutenin genomic regions from eight grass species, representing a wide evolutionary history of grass genomes, reveal a number of lineage-specific sequence changes. These lineage-specific changes, which resulted in duplications, insertions, and deletions of genes, are the major forces disrupting gene colinearity among grass genomes. Our results indicate that the presence of the HMW glutenin gene in Triticeae genomes was caused by lineage-specific duplication of a globulin gene. This tandem duplication event is shared by Brachypodium and Triticeae genomes, but is absent in rice, maize, and sorghum, suggesting the duplication occurred after Brachypodium and Triticeae genomes diverged from the other grasses ~35 Ma ago. Aside from their physical location in tandem, the sequence similarity, expression pattern, and conserved cis-acting elements responsible for endosperm-specific expression further support the paralogous relationship between the HMW glutenin and globulin genes. While the duplicated copy in Brachypodium has apparently become nonfunctional, the duplicated copy in wheat has evolved to become the HMW glutenin gene by gaining a central prolamin repetitive domain.

Gu YQ; Wanjugi H; Coleman-Derr D; Kong X; Anderson OD

2010-03-01

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Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s) encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

Loit Evelin; Melnyk Charles W; MacFarlane Amanda J; Scott Fraser W; Altosaar Illimar

2009-01-01

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Conserved globulin gene across eight grass genomes identify fundamental units of the loci encoding seed storage proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

The wheat high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins are important seed storage proteins that determine bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, detailed comparative sequence analyses of large orthologous HMW-glutenin genomic regions from eight grass species, represent...

5

The molecular biology and biochemistry of rice endosperm ?-globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author's first objective was to isolate a cDNA clone that encodes the rice endosperm ?-globulin. Purified antibodies against a rice storage protein, ?-globulin, were used to screen a ?gt11 cDNA expression library constructed from immature rice seed endosperm. The cDNA insert of clone 4A1 (identified by antibody screening) was used as a probe to identify long cDNA inserts in the library. The deduced amino acid sequence of clone A3-12 cDNA insert (identified by cDNA screening) contained the amino acid sequences of three cyanogen bromide peptides fragment of ?-globulin. The calculated molecular weight and amino acid composition of the deduced amino acid sequence were similar to the ?-globulin protein. Northern blot analysis indicated that mRNA of one size, approximately 1.0 kb, is expressed. Southern genomic blot analysis revealed one band with EcoRI or Hind III digestion. Cell-free translation and immunoprecipitation showed that the initial translation product is approximately 2,000 daltons larger than the mature protein. The amino acid sequence of ?-globulin revealed limited regions of similarities with wheat storage proteins. The author concludes that the cDNA insert in clone A3-12 contained the entire coding region of ?-globulin protein and that ?-globulin is encoded by a single gene. My second objective was to inhibit the degradation of ?-globulin in the salt extract of rice flour. The salt extract of rice flour contained an acid protease whose optimal pH was 3 for 3H-casein hydrolysis. A polypeptide with molecular weight of 20,000 was immunologically reactive with ?-globulin antibodies and is produced by limited proteolysis in the extract. Pepstatin inhibited the proteolysis of 3H-casein and slowed the proteolysis of ?-globulin

1989-01-01

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Comparative study on the proteolytic activities and storage globulins in seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spreng) Schum and Theobroma bicolor Humb Bonpl, in relation to their potential to generate chocolate-like aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cocoa relatives T grandiflorum (cupuacu) and T bicolor (macambo) are promising crop plants for sustainable agroforestry in the Amazon region of South America. The market for cupuacu is expanding since the fruit flesh is utilised by the foodstuffs industry. Attempts to commercialise chocolate-like wares from the seeds have failed so far because of unreliable product quality. It is not known whether this is due to an insufficient aroma potential of cupuacu seeds. We therefore investigated the proteolytic enzymes and the seed storage globulins which are both decisive for the formation of aroma precursors in cocoa. We found that the activities of the aspartic endopeptidase and the carboxypeptidase in T bicolor and T grandiflorum differed slightly from those in cocoa. The specificity of the carboxypeptidase for hydrophobic amino acids was quite similar across the three species, while the optimal pH of the T grandiflorum enzyme was lower than that of the other species. The qualitative and quantitative differences between the globulins indicate a lower maximum yield of aroma precursors in T grandiflorum and a higher maximum yield of aroma precursors in T bicolor, compared to cocoa. We conclude that the quality of chocolate-like products made from the studied cocoa relatives can be improved by adapting fermentation procedures to particular biochemical features of these seeds.

Reisdorff C; Rohsius C; Souza AdasGCde; Gasparotto L; Lieberei R

2004-05-01

7

Crystal structure of soybean 11S globulin: Glycinin A3B4 homohexamer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most plant seeds contain 11S globulins as major storage proteins for their nutrition. Soybean glycinin belongs to the 11S globulin family and consists of five kinds of subunits. We determined the crystal structure of a homohexamer of the glycinin A3B4 subunit at 2.1-Å resolution. The crystal stru...

Adachi, Motoyasu; Kanamori, Jiro; Masuda, Taro; Yagasaki, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Keisuke; Mikami, Bunzo; Utsumi, Shigeru

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Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by (more) immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

Sales, M.P.; Pimenta, P.P.; Paes, N.S.; Grossi-de-Sá, M.F.; Xavier-Filho, J.

2001-01-01

9

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

M.P. Sales; P.P. Pimenta; N.S. Paes; M.F. Grossi-de-Sá; J. Xavier-Filho

2001-01-01

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Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

Sales MP; Pimenta PP; Paes NS; Grossi-de-Sá MF; Xavier-Filho J

2001-01-01

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Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae. PMID:11151025

Sales, M P; Pimenta, P P; Paes, N S; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Xavier-Filho, J

2001-01-01

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Purification of equine Gc-globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation, shock and death in human patients with massive actin release caused by severe tissue injuries like physical trauma, sepsis, endotoxemia, or liver failure. Gc-globulin is consumed in this process, and the plasma concentration of free Gc-globulin hence decreases rapidly after tissue injury and has shown to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration of Gc-globulin in colic horses with intestinal ischemia were Gc-globulin might be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Horses with intestinal ischemia often die, despite of expensive surgical treatment, because of endotoxemia and shock, therefore these horses potentially could benefit from Gc-globulin infusions.

Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg

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Purification of equine Gc-globulin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and preparat...

Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe Tange

14

Structural modifications of an Amaranth globulin induced by pH and NaCl.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of pH and NaCl on the structure of globulin-P, the polymerizable amaranth 11S type globulin, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, gel filtration, and gradient sedimentation. At micro = 0.54, the protein is stable for pH ranging from 5 to 9 but becomes rapidly unfolded as pH decreases below 5. For pH values above 9, globulin-P denatures more gradually than in acidic medium, and it also dissociates into subunits, which are possibly less thermostable. At pH 6.5 or 8.5 and low sodium chloride concentrations (micro less than or equal to 0.01), dialyzed globulin-P destabilizes, yielding species of lower thermal stability. The increase in NaCl concentration up to 0.1 M induces folding of globulin-P toward a more stable structure. Above 0.1 M NaCl, increasing the ionic strength up to micro = 0.5 elevates the denaturation temperature (Td) and denaturation enthalpy (deltaH). From micro = 0.1 to 0.5 the content of soluble globulin-P polymers decreases, possibly owing to protein insolubilization. Above 0.5 M, NaCl shows a stabilizing effect reflected by increasing Td, whereas deltaH stays constant; this effect is similar to that found by other authors in some storage proteins.

Castellani OF; Martinez EN; Anon MC

1998-12-01

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Successful transport to the vacuole of heterologously expressed mung bean 8S globulin occurs in seed but not in vegetative tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the subcellular location of mung bean (Vigna radiata) 8S globulin in transient expression systems as well as in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and different tissues from a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) line stably expressing this storage globulin. When transiently expressed in protoplasts from both BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells, the 8S globulin located to structures that were neither Golgi nor pre-vacuolar compartments (PVCs). Immunogold electron microscopy of the transgenics reveals the 8S globulin-positive structures to be small, spherical, ribosome-covered endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived bodies. In BY-2 cells and all vegetative cells, the 8S globulin was present as a pro-form. However, in Arabidopsis embryos, with the onset of endogenous storage protein synthesis, the 8S globulin exited the ER and passed through the PVC to the protein storage vacuole where it was processed to its smaller mature form. These results clearly demonstrated that, when taken out of context and expressed in vegetative cells, the mung bean 8S storage globulin cannot exit the ER, and indicate that natural targeting of storage proteins to the vacuole should be better studied in the maturing seed. PMID:23382549

Wang, Junqi; Shen, Jinbo; Cai, Yi; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

2013-02-04

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Successful transport to the vacuole of heterologously expressed mung bean 8S globulin occurs in seed but not in vegetative tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the subcellular location of mung bean (Vigna radiata) 8S globulin in transient expression systems as well as in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and different tissues from a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) line stably expressing this storage globulin. When transiently expressed in protoplasts from both BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells, the 8S globulin located to structures that were neither Golgi nor pre-vacuolar compartments (PVCs). Immunogold electron microscopy of the transgenics reveals the 8S globulin-positive structures to be small, spherical, ribosome-covered endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived bodies. In BY-2 cells and all vegetative cells, the 8S globulin was present as a pro-form. However, in Arabidopsis embryos, with the onset of endogenous storage protein synthesis, the 8S globulin exited the ER and passed through the PVC to the protein storage vacuole where it was processed to its smaller mature form. These results clearly demonstrated that, when taken out of context and expressed in vegetative cells, the mung bean 8S storage globulin cannot exit the ER, and indicate that natural targeting of storage proteins to the vacuole should be better studied in the maturing seed.

Wang J; Shen J; Cai Y; Robinson DG; Jiang L

2013-04-01

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FDA Workshop: Immune Globulins for Primary Immune ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... haven't had their antibody for a while. You know Bob Good used to say that you could always tell when they needed their gamma globulin because ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents

18

Quaternary structure and model for the oligomeric seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus K343.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the use of electron microscopy and computer image analysis techniques, it was demonstrated that the seed storage globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus exists as a dodecameric structure with its constituent subunits arranged into two annular hexagonal rings placed parallel to one another, resulting in a hollow oblate cylinder. These findings would suggest that seed storage proteins from leguminous and nonleguminous dicotyledonous plant classes such as from the Amaranthus family have similar overall quaternary structures.

Marcone MF; Beniac DR; Harauz G; Yada RY

1994-12-01

19

Serum globulins and infection in mongolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparisons are made between a large group of mongols cared for in institutions and their carefully matched controls in respect of (a) serum levels of immuno-gamma-globulin (gammaA, gammaG, and gammaM) and (b) the incidence of pyrexial illnesses over a retrospective five-year period. Male mongols are found to have higher levels of gammaA-globulin than their male controls and a higher incidence of pyrexial illnesses. Otherwise no significant differences were found. The findings are discussed in the light of previous studies.

Griffiths AW; Sylvester PE; Baylis EM

1969-01-01

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THE COLLOIDAL BEHAVIOR OF SERUM GLOBULIN  

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1. The globulin prepared from ox serum by dilution and precipitation with carbon dioxide has been found, by electrometric titration experiments, to behave like an amphoteric electrolyte, reacting stoichiometrically with acids and bases. 2. The potential difference developed between a solution of gl...

Hitchcock, David I.

 
 
 
 
21

Comparative effects of limited tryptic hydrolysis on physicochemical and structural features of seed 11S globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the limited proteolysis by trypsin on selected seed storage 11S globulins (broad bean and pea legumins, glycinin and helianthinin) was studied by high-sensitive differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy and analysis of proteolysis kinetics. Different behaviour of glycinin and helianthinin, on one hand, and broad bean and pea legumins, on the other, were observed: in the first group changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the proteins due to their limited proteolysis are more pronounced in comparison with the second one, in relation with the extent of primary structure modifications. The differences observed have been evaluated in relation with the amino acid sequence features of the four 11S globulin studied and agree with the literature data concerning the protein structural changes in the course of the limited proteolysis. PMID:16787660

Braudo, E E; Danilenko, A N; Guslyannikov, P V; Kozhevnikov, G O; Artykova, G P; Lapteva, N A; Vaintraub, I A; Sironi, E; Duranti, M

2006-06-19

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GAMMA GLOBULIN METABOLISM IN RABBITS DURING THE ANAMNESTIC RESPONSE.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Gamma globulin metabolism and distribution were studied employing rabbit gamma globulin (RGG)I(131) 24 times in 13 control rabbits. Similar studies were performed before and during the ananmestic response in 4 rabbits previously sensitized with a polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine. 2. During the ananmestic response, gamma-globulin levels increased from 1.0 to 6.0 gm/100 ml, and the gamma-globulin pool increased from 0.7 to 4.7 gm/kg. There was no change in the intravascular-extravascular partition of gamma globulin. 3. Gamma globulin degradation increased from 0.06 to 0.33 gm/kg/day during the 28 days of the immunization period while gamma globulin synthesis increased even further to average 0.47 gm/kg/day. Following the attainment of elevated gamma globulin levels the fractional rate of RGG-I(131) turnover increased from 8.0 to 12.5 per cent/day. 4. No differences were noted in the metabolism of homologous or autologous gamma globulin regardless of the allotypic specificities.

CATSOULIS EA; FRANKLIN EC; ORATZ M; ROTHSCHILD MA

1964-04-01

23

Thermal properties of globulin from rice (Oryza sativa) seeds  

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The thermal properties of rice (Oryza sativa) seed globulin were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under the influence of various medium conditions. The denaturation temperatures (T d) of crude and purified rice globulin were 97.6 and 98.5°C, respectively. Increasing salt concentrat...

Ellepola, SW; Ma, CY

24

Amaranth globulin structure modifications induced by enzymatic proteolysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Globulin-P was partially hydrolyzed with papain under specific conditions to study the resulting structural modifications. Under mild hydrolytic conditions, globulin-P polymers were cleaved to render their unitary constituents (280 kDa molecules). Under stronger hydrolytic conditions these unitary molecules were 13% smaller than those from nonhydrolyzed globulin. Moreover, these molecules remained assembled even though they contained degraded polypeptides. The monomeric (M) subunit and the A chains were preferentially cleaved under mild and intermediate hydrolytic conditions, whereas B chains remained with the same size. These results suggest that the M and A polypeptides might be located at an exposed site of the molecules resembling the structure of the legumins. The M subunit may be participating in the stabilization of globulin-P polymers, on the basis that these two species disappeared under the same hydrolytic conditions. Similar events such as those described in this paper might be taking place on globulin-P during germination of amaranth grain.

Castellani OF; Martínez EN; Añón MC

2000-11-01

25

[Level of viral antibodies in normal and specific swine and bovine gamma globulin preparations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studied were 15 series of normal bovine gamma-globulin, 5 series of normal swine gamma-globulin, 7 series of Aujeszky gamma-globulin, 6 series of specific gamma-globulin against edema disease of pigs, 4 series of specific gamma-globulin against paratyphus, 5 series of Mixoglobulin-70, and one series of swine poly-globulin. All series of gamma-globulin preparations were studied for the presence of antibodies against Mixovirus parainfluenza-3 through the hemagglutinationinhibition reaction, antibodies against adenoviruses through the precipitation reaction in agar gel, and antibodies against the virus of Aujeszky's disease through the virus-neutralization reaction in tissue cultures.

Iotov M; Simeonov S; Evtimov M; Vasilev V

1975-01-01

26

[Level of viral antibodies in normal and specific swine and bovine gamma globulin preparations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied were 15 series of normal bovine gamma-globulin, 5 series of normal swine gamma-globulin, 7 series of Aujeszky gamma-globulin, 6 series of specific gamma-globulin against edema disease of pigs, 4 series of specific gamma-globulin against paratyphus, 5 series of Mixoglobulin-70, and one series of swine poly-globulin. All series of gamma-globulin preparations were studied for the presence of antibodies against Mixovirus parainfluenza-3 through the hemagglutinationinhibition reaction, antibodies against adenoviruses through the precipitation reaction in agar gel, and antibodies against the virus of Aujeszky's disease through the virus-neutralization reaction in tissue cultures. PMID:58467

Iotov, M; Simeonov, S; Evtimov, M; Vasilev, V

1975-01-01

27

Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), BabyBIG  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionPage 1. STN125034 California Department of Health Services Botulism Immune Globulin (Human)(Intravenous) Page 1 Memorandum ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

28

A Vigna radiata 8S globulin ?' promoter drives efficient expression of GUS in Arabidopsis cotyledonary embryos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants are proven effective bioreactors for the production of heterologous proteins including those desired by the biopharmaceutical industry. However, the potential of plants as bioreactors is limited by the availability of characterized plant promoters that can drive target gene expression in relatively distant plant species. Seeds are ideal for protein storage because seed proteins can be kept stably for several months. Hence, a strong promoter that can direct the expression and accumulation of target proteins within seeds represents a powerful tool in plant biotechnology. Toward this end, an effort was made to identify such a promoter from Vigna radiata (mung bean) to drive expression in dicot seeds. A 784-bp 5'-flanking sequence of the gene encoding the 8S globulin ?' subunit (8SG?') of the V. radiata seed storage protein was isolated by genome walking. When the 5'-flanking region was analyzed with bioinformatics tools, numerous putative cis-elements were identified. The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) regulated by this promoter was observed to be transiently expressed in protoplasts derived from V. radiata cotyledons. Finally, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven from the 8S globulin ?' promoter showed strong GUS expression in transgenic embryos in both histochemical and quantitative GUS assays, confirming high expression within seeds. Therefore, the V. radiata 8S ?' promoter has shown potential in directing expression in seeds for bioreactor applications.

Chen MX; Yang YN; Zheng SX; Xu C; Wang Y; Liu JS; Yang WD; Chye ML; Li HY

2013-07-01

29

Sex hormone binding globulin and insulin resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein composed of two 373-amino-acid subunits. The SHBG gene and a promotor region have been identified. The SHBG receptor has yet to be cloned but is known to act through a G-protein-linked second-messenger system following plasma membrane binding. The principal function of SHBG has traditionally been considered to be that of a transport protein for sex steroids, regulating circulating concentrations of free (unbound) hormones and their transport to target tissues. Recent research suggests that SHBG has functions in addition to the binding and transport of sex steroids. Observational studies have associated a low SHBG concentration with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) independent of sex hormone levels in men and women. Genetic studies using Mendelian randomization analysis linking three single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SHBG gene to risk of developing type 2 DM suggest SHBG may have a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 DM. The correlation between SHBG and insulin resistance that is evident in a number of cross-sectional studies is in keeping with the suggestion that the association between SHBG and incidence of type 2 DM is explained by insulin resistance. Several potential mechanisms may account for this association, including the identification of dietary factors that influence SHBG gene transcription. Further research to characterize the SHBG-receptor and the SHBG second messenger system is required. An interventional study examining the effects on insulin resistance of altering SHBG concentrations may help in determining whether this association is causal. PMID:23121642

Wallace, Ian R; McKinley, Michelle C; Bell, Patrick M; Hunter, Steven J

2013-03-01

30

Sex hormone binding globulin and insulin resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein composed of two 373-amino-acid subunits. The SHBG gene and a promotor region have been identified. The SHBG receptor has yet to be cloned but is known to act through a G-protein-linked second-messenger system following plasma membrane binding. The principal function of SHBG has traditionally been considered to be that of a transport protein for sex steroids, regulating circulating concentrations of free (unbound) hormones and their transport to target tissues. Recent research suggests that SHBG has functions in addition to the binding and transport of sex steroids. Observational studies have associated a low SHBG concentration with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) independent of sex hormone levels in men and women. Genetic studies using Mendelian randomization analysis linking three single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SHBG gene to risk of developing type 2 DM suggest SHBG may have a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 DM. The correlation between SHBG and insulin resistance that is evident in a number of cross-sectional studies is in keeping with the suggestion that the association between SHBG and incidence of type 2 DM is explained by insulin resistance. Several potential mechanisms may account for this association, including the identification of dietary factors that influence SHBG gene transcription. Further research to characterize the SHBG-receptor and the SHBG second messenger system is required. An interventional study examining the effects on insulin resistance of altering SHBG concentrations may help in determining whether this association is causal.

Wallace IR; McKinley MC; Bell PM; Hunter SJ

2013-03-01

31

Myocardial infarction associated with intravenous immune globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of acute myocardial infarction (MI) experienced by a patient receiving intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and review other published cases of MI associated with IVIG. CASE SUMMARY: An 81-year-old Vietnamese man was prescribed IVIG for treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis secondary to allopurinol. Thirty minutes following the start of the IVIG infusion, the patient developed crushing retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breath. The pain improved upon discontinuation of IVIG infusion but recurred when IVIG was restarted. The troponin level reached 140 microg/L, and a persantine sestamibi stress test (MIBI) indicated anterolateral ischemia. The patient was diagnos ed with non-ST-elevation MI. An objective causality assessment using the Naranjo probability scale revealed a probable association between this adverse reaction and IVIG treatment. DISCUSSION: Although an association between IVIG administration and MI has not been demonstrated in clinical trials, accumulating clinical experience suggests that a relationship between IVIG and myocardial ischemia exists. Twenty published case reports were identified. Risk of acute MI seems to be increased with use of high-dose IVIG and in older individuals, especially those with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, such as ischemic heart disease or hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Case reports suggest a causal relationship between the use of IVIG and MI and other thrombotic events. While cardiovascular disease is not considered an absolute contraindication to therapy, expanding indications and subsequent use of IVIG merit that clinicians be aware of patient characteristics that may increase the risk for adverse reactions and recognize early signs of infarction.

Stenton SB; Dalen D; Wilbur K

2005-12-01

32

Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, ?-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for ?-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that ?-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements.

Czubinski J; Dwiecki K; Siger A; Neunert G; Lampart-Szczapa E

2014-01-01

33

Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, ?-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for ?-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that ?-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:24054261

Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

2013-08-11

34

An active role for steroid-binding globulins: an update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been 7 years (can it really be that long?) since we co-edited a volume (#38) of Hormone and Metabolic Research that focused on evidence that steroid-binding globulins play an active role in the actions of steroids. There has been considerable progress in identifying the location, the physiological actions, and of determining the role of binding globulins in the actions of steroids and identifying a membrane-associated receptor for a binding protein since then and this review will discuss this progress.

Caldwell JD; Jirikowski GF

2013-07-01

35

FRACTIONATION OF PLASMA GLOBULIN FOR PROTHROMBIN, THROMBOKINASE, AND ACCESSORY THROMBOPLASTIN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Crude globulin from more than 1,000 liters of citrated bovine plasma has been used in developing a procedure for moderately large scale separation of clotting factors. Fraction A, prothrombin, kinase, and thrombin fractions were prepared. Fraction A contained both kinase and accessory thrombopla...

Milstone, J. H.

36

Globulin gene expression in embryos of maize viviparous mutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Expression of genes encoding the major Zea mays embryo globulins was examined in the maize precocious germination viviparous (vp) mutants. Comparison of globulin protein profiles of precociously germinating mutant embryos with those of normally germinating mature embryos revealed substantial differences with respect to the proteins encoded by the Glb1 gene. Analysis of Glb1 transcript levels in vp/vp embryos suggests that these mutants do not fully switch from a program of embryo maturation to one of germination. These preliminary studies indicate that the vp mutants provide an excellent system for the study of embryo maturation in maize. We also provide evidence for the positive regulation of Glb1 expression by the plant growth regulator abscisic acid.

Kriz, A.R.; Wallace, M.S.; Paiva, R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-02-01

37

Intravenous gamma-globulin therapy in Diamond-Blackfan anemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare disorder of erythrocyte production which is believed to have an autoimmune basis in most cases. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is one type of congenital PRCA. Since PRCA has been reported to respond to intravenous gamma-globulin (IVGG) therapy, we administered IVGG to a 2 year old girl with DBA resistant to corticosteroids and observed slight therapeutic effect.

Sumimoto S; Kawai M; Kasajima Y; Hamamoto T

1992-04-01

38

Thyroid function tests in thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results are presented on two patients with complete and two with partial thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) deficiency. All four subjects had lowered serum thyroxine but were clinically euthyroid. While thyroid hormone uptake tests or TBG assay were effective in the recognition of such individuals, indices based on these tests were misleading in assessing their thyroid status. Results within the reference range were obtained with the Immophase Free Thyroxine assay. PMID:120131

Cusick, C F

1979-11-01

39

Thyroid function tests in thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results are presented on two patients with complete and two with partial thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) deficiency. All four subjects had lowered serum thyroxine but were clinically euthyroid. While thyroid hormone uptake tests or TBG assay were effective in the recognition of such individuals, indices based on these tests were misleading in assessing their thyroid status. Results within the reference range were obtained with the Immophase Free Thyroxine assay.

Cusick CF

1979-11-01

40

LENTIL TANNIN-GLOBULIN INTERACTIONAND AND IN VITRO HYDROLYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein fractions were isolated from lentil cotyledons and tannins were isolated and purified from lentil seed coats. The globulin fraction corresponded to 42.7% of the total lentil flour nitrogen, representing the major protein fraction. Acetone:water (7:3) was the best extractant for seed coat tannins compared to methanol or methanol-HCl 1%. Native and heated (99oC/15 min.) isolated lentil globulin and casein were hydrolyzed with trypsin and pepsin in the absence of tannins and at 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:2.5 tannin-to-protein ratios. The tryptic and peptic hydrolysis of the unheated proteins were reduced with increasing tannin-to-protein ratios. Unheated casein showed to be more susceptible to trypsin than globulin and the opposite effect was observed with pepsin. Heating followed by tannin interaction and hydrolysis had a more pronounced effect on tryptic than peptic digestion for both proteins.

NEVES Valdir A.; LOURENÇO Euclides J.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Simplified method for measuring sex-hormone binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We describe a simple, rapid method for measurement of sex-hormone binding globulin. Serial dilutions of pregnancy serum are prepared in serum from males that has been pre-treated by heating to 60 degrees C for 1 h to destroy endogenous binding globulin, which is then determined by a long-used technique to yield a set of ''standards.'' In the assay itself, a fixed amount of [3H]-labeled and unlabeled dihydrotestosterone is incubated with standard or unknown, and the bound fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate. A plot of percent of the steroid bound vs standard dilution yields a sigmoid curve, from which the results in unknowns can be read by simple extrapolation. Within-assay CVs for pools of serum from men, women, and women in late pregnancy were 6.56, 9.59, and 8.4%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for the same pools were 8.05, 9.5, and 11.5%, respectively. The correlation between results obtained by this method and those of the older technique was 0.95 for samples from non-pregnant subjects and 0.73 for those from pregnant women. Our procedure is simpler and faster than previous methods and accurately measures the differences in the globulin in sera from men, women, and pregnant women. Forty to 50 samples can be assayed in a working day

1981-01-01

42

Effect of storage time and temperature on the total protein concentration and electrophoretic fractions in equine serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) is a technique that could be considered one of the most useful diagnostic aids available to the clinician. The effect of storage time and temperature on the total proteins and electrophoretic fractions (albumin, ?1-, ?2-, ?1-, ?2-, and ?-globulins) was assessed in 24 healthy horses. All samples, collected by jugular vein puncture, were centrifuged and divided into 4 aliquots. The 1st aliquot was analyzed within 3 h from collection (time 0), the 2nd was refrigerated at +4°C for 24 h, the 3rd was refrigerated at +4°C for 48 h, and the last was frozen at -20°C for 48 h. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of the different storage conditions on the concentrations of all the parameters studied and significant variations in the percentages of albumin, ?1-globulins, ?2-globulins, and ?-globulins. Compared with time 0 the total protein concentration increased significantly after 48 h at -20°C, the albumin percentage decreased after 48 h at -20°C, the ?1-globulin percentage increased after 24 h at +4°C, the ?2-globulin percentage increased after 48 h at +4°C and at -20°C, and the ?-globulin percentage increased after 48 h at -20°C. The results should help veterinary practitioners handle and store equine serum samples appropriately. Further investigations at different storage times and temperatures could be useful. PMID:24124272

Alberghina, Daniela; Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Marafioti, Simona; Piccione, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

43

Analysis of Supply, Distribution, Demand, and Access Issues Associated with Immune Globulin Intravenous(IGIV).  

Science.gov (United States)

Immune globulin intravenous (IGIV), also referred to as intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), is a valuable treatment for many seriously ill patients. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not classified IGIV as being in shortage, some pa...

2007-01-01

44

Study of Thermal Aggregation of Oat Globulin by Laser Light Scattering  

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The heat-induced aggregation of oat globulin was studied using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) combined with on-line multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS). The unheated oat globulin exists as a mixture of hexamer (> 95%), trimer, and dimer forms of h...

Zhao, Y; Mine, Y; Ma, CY

45

Using changes in binding globulins to assess oral contraceptive compliance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Validity of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) clinical trial results depends on participant compliance. Ethinyl estradiol (EE2) induces increases in hepatic binding globulin (BG) levels. Measuring these BG increases may provide an effective and convenient approach to distinguish noncompliant from compliant OCP users in research settings. This analysis evaluated the usefulness of measuring increases in corticosteroid-, sex-hormone- and thyroxine-binding globulins (CBG, SHBG and TBG, respectively) as measures of OCP compliance. METHODS: We used frozen serum from a trial that compared ovarian suppression between normal-weight and obese women randomized to one of two OCPs containing EE2 and levonorgestrel (LNG). Based on serial LNG measurements during the trial, 17% of participants were noncompliant. We matched noncompliant participants with compliant participants by age, body mass index, ethnicity and OCP formulation. We measured CBG, SHBG and TBG levels and compared change from baseline to 3-month follow-up between the noncompliant and compliant participants. Construction of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves allowed comparison of various BG measures. RESULTS: Changes in CBG and TBG distinguished OCP noncompliant users from compliant users [area under the ROC curve (AUROC), 0.86 and 0.89, p<.01]. Changes in SHBG were less discriminating (AUROC 0.69) CONCLUSIONS: EE2-induced increases in CBG and TBG provide a sensitive integrated marker of compliance with an LNG-containing OCP.

Westhoff CL; Petrie KA; Cremers S

2013-02-01

46

Intravenous gamma globulin for thrombotic microangiopathy of unknown etiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We encountered the case of a 4-year-old boy with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) of unknown etiology. Verotoxin-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), Streptococcus-pneumoniae-related HUS, factor H deficiency, drug-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and ADAMTS13 (von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease; a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats)-related TTP were excluded. His condition was refractory to anticoagulants and plasma exchange, and his clinical course was catastrophic, with central nervous system symptoms and progressive renal failure. However, factual treatment of intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) ended the hemolysis and resulted in a rise in platelet count. He fully recovered except for end-stage renal failure, but he underwent a successful renal transplant after peritoneal dialysis. He has not suffered a relapse of TMA or an allograft rejection for 4 years. IVIG might be an option for some patients with TMA of unknown etiology refractory to conventional treatment.

Ito S; Okuyama K; Nakamura T; Tetanishi J; Saito K; Matsumoto M; Fujimura Y; Aihara Y; Yokota S

2007-02-01

47

[Obtaining the beta-globulin fractions from swine and cattle sera and a study of their immunological activity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rivanol precipitation was used to obtain beta-globulin fractions from specific swine sera against edema disease, paratyph and Aujeszky's disease as well as from normal ovine and swine sera. Agar electrophoresis revealed that the preparations produced contained beta-globulin (86 per cent), gamma-globulin (5 per cent), and alpha2-globulin (9 per cent). The beta-globulin preparations were studied for the presence of antibodies against E. coli, Salmonellae, staphylococci, myxovirus parainfluenza-3, adenoviruses, and the virus of Aujeszky's disease. The beta-globulin fraction of the specific serum against edema disease was shown to contain OK and O agglutinizing antibodies against E. coli, having a titer of up to 1:3200, and the gamma-globulin titers of up to 1:12800. The beta-globulin fraction of the specific serum against typhoid contained OH and O agglutinizing antibodies against Salmonella cholerae suis with a titer of up to 1:2560. The agglutinizing antibodies against staphylococci were twice as much in the beta-globulin fraction as compared with those in the gamma-globulin fraction. The antibodies against Aujeszky's disease and the adenoviruses in the beta-globulin fractions were in negligible amounts, and the titer of the antibodies against myxovirus parainfluenza-3 ranged from 1:128 to 1:512.

Evtimov M; Iotov M

1976-01-01

48

[Obtaining the beta-globulin fractions from swine and cattle sera and a study of their immunological activity].  

Science.gov (United States)

The rivanol precipitation was used to obtain beta-globulin fractions from specific swine sera against edema disease, paratyph and Aujeszky's disease as well as from normal ovine and swine sera. Agar electrophoresis revealed that the preparations produced contained beta-globulin (86 per cent), gamma-globulin (5 per cent), and alpha2-globulin (9 per cent). The beta-globulin preparations were studied for the presence of antibodies against E. coli, Salmonellae, staphylococci, myxovirus parainfluenza-3, adenoviruses, and the virus of Aujeszky's disease. The beta-globulin fraction of the specific serum against edema disease was shown to contain OK and O agglutinizing antibodies against E. coli, having a titer of up to 1:3200, and the gamma-globulin titers of up to 1:12800. The beta-globulin fraction of the specific serum against typhoid contained OH and O agglutinizing antibodies against Salmonella cholerae suis with a titer of up to 1:2560. The agglutinizing antibodies against staphylococci were twice as much in the beta-globulin fraction as compared with those in the gamma-globulin fraction. The antibodies against Aujeszky's disease and the adenoviruses in the beta-globulin fractions were in negligible amounts, and the titer of the antibodies against myxovirus parainfluenza-3 ranged from 1:128 to 1:512. PMID:176771

Evtimov, M; Iotov, M

1976-01-01

49

Resolution of hydrops secondary to cytomegalovirus after maternal and fetal treatment with human cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common infection with limited treatment options. Vertical transmission can lead to fetal death or long-term neurologic injury. We present a case wherein fetal hydrops resolved after maternal and fetal intravenous administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin. CASE: A 20-year-old gravida 3, para 0 was referred for Level II ultrasonography secondary to hydrops fetalis. Amniocentesis demonstrated in utero CMV infection. Resolution of hydrops occurred after the administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin to the patient and then to her fetus. CONCLUSION: Resolution of hydrops secondary to congenital CMV was temporally related to the administration of maternal and fetal hyperimmune globulin.

Moxley K; Knudtson EJ

2008-02-01

50

Purification and identification of allergenic alpha (2u)-globulin species of rat urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amino-acid compositional and sequence analyses as well as mass spectrometric determinations of purified rat urine proteins, previously termed prealbumin and alpha(2)-euglobulin, have revealed a high homology between the two forms which have now been identified as alpha(2)-globulin species. The "prealbumin' fraction was found to correspond to alpha(2u)-globulin originating from salivary gland and the 'alpha(2)-euglobulin' fraction was identical with the major urinary protein (MUP) or alpha(2u)-globulin. The results indicate that the two major protein fractions of rat urine constitute different forms of the same parent protein, alpha(2u)-globulin, having no amino-acid sequence resemblance to prealbumin (transthyretin) of rat serum. PMID:8645715

Bayard, C; Holmquist, L; Vesterberg, O

1996-06-01

51

Purification and identification of allergenic alpha (2u)-globulin species of rat urine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amino-acid compositional and sequence analyses as well as mass spectrometric determinations of purified rat urine proteins, previously termed prealbumin and alpha(2)-euglobulin, have revealed a high homology between the two forms which have now been identified as alpha(2)-globulin species. The "prealbumin' fraction was found to correspond to alpha(2u)-globulin originating from salivary gland and the 'alpha(2)-euglobulin' fraction was identical with the major urinary protein (MUP) or alpha(2u)-globulin. The results indicate that the two major protein fractions of rat urine constitute different forms of the same parent protein, alpha(2u)-globulin, having no amino-acid sequence resemblance to prealbumin (transthyretin) of rat serum.

Bayard C; Holmquist L; Vesterberg O

1996-06-01

52

Removal of anticomplementary activity from human immune serum globulins by treatment with purified human plasmin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human immune serum globulin preparations were treated with highly purified human plasmin to remove their anticomplementary activity. The extent of anticomplementary activity removed and the amount of fragmentation obtained from immune serum globulin preparation depended upon the amount of plasmin added and the length of incubation time. The enzymatic reaction was stopped by removing plasmin with bentonite adsorption. Two types of plasmin-treated immune serum globulin that may be used for intravenous injection were obtained. One was a more fragmented product (35 to 45%) with lower anticomplementary activity, the other was a less degraded product (15 to 20%) with slightly higher anticomplementary activity. Antibody content of the former preparation was somewhat reduced while that of the latter preparation was virtually unchanged from the untreated immune serum globulin.

Liu DT; Grzenczyk BS; Pai RC

1979-05-01

53

The effects of trypsin digested globulin degradation products (TDPG) on the activity of central nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on trypsin-digested globulin degradation products given to rats intraperitoneally or intraventricularly, revealed psychodepressive effects on the central nervous system. Peptides with a molecular weight of approximately 1,3000 were the most active. PMID:4456425

Wisniewski, K; Tarasiewicz, S; Ma?kowiak, J; Buczko, W; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J

1974-01-01

54

The effects of trypsin digested globulin degradation products (TDPG) on the activity of central nervous system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on trypsin-digested globulin degradation products given to rats intraperitoneally or intraventricularly, revealed psychodepressive effects on the central nervous system. Peptides with a molecular weight of approximately 1,3000 were the most active.

Wisniewski K; Tarasiewicz S; Ma?kowiak J; Buczko W; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J

1974-01-01

55

Safety and tolerability of immune globulin intravenous in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a common inflammatory neuropathy that can be progressive, stepwise progressive, or relapsing and remitting. OBJECTIVES: To further evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immune globulin intravenous in CIDP. DESIGN: Randomized multicenter trial. SETTING: Hospitals and outpatient clinics. Patients: Adults with CIDP (n = 117) [corrected]. INTERVENTIONS: Immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified (2 g/kg of body weight) or placebo was infused as a baseline loading dose, followed by a maintenance dose (1 g/kg) every 3 weeks for up to 24 weeks. Patients who responded were rerandomized into a double-blind extension phase of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified (1 g/kg) or placebo every 3 weeks for up to 24 weeks. Patients who relapsed during the extension phase were withdrawn from the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Additional analyses of safety and tolerability. RESULTS: Overall, 113 patients and 95 patients were exposed to immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified and placebo, respectively. Exposure to immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified was approximately twice that of placebo (1096 vs 575 infusions). Most maintenance dose courses were administered over 1 day in the immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified (89.1% of 783 dose courses) and placebo (91.1% of 359 dose courses) groups. The most common drug-related adverse events (AEs) with immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified were headache (4.0 per 100 infusions) and pyrexia (2.4 per 100 infusions). Five drug-related serious AEs (pulmonary embolism, pyrexia, vomiting, and 2 headache events) were reported in 3 patients (2.7%) exposed to immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified. The incidence of drug-related serious AEs was higher after loading dose infusions than after maintenance dose infusions (4 AEs vs 1 AE). Age, weight, CIDP severity, and previous immune globulin intravenous exposure had no substantial effect on the percentage of patients with AEs, including serious AEs. CONCLUSION: Data support a favorable safety and tolerability profile for administration of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate-chromatography purified as CIDP maintenance therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00220740.

Donofrio PD; Bril V; Dalakas MC; Deng C; Hanna K; Hartung HP; Hughes R; Latov N; Merkies I; van Doorn P

2010-09-01

56

Antithymocyte globulin-induced acute lung injury during transplantation for aplastic anemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 10-year-old boy with acquired, very severe aplastic anemia developed acute lung injury after the administration of equine antithymocyte globulin, during conditioning for allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Limited cases of antithymocyte globulin-induced acute lung injury have been described in adults. The respiratory worsening was sudden and required mechanical ventilation. The clinical course was complicated by sepsis with Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Implications for treatment are discussed and earlier literature is reviewed.

Oberoi S; Bansal D; Sharma RR; Gautam V; Marwaha N; Marwaha RK

2011-03-01

57

Antithymocyte globulin-induced acute lung injury during transplantation for aplastic anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10-year-old boy with acquired, very severe aplastic anemia developed acute lung injury after the administration of equine antithymocyte globulin, during conditioning for allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Limited cases of antithymocyte globulin-induced acute lung injury have been described in adults. The respiratory worsening was sudden and required mechanical ventilation. The clinical course was complicated by sepsis with Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Implications for treatment are discussed and earlier literature is reviewed. PMID:21285902

Oberoi, Sapna; Bansal, Deepak; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Gautam, Vikas; Marwaha, Neelam; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

2011-03-01

58

Gene duplication and an accelerated evolutionary rate in 11S globulin genes are associated with higher protein synthesis in dicots as compared to monocots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed storage proteins are a major source of dietary protein, and the content of such proteins determines both the quantity and quality of crop yield. Significantly, examination of the protein content in the seeds of crop plants shows a distinct difference between monocots and dicots. Thus, it is expected that there are different evolutionary patterns in the genes underlying protein synthesis in the seeds of these two groups of plants. Results Gene duplication, evolutionary rate and positive selection of a major gene family of seed storage proteins (the 11S globulin genes), were compared in dicots and monocots. The results, obtained from five species in each group, show more gene duplications, a higher evolutionary rate and positive selections of this gene family in dicots, which are rich in 11S globulins, but not in the monocots. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence to support the suggestion that gene duplication and an accelerated evolutionary rate may be associated with higher protein synthesis in dicots as compared to monocots.

Li Chun; Li Meng; Dunwell Jim M; Zhang Yuan-Ming

2012-01-01

59

Hepatitis B Immune Globulin in Liver Transplantation Prophylaxis: An Update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: Liver transplantation is the best treatment option for end-stage liver disease following hepatitis B (HBV) infection. However, the high rate of recurrence of HBV infection following transplantation is a disadvantage of this option.Evidence Acquisition: Over the past 2 decades, the gold standard of prophylactic treatment for the prevention of HBV re-infection following liver transplantation has been the administration of low- to high-dose hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) along with an antiviral agent to induce passive immunity.Results: The effectiveness of HBIg in preventing the recurrence of HBV depends on the dosage, route of administration, and duration of HBIg treatment, and the viremic status at the time of transplantation. There is currently no consensus on a standardized recommendation for therapeutic options that include HBIg administration.Conclusion: This review attempts to summarize the available data on the feasibility of such options. Most recent studies support the use of long-term combination therapy of HBIg and antiviral NAs (especially new agents).

Payam Dindoost; Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri; Seyed Moayed Alavian

2012-01-01

60

Radioimmunoassay of human sex hormone binding globulin: improved radioiodination procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), purified by affinity chromatography from retroplacental blood plasma, was reacted with 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PHPPS, Bolton-Hunter reagent). The derivative of SHBG obtained (parahydroxyphenylpropionyl-SHBG; PHPP-SHBG) was stable and could, in contrast to underived SHBG, be efficiently 125I-iodinated with a lactoperoxidase technique. The PHPP-SHBG labelled with 125I had good antiserum binding and stability properties and was used for radioimmunoassay (RIA) of SHBG in serum. The RIA requires a total incubation time of 3 h. It has been standardized with purified SHBG and has a sensitivity of 5 ?g/l, giving a lowest detectable concentration in the routine procedure of about 0.2 mg/l. Variation within and between assay was 4.1% and 7.2%, respectively, for samples with values within the normal range. Values obtained by this RIA procedure correlate well with those obtained by a dihydrotestosterone binding method and by an electroimmunoassay technique. The mean serum concentration of SHBG in healthy, regularly menstruating women (n=42) was 3.7+-1.0 mg/l and in healthy men (n=100) 2.0+-0.9 mg/l. (Author)

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

11S and 7S globulins of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): purification and characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total globulins extracted with 0.4 M NaCl in buffer from coconut endosperm separated into two peaks on gel filtration: peak I corresponding to 11S globulin or cocosin and peak II to 7S globulin with native molecular weights of 326 000 and 156 000, respectively. The percent composition of total globulins was estimated to be 11S, 86% and 7S, 14%. On SDS-PAGE, cocosin resolved into two closely migrating bands at approximately 34 000 (acidic polypeptide) and another set of 2 bands at 24 000 (basic polypeptide). Each set consisted of one darkly stained band and one lightly stained band. The 7S globulin consisted of three bands of 16 000, 22 000, and 24 000. Three isoforms of cocosin were identified after anion exchange chromatography. Cocosin, but not the 7S, was found to have disulfide bonds. Using periodic acid-Schiff's reagent, all of the bands of cocosin on SDS-PAGE were positive for carbohydrate. However, when con A-peroxidase was used, only the basic polypeptide stained positively for carbohydrate. For the 7S globulin, no carbohydrate group was detected using the PAS and con A-peroxidase tests. The 7S globulin was easily extracted with 0.10-0.15 M NaCl, whereas cocosin was extracted with 0.35 M NaCl. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the 34 k band and 24 k band of cocosin were SVRSVNEFRXE and GLEETQ, respectively, and that of the 7S was EQEDPELQK.

Garcia RN; Arocena RV; Laurena AC; Tecson-Mendoza EM

2005-03-01

62

11S and 7S globulins of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): purification and characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total globulins extracted with 0.4 M NaCl in buffer from coconut endosperm separated into two peaks on gel filtration: peak I corresponding to 11S globulin or cocosin and peak II to 7S globulin with native molecular weights of 326 000 and 156 000, respectively. The percent composition of total globulins was estimated to be 11S, 86% and 7S, 14%. On SDS-PAGE, cocosin resolved into two closely migrating bands at approximately 34 000 (acidic polypeptide) and another set of 2 bands at 24 000 (basic polypeptide). Each set consisted of one darkly stained band and one lightly stained band. The 7S globulin consisted of three bands of 16 000, 22 000, and 24 000. Three isoforms of cocosin were identified after anion exchange chromatography. Cocosin, but not the 7S, was found to have disulfide bonds. Using periodic acid-Schiff's reagent, all of the bands of cocosin on SDS-PAGE were positive for carbohydrate. However, when con A-peroxidase was used, only the basic polypeptide stained positively for carbohydrate. For the 7S globulin, no carbohydrate group was detected using the PAS and con A-peroxidase tests. The 7S globulin was easily extracted with 0.10-0.15 M NaCl, whereas cocosin was extracted with 0.35 M NaCl. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the 34 k band and 24 k band of cocosin were SVRSVNEFRXE and GLEETQ, respectively, and that of the 7S was EQEDPELQK. PMID:15740067

Garcia, Roberta N; Arocena, Rambo V; Laurena, Antonio C; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae

2005-03-01

63

Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Verbal Memory in Older Men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive function in older adults may be affected by multiple factors, such as sex hormone levels, metabolic disturbances, and neuropsychiatric illness. However, relatively few studies have tested the associations between these factors and cognitive function in a single sample. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between sex hormones, metabolic parameters, and psychiatric diagnoses with verbal memory in nondemented older men. METHODS: Participants were 112 men (mean age: 61.3 years) from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-Up Study who completed measures of blood sex hormone levels, metabolic parameters (e.g., lipid profiles), and verbal memory. RESULTS: Higher levels of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were associated with lower delayed verbal memory scores (standardized coefficients [beta] = -0.19, t = -2.07, df = 1, 105, p = 0.04), and higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with better immediate (beta = 0.21, t = 2.41, df = 1,105, p = 0.02) and delayed (beta = 0.22, t = 2.46, df = 1,105, p = 0.02) verbal memory performance after adjustment for age, education, and psychiatric disorders. There was an inverse correlation between SHBG levels and BMI (Pearson's r = -0.37, N = 112, p <0.001). Estimated free testosterone levels revealed curvilinear associations with verbal memory performance. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that higher SHBG levels are associated with worse verbal memory, whereas a higher BMI is associated with better verbal memory in older men. Higher SHBG levels due to lower adiposity may be a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. The mechanisms linking SHBG to cognitive function have yet to be elucidated.

Takayanagi Y; Spira AP; McIntyre RS; Eaton WW

2013-06-01

64

Globulin-specific Proteolytic Activity in Germinating Pumpkin Seeds as Detected by a Fluorescence Assay Method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteolytic activities of alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin, bromelain, and an extract from germinating pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita moschata) were determined by their ability to effect the release of 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate bound to internal hydrophobic sites in intact protein substrates. Casein, glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, pumpkin seed globulin, and bovine serum albumin enhanced the fluorescence of 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate sufficiently to be used as proteolytic substrates. Chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin, and bromelain exhibited activity against all or almost all of the protein substrates. The activity of 1 mug of alpha-chymotrypsin or trypsin and 100 ng of pepsin could be easily detected by this method of assay within 4 to 5 minutes depending upon the substrate. The enzyme extracted from 3-day germinated pumpkin seeds exhibited strong activity only against pumpkin seed globulin, weak activity against the globulins of squash and cucumber and casein, and no activity against the other protein substrates. Activity against pumpkin globulin was maximal at pH 7.4. When assayed by an increase in ninhydrin-positive products, the enzyme extract from pumpkin seeds also showed strong activity against pumpkin globulin and weak activity against casein. The 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate-fluorescence method was at least 20 times more sensitive than the ninhydrin method and was 10 to 20 times more rapid. PMID:16659002

Spencer, P W; Spencer, R D

1974-12-01

65

Energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

1992-01-01

66

Interaction of serum sex steroid-binding globulin with cell membranes of human decidual tissue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of human blood with plasma membranes of cells from human decidual tissue - the target tissue of estradiol - was studied. It was shown that SBG in complex with estradiol is capable of interacting specifically with these membranes. The dissociation (K/sub dis/) of this interaction is equal to (3.5 +/- 2.0) 10/sup -12/ M. The interaction of the SBG-estradiol complex with the membranes is characterized by high selectivity: such blood serum globulins as albumin, orosomucoid, transferrin, transcortin, and thyroxine-binding globulin do not compete with SBG for its binding sites on the membranes. The SBG-testosterone complex and SBG without steroid are also incapable of interacting with the membranes.

Avvakumov, G.V.; Survilo, L.I.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-20

67

ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G) ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin and highly significant decrease in Albumin after 15 and 30 days of dosing of Aloe vera in comparison to control animals group. It is concluded that the long-term use of Aloe vera may cause hypoglobinemia and hypoalbuminemia at 30 days of dosing and it could be due to the liver diseases, evidence of hepatotoxicity induced Aloe vera also reported in previous studies.

Nuzhat Sultana; Rahila Najam

2013-01-01

68

Sex hormone-binding globulin changes with androgen replacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are often elevated in sera of patients with testicular insufficiency, it is important to determine whether SHBG declines into the normal range and the extent of change in free testosterone (free T) after androgen administration. Five normal men and five patients with Klinefelter's syndrome were studied before and after the administration of testosterone enanthate (200 mg, im every 2 weeks). An additional five normal men and five patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) were treated with hCG (2000 U, three times a week). Three months after the administration of T or hCG, serum total and free T increased in both normal men and patients. Free T increased significantly in the Klinefelter's and HH patients from 94 +/- 20 and 14 +/- 5 pg/ml, respectively, to 271 +/- 50 and 276 +/- 41 pg/ml (P less than 0.01; P less than 0.001). The increase in the normal men treated with T or hCG was also significant (from 211 +/- 52 and 220 +/- 37 pg/ml to 390 +/- 83 and 330 +/- 90 pg/ml). SHBG fell in both the T-treated normal men (from 6.5 +/- 1.2 ng dihydrotestosterone bound/ml to 4.3 +/- 0.4; P less than 0.02) and the T-treated Klinefelter's patients (from 16.4 +/- 2 to 4.3 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01). However, it was unchanged in the hCG-treated HH patients and rose in the hCG-treated normal men (from 6.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 1.0; P less than 0.05). This study demonstrates that treatment of hypogonadal men with T and hCG in the doses used increased free T levels above the basal levels for normal men. However, the effects of the increase in free T, as determined by a change in SHBG, were different depending upon the type of treatment.

Plymate SR; Leonard JM; Paulsen CA; Fariss BL; Karpas AE

1983-09-01

69

[Serum globulin levels and intensity of hepatic fibrosis in patients with mansonic schistosomiasis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A correlation between the levels of serum globulins and the hepatic fibrosis degree in chronic hepatitis was described, but reports in schistosomiasis mansoni have not been found. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum globulins and IgG levels, and periportal fibrosis intensity measured by ultrasound in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. METHODS: Between November, 2006 and February 2007, 41 patients which were eligible, filled them a questionnaire and had their levels of serum IgG measured by immunoturbidimetry and globulins indirectly measured by the Biuret method. The ultrasound was carried out by a single researcher, according to the Cairo and Niamey protocols. RESULTS: The average age was 41 years old and 25 female patients (61%). Ten patients (24%) from 41 showed serum globulins levels raised and 21 (51%) presented elevated IgG levels. According to the Cairo classification, 21 patients showed grade I of fibrosis, 18 grade II and 2 grade III; and by the Niamey classification 8 showed standard C, 20 D, and 13 E. Those with grade II or III of fibrosis had higher IgG levels than the ones with grade I (P = 0.047), as well as those who showed standards D and E as compared to C (P = 0.011). There was no association between the globulins levels and the intensity of fibrosis. CONCLUSION: In patients with schistosomiasis mansoni, an increase of the IgG serum levels was observed according to the progression from periportal fibrosis intensity, but the same was not founded with globulins levels.

Correia HS; Domingues AL; Lopes EP; Morais CN; Sarteschi C; Moura IM

2009-07-01

70

[Inhibition of the accumulation of the Lassa virus in Vero cells by immune gamma globulin and complement].  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific inhibition of Lassa virus replication in Vero cells was found to be better achieved with immune gamma globulin in combination with complement than with gamma globulin alone. According to the authors, the inhibitory effect of these preparations is due to the cyto-destructive action of antibodies and complement on the infected cells. PMID:6208692

Vladyko, A S; Rogacheva, T A; Orlova, S V; Votiakov, V I

71

IMMUNITY AND TOLERANCE TO A HAPTEN (NIP) COUPLED TO AN ISOLOGOUS CARRIER (MOUSE GAMMA GLOBULIN)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A hapten, 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetic acid (NIP) when coupled to isologous mouse gamma globulin (M?G) elicits a hapten-specific immune response in mice if administered in Freund's complete adjuvant. This response is measurable by the capacity of the sera to bind N125IP, by detection of NIP...

Walters, Curla S.; Moorhead, John W.; Claman, Henry N.

72

Cloning and sequence of several alpha 2u-globulin cDNAs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a simple cloning procedure for alpha 2u-globulin that requires neither enrichment of mRNA for cloning nor purification of a specific probe for screening recombinant colonies. Total adult male liver poly(A)+RNA was used as template for cloning, and the subsequent recombinant colonies were...

Unterman, R D; Lynch, K R; Nakhasi, H L; Dolan, K P; Hamilton, J W; Cohn, D V; Feigelson, P

73

Synthesis of cold-insoluble globulin by cultured calf endothelial cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radiolabeled amino acids were incorporated into nondialyzable protein by cultures of endothelial cells derived from calf aorta. Antibody prepared against purified bovine plasma cold-insoluble globulin (CIG) formed a strong precipitin line upon immunodiffusion against 3H-labeled proteins from endothe...

Macarak, E J; Kirby, E; Kirk, T; Kefalides, N A

74

A latex fixation test using British latex and bovine gamma globulin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A British polystyrene latex-bovine gamma globulin fixation test which can be used for serum titrations is described. It is technically easier to perform than the latex fixation test of Singer and Plotz (1956) and appears to be equally sensitive. There was agreement with a sensitized sheep cell agglu...

Payne, R. B.

75

Verification of a method for sexual hormone-binding globulin analysis and estimation of free testosterone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a protein that binds to androgens and oestrogens, especially testosterone. The fraction of testosterone that is not bound to SHBG is the biologically active fraction which makes its determination more relevant than determining the total amount ...

Englund, Sofia

76

Papain-Treated Globulins in Specific and Cross-Reacting Immunofluorescent Staining1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jones, Wallis L. (Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, Ga.), and J. W. Foster. Papain-treated globulins in specific and cross-reacting immunofluorescent staining. J. Bacteriol. 91:984–986. 1966.—Cross-reaction staining with preimmune and specific fluorescein conjugates to Corynebacterium diphtheria...

Jones, Wallis L.; Foster, John W.

77

ULTRASTRUCTURE OF PAPAIN AND PEPSIN DIGESTION FRAGMENTS OF HUMAN IgM GLOBULINS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ultrastructure of papain and pepsin-digested products of human IgM globulins has been analyzed. Papain digestion was performed both in the presence and absence of cysteine. The Fcµ fragment was found to represent the central ring structure in the intact IgM molecule, plus a minor part of the ap...

Svehag, Sven-Eric; Bloth, Björn; Seligmann, Maxime

78

A reliable and practicable DCC assay of sex harmone binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A DCC assay of sex hormone binding globulin in plasma with testosterone as the ligand was reported. SHBG was measured with a multiple ligand dose procedure and calculations based on a Scatchard plot. The reliability of the method was assessed by parallelism test, variations within-and between-asssays and comparison with the results assayed with DHT. The method can give reliable results and is practicable for SHBG assay.

1988-01-01

79

Chronic norovirus infection in a transplant patient successfully treated with enterally administered immune globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Norovirus infection causes a significant burden of morbidity and (in the developing world) mortality. In immunocompromised hosts, norovirus infection can become chronic, with devastating consequences. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for chronic disease are unproven, and treatment is largely supportive. We report a case of norovirus infection causing debilitating chronic gastroenteritis in a transplant patient that responded to a short course of enterally administered human immune globulin. PMID:23850414

Chagla, Zain; Quirt, Jaclyn; Woodward, Kevin; Neary, John; Rutherford, Candace

2013-07-10

80

Early plasmapheresis followed by high-dose ?-globulin treatment saved a severely Rho-incompatible pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An alloimmunized pregnancy induces anemia in the fetus and can ultimately lead to fetal hydrops and intrauterine fetal death. A woman with a severe Rho-incompatible pregnancy had experienced frequent pregnancies with fetomaternal transfusion without receiving RhIg and had high anti-D antibody titers present from early pregnancy. We succeeded in long-term inhibition of antibody production using plasmapheresis followed by high-dose ?-globulin treatment in early pregnancy.

Isojima S; Hisano M; Suzuki T; Sago H; Murashima A; Yamaguchi K

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Early plasmapheresis followed by high-dose ?-globulin treatment saved a severely Rho-incompatible pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alloimmunized pregnancy induces anemia in the fetus and can ultimately lead to fetal hydrops and intrauterine fetal death. A woman with a severe Rho-incompatible pregnancy had experienced frequent pregnancies with fetomaternal transfusion without receiving RhIg and had high anti-D antibody titers present from early pregnancy. We succeeded in long-term inhibition of antibody production using plasmapheresis followed by high-dose ?-globulin treatment in early pregnancy. PMID:21506141

Isojima, Sakiko; Hisano, Michi; Suzuki, Teruaki; Sago, Haruhiko; Murashima, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

2011-04-19

82

A binding assay for 25-hydroxycalciferols and 24R,25-dihydroxycalciferols using bovine plasma globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations of the 25-hydroxy and 24R, 25-dihydroxy derivatives of vitamin D were determined in 100 microliter l plasma samples using calciferol binding globulin from bovine plasma. Sufficient quantities of 24R, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D were found in bovine, porcine, chicken and human plasma to interfere in the assay of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in unfractionated extracts. No metabolites of vitamin D could be found in rainbow trout plasma.

Hollis BW; Burton JH; Draper HH

1977-08-01

83

GLOBULIN PROTEIN 11S, USABLE AS A SEED IMPREGNATION MARKER DURING GERMINATION.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A protein of plant origin, globulin 11S is disclosed. It is characterised in that it is derived from the seeds of a plant culture species, expressed in the seeds and not in any vegetative tissue of the plant, and appearing rapidly during the early germination stages (impregnation) and the priming of seeds. It is useful in agriculture as a molecular marker for determining the seed germination stage and to monitor continuously the development of seed priming treatments.

JOB Claudette; JOB Dominique; KERSULEC Alain

84

Chronic norovirus infection in a transplant patient successfully treated with enterally administered immune globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Norovirus infection causes a significant burden of morbidity and (in the developing world) mortality. In immunocompromised hosts, norovirus infection can become chronic, with devastating consequences. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for chronic disease are unproven, and treatment is largely supportive. We report a case of norovirus infection causing debilitating chronic gastroenteritis in a transplant patient that responded to a short course of enterally administered human immune globulin.

Chagla Z; Quirt J; Woodward K; Neary J; Rutherford C

2013-09-01

85

COMPARATIVE ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS OF ALBUMINS/ GLOBULINS EXTRACTED FROM DRY GRAINS AND GREEN MALTS OF BARLEY VARIETIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Applicability of electrophoretic separations of albumins/globulins, followed by nonspecific protein staining and specific glycoprotein and aminopeptidase detection has been examined for barley variety discrimination. Albumins/globulins extracted from dry grains and green malt of six barley varieties were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10 % T, pH=8.9) of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate denatured proteins, and by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient of 3.5-9.5 and 4.0-6.5. Analysis of dry grain extracts gave better results than green malt extracts. Obtained data indicate that SDS-PAGE of albumins/globulins and IEF in pH gradient 3.5-9.5 followed by Coomassie Blue staining could be useful in Croatian barley variety discrimination. Angora barley could be clearly distinguished from the other varieties which were grouped as follows: Rodnik/Sladoran, Barun/Rex, and Martin. Glycoprotein patterns did not improve the recognition of individual varieties. Broad specificity, phenylalanine and leucine preferring, and arginine specific aminopeptidase were not found as applicable markers for discrimination of examined barley varieties.

Ivica Strelec; Elizabeta Has-Schön; Ljubinka Vitale

2012-01-01

86

Protein Pattern Analysis of Blood Globulin to Estimation of Genetic Distance among Population of Tegal, Magelang, and Mojosari Duck  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research to estimation gene frequency on the protein pattern on blood globulin and to estimation genetic distance among population Tegal, Magelang and Mojosari duck. The material were blood samples from 30 heads of duck. Electroforesis technique was used Sodium Dedocyl Sulfate (SDS) polyacrilamide cel elekctroforesis according to Deutcher (1990) method with instrument of polyacrilamide electroforesis vertical system (Mini-protean II, Bio-Rad) was used for analysis protein of blood globulin. The gene frequency was estimated according to direct account method and tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, whereas the genetic distance was estimated by Nei (1972). Result the analysis of electroforesis showed that locus of globulin on the local duck population was controlled by three kind of gene. The gene frequency og GlbA GlbB and GlbC was about 0.05-0.50, migration distance was about 23-60 mm. The genetic distance among Tegal, Magelang and Mojosari duck as 0.010. result of the research was concluded that the protein pattern of blood globulin is usable to estimate both genetic distance and the relationship among population of Tegal, Magelang, and Mojosari duck and also it is estimated that the geographyc location represents a factor that influence the genetic distance. (Animal Production 7(3): 177-184 (2005) Key Words : Blood Globulin, Genetic Distance, Duck Population

AT Sadewo

2005-01-01

87

Detection of ?2u-globulin in rat pup preputial gland by Maldi-tof mass spectrometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ?2u-globulin, a soluble protein identified in the urine and preputial gland of adult male rat is reported to be pheromone carrier. The pup preputial gland plays a significant role in chemical communication for mother-young interaction; however, the presence of a pheromone-carrying protein in the pup preputial gland has not been confirmed. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify the ?2u-globulin in the pup preputial gland by Matrix Assisted laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). The preputial glands of prepubertal rats were subjected to one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. In-gel trypsin digestion of a 18 kDa band was carried out and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The results of a MASCOT search showed the presence of ?2u-globulin in the18 kDa band. In contrast to the report of the synthesis of this protein only in adult rats, the identification of this protein in pup preputial gland is significant. The results suggest that synthesis of ?2u-globulin in the rat preputial gland starts in the prepubertal stage itself. In prepubertal rats, the preputial gland is a source of pheromone for performing anogenital licking behaviour by the mother rat. Since ?2u-globulin belongs to the lipocalin (ligand carrier) family, it might carry the volatile for processing pheromonal communication in mother-pup bonding in rat [Current Zoology 55(4): 296–300, 2009].

Ponnirul PONMANICKAM,Gnanasekaran JEBAMERCY, Govindaraju ARCHUNAN, Soundrapandian KANNAN

2009-01-01

88

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic study of globulin from Phaseolus angularis (red bean).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conformation of red bean globulin dispersions (approximately 10% in D2O or deuterated phosphate buffer pD 7.4) under the influence of pH, chaotropic salts, protein structure perturbants, and heating conditions was studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR spectrum of red bean globulin showed major bands from 1682 to 1637 cm(-1) in the amide I' region, corresponding to the four types of secondary structures, i.e. beta-turns, beta-sheets, alpha-helix and random coils. At extreme pH conditions, there were changes in intensity in bands attributed to beta-sheet (1637 and 1618 cm(-1)) and random coil (1644 cm(-1)) structures, and shifts of these bands to lower or higher wave numbers, indicating changes in protein conformation. Chaotropic salts caused progressive increases in random coil structures and concomitant decreases in beta-sheet bands, following the lyotrophic series of anions. In the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylene glycol, pronounced increases in the random coil band were observed, accompanied by slight shifts of the beta-sheet band. Addition of dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide did not cause marked changes in the FTIR spectra. Heating at increasing temperature led to progressive decreases in the intensity of the alpha-helix and beta-sheet bands and increases in random coil band intensity, leveling off at around 60 degrees C. The data suggest that re-organization of protein structure occurred at temperatures well below the denaturation temperature of red bean globulin (86 degrees C) as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. This was accompanied by pronounced increases in the intensity of the two intermolecular beta-sheet bands (1682 and 1619-1620 cm(-1)) associated with the formation of aggregated strands at higher temperatures (80-90 degrees C). Increases in intensity of the aggregation bands were also observed in the heat-induced buffer-soluble and insoluble aggregates.

Meng GT; Ma CY

2001-12-01

89

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic study of globulin from Phaseolus angularis (red bean).  

Science.gov (United States)

The conformation of red bean globulin dispersions (approximately 10% in D2O or deuterated phosphate buffer pD 7.4) under the influence of pH, chaotropic salts, protein structure perturbants, and heating conditions was studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR spectrum of red bean globulin showed major bands from 1682 to 1637 cm(-1) in the amide I' region, corresponding to the four types of secondary structures, i.e. beta-turns, beta-sheets, alpha-helix and random coils. At extreme pH conditions, there were changes in intensity in bands attributed to beta-sheet (1637 and 1618 cm(-1)) and random coil (1644 cm(-1)) structures, and shifts of these bands to lower or higher wave numbers, indicating changes in protein conformation. Chaotropic salts caused progressive increases in random coil structures and concomitant decreases in beta-sheet bands, following the lyotrophic series of anions. In the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylene glycol, pronounced increases in the random coil band were observed, accompanied by slight shifts of the beta-sheet band. Addition of dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide did not cause marked changes in the FTIR spectra. Heating at increasing temperature led to progressive decreases in the intensity of the alpha-helix and beta-sheet bands and increases in random coil band intensity, leveling off at around 60 degrees C. The data suggest that re-organization of protein structure occurred at temperatures well below the denaturation temperature of red bean globulin (86 degrees C) as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. This was accompanied by pronounced increases in the intensity of the two intermolecular beta-sheet bands (1682 and 1619-1620 cm(-1)) associated with the formation of aggregated strands at higher temperatures (80-90 degrees C). Increases in intensity of the aggregation bands were also observed in the heat-induced buffer-soluble and insoluble aggregates. PMID:11718826

Meng, G T; Ma, C Y

2001-12-10

90

Use of immune serum globulin (human) to reduce mortality in newly imported rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immune serum globulin (human) (ISGH) was administered intramuscularly to approximately 5,600 rhesus monkeys weighing between 1.5 and 3.6 kg. The animals were housed at three separate facilities under differing quarantine conditions. ISGH recipients were grossly healthier, suffered less morbidity and fewer developed antibodies against measles (rubeola) virus. Mortality among ISGH-treated animals was only 20-57% of that in the control animals. No adverse effects were seen from the injection of ISGH into rhesus monkeys, and residual antibodies from the injected material could not be detected 18 and 47 days postinoculation.

Barsky D; Palmer AE; London WT; Kerber WT

1976-01-01

91

[Low serum thyroxin and thyroxin-binding globulin in neonatal respiratory distress (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measurements of thyroxin (T4), thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) and TSH were carried out in 34 full-term newborns, 21 prematures and 11 neonates with respiratory distress (6 with hyaline membrane disease) at 5 days of age. In cases with neonatal respiratory distress and to a lesser extent in prematures, low T4 due to a decrease of TBG was found, TSH being identical in all groups. The positive correlation between TBG and transferrin suggests a disturbance in hepatic synthesis. The authors conclude that, in cases with neonatal respiratory distress, low T4 does not mean hypothyroidism and does not require a treatment, provided TSH remains within normal limits.

Gendrel D; Delvigne L; Aufrant C; Delvigne A; Aujard Y; Georges P

1981-06-01

92

Standardization of U.S. Reference Rh0 (D) Immune Globulin by quantitative automated hemagglutination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An automated hemagglutination procedure was used to assess the relative potency of US Reference Rh0 (D) Immune Globulin, Lot 3, with respect to the International Reference Preparation, WHO Anti-D immunoglobulin, Lot 68/419. A value of 300 international units (IU) of anti-D per ampoule has been assigned to Lot 68/419. In 25 assays, the mean value for Lot 3 was 820 IU anti-D per milliliter when tested in parallel with Lot 68/419.

Paul EB

1986-04-01

93

Acute graft-versus-host disease in thalassaemic marrow transplantation with low-dose antithymocyte globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our unit performed transplantations on 21 classes II and III thalassaemic patients (class II patients had either hepatomegaly or portal fibrosis and class III patients had both). We used busulfan (15 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporin, prednisolone and low-dose antithymocyte globulin. Our patient data showed a low incidence of acute GVHD following transplantation. We offer this regimen as an acceptable therapy for thalassaemic patients undergoing allogeneic marrow transplantation as a safe clinical procedure, irrespective of the class of patient.

Khojasteh HN; Zakerinia M; Ramzi M; Haghshenas M

1999-05-01

94

Acute graft-versus-host disease in thalassaemic marrow transplantation with low-dose antithymocyte globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our unit performed transplantations on 21 classes II and III thalassaemic patients (class II patients had either hepatomegaly or portal fibrosis and class III patients had both). We used busulfan (15 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporin, prednisolone and low-dose antithymocyte globulin. Our patient data showed a low incidence of acute GVHD following transplantation. We offer this regimen as an acceptable therapy for thalassaemic patients undergoing allogeneic marrow transplantation as a safe clinical procedure, irrespective of the class of patient. PMID:10793825

Khojasteh, H N; Zakerinia, M; Ramzi, M; Haghshenas, M

1999-05-01

95

Tritium storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices.

1990-01-01

96

Rice ?-globulin decreases serum cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and ameliorates atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of rice ?-globulin remain unclear. We investigated the hypocholesterolemic effect of rice ?-globulin in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The rats were divided into 4 groups and were orally administrated the following three proteins or a vehicle for 4weeks: rice protein, rice ?-globulin, or soy ?-conglycinin at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight or carboxymethylcellulose to the control rats. In the rice ?-globulin group, serum cholesterol concentrations were 28% lower than the control group and fecal neutral steroid excretion was increased by 30%. The hypocholesterolemic effect of rice ?-globulin was equal to soy ?-conglycinin in SD rats fed the hypercholesterolemic diet. However, the serum cholesterol concentrations in the rice protein group did not change compared to the control group. To investigate the antiatherogenic effects of rice ?-globulin, male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were orally administered the same dose of rice ?-globulin for 9weeks. The en face lesion area in the aorta was 46% lower than in the control group. In conclusion, administration of rice ?-globulin improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet by increasing the fecal excretion of neutral sterols, and inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The anti-atherosclerotic effect exerts by mechanism(s) other than the regulation of serum MCP-1 and NO concentrations.

Tong LT; Fujimoto Y; Shimizu N; Tsukino M; Akasaka T; Kato Y; Iwamoto W; Shiratake S; Imaizumi K; Sato M

2012-05-01

97

Antitumor effect of degalactosylated gc-globulin on orthotopic grafted lung cancer in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Group-specific component (Gc)-globulin-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) generated by a cascade of catalytic reactions with deglycosidase enzymes exerts antitumor activity. We hypothesized that degalactosyl Gc-globulin (DG3), a precursor of GcMAF, also plays a role in recovery from cancer as well as GcMAF due to progression of deglycosylation by generally resident sialidases and mannosidases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prepared the subtypes of DG3, such as 1f1f and 1s1s and its 22 homodimers, by using vitamin D3-binding Sepharose CL-6B and examined their antitumor activity in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma cells, by counting the number of nodules formed in their lungs. RESULTS: Antitumor activity of DG3 was observed regardless of its subtype, being equivalent to that of GcMAF. The injection route of DG3 affected its antitumor activity, with subcutaneous and intramuscular administration being more favorable than the intraperitoneal or intravenous route. In order to obtain significant antitumor activity, more than 160 ng/kg of DG3 were required. CONCLUSION: DG3 proved to be promising as an antitumor agent, similarly to GcMAF.

Hirota K; Nakagawa Y; Takeuchi R; Uto Y; Hori H; Onizuka S; Terada H

2013-07-01

98

Conformational study of globulin from rice (Oryza sativa) seeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conformation of rice globulin (10%, w/v, in deuterated phosphate buffer, pD 7.4) under the influence of pH, chaotropic salts, several protein structure perturbants and heat treatments was studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Rice globulin exhibited seven major bands in the region of 1700-1600 cm-1 and the spectrum suggests high alpha-helical content with large quantities of beta-sheet and beta-turn structures. Highly acidic and alkaline pH conditions induced changes in band intensity attributed to intermolecular beta-sheet structure (1681 and 1619 cm-1). Addition of chaotropic salts led to progressive changes in band intensity, following the lyotropic series of anions, whereas several protein structure perturbants caused shifts in band positions. Heating at increasing temperature led to progressive decreases in alpha-helical content and increases in random coil structures, suggesting protein denaturation. This was accompanied by intensity increases in the intermolecular beta-sheet transitions. PMID:16140371

Ellepola, Sureka Weerakoon; Choi, Siu Mei; Ma, Ching Yung

2005-09-02

99

Conformational study of globulin from rice (Oryza sativa) seeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conformation of rice globulin (10%, w/v, in deuterated phosphate buffer, pD 7.4) under the influence of pH, chaotropic salts, several protein structure perturbants and heat treatments was studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Rice globulin exhibited seven major bands in the region of 1700-1600 cm-1 and the spectrum suggests high alpha-helical content with large quantities of beta-sheet and beta-turn structures. Highly acidic and alkaline pH conditions induced changes in band intensity attributed to intermolecular beta-sheet structure (1681 and 1619 cm-1). Addition of chaotropic salts led to progressive changes in band intensity, following the lyotropic series of anions, whereas several protein structure perturbants caused shifts in band positions. Heating at increasing temperature led to progressive decreases in alpha-helical content and increases in random coil structures, suggesting protein denaturation. This was accompanied by intensity increases in the intermolecular beta-sheet transitions.

Ellepola SW; Choi SM; Ma CY

2005-10-01

100

Selenium regulates gene expression for estrogen sulfotransferase and alpha 2U-globulin in rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary intake of the essential trace element selenium (Se) regulates expression of genes for selenoproteins and certain non-Se-containing proteins. However, these proteins do not account for all of Se's biological effects. The objective of this work was to identify additional genes whose expression is regulated by Se. Identification of these genes may reveal new functions for Se or define mechanisms for its biological effects. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Se/kg diet as sodium selenite for 13 weeks. Total RNA was used as template for RNA fingerprinting. Two differentially expressed cDNA fragments were identified and cloned. The first had 99% nucleotide identity with rat liver estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) isoform-6. The second had 99% nucleotide sequence identity with rat liver alpha 2u-globulin. The mRNA levels for both were markedly reduced in Se deficiency. Laser densitometry showed that EST mRNA in Se deficiency was 7.3% of that in Se-adequate rat liver. The level of alpha 2u-globulin mRNA in Se-deficient rat liver was only 12.6% of that in Se-adequate rat liver. These results indicate that dietary Se may play a role in steroid hormone metabolism in rat liver. PMID:9618024

Yang, Q; Christensen, M J

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

[Potentials for the combined use of gentamycin with gamma globulin and vitamins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rabbits and pigs were used to study the resorption and retention of gentamycin dissolved in swine gamma globulin, swine polyglobulin, in water (gentamycin ampoules) and as a combined preparation with gamma-globulin and vitamins (gentaglobin). It was found that the protein solutions of gentamycin as compared to the water solutions at i/m application to rabbits and pigs give higher and persistent concentrations in the blood serum. At muscular application to pigs at the rate of 0.002/kg gentaglobin was retained in bacteriostatic concentrations in the blood serum for 12 hours. In pigs the gentamycin preparation, no matter what solvent was used, was eliminated comparatively very quickly through the bile and urine. It is stated that the quarantine for gentaglobin-treated pigs intended for slaughter should be 72 hours, the kidneys of such animals being excluded from human consumption. Gentamycin in the gentaglobin preparation has been found to retain its activity in the course of one year at +4 degrees C.

Dilov P; Boiadzhieva A; Iotov M; Dimitrov K

1981-01-01

102

[Potentials for the combined use of gentamycin with gamma globulin and vitamins].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbits and pigs were used to study the resorption and retention of gentamycin dissolved in swine gamma globulin, swine polyglobulin, in water (gentamycin ampoules) and as a combined preparation with gamma-globulin and vitamins (gentaglobin). It was found that the protein solutions of gentamycin as compared to the water solutions at i/m application to rabbits and pigs give higher and persistent concentrations in the blood serum. At muscular application to pigs at the rate of 0.002/kg gentaglobin was retained in bacteriostatic concentrations in the blood serum for 12 hours. In pigs the gentamycin preparation, no matter what solvent was used, was eliminated comparatively very quickly through the bile and urine. It is stated that the quarantine for gentaglobin-treated pigs intended for slaughter should be 72 hours, the kidneys of such animals being excluded from human consumption. Gentamycin in the gentaglobin preparation has been found to retain its activity in the course of one year at +4 degrees C. PMID:6178208

Dilov, P; Boiadzhieva, A; Iotov, M; Dimitrov, K

1981-01-01

103

In vitro thyroid testing in populations with low thyroxine binding globulin capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total thyroxine (T4) concentration in serum is a reliable indicator of thyroid function in most individuals, but it is affected by altered concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in serum. Within certain limits, the variations in total TBG binding capacity (TBGTOTAL) caused by the fluctuations in the concentration of this binding globulin in serum can be modulated by calculating the free thyroxine index (FT4I) as the product of T4 and the in vitro uptake of triiodothyronine by a secondary binder (T3U). This calculation is empirically based on the facts that free TBG binding capacity (TBGFREE) is inversely related to T3U and that T4 and T3U show opposite behaviour when measured in sera with altered TBG: a low T4 in serum with reduced TBGTOTAL is compensated by a high value for T3U, while an elevated T4 in serum with increased TBGTOTAL is compensated by a low value for T3U. In both cases the product of T4 and T3 renders a normal FT4I value, showing a certain association with the concentration of free T4 in serum (FT4). In fact, this index has been shown to be superior than several FT4 assay systems in the assessment of thyroid status in clinical euthyroid subjects with relatively high or low T3U

1992-01-01

104

Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin(R)) impairs the thymic output of both conventional and regulatory CD4+ T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Common disadvantages of treatment are infectious complications. The effects of rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ on thymic function have not been well-studied. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to analyze the kinetics of conventional and regulatory T cells in adult patients treated (n=12) or not treated (n=8) with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ during the first 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ had almost undetectable levels of recent thymic emigrants (CD45RA(+)CD31(+)) of both conventional and regulatory CD4T cells throughout the 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation whereas CD4(+)CD45RA-memory T cells were less affected, but their levels were also significantly lower than in patients not treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™. In vitro, rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ induced apoptosis and cytolysis of human thymocytes, and its cytotoxic effects were greater than those of rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Fresenius™. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ in combination with a conditioning regimen strongly impairs thymic recovery of both conventional and regulatory CD4(+) T cells. The sustained depletion of conventional and regulatory CD4(+)T cells carries a high risk of both infections and graft-versus-host disease. Our data indicate that patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin-Genzyme™ could benefit from thymus-protective therapies and that trials comparing this product with other rabbit antithymocyte globulin preparations or lymphocyte-depleting compounds would be informative.

Na IK; Wittenbecher F; Dziubianau M; Herholz A; Mensen A; Kunkel D; Blau O; Blau I; Thiel E; Uharek L; Scheibenbogen C; Rieger K; Thiel A

2013-01-01

105

A comparison of Jurkat cell-reactive anti-T lymphocyte globulin and fetal anti-thymocyte globulin preparations in the treatment of aplastic anemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the success rate and effects on survival of different anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) preparations in patients diagnosed with aplastic anemia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Of the total 24 patients included in the study, 12 were male and 12 female with a median age of 44 years (range 16-72). Nine patients received Lymphoglobulin®, 7 Thymoglobulin® and ATG-Fresenius® (ATG-F). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in terms of severity of aplastic anemia. RESULTS: The estimated 6-month survival rates for ATG-F, Lymphoglobulin and Thymoglobulin groups were 42.9, 77.8 and 71.4%, respectively. The difference in overall survival rates between groups was not significant, most likely due to the low number of patients. The most striking result was that none of the patients in the ATG-F preparation group showed any response to treatment. The ATG-F group was found to have a significantly inferior response rate (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that none of the patients responded to ATG-F treatment. Hence, despite the small number of the patients, we recommend that ATG-F should not be used for treatment of severe aplastic anemia.

Serefhanoglu S; Buyukasik Y; Purnak T; Goker H; Sayinalp N; Haznedaroglu IC; Ozcebe OI

2011-01-01

106

The fate of vicilins, 7S storage globulins, in larvae and adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments. PMID:20230826

Souza, Sheila M; Uchôa, Adriana F; Silva, José R; Samuels, Richard I; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Oliveira, Eliana M; Linhares, Ricardo T; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P

2010-03-20

107

The fate of vicilins, 7S storage globulins, in larvae and adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments.

Souza SM; Uchôa AF; Silva JR; Samuels RI; Oliveira AE; Oliveira EM; Linhares RT; Alexandre D; Silva CP

2010-09-01

108

Energy storage  

CERN Document Server

This is a comprehensive overview of energy storage concepts, methodologies and applications.Students will find chapters exploring the underlying energy storage fundamentals under various conditions, such as organic fuels, phase transitions and heat capacity, in addition to reversible chemical reactions. Important energy storage types such as mechanical, hydrogen and electromagnetic energy storage are discussed in a pedagogical language and structure accessible to students and researchers alike. Valuable coverage of various types of batteries are included, such as metal hydride / 'nickel', lith

Huggins, Robert

2010-01-01

109

Underground storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This meeting is divided into three parts: In the first part, 9 papers describe the problems connected with petroleum, natural gas or liquefied gas storage in geologic deposits. In the second part, the problems connected with radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits are described. 10 papers are in the INIS scope. In the third part, another forms of storage are studied (hazardous materials storage, heat storage).

1990-01-01

110

New aspects of storage protein accumulation in pea seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grain legumes are important not only because they rank fifth in world-wide production behind wheat, maize, rice and barley, but also because they have higher protein contents (20-40%) than most other seed types. The goal of our work is to obtain a more complete understanding of the cell biology of legume seed protein accumulation. To this end, we have used immunogold labeling techniques to study the localization of storage proteins in developing seeds of Pisum sativum. This presentation focuses on two novel observations related to the intracellular transport and storage of these seed proteins. Since continuities between the electron-dense cisternae and vacuoles may be disrupted by directional changes in the streaming cytoplasm during fixation, I re-examined the relationship between these two organelles in seeds in which cytoplasmic streaming was inhibited by chilling on ice. In a separate study, the distribution of both globulin (legumin and vicilin) and albumin (PA1) storage proteins in axis tissue of developing seeds was investigated. Using double labeling with 10 and 20 nm colloidal gold, compartmentation of a sulfur-rich albumin (PA1) and a globulin (vicilin) was demonstrated within individual vacuolar protein deposits in cells at the base of the epicotyl.

1986-01-01

111

Transfusion problems in renal allograft recipients. Anti-lymphocyte globulin showing Lutheran system specificity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heterologous anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is known to contain panagglutination activity and may cause a positive direct antiglobulin test in a renal allograft recipient. Three patients are reported in whom the passively acquired antibody showed apparent specificity in the Lutheran blood group system. The sera of these patients and eluates from their red cells displayed reactivity consistent with a Lutheran-related antibody. While the neat ALG acted as a panagglutinin, the Lutheran system specificity appeared only following dilution of the ALG. This specificity did not appear to represent a separate, distinguishable antibody in the ALG product. Before considering the utilization of units of the rare Lu(a-b-) phenotype for transfusing a renal allograft patient who has a Lutheran-related antibody, investigation of ALG as a source of that antibody should be conducted.

Anderson HJ; Aubuchon JP; Draper EK; Ballas SK

1985-01-01

112

Effects of a high-pressure treatment on bovine gamma globulin and its reduction in allergenicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of a high-pressure treatment on the IgE-specific binding activity and structural changes to bovine gamma globulin (BGG), a beef allergen, were investigated. The allergenicity of pressure-treated BGG was also evaluated. We found that the IgE-specific binding activity and allergenicity of BGG were decreased by the high-pressure treatment. Almost no significant change in secondary structure was apparent for pressurized BGG, but a change in the tertiary structure was detected. The decreased IgE-specific binding activity and allergenicity of pressurized BGG were probably due to changes in the tertiary structure caused by pressurization. The results of this study suggest that a high-pressure treatment would be an effective food-processing technique to reduce the allergenicity of BGG.

Yamamoto S; Mikami N; Matsuno M; Hara T; Odani S; Suzuki A; Nishiumi T

2010-01-01

113

The families of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases from embryonic axes and cotyledons of Vicia seeds: developmental patterns, intracellular localization and functions in globulin proteolysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Families of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR) were found in Vicia seeds. cDNAs and antibodies were used to follow organ specificity and the developmental course of CPR-specific mRNAs and polypeptides. Four papain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR1, CPR2, proteinase A and CPR4) from vetch seeds (Vicia sativa L.) were analysed. CPR2 and its mRNA were already found in dry embryonic axes. CPR1 was only detected there during early germination. Both CPR1 and CPR2 strongly increased later during germination. In cotyledons, both CPR1 and CPR2 were only observed one to two days later than in the axis. Proteinase A was not found in axes. In cotyledons it could only be detected several days after seeds had germinated. CPR4 mRNA and polypeptide were already present in embryonic axes and cotyledons during seed maturation and decreased in both organs during germination. Purified CPR1, CPR2 and proteinase A exhibited partially different patterns of globulin degradation products in vitro. Although the cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence of the precursor of proteinase A has an N-terminal signal peptide, the enzyme was not found in vacuoles whereas the other papain-like CPRs showed vacuolar localization. Four different legumain-like cysteine proteinases (VsPB2, proteinase B, VnPB1 and VnPB2) of Vicia species were analysed. Proteinase B and VnPB1 mRNAs were detected in cotyledons and seedling organs after seeds had germinated. Proteinase B degraded globulins isolated from mature vetch seeds in vitro. VsPB2 and proteinase B are localized to protein bodies of maturing seeds and seedlings, respectively, of V. sativa. Like VsPB2 from V sativa, also VnPB2 of V. narbonensis corresponds to vacuolar processing enzymes (betaVPE). Based on these results different functions in molecular maturation and mobilization of storage proteins could be attributed to the various members of the CPR families.

Fischer J; Becker C; Hillmer S; Horstmann C; Neubohn B; Schlereth A; Senyuk V; Shutov A; Müntz K

2000-05-01

114

Allosteric modulation of hormone release from thyroxine and corticosteroid-binding globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The release of hormones from thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is regulated by movement of the reactive center loop in and out of the ?-sheet A of the molecule. To investigate how these changes are transmitted to the hormone-binding site, we developed a sensitive assay using a synthesized thyroxine fluorophore and solved the crystal structures of reactive loop cleaved TBG together with its complexes with thyroxine, the thyroxine fluorophores, furosemide, and mefenamic acid. Cleavage of the reactive loop results in its complete insertion into the ?-sheet A and a substantial but incomplete decrease in binding affinity in both TBG and CBG. We show here that the direct interaction between residue Thr(342) of the reactive loop and Tyr(241) of the hormone binding site contributes to thyroxine binding and release following reactive loop insertion. However, a much larger effect occurs allosterically due to stretching of the connecting loop to the top of the D helix (hD), as confirmed in TBG with shortening of the loop by three residues, making it insensitive to the S-to-R transition. The transmission of the changes in the hD loop to the binding pocket is seen to involve coherent movements in the s2/3B loop linked to the hD loop by Lys(243), which is, in turn, linked to the s4/5B loop, flanking the thyroxine-binding site, by Arg(378). Overall, the coordinated movements of the reactive loop, hD, and the hormone binding site allow the allosteric regulation of hormone release, as with the modulation demonstrated here in response to changes in temperature. PMID:21325280

Qi, Xiaoqiang; Loiseau, François; Chan, Wee Lee; Yan, Yahui; Wei, Zhenquan; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Myers, Rebecca M; Ley, Steven V; Read, Randy J; Carrell, Robin W; Zhou, Aiwu

2011-02-16

115

Fasting induces the generation of serum thyronine-binding globulin in Zucker rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five-month-old lean and obese Zucker rats were fasted for up to 7 days (lean rats) or 28 days (obese rats), and serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations, percent free T4 and T3 by equilibrium dialysis, and the binding of [125I] T4 to serum proteins by gel electrophoresis were measured. In the lean rats, a 4- or 7-day fast resulted in significant decreases in serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations. There was a decrease in the percent free T3 after 7 days of starvation. In contrast, a 4- or 7-day fast did not alter any of these variables in the obese rats. However, after 14 or more days of starvation, serum total T4 and T3 concentrations increased, and the percent free T4 and T3 decreased, resulting in no change in the serum free T4 or T3 concentrations in the obese rats. The percent of [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin increased and the percent bound to thyronine-binding prealbumin decreased with the duration of the fast in both the lean and obese rats. The increase in serum thyronine-binding globulin binding of T4 can explain the increase in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, the decrease in percent free T4 and T3, and the normal free hormone concentration in the long term fasted obese rats. The findings in the lean rats appear to be due to a combination of the known central hypothyroidism that occurs during 4-7 days of fasting and the fasting-induced changes in T4 binding in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in serum during fasting in the rat must be considered when the effects of fasting on serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone kinetics, and the peripheral action of the thyroid hormones are evaluated

1985-01-01

116

Mathematical model for determination of colloid osmotic pressure: The role of albumin-globulin ratio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colloid Osmotic Pressure (COP) is an important factor in the fluid balance of body compartments. COP is related to Total Protein (TP) concentration and Albumin: Globulin Ratio (A/G). The A/G was not included in pervious empirical models, and therefore the main objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to determine the COP in terms of TP concentration and A/G. METHODS: Sera with different A/G were prepared in-vitro, and COP was measured directly using colloid osmometer. The relationship between COP, TP concentration and A/G were determined mathematically. The validity of developed empirical models was confirmed by statistical comparison between measured and calculated COP in 122 serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients and healthy individuals. RESULTS: By non-linear regression, the following relationships were found between COP, TP concentration and A/G. All coefficients were statistically significant (p<0.05): COP = (4.0814 A/G TP)/(A/G + 0.0153 TP); r2 = 0. 91272. COP = [5.3192 A/G -2.2252 (A/G)2 + 0.2939 (A/G)3] TP; r2 = 0.94737 No significant differences were indicated between measured COP and calculated one in clinical data. CONCLUSIONS: The variation of A/G may be the most effective factor for the differences between calculated and measured COP. This parameter must be considered when the direct measurement of COP is unavailable. KEY WORDS: Mathematical model, colloid osmotic pressure, oncotic pressure, albumin-globulin ratio.

Mehdi Nematbakhsh; Ali Moradi; Majid Khazaei; Somaieh Jafari

2006-01-01

117

Globulin-platelet model predicts minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To establish a simple model consisting of the routine laboratory variables to predict both minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 114 chronic HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy in two different hospitals. Thirteen parameters were analyzed by step-wise regression analysis and correlation analysis. A new fibrosis index [globulin/platelet (GP) model] was developed, including globulin (GLOB) and platelet count (PLT). GP model = GLOB (g/mL) × 100/PLT (× 109/L). We evaluated the receiver operating characteristics analysis used to predict minimal fibrosis and compared six other available models. RESULTS: Thirteen clinical biochemical and hematological variables [sex, age, PLT, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, GLOB, total bilirubin (T.bil), direct bilirubin (D.bil), glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, HBV DNA and prothrombin time (PT)] were analyzed according to three stages of liver fibrosis (F0-F1, F2-F3 and F4). Bivariate Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed that six variables, including age, PLT, T.bil, D.bil, GLOB and PT, were correlated with the three fibrosis stages (FS). Correlation coefficients were 0.23, -0.412, 0.208, 0.220, 0.314 and 0.212; and P value was 0.014, 0.05), the AUC of GP model was the largest among the seven models. CONCLUSION: By establishing a simple model using available laboratory variables, chronic HBV-infected patients with minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis can be diagnosed accurately, and the clinical application of this model may reduce the need for liver biopsy in HBV-infected patients.

Xu-Dong Liu; Jian-Lin Wu; Jian Liang; Tao Zhang; Qing-Shou Sheng

2012-01-01

118

Safety and pharmacokinetic evaluation of intravenous vaccinia immune globulin in healthy volunteers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) administered via the intramuscular route has historically been used for the treatment of complications of smallpox vaccination. Intravenous formulations of VIG are required to improve tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile. METHODS: We conducted 2 separate studies to evaluate the feasibility of administration of an intravenous formulation of antivaccinia immune globulin (VIGIV). The first study assessed the pharmacokinetics and safety of a newly manufactured lyophilized VIG product for intravenous administration (VIGIV-lyo). Seventy-eight healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of VIGIV-lyo at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg. In the second study, we evaluated the safety of a liquid product of VIGIV (VIGIV-liq) in 33 healthy volunteers receiving an intravenous infusion of 100 mg/kg VIGIV-liq. RESULTS: The geometric mean titer of VIG at the target dose (100 mg/kg) after intravenous administration is 2.5 times higher than the predicted geometric mean titer after intramuscular injection (P<.001). The pharmacokinetics of VIGIV-lyo are linear for doses from 100 mg/kg through 500 mg/kg. Administration of the 200-mg/kg and 500-mg/kg doses of VIGIV-lyo does not result in markedly higher adverse event rates. The adverse event rates observed with the liquid product are comparable to those seen with the lyophilized product. CONCLUSIONS: These 2 studies suggest that intravenous administration of VIG is well tolerated and results in a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than does VIG administered intramuscularly.

Hopkins RJ; Kramer WG; Blackwelder WC; Ashtekar M; Hague L; Winker-La Roche SD; Berezuk G; Smith D; Leese PT

2004-09-01

119

Rapid postexposure decay of. cap alpha. /sub 2u/-globulin and hyaline droplets in the kidneys of gasoline-treated male rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin content increased to 210% of control within 18 h of a single oral dose of gasoline (2.0 ml/kg) in male rats; maximal levels (320% of control) were attained following gasoline administration for 3 d. Increases in renal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin caused by gasoline were accompanied by concurrent proliferation of hyaline droplets. However, within 3 d of terminating gasoline administration renal ..cap alpha../sub2u/-globulin content decreased to the same level as that in unexposed rats, although renal hyaline droplet number returned to pretreatment levels somewhat more slowly. The conjoint effect of postexposure recovery and estradiol (an inhibitor of hepatic ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin synthesis) administration was also determined in male rats. On postexposure of 3, 6, and 9, estradiol treatment (1 mg/kg, sc, 4 d, starting on d 9 of gasoline treatment) decreased renal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin content to 75%, 59%, and 48%, respectively, of that in rats allowed to recover from gasoline with no hormone treatment. Hepatic ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin content in estradiol-treated rats was decreased by 74%, 97%, and 96% at the same intervals. Estradiol treatment during recovery from gasoline also appeared to increase the removal of accumulated hyaline droplets from the renal cortex. Thus, accumulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin-containing hyaline droplets after subacute exposure of male rats to gasoline is rapidly reversible, dependent on continuous exposure to gasoline and maintenance of the normal rate of hepatic ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin synthesis. These results emphasize the dynamic state of renal cortical hyaline droplets and suggest strongly that gasoline hydrocarbons cause hyaline droplet accumulation by prolonging the half-time degradation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin.

Garg, B.D.; Olson, M.J.; Demyan, W.F.; Roy, A.K.

1988-01-01

120

Energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Energy storage  

CERN Multimedia

Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

Brunet, Yves

2013-01-01

122

Preferential interaction of ?-globulin from sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) with cosolvents is accompanied by the protein structural reorganization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of a cosolvent on the structure and stability of a protein depends upon the nature of preferential protein- water, protein-cosolvent or cosolvent-water interactions. The preferential interaction parameters of glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose with ?-globulin (from Sesamum indicum L. seeds) were evaluated and the results showed the exclusion of cosolvents and preferential hydration of the protein. Data from fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and thermal stability measurements inferred that the preferential hydration had a considerable effect on the structure of protein under native conditions. Such cosolvent-protein interactions bring out a previously unnoticed, but outstanding phenomenon of cosolvent induced structural effects on the protein. This study reveals that these cosolvents interact with ?-globulin in such a way that they induce a structural reshuffling to enhance the protein stability, mostly by intensifying intra-molecular hydrophobic interactions.

Sekhar PM; Yadav JK

2013-05-01

123

Preferential interaction of ?-globulin from sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) with cosolvents is accompanied by the protein structural reorganization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a cosolvent on the structure and stability of a protein depends upon the nature of preferential protein- water, protein-cosolvent or cosolvent-water interactions. The preferential interaction parameters of glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose with ?-globulin (from Sesamum indicum L. seeds) were evaluated and the results showed the exclusion of cosolvents and preferential hydration of the protein. Data from fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and thermal stability measurements inferred that the preferential hydration had a considerable effect on the structure of protein under native conditions. Such cosolvent-protein interactions bring out a previously unnoticed, but outstanding phenomenon of cosolvent induced structural effects on the protein. This study reveals that these cosolvents interact with ?-globulin in such a way that they induce a structural reshuffling to enhance the protein stability, mostly by intensifying intra-molecular hydrophobic interactions. PMID:23061669

Sekhar, P M Guna; Yadav, Jay Kant

2013-05-01

124

Fasting induces the generation of serum thyronine-binding globulin in Zucker rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five-month-old lean and obese Zucker rats were fasted for up to 7 days (lean rats) or 28 days (obese rats), and serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations, percent free T4 and T3 by equilibrium dialysis, and the binding of (/sup 125/I) T4 to serum proteins by gel electrophoresis were measured. In the lean rats, a 4- or 7-day fast resulted in significant decreases in serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations. There was a decrease in the percent free T3 after 7 days of starvation. In contrast, a 4- or 7-day fast did not alter any of these variables in the obese rats. However, after 14 or more days of starvation, serum total T4 and T3 concentrations increased, and the percent free T4 and T3 decreased, resulting in no change in the serum free T4 or T3 concentrations in the obese rats. The percent of (/sup 125/I)T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin increased and the percent bound to thyronine-binding prealbumin decreased with the duration of the fast in both the lean and obese rats. The increase in serum thyronine-binding globulin binding of T4 can explain the increase in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, the decrease in percent free T4 and T3, and the normal free hormone concentration in the long term fasted obese rats. The findings in the lean rats appear to be due to a combination of the known central hypothyroidism that occurs during 4-7 days of fasting and the fasting-induced changes in T4 binding in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in serum during fasting in the rat must be considered when the effects of fasting on serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone kinetics, and the peripheral action of the thyroid hormones are evaluated.

Young, R.A.; Rajatanavin, R.; Moring, A.F.; Braverman, L.E.

1985-04-01

125

Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat) confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST) and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP), a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71%) received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2) and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP), with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out that a negative SST result may lead the health team to a feeling of false safety that no adverse reaction will occur, but this is not true for the anaphylactoid reactions. The decision to use premedication, which is based on knowledge about anaphylaxis and on the pharmacology of the medication used, is left to the judgment of health professionals, who should always be prepared for eventual untoward events.

CUPO Palmira; AZEVEDO-MARQUES Marisa M. de; SARTI Willy; HERING Sylvia Evelyn

2001-01-01

126

Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel

2010-01-01

127

Retrospective diagnosis of Q fever in a country abattoir by the use of specific IgM globulin estimations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-two cases of pyrexial illness which occurred amongst workers in a country abattoir were investigated retrospectively for Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. In 18, the illness was shown to be Q fever. No diagnoses were established for the other four. The demonstration of circulating Q-fever-specific IgM globulin was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis in many of the cases.

Murphy, A.M.; Hunt, J.G.

1981-10-03

128

Thyroxine-binding globulin radioimmunoassay using a purified standard. Comparison of the results with those obtained from the maximal binding capacity of serum from thyroxine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors studied the binding of thyroxine in the serum. They determined from the analysis of the curvilinear Scatchard plot the affinity constant between thyroxine-binding globulin and thyroxine, and the maximal thyroxine binding capacity of thyroxine-binding globulin. After having prepared a highly purified thyroxine-binding globulin standard the authors determined the serum concentration of this protein by a radioimmunoassay. They compared the results of this assay with the results obtained from the maximal binding capacity for thyroxine. They found these two different determinations of thyroxine binding globulin concentration, which were analyzed as a function of the results reported in various papers, to be in excellent agreement[fr] Les auteurs etudient la liaison de la thyroxine avec les proteines du serum, ils determinent par analyse de l'isotherme de Scatchard non lineaire la constante d'affinite de la liaison thyroxine-binding globulin-thyroxine et la capacite maximale de fixation de l'hormone par la proteine. Apres avoir prepare un standard de thyroxine-binding globulin hautement purifiee, les auteurs determinent la concentration serique de cette proteine par un dosage radioimmunologique. Ils comparent le resultat de ce dosage avec celui que l'on peut deduire de la capacite maximale de fixation de la thyroxine. Ils trouvent une excellente concordance entre ces deux determinations independantes qui sont ensuite analysees en fonction des resultats de la litterature

1981-01-01

129

[Serum gamma globulin concentration in goat kids after colostrum administration: effect of time of administration, volume and type of colostrum  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended.

Orsel K; van Amerongen JJ; Zadoks RN; van Doorn DC; Wensing T

2000-12-01

130

[Serum gamma globulin concentration in goat kids after colostrum administration: effect of time of administration, volume and type of colostrum].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended. PMID:11125608

Orsel, K; van Amerongen, J J; Zadoks, R N; van Doorn, D C; Wensing, T

2000-12-01

131

Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-/sup +/g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state.

Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

1987-05-15

132

Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-+g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state

1987-05-15

133

Thermal denaturation of pea globulins (Pisum sativum L.)-molecular interactions leading to heat-induced protein aggregation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of mixed pea globulins (8%, w/w) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SDS-PAGE, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC). DSC data showed that the pea proteins denaturation temperature (T(d)) was heating-rate dependent. The T(d) value decreased by about 4 °C by lowering the heating rate from 10 to 5 °C/min. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that protein denaturation upon heating at 90 °C was mainly governed by noncovalent interaction. The SEC-HPLC measurements indicated that low-denatured legumin (?350-410 kDa) and vicilin/convicilin (?170 kDa) globulins were heat-denatured and most of their subunits reassociated into high-molecular weight, soluble aggregates (>700 kDa). The addition of N-ethylmaleimide slightly modified the aggregation route of pea globulins. However, partially insoluble macroaggregates were produced in the presence of dithiothreitol, reflecting the stabilizing effect of disulfide bonds within legumin subunits.

Mession JL; Sok N; Assifaoui A; Saurel R

2013-02-01

134

The impact of antithymocyte globulin on short-term toxicity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is commonly used in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Little information is available, however, as to the optimal protocol for use and the side-effects occurring if ATG is administered in high daily doses (10-30 mg/kg). We report our experience with ATG Fresenius (ATG-F) in conditioning for allogeneic HSCT. During a period of 3 days, 47 patients received doses between 10 and 30 mg/kg either over 4 h preceded by 1-1.5 mg/kg prednisolone 30 min before the start of ATG-F (protocol A) or alternatively, over 12 h with 3-4 mg/kg prednisolone being administered before and 6 h after start of ATG (protocol B). During treatment with ATG-F, the side-effects observed included inflammation, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hyperdynamic circulation and renal dysfunction. Although these complications caused substantial morbidity, they were reversible within a few days. Side-effects were significantly more severe in patients treated according to protocol A than in those treated according to protocol B. As prolonged infusion of ATG-F does not reduce T cell clearance due to the long half-life of ATG-F, and since less cytokine release during conditioning might have beneficial long-term effects, we recommend administering ATG-F over 12 h preceded by high-dose steroid treatment. PMID:12235518

Pihusch, R; Holler, E; Mühlbayer, D; Göhring, P; Stötzer, O; Pihusch, M; Hiller, E; Kolb, H-J

2002-09-01

135

The impact of antithymocyte globulin on short-term toxicity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is commonly used in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Little information is available, however, as to the optimal protocol for use and the side-effects occurring if ATG is administered in high daily doses (10-30 mg/kg). We report our experience with ATG Fresenius (ATG-F) in conditioning for allogeneic HSCT. During a period of 3 days, 47 patients received doses between 10 and 30 mg/kg either over 4 h preceded by 1-1.5 mg/kg prednisolone 30 min before the start of ATG-F (protocol A) or alternatively, over 12 h with 3-4 mg/kg prednisolone being administered before and 6 h after start of ATG (protocol B). During treatment with ATG-F, the side-effects observed included inflammation, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hyperdynamic circulation and renal dysfunction. Although these complications caused substantial morbidity, they were reversible within a few days. Side-effects were significantly more severe in patients treated according to protocol A than in those treated according to protocol B. As prolonged infusion of ATG-F does not reduce T cell clearance due to the long half-life of ATG-F, and since less cytokine release during conditioning might have beneficial long-term effects, we recommend administering ATG-F over 12 h preceded by high-dose steroid treatment.

Pihusch R; Holler E; Mühlbayer D; Göhring P; Stötzer O; Pihusch M; Hiller E; Kolb HJ

2002-09-01

136

Efficient eukaryotic expression system for authentic human sex hormone-binding globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the main carrier for androgens and oestrogens in humans. It mediates the transport of steroid hormones in the circulation and testicular fluid, and regulates their bioavailability to steroid-responsive tissues. In addition, the protein interacts with membrane receptors expressed in target tissues. Binding to the receptors is suspected to facilitate the uptake of steroid hormones and/or elicit cellular signal transduction. The identity of the SHBG receptor has not yet been resolved, in part due to a lack of sufficient quantities of authentic SHBG for receptor purification and molecular characterization. We have successfully addressed this problem by establishing an episomal expression system in human embryonic kidney cells that produces 5 mg of fully active human SHBG per litre. The recombinant protein resembles native SHBG in terms of structure, glycosylation pattern and steroid-binding activity. Moreover, the protein interacts with plasma membranes in steroid target tissues, an activity not observed with SHBG from other recombinant expression systems. Thus our studies have removed an important obstacle to the further elucidation of the role SHBG plays in steroid hormone action.

Hilpert, J; Vorum, H; Burmeister, R; Spoelgen, R; Grishkovskaya, I; Misselwitz, R; Nykjaer, A; Willnow, T E

2001-01-01

137

Relationships between adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin and insulin resistance in hyperthyroid Graves' disease women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Adiponectin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) play a role in glucose metabolism. Hyperthyroidism has an impact on carbohydrate metabolism and could affect insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between insulin resistance, adiponectin and SHBG among hyperthyroid Graves` disease (GD) women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was undertaken in 60 women with hyperthyroidism in the course of GD; 32 healthy women matched by BMI and age formed the control group. The concentrations of: free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), SHBG, insulin, adiponectin and glucose were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-I) was calculated. RESULTS: Compared to euthyroid subjects, hyperthyroid GD women had elevated glucose, fT4, fT3, adiponectin and SHBG concentrations, but there were no differences in HOMA-I. When we explored the relations between adiponectin as well as SHBG with glucose and HOMA-I, we observed that HOMA-I was associated with adiponectin and SHBG only in the control group, and in hyperthyroidism there were no such connections. We found positive associations between adiponectin, SHBG, fT4 and fT3 in the GD group. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated concentrations of adiponectin and SHBG were observed in hyperthyroidism but they were not related to insulin resistance.

Siemi?ska L; Foltyn W; G?ogowska-Szel?g J; Kajdaniuk D; Marek B; Nowak M; Walczak K; Kos-Kud?a B

2013-01-01

138

Changes in serum sex hormone-binding globulin, free estradiol, and testosterone during gonadotropin treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), percent free E2, percent of E2 bound to SHBG, and testosterone (T) were evaluated in 28 ovulatory women during human menopausal gonadotropin-stimulated cycles for in vitro fertilization. Patients were divided into two categories: low responders, in whom serum E2 concentration reached levels less than 1000 pg/ml (mean, 638 +/- 93), and high responders, with serum E2 levels greater than 1000 pg/ml (mean, 2219 +/- 330). A significant increase in SHBG can occur within a short time in high responders (from 62.8 to 103.9 nmol/l) but not in low responders. This increase is accompanied by a significant decrease in the percent free (bioavailable) E2, but the distribution of E2 between the fraction bound to SHBG or albumin did not vary. Despite the increase in the levels of SHBG, the concentration of bioavailable (free) E2 in hyperstimulated women is higher than in normal cycles. The significant increase in T in high responders, by virtue of its higher affinity for SHBG, probably contributes to the increased levels of bioavailable E2.

Ben-Rafael Z; Mastroianni L Jr; Meloni F; Strauss JF 3rd; Flickinger GL

1986-10-01

139

Potential role of tumor necrosis factor-? in downregulating sex hormone-binding globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with obesity and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. The reason why obese individuals have low circulating SHBG has been attributed to hyperinsulinemia, but no mechanistic evidence has been described. The aim of the current study is to explore whether tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) rather than insulin could be the main factor accounting for low SHBG levels in obesity. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies using human HepG2 cells and human SHBG transgenic mice. In addition, a cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between TNF-? and SHBG in obese patients and an interventional study to examine the effect of insulin administration on circulating SHBG in type 2 diabetic patients were performed. We provide evidence that TNF-?, but not insulin, is the main factor by which SHBG is reduced in obesity. Plasma SHBG was significantly increased rather than decreased after insulin treatment in diabetic patients. TNF-?-induced reduction of SHBG expression was mediated by downregulating HNF4A. Finally, a negative and independent correlation was found between plasma TNF-? receptor 1 and SHBG levels in obese patients. Our results suggest that TNF-? plays an important role downregulating SHBG in chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Simó R; Barbosa-Desongles A; Lecube A; Hernandez C; Selva DM

2012-02-01

140

Induction with Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation for Hepatitis C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most common indication for liver transplantation in the US. Objective: Since steroids are the major stimulus of viral replication, we postulated that steroid-free immu-nosuppression might be a safer approach. Methods: From January 1995 to October 2002, we used steroid plus calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) immuno-suppression after liver transplantation for HCV (steroid group, n=81). From October 2002 to June 2007, rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG) induction, followed by CNI and azathioprine (RATG group, n=73) was utilized. Results: There were no differences in 1- and 3-year patient/allograft survival rates. The incidence of acute rejection rate (19% vs. 28%), of biopsy-proven HCV recurrence (70% vs. 75%), and chronic rejection (6% vs. 9%) were comparable. The mean time to develop recurrent HCV was significantly longer in the RATG group (16.2 vs. 9.2 months, p=0.008). The incidence of severe portal fibrosis appears to be lower in RATG group compared to the steroid group; 14% vs. 4% (p=0.07). Conclusions: RATG induction is safe and effective after liver transplantation for HCV, but has no impact on the incidence of HCV recurrence and patient/allograft survival. However, a significant delay in time to HCV recurrence and a trend toward less rejection and portal fibrosis was observed.

R. F. Saidi; M. Hertl; T. Chung; D. S. C. Ko; T. Kawai; J. Markmann; A. K. Bhan; A. B. Cosimi; N. Elias1

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Relationship between Post-kidney Transplantation Antithymocyte Globulin Therapy and Wound Healing Complications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Wound healing disorders are probably the most common post-transplantation surgical complications.It is thought that wound healing disturbance occurs due to antiproliferative effects of immunosuppressivedrugs. On the other hand, success of transplantation is dependent on immunosuppressivetherapies. Antihuman thymocyte globulin (ATG) has been widely used as induction therapy but the impactof this treatment on wound healing is not fully understood.Objective: To investigate wound healing complications after ATG therapy in renal transplant recipients.Methods: The medical records of 333 kidney transplant recipients were assessed for wound healing disorders.Among these patients, 92 received ATG and 5 doses of 1.5 mg/kg ATG along with the standardprotocol of drugs.Results: The mean age of patients was 38.9 years. Of 333 recipients, 92 (23.7%) received ATG; 21 (6.3%)developed wound healing complications. There was a significant relationship between ATG therapy andwound complications (p=0.034). Also, women were more likely to develop wound healing disorders thanmen (p=0.002). No statistical difference was observed between age and wound healing complication(p=0.28). There was no significant difference between the mean duration of hospitalization between ATGand Non-ATG group (p=0.9).Conclusion: ATG increases the risk of overall wound complications. It is needed to pay more attention tothe patients treated with this immunosuppressant to avoid the risk of re-interventions, lessen the durationof hospitalization and decrease the impairment of graft function.

G. R. Pourmand; S. Dehghani; A. Saraji; S. Khaki; S. H. Mortazavi; A. Mehrsai; H. Sajadi

2012-01-01

142

Anti-Cryptococcal-Globulin-Latex Production for Rapid Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans Polysaccharide Antigen in Cryptococcosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptococcosis has become the fourth leading life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS, but also occurs in non-AIDS patients. In view of the increasing numbers of infection during last decade in Iran, use of rapid, sensitive and specific test for diagnosis of cryptococcal disease has become important than ever. We aimed to produce the reagents for latex cryptococcal antigen test. The antigen was prepared from NCPF 3168 strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. Anticapsular antiserum of C. neoformans raised in rabbits and latex carboxylate- modified beads were coated with antiserum. The maximally- reactive globulin dilution was obtained at dilution of 1:400. For evaluation of efficacy of reagents, challenged 38 BALB/C mice and other 38 mice were used as controls. The mice were bled and autopsied. Brain, heart and lung were checked by direct, histopathological and cultural examination for cryptococcosis. The sera from case and control mice were tested with Immunomycologic (Immy) kit and also our produced reagents (OPR) for detection of cryptococcal antigen. Moreover, 15 cerebrospinal fluid and 15 serum samples from patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 30 with aspergillosis, 30 with suspected other fungal infections, and 30 from healthy individuals were tested as well. The results showed that the sensitivity (97.3%) and specificity (100%) of OPR was quite comparable with those of Immy kit . Therefore, it could be regarded as a substitute for commercial kits.

F Zaini; M Safara; P Kordbacheh; M Pezeshki; B Beheshti

2005-01-01

143

Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

2002-01-01

144

Hepatic uptake of desialylated testosterone-oestradiol-binding globulin in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Testosterone-oestradiol-binding globulin (TeBG) isolated from bovine serum was desialylated by treatment with neuraminidase and its properties were compared with intact TeBG. No significant differences were observed in the testosterone-binding capacity or antigenic determinant, but electrophoretic mobility of asialo-TeBG decreased slightly. When injected into rat vein, 125I-labelled asialo-TeBG was rapidly taken up by the liver, whereas 125labelled intact TeBG remained in the circulation for a much longer period. Galactose oxidase treatment of asialo-TeBG, which presumably oxidized the primary alcohol of galactose at C-6 to an aldehyde, caused a reversion of its survival time in the blood to that of intact TeBG. When incubated with isolated rat liver cells at 20degC, the desialylated, but not intact, TeBG was rapidly taken up, ant its uptake was inhibited by excess amount of asialo-orosomucoid. Under these conditions in vitro, [3H]testosterone bound to asialo-TeBG was taken by the liver cells together with the asialo-TeBG. (author)

1979-01-01

145

EFFECT OF COMBINATION EXERCISE TRAINING ON SEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies indicated that decreased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) can increase the risk ofbreast cancer and its recurrences in postmenopausal women. On the other hand; it’s possible thatexercise training can affect SHBG. Therefore; the aim of current study was to clarify the effectof combination exercise training on SHBG in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Thus;29 postmenopausal women with breast cancer that received surgery; chemotherapy and radiationtherapy divided in to two groups; experimental and control. Subjects of experimental groupperformed 15 weeks combination exercise training including walking (2 sessions per week) andresistance training (2 sessions per week different from walking days). Pre and post of 15 weeks;body weight; BMI andserum SHBG levels were measured in to two groups. Data were analyzedusing by ANCOVA and significant levels set as p<0.05. The findings of present studydemonstrated that combination exercise training has significant effect on body weight; BMI andserum SHBG levels (p< 0.05). In experimental group; body weight and BMI were decreased andSHBG levels were increased; after 15 weeks. In conclusion; combination exercise training canincrease serum SHBG levels in postmenopausal women with breast cancer; significantly.Because of elevated serum or plasma SHBG levels can reduce risk of breast cancer and itsrecurrences; combination exercise training during treatment can reduce recurrence of breastcancer by increased levels of SHBG.

Reza Nuri

2011-01-01

146

Antithymocyte globulin induction therapy improves survival in lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition that leads to respiratory failure and is the third most common indication for adult bilateral lung transplantation (LuTX). In contrast to other lung diseases, the immune system of CF patients is up-regulated and we therefore hypothesized that these patients would benefit from induction therapy. In the current study, we investigated the impact of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction therapy in CF patients after LuTX. One hundred and forty six patients who underwent LuTX for CF at our centre between January 1999 and December 2010 were included in the study and retrospectively analysed. They were divided into two groups according to the immunosuppressive protocol: group-A (n = 103) with and group-B (n = 43) without induction therapy on top of the basic calcineurin inhibitor based triple immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Perioperative survival was significantly better in the ATG group, a benefit sustained for the entire follow-up. ATG induction resulted in a significantly lower incidence of acute rejections without an increase in infectious complications. Taken together, our results indicate that ATG induction therapy confers a significant survival benefit in CF patients undergoing LuTX and reduces rejection. We advocate the use of induction therapy in this patient cohort.

Jaksch P; Wiedemann D; Augustin V; Muraközy G; Scheed A; Kocher AA; Klepetko W

2013-01-01

147

In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [3H]5?-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 ?M concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost

2009-01-01

148

[Successful treatment of idiopathic pure red cell aplasia with antithymocyte globulin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An 18-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe anemia on October 16, 1999. Laboratory data included hemoglobin 3.5 g/dl, reticulocytes 2,200/microliter, WBC 3,500/microliter, and Plt 38.5 x 10(4)/microliter. Bone marrow aspiration showed a normocellular marrow with severe erythroid hypoplasia, suggesting a diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was started on October 20, but there was no response. Administration of cyclosporine A (CyA; 400-450 mg) was begun on November 1, but again there was no response. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG; 800 mg/day for 5 days, 15 mg/kg) was started from December 1 in addition to prednisolone (60 mg/day) and CyA (450 mg/day). On day 7 of ATG therapy, the reticulocyte count began to increase, and reached a peak of 32.6 x 10(4)/microliter on day 20. The patient's hemoglobin level started to increase on day 13, and reached 8.5 g/dl on day 27. A complete response has been maintained up to the time of writing, and the hemoglobin level was 11.9 g/dl on December 14, 2000. This is the first detailed Japanese case report of successful treatment of pure red cell aplasia using ATG.

Soda M; Usuki K; Adachi Y; Kazama H; Iki S; Urabe A

2001-11-01

149

Hyporesponsiveness to glucocorticoids in mice genetically deficient for the corticosteroid binding globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) is the carrier for glucocorticoids in plasma. The protein is believed to keep the steroids inactive and to regulate the amount of free hormone acting on target tissues (free hormone hypothesis). Here, we generated a mouse model genetically deficient for CBG to test the contribution of the carrier to glucocorticoid action and adrenocortical stress response. The absence of CBG resulted in a lack of corticosterone binding activity in serum and in an approximately 10-fold increase in free corticosterone levels in CBG-null mice, consistent with its role in regulation of circulating free hormone levels. Surprisingly, cbg(-/-) animals did not exhibit features seen in organisms with enhanced glucocorticoid signaling. Rather, the mice exhibited increased activity of the pituitary axis of hormonal control, normal levels of gluconeogenetic enzymes, and fatigue, as well as an aggravated response to septic shock, indicating an inability to appropriately respond to the excess free corticosterone in the absence of CBG. Thus, our data suggest an active role for CBG in bioavailability, local delivery, and/or cellular signal transduction of glucocorticoids that extends beyond a function as a mere cargo transporter.

Petersen, Helle Heibroch; Andreassen, Thomas K

2006-01-01

150

Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (?20%), pauci-mannosidic (?40%), and complex forms (?40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants ?-1,2-xylose and ?-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectin containing two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy.

Dam S; Thaysen-Andersen M; Stenkjær E; Lorentzen A; Roepstorff P; Packer NH; Stougaard J

2013-07-01

151

Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (?20%), pauci-mannosidic (?40%), and complex forms (?40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants ?-1,2-xylose and ?-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectin containing two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy. PMID:23799247

Dam, Svend; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stenkjær, Eva; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Packer, Nicolle H; Stougaard, Jens

2013-06-25

152

Energy storage cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book deals with the characteristics and potentialities of energy storage cells of various types. Attention is given to electrical energy storage cells (electrochemical, electrostatic, and electrodynamic cells), mechanical energy storage cells (mechanical flywheel storage cells), and hybrid storage systems.

Gulia, N.V.

1980-01-01

153

Immunosuppression with antithymocyte globulin in renal transplantation: better long-term graft survival.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the impact of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in renal transplantation. We retrospectively studied 1217 recipients performed from July 83 to December 03. ATG-Fresenius-S (ATG-F) was used for induction therapy in 492 patients (40.4%; group I) and compared with group II, 725 patients (59.6%), without antilymphocyte induction. Groups were comparable in terms of recipient gender and race distribution; time on dialysis; cause of renal disease; number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches; donor age, gender, and creatinine; and cold ischemia time. Patients with ATG-F were younger (35.8 +/- 13.8 vs 38.9 +/- 12.5 years, P < .001), more frequently hypersensitized (10% vs 3%, P < .001), and had more second transplants (15.7% vs 5.8%, P < .001). The incidence of acute rejection episodes was lower among ATG-F patients (23.6% vs 32.1%, P = .004). Admission time and incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) were similar in the two groups. Graft survival at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years was 88.9%, 80.7%, 71.3%, and 64.9% in group I and 86.4%, 77.4%, 60.7%, and 48.4% in group II (P = .003). The difference in patient survival over the same follow-up did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of graft failure was higher for those who did not receive ATG-F (HR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.00; P = .004). Donor age and DGF were also independent predictors of graft failure. Our results showed a better long-term graft survival among patients who received ATG-F, despite their higher immunological risk. The absence of induction with ATG-F, donor age, and DGF were independent risk factors for graft failure.

Martins L; Fonseca I; Almeida M; Henriques AC; Dias L; Sarmento AM; Cabrita A

2005-07-01

154

Differential regulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway by rabbit antithymocyte globulins in kidney transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Induction therapy is associated with excellent short-term kidney graft outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the intragraft transcriptome after successful induction therapy using two rabbit antithymocyte globulins. METHODS: The expression of 376 target genes involved in tolerance, inflammation, T- and B-cell immune response, and apoptosis was evaluated using the quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (2(-??Ct)) method in kidney graft biopsies with normal histological findings and stable renal function, 3 months posttransplantation after induction therapy with Thymoglobulin, ATG-Fresenius S (ATG-F), and a control group without induction therapy. RESULTS: The transcriptional pattern induced by Thymoglobulin differed from ATG-F in 18 differentially expressed genes. Down-regulation of genes involved in the nuclear factor-?B pathway (TLR4, MYD88, and CD209), costimulation (CD80 and CTLA4), apoptosis (NLRP1), chemoattraction (CCR10), and dendritic cell function (CLEC4C) was observed in the biopsies from patients treated with Thymoglobulin. A hierarchical clustering analysis clearly separated the Thymoglobulin group from the ATG-F group, while the control group had a similar profile as the Thymoglobulin group. CONCLUSIONS: Despite normal morphology in graft biopsy taken 3 months posttransplantation, the intrarenal transcriptome differed in patients treated with induction therapy using different rATGs. In the Thymoglobulin high-risk group, the transcriptome profile was identical to the low-risk group. Therefore, the down-regulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway after Thymoglobulin induction in vivo is likely to explain the clinical success of this biologic.

Urbanova M; Brabcova I; Girmanova E; Zelezny F; Viklicky O

2012-03-01

155

Nineteen years of experience utilizing anti-T-Lymphocyte globulin induction in pediatric kidney transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The optimal immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation remains controversial. Since 1990, we included, in our department, anti-T-Lymphocyte globulin Fresenius® (ATG-F) in a sequential immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric recipients of deceased donor kidneys. We analysed retrospectively the complications and long-term outcomes. MATERIAL/METHODS: Ninety eight kidney transplants were performed in 91 children and adolescents between November 1990 and October 2009, using deceased donor source grafts. In 86.8% of the recipients ATG-F was used as antibody induction and in 12.2% of the recipients no ATG-F induction was used. RESULTS: Overall graft survival rates at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years were 91.8%, 86.1%, 75.9% and 61.9% respectively. In the ATG-F group the graft survival at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years was 93%, 89.1%, 79%, 62.4% and in group without ATG-F it was 83.3%, 66.7%, 55.6% at 1, 5, 10 years respectively (p=0.27). The overall incidence of infection was 1.6/patient in the first year post-transplantation and almost all were of mild or moderate intensity. A papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in one patient and no lymphoid malignancies were observed during the observational period. All patients were alive at the end of follow-up, except one who died of cardiovascular disease, 7 months after graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ATG-F induction in pediatric kidney transplantation using deceased donor kidneys is associated with good graft and patient survival rates, and with low levels of complications.

Mota C; Martins L; Costa T; Dias L; Almeida M; Santos J; Faria MS; Henriques AC; Almeida R

2010-10-01

156

Immunosuppression with antithymocyte globulin in renal transplantation: better long-term graft survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the impact of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in renal transplantation. We retrospectively studied 1217 recipients performed from July 83 to December 03. ATG-Fresenius-S (ATG-F) was used for induction therapy in 492 patients (40.4%; group I) and compared with group II, 725 patients (59.6%), without antilymphocyte induction. Groups were comparable in terms of recipient gender and race distribution; time on dialysis; cause of renal disease; number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches; donor age, gender, and creatinine; and cold ischemia time. Patients with ATG-F were younger (35.8 +/- 13.8 vs 38.9 +/- 12.5 years, P ATG-F patients (23.6% vs 32.1%, P = .004). Admission time and incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) were similar in the two groups. Graft survival at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years was 88.9%, 80.7%, 71.3%, and 64.9% in group I and 86.4%, 77.4%, 60.7%, and 48.4% in group II (P = .003). The difference in patient survival over the same follow-up did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of graft failure was higher for those who did not receive ATG-F (HR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.00; P = .004). Donor age and DGF were also independent predictors of graft failure. Our results showed a better long-term graft survival among patients who received ATG-F, despite their higher immunological risk. The absence of induction with ATG-F, donor age, and DGF were independent risk factors for graft failure. PMID:16182802

Martins, L; Fonseca, I; Almeida, M; Henriques, A C; Dias, L; Sarmento, A M; Cabrita, A

157

A sensitive and specific method for determining testosterone estradiol binding globulin (TeBG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A simple, rapid and highly sensitive method for measuring TeBG and how it can be used for obtaining a Free Testosterone Index (FTI) is described. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is used instead of testosterone owing to its higher affinity for this globulin. Non-specific binding (NSB) is estimated by incubating the plasma samples in parallel, with and without a 100-fold excess of cold DHT. To determine the level at which TeBG becomes saturated and to work far from this region of the curve, where sensitivity diminishes, hot-only experiments were performed. Saturation was found to occur beyond 1000 pg DHT. Control normal sera were compared with samples from hypogonadic patients and Scatchard plots were done to find a parallel between the two groups and a point of maximal discrimination among them at about 500 pg DHT. Since an excellent reproducibility between experiments was found, Scatchard plots were not routinely done and only the binding capacity of a control normal pool at the point of maximal discrimination was compared to that of the unknown sample and calculated as follows: TeBG binding capacity = DHT bound by the normal pool/DHT bound by the unknown. The FTI is obtained by multiplying the total testosterone by the TeBG binding capacity. Total testosterone (Tt), TeBG and FTI were analysed in 38 normal volunteers classified according to age in four groups: 20-30 (n=13), 40-50 (n=7), 50-60 (n=8), 60-70 (n=10). Although a slight difference was observed when Tt was compared between the different age groups (P

1982-01-01

158

Gene amplification as a cause of inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess in two Japanese families  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

T{sub 4}-binding globulin (TBG) is the major thyroid hormone transport protein in man. Inherited abnormalities in the level of serum TBG have been classified as partial deficiency, complete deficiency, and excess. Sequencing analysis of the TBG gene, located on Xq21-22, has uncovered the molecular defects causing partial and complete deficiency. However, the mechanism leading to inherited TBG excess remains unknown. In this study, two Japanese families, F-A and F-T, with inherited TBG excess were analyzed. Serum TBG levels in hemizygous males were 58 and 44 {mu}g/mL, 3- and 2-fold the normal value, respectively. The molecule had normal properties in terms of heat stability and isoelectric focussing pattern. The sequence of the coding region and the promoter activity of the TBG gene were also indistinguishable between hemizygotes and normal subjects. The gene dosage of TBG relative to that of {beta}-globin, which is located on chromosome 11, and Duchenne muscular dystropy, which is located on Xp, was evaluated by coamplification of these target genes using polymerase chain reaction and subsequent quantitation by HPLC. The TBG/{beta}-globin ratios of the affected male and female of F-A were 3.13 and 4.13 times, respectively, that in the normal males. The TBG/Duchenne muscular dystrophy ratios were 2.92 and 2.09 times the normal value, respectively. These results are compatible with three copies of TBG gene on the affected X-chromosome. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in gene dosage was demonstrated in the affected hemizygote of F-T. A 3-fold tandem amplification of the TBG gene was shown by in situ hybridization of prometaphase and interphase chromosomes from the affected male with a biotinylated genomic TBG probe, confirming the gene dosage results. Gene amplification of TBG is the cause of inherited TBG excess in these two families. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Mori, Yuichi; Miura, Yoshitaka; Saito, Hidehiko [Toyota Memorial Hospital (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01

159

Associations between sex hormone binding globulin and metabolic syndrome parameters in premenopausal obese women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in premenopausal obese women and to evaluate the relationships between sex hormones and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 350 obese patients aged 25 to 69 years referred to the Department of Endocrinology, Pamukkale University in 2002-2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 125 premenopausal euthyroid patients were eligible for this study. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI): Group I, women with BMI 2 (n = 17) and Group II,, women with BMI > or = 30 kg/m 2 (n = 108). Median SHBG concentration of Group I was 50.1 nmol/L. Group II was divided into two subgroups according to the median SHBG concentration of Group I: subjects with high SHBG levels (SHBG concentration > or = median level of the control group, i.e > or = 50.1 nmol/L) and subjects with low SHBG levels ( RESULTS: No significant difference was found in mean age between the low and high SHBG groups. The low SHBG group was significantly heavier, and with higher waist circumference than the high SHBG group. In the low SHBG group, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and free androgen index (FAI) were significantly higher. Lipid profile, blood pressure, uric acid, insulin and HOMA were found similar between two groups. Linear regression analyses revealed that body mass index and FAI were significant, being independent predictors of SHBG concentrations in premenopausal women. (r = 0.365, r square = 0.134). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that low SHBG concentrations may indicate visceral obesity and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women.

Akin F; Bastemir M; Alkis E; Kaptanoglu B

2008-10-01

160

Associations between sex hormone binding globulin and metabolic syndrome parameters in premenopausal obese women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to determine sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in premenopausal obese women and to evaluate the relationships between sex hormones and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Settings and Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 350 obese patients aged 25 to 69 years referred to the Department of Endocrinology, Pamukkale University in 2002-2003. Materials and Methods: 125 premenopausal euthyroid patients were eligible for this study. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI): Group I, women with BMI 2 (n = 17) and Group II,, women with BMI ? 30 kg/m 2 (n = 108). Median SHBG concentration of Group I was 50.1 nmol/L. Group II was divided into two subgroups according to the median SHBG concentration of Group I: subjects with high SHBG levels (SHBG concentration ? median level of the control group, i.e ? 50.1 nmol/L) and subjects with low SHBG levels ( Results: No significant difference was found in mean age between the low and high SHBG groups. The low SHBG group was significantly heavier, and with higher waist circumference than the high SHBG group. In the low SHBG group, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and free androgen index (FAI) were significantly higher. Lipid profile, blood pressure, uric acid, insulin and HOMA were found similar between two groups. Linear regression analyses revealed that body mass index and FAI were significant, being independent predictors of SHBG concentrations in premenopausal women. (r = 0.365, r square = 0.134). Conclusions: It is concluded that low SHBG concentrations may indicate visceral obesity and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women.

Akin Fulya; Bastemir Mehmet; Alkis Esma; Kaptanoglu Bunyamin

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about medical products, explain facts about content and processes, and suggest further dialog with informed religious leaders. Key considerations for observant believers for each populous religion are described.

Grabenstein JD

2013-04-01

162

What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about medical products, explain facts about content and processes, and suggest further dialog with informed religious leaders. Key considerations for observant believers for each populous religion are described. PMID:23499565

Grabenstein, John D

2013-02-26

163

Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

1988-01-01

164

Intravenous immune globulin in hereditary inclusion body myopathy: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) is an autosomal recessive, adult onset, non-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder with no effective treatment. The causative gene, GNE, codes for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyzes the first two reactions in the synthesis of sialic acid. Reduced sialylation of muscle glycoproteins, such as ?-dystroglycan and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has been reported in HIBM. Methods We treated 4 HIBM patients with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), in order to provide sialic acid, because IgG contains 8 ?mol of sialic acid/g. IVIG was infused as a loading dose of 1 g/kg on two consecutive days followed by 3 doses of 400 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Results For all four patients, mean quadriceps strength improved from 19.0 kg at baseline to 23.2 kg (+22%) directly after IVIG loading to 25.6 kg (+35%) at the end of the study. Mean shoulder strength improved from 4.1 kg at baseline to 5.9 kg (+44%) directly after IVIG loading to 6.0 kg (+46%) at the end of the study. The composite improvement for 8 other muscle groups was 5% after the initial loading and 19% by the end of the study. Esophageal motility and lingual strength improved in the patients with abnormal barium swallows. Objective measures of functional improvement gave variable results, but the patients experienced improvements in daily activities that they considered clinically significant. Immunohistochemical staining and immunoblotting of muscle biopsies for ?-dystroglycan and NCAM did not provide consistent evidence for increased sialylation after IVIG treatment. Side effects were limited to transient headaches and vomiting. Conclusion The mild benefits in muscle strength experienced by HIBM patients after IVIG treatment may be related to the provision of sialic acid supplied by IVIG. Other sources of sialic acid are being explored as treatment options for HIBM.

Sparks Susan; Rakocevic Goran; Joe Galen; Manoli Irini; Shrader Joseph; Harris-Love Michael; Sonies Barbara; Ciccone Carla; Dorward Heidi; Krasnewich Donna; Huizing Marjan; Dalakas Marinos C; Gahl William A

2007-01-01

165

The association between sex hormone-binding globulin and type 2 diabetes in Nigerian men  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) has a role in glucose homeostasis in both men and women. However, a prospective study on Japanese-American subjects concluded that SHBG was not a significant risk factor in either men or women, suggesting ethnic differences. We were not aware of any evaluation of SHBG in subjects of African ancestry.Objectives: We investigated the association between SHBG and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic diabetic men in a hospital in Nigeria.Method: Forty-eight male subjects with type 2 diabetes and 20 non-diabetic male subjects were recruited in this cross-sectional hospital-based study by the convenient sampling method. Height and circumferences around the waist and hip were measured to the nearest 0.5 cm and the waist–hip ratio was calculated from this measurement. Weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. Fasting plasma glucose concentration was measured by theglucose oxidase method with a between-run coefficient of variation of 3%. Insulin and SHBG were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: There was a statistically-significant difference between test results for the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean SHBG concentration was higher in the non-diabetic group (42.2 nmol/L) than the diabetic group (30.5 nmol/L). A significant inverse association between insulin resistance and SHBG was observed (r = 0.353, p < 0.015).Conclusion: This study supported earlier observations that a significant inverse correlation exists between SHBG and insulin resistance and provides evidence that the relationship may extend to type 2 diabetic men of African ancestry in Nigeria.

Fayefori M. Abbiyesuku; Augustine N. Agbakwuru; Olatunbosun O. Olawale

2013-01-01

166

Alternative donor transplants for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies, conditioned with thiotepa, cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparative regimens without total body irradiation (TBI) have been reported for alternative donor hemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). Between 7 September 1994 and 7 June 1999 48 patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were conditioned with thiotepa (THIO) 15 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide (CY) 150 mg/kg and antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Donors were HLA mismatched family members (1-2 antigens) (FAM) (n = 24, median age 31 years) or HLA matched unrelated donors (UD) (n = 24, median age 34 years). GVHD prophylaxis was cyclosporine and methotrexate. Stem cell source was peripheral blood (n = 8) or bone marrow (n = 40). Hematologic recovery was seen in 42/46 (91%) evaluable patients and complete chimerism in 31/37 patients (85%). Acute GVHD grades III-IV were seen in 10/46 patients surviving 10 days (21%) and extensive chronic GVHD in 2/36 patients surviving 100 days (5%). Twenty-six patients died (54%), eight of recurrent disease (17%) and 18 of transplant-related complications (37%): main causes of TRM were GVHD (15%), infections (15%) and graft failure (4%). Twenty-two patients (46%) survive with a median follow-up of 877 days (287-1840). The actuarial 3-year survival is 49% for FAM and 42% for UD transplants. Results obtained with this regimen in unrelated grafts for advanced CML (n = 15) were not significantly different when compared to 21 concurrent UD grafts for advanced CML prepared with CY-TBI. In conclusion, the combination of THIO-CY-ATG allows engraftment of alternative donor hemopoietic stem cells. Results are similar when using unrelated matched donors or partially mismatched family donors, and not significantly different when compared to patients conditioned with CY-TBI. PMID:11223970

Lamparelli, T; van Lint, M T; Gualandi, F; Raiola, A M; Barbanti, M; Sacchi, N; Ficai, G; Ghinatti, C; Bregante, S; Berisso, G; Dominietto, A; Di Grazia, C; Bruno, B; Sessarego, M; Casarino, L; Verdiani, S; Bacigalupo, A

2000-12-01

167

Alternative donor transplants for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies, conditioned with thiotepa, cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preparative regimens without total body irradiation (TBI) have been reported for alternative donor hemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). Between 7 September 1994 and 7 June 1999 48 patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were conditioned with thiotepa (THIO) 15 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide (CY) 150 mg/kg and antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Donors were HLA mismatched family members (1-2 antigens) (FAM) (n = 24, median age 31 years) or HLA matched unrelated donors (UD) (n = 24, median age 34 years). GVHD prophylaxis was cyclosporine and methotrexate. Stem cell source was peripheral blood (n = 8) or bone marrow (n = 40). Hematologic recovery was seen in 42/46 (91%) evaluable patients and complete chimerism in 31/37 patients (85%). Acute GVHD grades III-IV were seen in 10/46 patients surviving 10 days (21%) and extensive chronic GVHD in 2/36 patients surviving 100 days (5%). Twenty-six patients died (54%), eight of recurrent disease (17%) and 18 of transplant-related complications (37%): main causes of TRM were GVHD (15%), infections (15%) and graft failure (4%). Twenty-two patients (46%) survive with a median follow-up of 877 days (287-1840). The actuarial 3-year survival is 49% for FAM and 42% for UD transplants. Results obtained with this regimen in unrelated grafts for advanced CML (n = 15) were not significantly different when compared to 21 concurrent UD grafts for advanced CML prepared with CY-TBI. In conclusion, the combination of THIO-CY-ATG allows engraftment of alternative donor hemopoietic stem cells. Results are similar when using unrelated matched donors or partially mismatched family donors, and not significantly different when compared to patients conditioned with CY-TBI.

Lamparelli T; van Lint MT; Gualandi F; Raiola AM; Barbanti M; Sacchi N; Ficai G; Ghinatti C; Bregante S; Berisso G; Dominietto A; Di Grazia C; Bruno B; Sessarego M; Casarino L; Verdiani S; Bacigalupo A

2000-12-01

168

[Experimental study of a combination preparation of a ferrodextran complex, gamma-globulin, trace elements and vitamins].  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined preparation was produced, containing the Bulgarian ferrodextran complex, edema-disease gamma-globulin, microelements (Co, Mn, Cu), and vitamins (B1, B6, PP), pro uso veterinario. It was found that the product (B-50), kept under ordinary conditions in the course of one year, does not change its physicochemical properties and is not distinguished substantially by toxicity (Fe3+/kg liveweight) from the initial ferrodextran complex, but is resorbed more slowly following its muscular application to rabbits. B50 combines the properties of the fast-resorbing ferrodextran preparations giving slight local coloration with those of preparations having antianemic, growth-stimulating, and resistance enhancing effects. PMID:52938

Boiadzhieva, A; Iotov, M; Dilov, P

1975-01-01

169

[Experimental study of a combination preparation of a ferrodextran complex, gamma-globulin, trace elements and vitamins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A combined preparation was produced, containing the Bulgarian ferrodextran complex, edema-disease gamma-globulin, microelements (Co, Mn, Cu), and vitamins (B1, B6, PP), pro uso veterinario. It was found that the product (B-50), kept under ordinary conditions in the course of one year, does not change its physicochemical properties and is not distinguished substantially by toxicity (Fe3+/kg liveweight) from the initial ferrodextran complex, but is resorbed more slowly following its muscular application to rabbits. B50 combines the properties of the fast-resorbing ferrodextran preparations giving slight local coloration with those of preparations having antianemic, growth-stimulating, and resistance enhancing effects.

Boiadzhieva A; Iotov M; Dilov P

1975-01-01

170

Antithymocyte globulin induction therapy adjusted for immunologic risk after heart transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction in the therapy of immunologically low- and high-risk patients after heart transplantation is not known. METHODS: All patients who received ATG induction from January 2000 through January 2010 were divided into two groups based on the risk of rejection. A higher-risk group (age younger than 60 years, multiparous females, African Americans, panel-reactive antibody >10%, or positive cross-match) received ATG (1.5 mg/kg) for 7 days (ATG7), and the remaining lower-risk group received ATG for 5 days (ATG5), all followed by calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate, and prednisone. Endomyocardial biopsies were performed based a standard protocol for up to 3 years after heart transplantation, and for suspected rejection. RESULTS: Of 253 heart transplant recipients, 87 received ATG5 and 166 ATG7. Absolute lymphocyte count <200 per microliter was achieved within 10 days in 88% of ATG5 and 86% of ATG7. Baseline creatinine was 1.3 ± 0.8 pre-transplantation, 1.8 ± 0.9 post-transplantation, and 1.0 ± 0.4 mg/dL at discharge (mean ± standard deviation [SD]; P < .001, compared with pre-transplantation). Of 3667 biopsies, 33 (0.90%) had ?3A/2R cellular rejection (CR). Of 3599 biopsies, 16 (0.44%) had definite antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). At 5 years, freedom from ?3A/2R CR (94% ± 2.8% vs 83% ± 7.7%; P = .31) and freedom from AMR (95% ± 2.4% vs 90% ± 6.4%; P = .98) were similar between ATG5 and ATG7, respectively. Survival for ATG5 and ATG7 was comparable at one year (94% ± 2.5% vs 93% ± 2.0%), and at 8 years (61% ± 6.9% and 61% ± 4.7%; P = .88). At 5 years, ATG5 and ATG7 were similar in freedom from cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (92.3% vs 94.3%; P = not significant [NS]), freedom from pneumonia (83.8% vs 82.1%; P = NS), and in rate of malignancy (excluding skin cancer; 8.0% vs 6.0%; P = NS). CONCLUSIONS: ATG induction therapy (prospectively dose-adjusted for immunologic risk) in low- and high-risk patients results in excellent and equivalent short- and long-term survival rates, with a low incidence of CR and AMR. The use of ATG does not increase rates of CMV infection with appropriate prophylaxis. ATG may benefit renal function by delaying calcineurin inhibitor exposure, and may have a role in the prevention of AMR.

Czer LS; Phan A; Ruzza A; Rafiei M; Setareh-Shenas S; Caceres M; Awad M; Soliman C; Mirocha J; De Robertis M; Kass RM; Trento A

2013-07-01

171

Proteome profiling of seed storage proteins reveals the nutritional potential of Salicornia brachiata Roxb., an extreme halophyte.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte that grows in salty marshes and is considered to be a potential alternative crop for seawater agriculture. Salicornia seeds are rich in protein, and its tender shoots are eaten as salad greens. Seed storage proteins were fractionated by sequential extraction using different solvents, including distilled water for albumins, NaCl (1.0 M) for globulins, NaOH (0.1 N) for glutelins, and ethanol (70% v/v) for prolamins. Globulins accounted for 54.75% of the total seed storage proteins followed by albumins (34.30%) and glutelins (8.70%). The fractionated proteins were characterized using 2D-diagonal SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The globulin fraction, composed of seven intermolecular disulfide-linked polypeptide pairs of molecular mass 63.5, 62.5, 54.7, 53.0, 43.2, 38.5, and 35.1 kDa, encompassed a basic and an acidic subunit. Two-dimensional gels revealed approximately 32 spots, with isoelectric points and molecular masses ranging from 4.93 to 11.6 and from ?5.2 to ?109.4 kDa, respectively. Protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS peptide mass fingerprint analysis and further classified. Homology analysis demonstrated that 19% of the proteins were involved in metabolism, 16% were involved in signaling, and 15% were regulatory proteins. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis confirmed the presence of inter- and intramolecular disulfide linkages in the globulin fraction. Sulfur-rich proteins are of high nutritional value, and disulfides make S. brachiata a potential source of dietary supplementation. PMID:22494338

Jha, Bhavanath; Singh, Nater Pal; Mishra, Avinash

2012-04-17

172

Proteome profiling of seed storage proteins reveals the nutritional potential of Salicornia brachiata Roxb., an extreme halophyte.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte that grows in salty marshes and is considered to be a potential alternative crop for seawater agriculture. Salicornia seeds are rich in protein, and its tender shoots are eaten as salad greens. Seed storage proteins were fractionated by sequential extraction using different solvents, including distilled water for albumins, NaCl (1.0 M) for globulins, NaOH (0.1 N) for glutelins, and ethanol (70% v/v) for prolamins. Globulins accounted for 54.75% of the total seed storage proteins followed by albumins (34.30%) and glutelins (8.70%). The fractionated proteins were characterized using 2D-diagonal SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The globulin fraction, composed of seven intermolecular disulfide-linked polypeptide pairs of molecular mass 63.5, 62.5, 54.7, 53.0, 43.2, 38.5, and 35.1 kDa, encompassed a basic and an acidic subunit. Two-dimensional gels revealed approximately 32 spots, with isoelectric points and molecular masses ranging from 4.93 to 11.6 and from ?5.2 to ?109.4 kDa, respectively. Protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS peptide mass fingerprint analysis and further classified. Homology analysis demonstrated that 19% of the proteins were involved in metabolism, 16% were involved in signaling, and 15% were regulatory proteins. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis confirmed the presence of inter- and intramolecular disulfide linkages in the globulin fraction. Sulfur-rich proteins are of high nutritional value, and disulfides make S. brachiata a potential source of dietary supplementation.

Jha B; Singh NP; Mishra A

2012-05-01

173

International reference reagents: antihuman globulin. An ISBT/ICSH joint working party report. International Society of Blood Transfusion. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international working party has conducted a study designed to select a suitable reference reagent for antihuman globulin, to replace those first made available in 1987. The chosen preparation contains levels of anti-IgG and anti-C3 (anti-C3c and anti-C3d) potency that are considered suitable to serve for reference when evaluating either polyspecific antihuman globulin reagents or those containing their separate monospecific components. The reference material is available in 2-ml freeze-dried aliquots from seven assigned distribution centres. PMID:10516559

Case, J; Ford, D S; Chung, A; Collins, R; Kochman, S; Mazda, T; Overbeeke, M; Perera, R; Sakuldamrongpanich, T; Scott, M; Voak, D; Zupa?ska, B

1999-01-01

174

International reference reagents: antihuman globulin. An ISBT/ICSH joint working party report. International Society of Blood Transfusion. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An international working party has conducted a study designed to select a suitable reference reagent for antihuman globulin, to replace those first made available in 1987. The chosen preparation contains levels of anti-IgG and anti-C3 (anti-C3c and anti-C3d) potency that are considered suitable to serve for reference when evaluating either polyspecific antihuman globulin reagents or those containing their separate monospecific components. The reference material is available in 2-ml freeze-dried aliquots from seven assigned distribution centres.

Case J; Ford DS; Chung A; Collins R; Kochman S; Mazda T; Overbeeke M; Perera R; Sakuldamrongpanich T; Scott M; Voak D; Zupa?ska B

1999-01-01

175

[Gamma globulin as a prophylactic measure in an outbreak of hepatitis A in an institution for mentally retarded children (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outbreak of hepatitis A was observed in an institution for mentally handicapped children. Within 2 months 21 cases occurred in 4 out of 7 groups. By means of gamma-globulin administration and measures of general hygiene, the outbreak, although not immediately stopped, was brought under control. The number of overt cases was reduced and further transmission to 3 other groups was prevented. The detection of IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus proved to be very suitable for diagnostic purposes. Subsequently it turned out that the gamma-globulin used had a very low titre in comparison with other preparations. Recommendations are given to prevent similar outbreaks in the future.

Hofmann H; David H; Frisch-Niggemeyer W; Kunz C

1981-10-01

176

Non-overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients during treatment with antithymocyte globulin for unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the effect of rabbit antithymocyte globulin manufactured by Fresenius (ATG-F) on the hemostatic system in patients (n=12) with various hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-matched unrelated donors. For this purpose, we monitored different parameters of coagulation before, during and after the administration of ATG-F. As a control group, we recruited patients (n=10) undergoing HSCT from their HLA-identical siblings who did not receive ATG-F as part of their preparative regimens. At 24 and 48 h after ATG-F treatment had been initiated, we found a temporary rise in D-Dimer, tissue factor, soluble thrombomodulin and thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels and a significant decrease of platelet counts in patients treated with ATG-F as compared to the control group. No differences between the two groups could be detected with regard to global coagulation tests as well as the incidence of bleeding manifestations, thromboembolic complications or the development of vascular-occlusive-disease of the liver. This temporary state of a stressed but compensated coagulation system under ATG-F therapy can be addressed as nonovert disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The effect was independent from the different conditioning regimens and eased off after cessation of ATG-F. We conclude that ATG-F can induce nonovert DIC in patients receiving antithymocyte globulin as part of their conditioning regimen for HSCT. PMID:12732891

Weber, M; Kröger, N; Langer, F; Hansen, A; Zabelina, T; Eifrig, B; Hossfeld, D K; Zander, A R

2003-05-01

177

Non-overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients during treatment with antithymocyte globulin for unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We assessed the effect of rabbit antithymocyte globulin manufactured by Fresenius (ATG-F) on the hemostatic system in patients (n=12) with various hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-matched unrelated donors. For this purpose, we monitored different parameters of coagulation before, during and after the administration of ATG-F. As a control group, we recruited patients (n=10) undergoing HSCT from their HLA-identical siblings who did not receive ATG-F as part of their preparative regimens. At 24 and 48 h after ATG-F treatment had been initiated, we found a temporary rise in D-Dimer, tissue factor, soluble thrombomodulin and thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels and a significant decrease of platelet counts in patients treated with ATG-F as compared to the control group. No differences between the two groups could be detected with regard to global coagulation tests as well as the incidence of bleeding manifestations, thromboembolic complications or the development of vascular-occlusive-disease of the liver. This temporary state of a stressed but compensated coagulation system under ATG-F therapy can be addressed as nonovert disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The effect was independent from the different conditioning regimens and eased off after cessation of ATG-F. We conclude that ATG-F can induce nonovert DIC in patients receiving antithymocyte globulin as part of their conditioning regimen for HSCT.

Weber M; Kröger N; Langer F; Hansen A; Zabelina T; Eifrig B; Hossfeld DK; Zander AR

2003-05-01

178

Prolonged, low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin, combined with CTLA4-Ig, promotes engraftment in a stringent transplant model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite significant nephrotoxicity, calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) remain the cornerstone of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. We, along with others, have reported tolerogenic properties of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG, Thymoglobulin®), evinced by its ability both to spare Tregs from depletion in vivo and, when administered at low, non-depleting doses, to expand Tregs ex vivo. Clinical trials investigating B7/CD28 blockade (LEA29Y, Belatacept) in kidney transplant recipients have proven that the replacement of toxic CNI use is feasible in selected populations. METHODS: Rabbit polyclonal anti-murine thymocyte globulin (mATG) was administered as induction and/or prolonged, low-dose therapy, in combination with CTLA4-Ig, in a stringent, fully MHC-mismatched murine skin transplant model to assess graft survival and mechanisms of action. RESULTS: Prolonged, low-dose mATG, combined with CTLA4-Ig, effectively promotes engraftment in a stringent transplant model. Our data demonstrate that mATG achieves graft acceptance primarily by promoting Tregs, while CTLA4-Ig enhances mATG function by limiting activation of the effector T cell pool in the early stages of treatment, and by inhibiting production of anti-rabbit antibodies in the maintenance phase, thereby promoting regulation of alloreactivity. CONCLUSION: These data provide the rationale for development of novel, CNI-free clinical protocols in human transplant recipients.

D'Addio F; Boenisch O; Magee CN; Yeung MY; Yuan X; Mfarrej B; Vergani A; Ansari MJ; Fiorina P; Najafian N

2013-01-01

179

In vivo release of testosterone from ?-globulin-drug delivery composites made by radiation after melt-pressing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rigid ?-globulin matrix (50 mg) as a carrier for drug delivery system was made by ?-ray irradiation after melt-pressing at 750C under a pressure of 100 kg/cm2. The in vivo degradation (weight loss) of the matrix when implanted subcutaneously in the back of wistar rats was about 1.9% at 90th day from implantation. When 0.1 M Tartarate buffer solution (pH 1.8) containing 0, 0.005, 0.01 and 0.1 w/v% pepsin was used as a digestive medium (370C), the in vitro degradation (weight loss) of the matrix was 1.2, 31.4, 45.7 and 53.9% at 90th day from start of the test, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that the in vivo degradation of the matrix was much slower than that in vitro. On the basis of these results, testosterone (15 mg) as a drug was entrapped in ?-globulin matrix irradiated after melt-pressing. The in vivo degradation of matrix itself was significantly accelerated in the presence of drug, and reached up to 57.4% at 90th day from implantation. The in vivo release of drug from the composites was investigated using castrated Wistar rats. Furthermore, the study of the relationship between the in vivo release of drug and the physiological response (change in weight of the ventral prostate) indicated that the efficacious drug release continued up to 60 days. (author)

1983-01-01

180

Genetic variability of albumin-globulin content, and lipoxygenase, peroxidase activities among bread and durum wheat genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classical Osborne wheat proteins fraction (albumin-globulin), as well as several polypeptides from the non-gluten protein fraction using SDS-PAGE analyses were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L.) and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) genotypes. In addition, the activity rate of lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes implicated in the antioxidant metabolism was determined. Albumins and globulins in wheat grains were characterized by rich protein pattern - the number of bands varied from 19 to 23 and they were defined by molecular weight 76.4-12.4 kDa. The great differences between bread and durum wheat polypeptide contents were found. Result pointed out that polypeptides with molecular weight of 65.6, 43.5 and 32.9 kDa could be used to differentiate the bread from durum wheat. Significant differences in the LOX and POD activity between and within two wheat species were detected. Present study showed in durum wheat a lower activities of LOX and POD enzymes for about 45 and 22%, respectively, than in bread wheat. Our results could be useful for plant breeders in screening and selecting of better raw materials with high protein quality for the flour, breadmaking and pasta industry.

Žili? Sla?ana; Bara? Miroljub; Peši? Mirjana; Hadži-Taškovi?-Šukalovi? Vesna; Dodiga Dejan; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Jankovi? Marijana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

182

Solar energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water tank storage, pebble bed heat storage, adsorbent beds, and thermochemical storage of solar energy are discussed. The thermodynamics of thermochemical heat storage and criteria for selection of thermochemical reaction are discussed. (WHK)

Mahajan, S.P.; Mudgal, A.G. (comp.)

1980-01-01

183

Isoforms of thyroxine-binding globulin as a model for molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The novel field of molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk has added a new branch to classical epidemiology by providing a direct link between human cancer and carcinogen exposure. It was estimated that about 80% of cancers are due to environmental factors. The blood proteins are almost certainly targets for modification in human cancer, and their identification and characterization will be of primary importance in the development of the new and rapidly evolving field of molecular epidemiology. Among blood proteins that are altered in human cancer, TBG occupies a special place because the level of human blood TBG is the most sensitive to intensification of biosynthesis and proliferation processes in organisms in different types of cancer. The increase of TBG concentration in cancer can be result from both activation of TBG biosynthesis in liver or altering of post translation glycosylation that prolongs protein survival time. The molecular basis for the change in the properties of TBG in cancer is unknown. These distinctive changes could have important consequences for the function of TBG in cancer and may help to develop more precise markers for monitoring pathological progression in this disease. Considerable variability and subtlety can occur in the carbohydrate composition and structure of serum glycoproteins in disease. This can be either as a major change, such as an increase in the number of oligosaccharide branches at a particular glycosylation site or as a minor change such as the addition of an extra fucose or sialic acid residue. Increased fucosylation has also been reported for transferrin and alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer; thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer, IgG in myeloma, haptoglobin in ovarian cancer. The last own studies have shown that in clinically healthy teenagers born in Khojniki (137 Cs 185-555 kBq/m), we have found an unusual thyroid profile exhibiting increased levels of total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) by 50-60%, but no elevation in free T4, as compared with similar control groups of from Minsk. One of the reasons for the euthyroid syndrome in teenagers from the contaminated region was shown to be the blood isoforms in TBG. These isoforms differed in the structure of the carbohydrate components and as a rule are characterized by a prolonged circulation time. Using specific affinity chromatography, with subsequent immunological assay we shown that a certain amount of serum TBG-molecules in persons from Khojniki contains a high level of TBG (about 30% higher than the control group) containing fucosyalated biantennary sugar chains with more prolonged survival time. Previous findings showed that increased levels of fucosylation are observed for some serum glycoproteins in the blood of tumour patients. We provide evidence for variations in the TBGfuc which are contained in the serum TBG pool of patients suffering from cancer with various localisation. Thus, analysis of TBGfuc may be regarded as a prognostic marker in the determination of risk groups. The molecular mechanism of increased activity of fucosyl transferases will be discussed. We propose to measure the level of TBG fucosylated to assess the human cancer risk and habitants of contaminated region of Belarus. (authors)

2000-01-01

184

LENTIL TANNIN-GLOBULIN INTERACTIONAND AND IN VITRO HYDROLYSIS INTERAÇÃO TANINO-GLOBULINA DE LENTILHA E HIDRÓLISE IN VITRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein fractions were isolated from lentil cotyledons and tannins were isolated and purified from lentil seed coats. The globulin fraction corresponded to 42.7% of the total lentil flour nitrogen, representing the major protein fraction. Acetone:water (7:3) was the best extractant for seed coat tannins compared to methanol or methanol-HCl 1%. Native and heated (99oC/15 min.) isolated lentil globulin and casein were hydrolyzed with trypsin and pepsin in the absence of tannins and at 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:2.5 tannin-to-protein ratios. The tryptic and peptic hydrolysis of the unheated proteins were reduced with increasing tannin-to-protein ratios. Unheated casein showed to be more susceptible to trypsin than globulin and the opposite effect was observed with pepsin. Heating followed by tannin interaction and hydrolysis had a more pronounced effect on tryptic than peptic digestion for both proteins.As frações protéicas foram isoladas dos cotiledones e os taninos isolados e purificados da casca da lentilha. A fração globulina correspondeu a 42,7 % do nitrogenio total da farinha de lentilha representando a fração protéica majoritária. Comparativamente ao metanol e metanol-HCl 1% a mistura acetona:água (7:3) representou o melhor meio extrator para os taninos da casca. A fração globulina isolada, nativa e aquecida (99oC/15 min), e caseína foram hidrolisadas com tripsina e pepsina na ausência de taninos e na presença de relações tanino:proteína de 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5 e 1:2,5. A hidrólise tríptica e péptica das proteínas não-aquecidas foram reduzidas com o aumento da relação tanino-proteína. A caseína não aquecida mostrou ser mais susceptível à tripsina que à globulina, o oposto sendo observado com a pepsina. O aquecimento seguido de interação com os taninos e hidrólise teve um efeito mais pronunciado sobre a digestão com tripsina que com pepsina para ambas proteínas.

Valdir A. NEVES; Euclides J. LOURENÇO

1998-01-01

185

Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteriod-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression  

Science.gov (United States)

In swine, more than 60% of cortisol in circulation is bound to its carrier glycoprotein, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (pCBG), and is considered biologically inactive. Limitations exist when only total plasma cortisol levels are used to assess the stress response in swine in situations whe...

186

The Effects of Estradiol and Estriol on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormone-Binding Globulins and on Aldosterone and Cortisol Secretion Rates in Man*  

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The effects of estriol and estradiol on the plasma levels of cortisol- and thyroxine-binding globulin activity, and on the secretion rates of aldosterone and cortisol were studied in man. The metabolite estriol had no consistent or significant influence on plasma levels of the hormone-binding globul...

Katz, Fred H.; Kappas, Attallah

187

Effect of protein concentrations of bovine serum albumin and ?-globulin on the frictional response of a cobalt-chromium femoral head.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study aims to identify the concentration-dependent role of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ?-globulin in the lubricating ability of a cobalt-chromium femoral head. The frictional coefficients of the cobalt-chromium femoral head decreased with increasing BSA concentrations from 10 to 40 mg/ml and showed statistical differences between any of the BSA concentration groups, except between the 30 and 40 mg/ml concentration groups. In ?-globulin, the frictional coefficients significantly decreased at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml as compared with the PBS control group, but significant increases were observed at 7.5 and 12.5 mg/ml. These results suggest that the friction of the cobalt-chromium femoral head is dependent on the concentration of both BSA and ?-globulin. However, there is a maximum concentration for BSA to act as an effective boundary lubricant, while the lubricating ability of ?-globulin is most effective in the physiological concentration range within human synovial fluid.

Duong CT; Lee JH; Cho Y; Nam JS; Kim HN; Lee SS; Park S

2012-05-01

188

[Duration of the mitotic cycle periods of lymphoid cells from the respiratory organs and the effect of the intranasal administration of gamma-globulin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parameter studies of mitotic cycles of the lymphoid population in the rats respiratory system showed that after gamma-globulin injection to the respiratory system the main mechanism of cellular division consists of synchronized entry of cells to the mitotic cycle, shortening of the parameters and time of cellular regeneration.

Syrtsov VK

1984-11-01

189

OCCURRENCE OF ?-GLOBULIN COMPLEXES IN SERUM AND JOINT FLUID OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS: USE OF MONOCLONAL RHEUMATOID FACTORS AS REAGENTS FOR THEIR DEMONSTRATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?G globulin complexed in an unusual form has been demonstrated in the serum of many patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Such complexes have been detected and isolated principally through precipitation reactions with monoclonal ?M rheumatoid factors. These monoclonal rheumatoid factors exhibited a g...

Winchester, R. J.; Kunkel, H. G.; Agnello, V.

190

The Injection of Deaggregated Gamma-globulins in Adult Mice Induces Antigen-specific Unresponsiveness of T-helper Type-1 But Not Type-2 Lymphocytes  

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Injection of adult mice with high doses of monomeric human gamma globulins (dHGG) has been previously shown to produce a state of peripheral tolerance in both B and T cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of induction and maintenance of adult tolerance in this model, we have analyzed the pattern...

Dewit, D.; Vanmechelen, M.; Ryelandt, M.; Figueiredo, AC.; Abramowicz, D.; Goldman, M.; Bazin, Hervé; Urbain, J.; Leo, O.

191

The IgM Response of Children to Salmonella Typhosa Vaccine. I. Measurements of Anti-Typhoid Concentrations and Their Proportions of Total Serum IgM Globulins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight children immunized with commercial typhoid vaccine had elevations of total IgM globulins that averaged 55% above pre-immunization levels within 10 days. Concentrations of IgM specific for the surface antigens of Salmonella typhosa were found by meas...

W. A. Altemeier J. A. Bellanti E. L. Buescher

1969-01-01

192

High Fatality Rate of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Bone Marrow Transplantation with Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Conditioning Regimens  

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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) following bone marrow transplantation can be fatal. The major risk factors for the development of EBV-LPD are ex vivo T-cell depletion or in vivo T-cell depletion with either antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or monoclonal anti-T-...

Peres, E.; Savasan, S.; Klein, J.; Abidi, M.; Dansey, R.; Abella, E.

193

Battery storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on four generic types of secondary battery - Alkaline batteries, Flow batteries, Sodium batteries, and Lithium batteries - that hold most promise for the storage of energy.As baterias alcalinas, as de matérias activas exteriores, as de sódio e as de lítio constituem uma forma excelente para o armazenamento de energia química e podemos encará-las como muito promissoras para aplicações de armazenamento de energia em larga escala. Este artigo inclui alguns comentários pertinentes sobre estes sistemas recarregáveis, na sua actual fase de investigação e desenvolvimento.

César A.C. Sequeira; Mário R. Pedro

2008-01-01

194

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19

195

Comparison of daclizumab, an interleukin 2 receptor antibody, to anti-thymocyte globulin-Fresenius induction therapy in kidney transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy and safety of daclizumab and anti-thymocyte globulin-Fresenius (ATG-F) as induction therapy in kidney transplantation (KT) were investigated in 45 KT performed in our center between March and May 2002. Group II (n=10) received daclizumab as induction therapy, and Group I (n=35) were induced with a single intraoperative bolus therapy of ATG-F. All patients were at low-risk, and the recipient and donor demographics, as well the immunosuppression regimen employed were comparable in both groups. Drug safety, assessed by the occurrence of side effects, was almost comparable in the two groups, except for more thrombocytopenia in Group II (PATG-F were effective and safe as induction therapy in KT, less bacterial and viral infections and lower early serum creatinine levels were noted in daclizumab-treated patients. PMID:12835081

Abou-Jaoude, Maroun M; Ghantous, Imad; Almawi, Wassim Y

2003-07-01

196

Intractable Seizure in a Case with Parry-Romberg Syndrome and Good Response to Intravenous Immune Globulin  

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Full Text Available Objective: Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare disorder associated with unilateral facial atrophy involving skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscles and bone. Occasionally, there is central nervous system involvement with epilepsy being the most common manifestation. Case report: In this article, we report a 12 year-old boy with Parry-Romberg syndrome. He had seizures since he was 5 years old, since 1 year ago the seizure attacks were refractory in spite of taking several antiepileptic drugs. Significant improvement was obtained after administration of intravenous immune-globulin (IVIG). Conclusion: IVIG may be of benefit when seizures in Parry-Romberg syndrome are intractable and resistant to antiepileptic drugs.

F Ashrafzadeh; M. Farajirad

2006-01-01

197

Relationship between serum free thyroxine, total thyroxine and thyroxine-binding globulin concentrations in patients with Graves' disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical analysis of relationship between free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroxine (T4) in patients with Graves' disease has revealed that serum FT4 values correlated well with serum T4 values at variable thyroid states before and during treatment with anti-thyroid drugs. However, the ratio of FT4 concentration to T4 concentration at hyperthyroid state was more than twice as large as the ratio at euthyroid and hypothyroid states. These findings are considered to denote the elevation of per cent of FT4 to T4 (% FT4) in thyrotoxicosis. Nevertheless, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations in hyperthyroid patients were slightly, but significantly lower by 7.3% than those in normal euthyroid volunteers. These results indicate the minimal contribution of the slight decrease in TBG concentrations to the marked elevation of %FT4 in patients with thyrotoxicosis. PMID:3936763

Bannai, C; Yamashita, K; Kugai, N; Koide, Y; Akisada, M

1985-12-01

198

Relationship between serum free thyroxine, total thyroxine and thyroxine-binding globulin concentrations in patients with Graves' disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Statistical analysis of relationship between free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroxine (T4) in patients with Graves' disease has revealed that serum FT4 values correlated well with serum T4 values at variable thyroid states before and during treatment with anti-thyroid drugs. However, the ratio of FT4 concentration to T4 concentration at hyperthyroid state was more than twice as large as the ratio at euthyroid and hypothyroid states. These findings are considered to denote the elevation of per cent of FT4 to T4 (% FT4) in thyrotoxicosis. Nevertheless, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations in hyperthyroid patients were slightly, but significantly lower by 7.3% than those in normal euthyroid volunteers. These results indicate the minimal contribution of the slight decrease in TBG concentrations to the marked elevation of %FT4 in patients with thyrotoxicosis.

Bannai C; Yamashita K; Kugai N; Koide Y; Akisada M

1985-12-01

199

[The macrophage disappearance reaction in guinea pigs sensitized with bovine gamma globulin or human scrum albumin (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The macrophage disappearance reaction (MDR) is a suitable test for detection of cell mediated immunity against bovine gamma globulin (BGG) and human serum albumin (HSA) in guinea pigs. The MDR is a technical simple, good manipulable, and quantifiable test. The optimal test conditions for the antigens BGC and HSA are the following: Peritoneal exudat cells (PEC) were stimulated with paraffin oil. On the 5th day after receiving oil the animals were injected with 80 microgram BGG or 30 microgram HSA i.p. 5 hours later the PEC were harvested and counted. With the MDR it is possible to detect differences with respect to degree of cell-mediated immunity. Supernatants of sensitized lymphocytes produces the MDR too.

Schimke R; Bernstein B; Ambrosius H

1977-01-01

200

[The macrophage disappearance reaction in guinea pigs sensitized with bovine gamma globulin or human scrum albumin (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The macrophage disappearance reaction (MDR) is a suitable test for detection of cell mediated immunity against bovine gamma globulin (BGG) and human serum albumin (HSA) in guinea pigs. The MDR is a technical simple, good manipulable, and quantifiable test. The optimal test conditions for the antigens BGC and HSA are the following: Peritoneal exudat cells (PEC) were stimulated with paraffin oil. On the 5th day after receiving oil the animals were injected with 80 microgram BGG or 30 microgram HSA i.p. 5 hours later the PEC were harvested and counted. With the MDR it is possible to detect differences with respect to degree of cell-mediated immunity. Supernatants of sensitized lymphocytes produces the MDR too. PMID:69396

Schimke, R; Bernstein, B; Ambrosius, H

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. T (more) he subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

2012-08-01

202

Health-related quality-of-life improvements in CIDP with immune globulin IV 10%: the ICE Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy trials have demonstrated the efficacy of IV immunoglobulin vs placebo. However, these trails have not addressed the long-term impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: One hundred seventeen patients in a randomized, double-blind, response-conditional crossover trial received immune globulin IV, 10% caprylate/chromatography purified (IGIV-C [Gamunex(R)]), or placebo every 3 weeks for up to 24 weeks in the first period (FP). Participants whose inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment disability score did not improve by >/=1 point received alternate treatment in a 24-week crossover period (CP). In either period, participants who improved and completed treatment were eligible to be randomly reassigned to a blinded 24-week extension phase (EP). HRQoL analyses were conducted using the Short Form-36(R) (SF-36) and the Rotterdam Handicap Scale (RHS). RESULTS: In the FP, greater improvements in both SF-36 physical and mental component scores were observed with IGIV-C vs placebo, with a significant improvement in the physical component score (difference 4.4 points; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-8.0). Improvements in all SF-36 domains favored IGIV-C vs placebo, with physical functioning, role-physical, social functioning, and mental health reaching significance. Participants receiving IGIV-C experienced a larger improvement in RHS vs those receiving placebo (difference 3.4 points; 95% CI 1.4-5.5; p = 0.001). In the CP, similar general trends were observed. In the EP, mean SF-36 improvements were generally improved or maintained in participants who continued IGIV-C therapy; however, worsening was observed in participants re-randomized to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term therapy with immune globulin IV, 10% caprylate/chromatography purified, improves and maintains health-related quality of life in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

Merkies IS; Bril V; Dalakas MC; Deng C; Donofrio P; Hanna K; Hartung HP; Hughes RA; Latov N; van Doorn PA

2009-04-01

203

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Kok-Yong Chin; Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman; Isa Naina Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah

2012-01-01

204

Presence of the storage seed protein vicilin in internal organs of larval Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds. PMID:16288905

Uchôa, Adriana F; DaMatta, Renato A; Retamal, Claudio A; Albuquerque-Cunha, José M; Souza, Sheila M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P; Xavier-Filho, José

2005-11-09

205

Presence of the storage seed protein vicilin in internal organs of larval Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds.

Uchôa AF; DaMatta RA; Retamal CA; Albuquerque-Cunha JM; Souza SM; Samuels RI; Silva CP; Xavier-Filho J

2006-02-01

206

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01

207

Desert Storage Test Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines long term aircraft preservation and storage procedures at the Military Aircraft Storage and Disposition Center, Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona. It presents the Desert Storage Test Program conducted between January 1972 and Febr...

W. C. Connors J. A. Blind L. R. Klein

1974-01-01

208

Energy storage criteria handbook  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide information and criteria necessary for the selection and sizing of energy storage technologies for use at U.S. Naval facilities. The handbook gives Naval base personnel procedures and information to select the most viable energy storage options to provide the space conditioning (heating and cooling) and domestic hot water needs of their facility. The handbook may also be used by contractors, installers, designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the energy storage business. The handbook is organized into three major sections: a general section, a technical section, and an example section. While a technical background is assumed for the latter two sections, the general section is simply written and can serve as an introduction to the field of energy storage. The technical section examines the following energy storage technologies: sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, cold storage, thermochemical storage, mechanical storage, pumped hydro storage, and electrochemical storage. The example section is limited to thermal storage and includes examples for: water tank storage, rockbed storage, latent heat storage, and cold water storage.

Hull, J. R.; Cole, R. L.; Hull, A. B.

1982-10-01

209

Effects of human antithymocyte globulin on acetylcholine synthesis, its release and choline acetyltransferase transcription in a human leukemic T-cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphocytes possess an independent, nonneuronal cholinergic system. In the present study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-Fresenius (ATG-F), a human antithymocyte globulin that binds to CD2, CD7 and CD11a, on acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and transcription of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in CCRF-CEM cells, a human leukemic T-cell line. In the short-term (6 h), ATG-F enhanced ACh release, likely through transient increases in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) mediated by CD7, which led to declines in intracellular ACh content. By 48 h, however, the ACh content had increased as compared to control due to up-regulation of ChAT expression mediated by CD11a. PMID:12098504

Fujii, Takeshi; Ushiyama, Naoki; Hosonuma, Kazuyo; Suenaga, Aya; Kawashima, Koichiro

2002-07-01

210

Effects of human antithymocyte globulin on acetylcholine synthesis, its release and choline acetyltransferase transcription in a human leukemic T-cell line.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lymphocytes possess an independent, nonneuronal cholinergic system. In the present study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-Fresenius (ATG-F), a human antithymocyte globulin that binds to CD2, CD7 and CD11a, on acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and transcription of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in CCRF-CEM cells, a human leukemic T-cell line. In the short-term (6 h), ATG-F enhanced ACh release, likely through transient increases in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) mediated by CD7, which led to declines in intracellular ACh content. By 48 h, however, the ACh content had increased as compared to control due to up-regulation of ChAT expression mediated by CD11a.

Fujii T; Ushiyama N; Hosonuma K; Suenaga A; Kawashima K

2002-07-01

211

Virus de la inmunodeficiencia felina (VIF): evaluación de las globulinas en pacientes infectados espontáneamente/ Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): study of globulins in patients with natural infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fueron estudiadas las posibles correlaciones de parámetros tales como la Alfa glicoproteína ácida (AGP, proteína de fase aguda), fracciones electroforéticas de las proteínas séricas y títulos de Toxoplasma gondii en gatos infectados por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Felina (VIF). Los títulos de Toxoplasma gondii obtenidos por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFI) no correlacionaron con los valores de Proteínas Totales ni con los de las globulinas. Sí se halló m? (more) ?ltiple correlación entre todas las proteínas estudiadas (r: 0,98, p Abstract in english Statistical correlation between parameters such as globulins, Alpha- Glycoprotein AGP, serum proteins fractions by electrophoresis and Toxoplasma gondii titles in cats infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) were studied. Indirect Immunofluorecence titles to Toxoplasma gondii did not showed correlation with Total proteins and globulins. It was observed correlation between all types of proteins studied (r: 0,98, p(more) itive correlation (r:0,93, p

Gómez, N; Gisbert, M. A.; Ramayo, L; Bratanich, A; Castillo, V; Suraniti, A

2006-12-01

212

An Epstein-Barr virus-associated leukemic lymphoma in a patient treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are generally caused by uncontrolled B-cell proliferation induced by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the setting of impaired EBV-specific T-cell immunity, particularly when there is pharmacological immunosuppression including antithymocyte globulin. We herein present an unusual case of EBV associated with LPD (EBV-LPD) in which LPD occurred 3 weeks after the use of rabbit antithymocyte globulin administered for severe hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia; the patient died of fulminant leukemic lymphoma 5 days after the onset. We also review the pertinent literature on EBV-LPD after immunosuppressive therapy and document the efficacy of EBV viral load monitoring and the need for preemptive therapy.

Ohata K; Iwaki N; Kotani T; Kondo Y; Yamazaki H; Nakao S

2012-01-01

213

Origin and evolution of Chinese waxy maize: evidence from the Globulin-1 gene  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waxy maize is a special type of cultivated maize and has grown in China for long history. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remain unknown. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sampling DNA sequences from four taxa with eight populations: waxy maize and other maize cultivars from Southwest China or America (Zea mays L. ssp. mays), parviglumis (Z. mays L. ssp. parviglumis Iltis et Doebley), three more distant species within this genus (Z. luxurians (Durieu et Ascherson) Bird, Zea perennis (Hitchcock) Reeves et Mangelsdorf, and Zea diploperennis Iltis, Doebley et Guzman), and a representative of sister genus (Tripsacum dactyloides L.). We sequenced 20 sequences and downloaded 26 sequences from NCBI for the glb1 locus, which encodes a nonessential seed storage protein. Within the Zea genus samples, the waxy maize has the minimum sequence diversity, which contains 31.1% of the level of diversity of parviglumis and 58.5% of the level of diversity of normal maize from Southwest China. Sequence variation within glb1 locus is consistent with neutral evolution in all four taxa according to Tajima'D test. From the NJ tree for glb1 sequences waxy maize formed two main groups which are intermixed with normal maize sequences. These results suggest that the Chinese waxy maize originate from a single gene mutation from normal maize. Combined with the history of maize dispersal in China we can even think that Chinese waxy maize was divergenced from Chinese flint maize.

Tian Mengliang; Tan Gongxie; Liu Yongjian; Rong Tingzhao; Huang Yubi

2009-03-01

214

Familial spinocerebellar ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and elevated level of serum creatine kinase, gamma-globulin, and alpha-fetoprotein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here, we report a familial spinocerebellar ataxia (FSCA), which has clinical features similar to Friedreich's ataxia, an ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency, and ataxia telangiectasia. However, the serum levels of creatine kinase, gamma-globulin, and alpha-fetoprotein were elevated, and biochemical and genetic analyses ruled out diagnosis of these three ataxias as well as other FSCAs. Thus, this family is thought to have a new type of FSCA.

Watanabe M; Sugai Y; Concannon P; Koenig M; Schmitt M; Sato M; Shizuka M; Mizushima K; Ikeda Y; Tomidokoro Y; Okamoto K; Shoji M

1998-08-01

215

Familial spinocerebellar ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and elevated level of serum creatine kinase, gamma-globulin, and alpha-fetoprotein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report a familial spinocerebellar ataxia (FSCA), which has clinical features similar to Friedreich's ataxia, an ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency, and ataxia telangiectasia. However, the serum levels of creatine kinase, gamma-globulin, and alpha-fetoprotein were elevated, and biochemical and genetic analyses ruled out diagnosis of these three ataxias as well as other FSCAs. Thus, this family is thought to have a new type of FSCA. PMID:9708552

Watanabe, M; Sugai, Y; Concannon, P; Koenig, M; Schmitt, M; Sato, M; Shizuka, M; Mizushima, K; Ikeda, Y; Tomidokoro, Y; Okamoto, K; Shoji, M

1998-08-01

216

Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue.

Zhuk, N.I.; Avvakumov, G.V.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-10

217

[The significance of low levels of total proteins, albumins, globulins and complement factors in ascitic fluid and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is one of the most common complications of ascitic fluid in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of total protein, albumin, globulin and complement ascitic fluid concentrations in development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis. In patients with liver cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (n = 8) the ascitic fluid total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were significantly lower than in patients with sterile ascites (n = 11) (p < 0.01). The ascitic fluid complement C3 and C4 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis than in patients with sterile ascites (9.1 +/- 3.1 mg/dL to 22.9 +/- 17.4 mg/dL, p < 0.01; 3.8 +/- 5.9 mg/dL to 8.2 +/- 5.9 mg/dL, p < 0.01, respectively). The ascites total protein, albumin, globulin and complement concentrations in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were significantly lower than in patients with sterile ascites demonstrating the importance of those factors in ascitic fluid defense against secondary bacterial infection.

Ljubici? N; Bili? A; Babi? Z; Roi? D; Bani? M

1992-09-01

218

Solar thermal energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book starts with a description of possible energy storage systems and the recent developments in the field. Then it moves on to the basics of sensible heat storage-discussing liquid, solid, and dual-media storage systems. Next, it deals with chemical energy storage, making use of detailed treatments of both thermal dissociation and catalytic reactions. It explores long-term energy storage concepts, passive heating and cooling concepts, and the role of storage material. High-temperature heat storage in industry and for conversion to electric power is taken up, as are experimental industrial systems and the suitable testing procedures for them.

Garg, H.P.; Mullick, S.C.; Bhargava, A.K.

1985-01-01

219

Hydrogen storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use hydrogen as an energy carrier in modern energy-use systems, it is necessary to find compact, efficient means for storing hydrogen for mobile and (or) stationary applications. Performance evaluations coupled with cost analyses for four major alternatives for hydrogen storage show that storage on activated carbon compares quite favorably with the other three options: Storage in pressurized cylinder, storage on metal hydride, and storage as liquid. Gravimetric, volumetric, and modified volumetric laboratory experiments can be used to assess the storage properties of various activated carbons and ultimately identify which carbons and which pressure and temperature windows meet desired storage requirements. 21 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Schwarz, J.A.; Amankwah, K.A.G. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States))

1993-01-01

220

A novel mechanism of anti-T-lymphocyte globulin mediated by fractalkine in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is among the main challenges in kidney transplantation. It causes delayed graft function and graft loss in long-term follow-up studies. Anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATG), a common induction immunosuppressive, has been used in kidney transplantation to prevent rejection. Fractalkine (FKN) is among the main chemokines involved in IRI. This study was designed to identify the relationship between ATG and FKN after warm ischemia in rat kidneys. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: Control, IRI+normal saline(NS) and IRI+ATG. After IRI was initiated, rats received a dose of ATG or NS during surgery as well as two more doses at 24 and 48 hours after surgery. All rats were humanely killed at 72 hours. RESULTS: The concentration of FKN as well as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages were lower in both peripheral blood and the injured kidney among ATG-treated versus control rats. Additionally cell necrosis, cytoplasmic vacuolization, cast formation, and tubular dilatation were improved among ATG-treated rats. Serum creatinine levels were lower in rats that received ATG. CONCLUSION: ATG depleted the concentration of FKN, which inhibits migrations of DCs and macrophages into the kidney, and reduces IRI-related pathology.

Gunay Y; Inal A; Yener N; Sinanoglu O; Selvi O; Bircan HY

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

The (TAAAA)n polymorphism of sex hormone-binding globulin gene is not associated with testicular maldescent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this family-based study was to investigate the potential association/genetic linkage of the (TAAAA)n polymorphism of sex hormone-binding globulin gene proximal promoter with testicular maldescent (TMD). Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 487 subjects (174 index families): (i) 180 children with all phenotypes of TMD, (ii) 307 parents (156 mothers and 151 fathers). Conventional polymerase chain reaction amplification products were electrophoresed on 10% nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel and visualised by silver staining. After excluding ambiguous parental-child trios and most cases of index families with missing parental genotypes, 429 individuals were left for analysis: 138 completely typed nuclear families (five included a second affected child) and five child-parent couples (one parent missing). Eight fathers presented history of TMD, that is, a total of 156 cases with TMD were analysed. Alleles were analysed with the affected family-based control method and logistic regression-based extension of the transmission disequilibrium test for multiallelic loci. (?????)n polymorphism analysis revealed six alleles based on repeat numbers (n=5-10). No association/genetic linkage between the (TAAAA)n polymorphism and TMD was detected. Other factors should be investigated to potentially explain the genetic predisposition that seems to exist in at least a subgroup of these patients.

Mamoulakis C; Sofikitis N; Tsounapi P; Vlachopoulou E; Chatzikyriakidou A; Antypas S; Tzortzakakis D; Sofras F; Takenaka A; Georgiou I

2013-02-01

222

A high antithymocyte globulin dose increases the risk of relapse after reduced intensity conditioning HSCT with unrelated donors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study included 110 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies receiving fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from matched unrelated donors. The median age was 55 yr (range 11-68) and all but 15 patients received peripheral blood stem cell grafts. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (Thymoglobulin, Genzyme) at a total dose of 6 mg/kg (n = 66) or 8 mg/kg (n = 44) was given to all patients according to protocol. The ATG dose did not affect time-to-neutrophil or platelet engraftment. The incidences of acute GVHD grades II-IV were 34% and 18% (p = 0.11) and of chronic GVHD were 40% and 26% (p = 0.46) in patients receiving 6 and 8 mg/kg of ATG, respectively. The five-yr relapse-free survival (RFS) was 61% and 36% (p = 0.14) in patients, given low and high ATG dose, respectively. In patients given low-dose ATG, the incidence of relapse was lower compared to those given high-dose ATG, 19% vs. 41% (p = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, age >50 yr (p < 0.001), absence of acute (p < 0.001) and chronic GVHD (p = 0.001) were correlated to relapse, and low-dose ATG was associated with improved RFS (p < 0.05). A high dose (8 mg/kg) of ATG in RIC HSCT with unrelated donors increased the risk for relapse and reduced the RFS.

Remberger M; Ringdén O; Hägglund H; Svahn BM; Ljungman P; Uhlin M; Mattsson J

2013-07-01

223

A review on comparing two commonly used rabbit anti-thymocyte globulins as induction therapy in solid organ transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Two rabbit anti-thymocyte globulins (ATGs) (Thymoglobulin™ and ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F)™) have been used commonly for induction immunosuppression and treatment of acute rejection in solid organ transplantation. Therefore, literature review on comparative efficacy and side-effect profile of them would be of clinical interest. AREAS COVERED: This review evaluated all comparative studies in English language, focusing on the solid organ transplant patients who received Thymoglobulin or ATG-F as induction therapy. This review concluded that compared to ATG-F, Thymoglobulin possibly provides better protection against acute rejection and improves patient and graft survival but may result in more cytomegalovirus infection and post-transplant malignancy. Thymoglobulin produced more leukocyte depletion with a greater delay to recover, while ATG-F had more reduction effects on platelet and erythrocyte counts with an increased need to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. EXPERT OPINION: The benefits of induction therapy with ATGs must be weighed against the costs and post-transplant complications. It is suggest that there is no substantial clinical difference between these two rabbit ATGs and each may be considered as induction therapy for solid organ transplantation based on availability and drug cost. Of special importance is adding antiviral therapy to the treatment regimen of patients who receive ATGs as induction therapy.

Gharekhani A; Entezari-Maleki T; Dashti-Khavidaki S; Khalili H

2013-09-01

224

Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

2007-05-15

225

Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) induction of ?2u-globulin nephropathy in male, but not female rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male F-344 rats were administered corn oil (vehicle control), d-limonene (positive control, 300 mg/kg), or MIBK (1000 mg/kg) and female F-344 rats corn oil (vehicle control) or MIBK for 10 consecutive days by oral gavage. Approximately 24 h after the final dose the kidneys were excised and the left kidney prepared and evaluated for histological changes including protein (hyaline) droplet accumulation, immunohistochemical staining for ?2u-globulin (?2u), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to quantitate renal cell proliferation. The right kidney was prepared for quantitation of total protein and ?2u using an ELISA. MIBK elicited an increase in protein droplets, accumulation of ?2u, and renal cell proliferation in male, but not female rats, responses characteristic of ?2u-mediated nephropathy. MIBK produced identical histopathological changes in the male rat kidney when compared to d-limonene, an acknowledged inducer of ?2u-nephropathy except that the grade of severity tended to be slightly lower with MIBK. MIBK did not induce any effects in female rats. Therefore, renal histopathology, along with the other measures of ?2u accumulation, provides additional weight of evidence to support the inclusion of MIBK in the category of chemicals exerting renal effects through a ?2u-nephropathy-mediated mode-of-action.

2009-04-28

226

Repair of UV-induced DNA damage in aplastic anaemia: Changes after treatment with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extent of DNA-repair induced by UV-C irradiation was measured in peripheral unstimulated lymphocytes of 24 patients with aplastic anaemia at different stages of disease and compared with the results obtained in 92 controls. As parameter of the DNA-repair synthesis, the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine in the presence of 2 mmol/l hydroxyurea (HU) was taken. Of 19 patients tested after treatment with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG), 5 were in complete autologous haemopoietic remission, defined as > 1000 granulocytes/mm/sup 3/, > 100 000 platelets/mm/sup 3/ and a nontransfused haemoglobin value > 10 g%. 14 patients were in partial remission, defined as improvement of haemopoietic function, not meeting the criteria for complete remission. 4/5 patients in complete remission had normal DNA-repair synthesis, compared to 4/14 patients in partial remission. In 92 controls, a normal level was found in 70 cases. In 4/5 patients examined at diagnosis and at various intervals after ALG-treatment, DNA-repair synthesis was low at diagnosis. It increased after therapy and paralleled improvement of haemopoietic function to some extent. It is suggested that in aplastic anaemia there are different populations of lymphocytes with differing DNA-repair capacity; ALG treatment seems to favour expansion of the normal population, which is associated with improvement of haemopoietic function.

Kovacs, E.; Nissen, C.; Speck, B.; Signer, E.

1988-01-01

227

Repair of UV-induced DNA damage in aplastic anaemia: Changes after treatment with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extent of DNA-repair induced by UV-C irradiation was measured in peripheral unstimulated lymphocytes of 24 patients with aplastic anaemia at different stages of disease and compared with the results obtained in 92 controls. As parameter of the DNA-repair synthesis, the incorporation of (3H)thymidine in the presence of 2 mmol/l hydroxyurea (HU) was taken. Of 19 patients tested after treatment with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG), 5 were in complete autologous haemopoietic remission, defined as > 1000 granulocytes/mm3, > 100 000 platelets/mm3 and a nontransfused haemoglobin value > 10 g%. 14 patients were in partial remission, defined as improvement of haemopoietic function, not meeting the criteria for complete remission. 4/5 patients in complete remission had normal DNA-repair synthesis, compared to 4/14 patients in partial remission. In 92 controls, a normal level was found in 70 cases. In 4/5 patients examined at diagnosis and at various intervals after ALG-treatment, DNA-repair synthesis was low at diagnosis. It increased after therapy and paralleled improvement of haemopoietic function to some extent. It is suggested that in aplastic anaemia there are different populations of lymphocytes with differing DNA-repair capacity; ALG treatment seems to favour expansion of the normal population, which is associated with improvement of haemopoietic function. (author)

1988-01-01

228

Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were identified using mass spectrometry and data mining. Salt-soluble endosperm proteins from 67 CS deletion lines were also separated by 2DE (four gels per line). Image analysis of the 268 2DE gels as compared to the CS reference proteome allowed the detection of qualitative and quantitative variations in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression of 391 proteins is controlled by one or more chromosome bins with 262 significant increases and 196 significant decreases in spot volume. The spot volume of several proteins was increased or decreased by numerous chromosomal regions and homoeologous-like regulation was revealed for some proteins. Quantitative or qualitative variation in a total of 386 proteins was influenced by genes assigned to at least one chromosomal region, while 66 % of all stained proteins were not found to be influenced by chromosome bins. Proteomics of deletion lines can, therefore, be used to simultaneously analyse the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.

Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina

2012-01-01

229

A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ((90)yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ((131)I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) anti-CD20 MAbs for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, assays were developed to determine HAGA (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to ''humanize'' MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades.

Mirick GR; Bradt BM; Denardo SJ; Denardo GL

2004-12-01

230

A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ((90)yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ((131)I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) anti-CD20 MAbs for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, assays were developed to determine HAGA (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to ''humanize'' MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades. PMID:15640788

Mirick, G R; Bradt, B M; Denardo, S J; Denardo, G L

2004-12-01

231

A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM (90yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM (131I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades

2004-01-01

232

A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ({sup 9}0yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ({sup 1}31I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) antiCD20 MAns for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgikin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, essays were developed to determine HAGE (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to humanize MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades.

Mirick, G. R.; Bradt, B. M.; Denardo, S. J.; Denardo, G. L. [Calfornia Univ., Sacramento (United States). Davis Medical Center

2004-12-01

233

Electroimmunoassay of sex hormone binding globulin. Enhanced sensitivity by autoradiography using A-ring 125I-17-?-oestradiol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Four different 125I-iodinated steroids were tested for their binding to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) using an electrophoretic technique. 17-?-oestradiol iodinated in its A-ring bound with high affinity to SHBG. This radioactive steroid was used to increase the sensitivity of the electroimmunoassay of SHBG by adding the steroid to the samples before electroimmunoassay. The radioactive steroid incorporated into the immunoprecipitates could be observed by autoradiography. The sensitivity of the assay, which employed a rabbit antiserum against purified human SHBG and was standardized with pure SHBG, was about 0.2 mg/1. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was 2.4% and 2.6% respectively, for values within the normal range. The mean SHBG concentration in healthy regularly menstruating women was 3.50 +- 0.74 (SD) mg/1 when measured in plasma, and 3.78 +- 0.80 mg/1 when measured in serum. The corresponding mean concentrations in healthy men were 2.26 +- 0.45 and 2.44 +- 0.49 mg/1. The modified electroimmunoassay described is a simple modification, which increases the sensitivity sufficiently to permit reliable quantification of SHBG over the entire range of concentration which could be relevant in clinical practice. (author)

1984-01-01

234

The effects of neonatal handling on adrenocortical responsiveness, morphological development and corticosterone binding globulin in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early developmental experiences play an important role in development of the adult phenotype. We investigated the effects of neonatal handling on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in a free-living avian species, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). In the handled group (H), kestrel chicks were handled for 15 min/day from hatching until 26 days of age, after which time blood samples were collected for analysis of adrenal responsiveness and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) levels. The non-handled control group (NH) was left undisturbed until 26 days of age when blood samples were collected and analyzed as above. Handled and NH kestrels did not differ in body condition index. Both total corticosterone (CORT) and CBG capacity were dampened significantly in H kestrels. However, free CORT did not differ between the two groups. In addition, hormone challenges of corticotropin releasing factor and adrenocorticotropin hormone were compared to saline injections to determine if the pituitary or the adrenal glands, respectively, were rendered more or less sensitive by handling. There was no difference in the responsiveness of H and NH kestrels to either hormone challenge. It is clear from these data that handling had an affect on fledgling phenotypic development, although whether the effects are permanent or ephemeral is unknown.

Whitman BA; Breuner CW; Dufty AM Jr

2011-06-01

235

Structure-physicochemical function relationships of 7S globulins (vicilins) from red bean (Phaseolus angularis) with different polypeptide constituents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Red bean 7S globulins (vicilins) with different polypeptide constituents or heterogeneity were fractionated using acidic extraction (at 0.5 M NaCl) and anion-exchange column chromatography. The physicochemical and conformational properties, including amino acid composition, net charge and/or surface hydrophobicity (H ?), protein solubility (PS), thermal and emulsifying properties, as well as secondary, tertiary and/or quaternary conformations, were evaluated. There were distinct differences in zeta potential, H ?, DSC characteristics, emulsifying activities and tertiary and/or quaternary conformations among the vicilins with different polypeptide constituents, but the PS and secondary conformation were slightly different. The PS as a function of pH and thermal stability were closely related to their surface charge and/or hydrophobicity. The emulsifying ability and the emulsion stability were closely dependent on the PS and H ?, and even the flexibility in tertiary and/or quaternary conformations. These results suggested good relationships between the physicochemical functions and conformational features of red bean vicilins, which could be of great help for further utilization of legume proteins as a potential functional ingredient.

Tang Chuan-He; Sun Xin

2011-05-01

236

Solar thermal storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives a review on solar thermal storage systems in buildings especially in the view of overcoming the mismatch between solar supply and energy demand. The storage question is not viewed only as a `device` as traditionally done but as a `whole system approach` in which the storage requirement may be effected by other non-storage technologies. The emphasis is on long-term storage. (orig.)

Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

1996-12-31

237

Latent heat storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a latent heat store, in which a heat exchange medium and a latent heat storage medium, the melting of the solidified storage medium should be made possible by simple structural means by the heat exchange medium. The outlet opening of a pipe for the storage medium opening below into the latent heat storage medium is covered by a body which extends over the surface of the storage medium. The body consists of a material, which is permeable by the heat exchange medium, but impermeable to the storage medium in the liquid phase.

Twele, H.

1981-04-09

238

Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous.

Tanskanen MM; Kyröläinen H; Uusitalo AL; Huovinen J; Nissilä J; Kinnunen H; Atalay M; Häkkinen K

2011-03-01

239

Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous. PMID:20543745

Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo

2011-03-01

240

Serum sex hormone binding globulin profile and its association with insulin resistance in Chinese peri-menopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to measure serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) profile in Chinese peri-menopausal women, and assess its correlation with insulin resistance (IR)-related parameter, namely HOMA-IR, in this special population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study by the method of cluster sampling was performed in 1,827 women, who were in hospital for routine check-up. Serum SHBG profile and anthropometric indices of hormonal, adiposity, and metabolic variables were measured. According to their age and menstruation status, the subjects were divided into three groups: pre-menopause group, peri-menopause group, and post-menopause group. RESULTS: Serum SHBG level was found to be negatively correlated with BMI in all groups and to increase in parallel with age in women of reproductive age. However, independently of age, it significantly increased from the onset of menopause transition, and slightly declined after menopause. After adjustment for age and BMI, HOMA-IR in peri-menopausal women was closely related only to SHBG. SHBG level was found to be the only independent significant determinant of HOMA-IR. On the basis of ROC curve analysis for the prediction of insulin resistance using HOMA-IR value, AUC for SHBG reached a value of 0.816 (0.636-0.996, 95% confidence interval). The best cutoff value that discriminates peri-menopausal women with or without insulin resistance is 41.73 nmol/L, with a sensitivity of 81.4% and a specificity of 87.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Low SHBG level may be an independent risk factor of insulin resistance in Chinese peri-menopausal women.

Hong Y; Chen D; Li Y; Li C; Liu Y; Xie M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Thyroid hormones act indirectly to increase sex hormone-binding globulin production by liver via hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid hormones increase hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production, which is also regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) in response to changes in the metabolic state of the liver. Since the human SHBG promoter lacks a typical thyroid hormone response element, and because thyroid hormones influence metabolic state, we set out to determine whether thyroid hormones mediate SHBG expression indirectly via changes in HNF-4alpha levels in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells, and in the livers of transgenic mice that express a 4.3 kb human SHBG transgene under the control of its own 0.8 kb promoter sequence. Thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4))) increase SHBG accumulation in HepG2 cell culture medium over 5 days, and increase cellular SHBG mRNA levels. In addition, T(4) treatment of HepG2 cells for 5 days increased HNF-4alpha mRNA and HNF-4alpha levels in concert with decreased cellular palmitate levels. Plasma SHBG levels were also increased in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene after 5 days treatment with T(3) along with increased hepatic HNF-4alpha levels. In HepG2 cells, the human SHBG promoter failed to respond acutely (within 24 h) to T(4) treatment, but a 4-day pre-treatment with T(4) resulted in a robust response that was prevented by co-treatment with HNF-4alpha siRNA, or by blocking the beta-oxidation of palmitate through co-treatment with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, etomoxir. These data lead us to conclude that thyroid hormones increase SHBG production indirectly by increasing HNF-4alpha gene expression, and by reducing cellular palmitate levels that further contribute to increased HNF-4alpha levels in hepatocytes.

Selva DM; Hammond GL

2009-07-01

242

Thyroid hormones act indirectly to increase sex hormone-binding globulin production by liver via hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones increase hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production, which is also regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) in response to changes in the metabolic state of the liver. Since the human SHBG promoter lacks a typical thyroid hormone response element, and because thyroid hormones influence metabolic state, we set out to determine whether thyroid hormones mediate SHBG expression indirectly via changes in HNF-4alpha levels in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells, and in the livers of transgenic mice that express a 4.3 kb human SHBG transgene under the control of its own 0.8 kb promoter sequence. Thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4))) increase SHBG accumulation in HepG2 cell culture medium over 5 days, and increase cellular SHBG mRNA levels. In addition, T(4) treatment of HepG2 cells for 5 days increased HNF-4alpha mRNA and HNF-4alpha levels in concert with decreased cellular palmitate levels. Plasma SHBG levels were also increased in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene after 5 days treatment with T(3) along with increased hepatic HNF-4alpha levels. In HepG2 cells, the human SHBG promoter failed to respond acutely (within 24 h) to T(4) treatment, but a 4-day pre-treatment with T(4) resulted in a robust response that was prevented by co-treatment with HNF-4alpha siRNA, or by blocking the beta-oxidation of palmitate through co-treatment with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, etomoxir. These data lead us to conclude that thyroid hormones increase SHBG production indirectly by increasing HNF-4alpha gene expression, and by reducing cellular palmitate levels that further contribute to increased HNF-4alpha levels in hepatocytes. PMID:19336534

Selva, David M; Hammond, Geoffrey L

2009-03-31

243

Prevention of immunization to D+ red blood cells with red blood cell exchange and intravenous Rh immune globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although young women who are D- occasionally receive unintentional transfusions with D+ red blood cells (RBCs), there are little data to assist with management of such an event. Two cases of D- girls transfused with D+ RBCs are reported. In an effort to prevent formation of anti-D, RBC exchange followed by administration of intravenous (IV) Rh immune globulin (RhIg) was used. CASE REPORTS: Patient 1, a 56-kg, 16-year-old D- girl, was involved in a motor vehicle crash. She received 4 units of Group O uncrossmatched D+ RBCs. Thirty-six hours after admission, she underwent RBC exchange with 10 units of D- RBCs, followed by a total of 2718 microg of IV RhIg over 32 hours. Six months later, her antibody screen was negative. Patient 2, a 39-kg, 10-year-old D- girl with aplastic anemia, received 1 unit of D+ RBCs. She underwent RBC exchange on the same day with 5 units of D- RBCs, followed by a total of 900 microg of IV RhIg over 8 hours. Six months later her antibody screen was negative. CONCLUSION: RBC exchange followed by a calculated dose of IV RhIg was successful in preventing allo-immunization to D. Several small studies suggest that both trauma and hematology patients may be less capable of becoming immunized with the transfusion of D+ blood components. Until these findings are more clearly defined, there will be times when prevention of immunization of any D- girl is desired. RBC exchange followed by RhIg appears to be one way to achieve this goal.

Nester TA; Rumsey DM; Howell CC; Gilligan DM; Drachman JG; Maier RV; Kyles DM; Matthews DC; Pendergrass TW

2004-12-01

244

Induction treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin versus basiliximab in renal transplant recipients with planned early steroid withdrawal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) with basiliximab in renal transplant recipients for whom an early steroid withdrawal (ESW) regimen was planned. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care medical center, including inpatient hospital stays and outpatient nephrology clinics. PATIENTS: Ninety-nine consecutive adult recipients of living- or deceased-donor renal transplants between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007, in whom ESW was planned and who received either r-ATG or basiliximab; patients receiving an extended-criteria kidney donation or a donation after cardiac death were excluded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus as maintenance therapy with planned ESW. Induction therapy was either r-ATG 1.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days (68 patients) or basiliximab 20 mg on postoperative days 0 and 4 (31 patients). The primary composite end point of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, and death occurred in 6 patients (9%) and 9 patients (29%) in the r-ATG and basiliximab groups at 1 year after transplantation, respectively (p=0.01), with rates of 7% (5/68 patients) and 26% (8/31 patients) for BPAR (p=0.02), 0% and 3% (1/31 patients) for graft loss (p=0.31), and 2% (1/68 patients) and 0% for patient death (p>0.99). Average time to first BPAR was significantly longer in the r-ATG group (mean ± SD 151.4 ± 82.9 vs 53.6 ± 68.4 days, p<0.01). Kidney function at 12 months was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Rabbit-ATG was associated with a lower frequency and delayed onset of BPAR compared with basiliximab in renal transplant recipients who received an ESW regimen.

Martin ST; Roberts KL; Malek SK; Tullius SG; Vadivel N; De Serres S; Grafals M; Elsanjak A; Filkins BA; Chandraker A; Gabardi S

2011-06-01

245

Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 × 10?5], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.

Perry, John R.B.; Weedon, Michael N.; Langenberg, Claudia; Jackson, Anne U.; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Spars?, Thomas; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Grallert, Harald; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maggio, Marcello; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Walker, Mark; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Payne, Felicity; Young, Elizabeth; Herder, Christian; Narisu, Narisu; Morken, Mario A.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Owen, Katharine R.; Shields, Beverley; Knight, Beatrice; Bennett, Amanda; Groves, Christopher J.; Ruokonen, Aimo; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta; Pearson, Ewan; Pascoe, Laura; Ferrannini, Ele; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Stringham, Heather M.; Scott, Laura J.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Nilsson, Peter; Neptin, Malin; Gjesing, Anette P.; Pisinger, Charlotta; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sampson, Mike; Zeggini, MAGIC, Ele; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Hansen, Torben; Schwarz, Peter; Illig, Thomas; Laakso, Markku; Stefansson, Kari; Morris, Andrew D.; Groop, Leif; Pedersen, Oluf; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Ines; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.

2010-01-01

246

Apoptotic Effects of Antilymphocyte Globulins on Human Pro-inflammatory CD4+CD28? T-cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic CD4+CD28? T-cells with known defects in apoptosis have been investigated as markers of premature immuno-senescence in various immune-mediated diseases. In this study we evaluated the influence of polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG-Fresenius, ATG-F) on CD4+CD28? T-cells in vivo and in vitro. Principal Findings Surface and intracellular three colour fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 consecutive transplant recipients and short-term cell lines were performed. In vivo, peripheral levels of CD3+CD4+CD28? T-cells decreased from 3.7±7.1% before to 0±0% six hours after ATG-F application (P?=?0.043) in 5 ATG-F treated but not in 11 control patients (2.9±2.9% vs. 3.9±3.0%). In vitro, ATG-F induced apoptosis even in CD4+CD28? T-cells, which was 4.3-times higher than in CD4+CD28+ T-cells. ATG-F evoked apoptosis was partially reversed by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) and prednisolon-21-hydrogensuccinate. ATG-F triggered CD25 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induced down-regulation of the type 1 chemokine receptors CXCR-3, CCR-5, CX3CR-1 and the central memory adhesion molecule CD62L predominately in CD4+CD28? T-cells. Conclusion In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3+CD4+CD28? T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. CD25 expression and chemokine receptor down-regulation in CD4+CD28? T-cells only partly explain the underlying mechanism.

Duftner, Christina; Dejaco, Christian; Hengster, Paul; Bijuklic, Klaudija; Joannidis, Michael; Margreiter, Raimund; Schirmer, Michael

2012-01-01

247

Comparison of daclizumab, an interleukin 2 receptor antibody, to anti-thymocyte globulin-Fresenius induction therapy in kidney transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy and safety of daclizumab and anti-thymocyte globulin-Fresenius (ATG-F) as induction therapy in kidney transplantation (KT) were investigated in 45 KT performed in our center between March and May 2002. Group II (n=10) received daclizumab as induction therapy, and Group I (n=35) were induced with a single intraoperative bolus therapy of ATG-F. All patients were at low-risk, and the recipient and donor demographics, as well the immunosuppression regimen employed were comparable in both groups. Drug safety, assessed by the occurrence of side effects, was almost comparable in the two groups, except for more thrombocytopenia in Group II (P<0.0004). Acute rejection (AR) occurred in 10% in Group I and 11.4% in Group II (P=NS). There were more infections in Group II (42.8%) than in Group I (10%) (P<0.009). Bacterial and viral infections were more common in Group II (69 and 23%) than in Group I (10 and 0%) (P<0.05). The hospital stay was similar in both groups. Mean serum creatinine levels upon discharge, at 1, 3 and 6 months were: 1.23+/-0.11, 1.21+/-0.06, 1.25+/-0.11 and 1.35+/-0.08 in Group I and 2.18+/-0.43, 1.49+/-0.16, 1.49+/-0.16 and 1.35+/-0.08 in Group II, respectively. While better serum creatinine levels were observed in Group I upon discharge (P<0.048), this was due to the presence of more sensitized patients in Group II. The 6 months actuarial patient and graft survival were identical in both groups (100 and 100%, respectively). Although both daclizumab and ATG-F were effective and safe as induction therapy in KT, less bacterial and viral infections and lower early serum creatinine levels were noted in daclizumab-treated patients.

Abou-Jaoude MM; Ghantous I; Almawi WY

2003-07-01

248

Apoptotic effects of antilymphocyte globulins on human pro-inflammatory CD4+CD28- T-cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells with known defects in apoptosis have been investigated as markers of premature immuno-senescence in various immune-mediated diseases. In this study we evaluated the influence of polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG-Fresenius, ATG-F) on CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells in vivo and in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surface and intracellular three colour fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 consecutive transplant recipients and short-term cell lines were performed. In vivo, peripheral levels of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells decreased from 3.7 ± 7.1% before to 0 ± 0% six hours after ATG-F application (P = 0.043) in 5 ATG-F treated but not in 11 control patients (2.9 ± 2.9% vs. 3.9 ± 3.0%). In vitro, ATG-F induced apoptosis even in CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells, which was 4.3-times higher than in CD4(+)CD28(+) T-cells. ATG-F evoked apoptosis was partially reversed by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) and prednisolon-21-hydrogensuccinate. ATG-F triggered CD25 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induced down-regulation of the type 1 chemokine receptors CXCR-3, CCR-5, CX3CR-1 and the central memory adhesion molecule CD62L predominately in CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3(+)CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. CD25 expression and chemokine receptor down-regulation in CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells only partly explain the underlying mechanism.

Duftner C; Dejaco C; Hengster P; Bijuklic K; Joannidis M; Margreiter R; Schirmer M

2012-01-01

249

[Treatment of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy with alpha-interferon and high-dose of gamma-globulin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We administered alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) and gamma-globulin (gamma-gl) to patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). Patients selected for this study fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of HAM by Osame et al. As for alpha-IFN, 12 patients were injected intramuscularly with a dose of 3 X 10(6) IU/day of alpha-IFN for 28 days. As for gamma-gl, 10 patients were injected intravenously with a dose of 10 g/day of human gamma-gl for 5 days. alpha-IFN exerted therapeutic effects in 7 of 12 patients and gamma-gl in 6 of 10. The therapeutic effects were shown by the improvement in time for a 20-meter walk, muscle power of lower limbs and urinary frequency. All patients having a history of improvement by corticosteroid therapy showed beneficial responses to both treatments with alpha-IFN and gamma-gl. Contrarily, patients who had not improved by corticosteroid therapy did not show any improvement after gamma-gl and alpha-IFN administration. The therapeutic effects of gamma-gl and alpha-IFN were observed predominantly in cases with shorter duration of illness, more marked abnormality in cerebral MRI findings and higher CSF antibody titers to HTLV-I. There was no correlation between the therapeutic efficacy and clinical severity or serum antibody titers to HTLV-I. We conclude that therapies with alpha-IFN and gamma-gl were safe and effective for the treatment of HAM.

Kuroda Y; Takashima H; Endo C; Neshige R; Kakigi R

1990-06-01

250

Higher sex hormone-binding globulin and lower bioavailable testosterone are related to prostate cancer detection on prostate biopsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies show an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and prostate cancer (PCa). The usefulness of hormonal patterns in PCa diagnosis is controversial. This study aimed to determine the relationship between hormonal patterns and PCa, and to find a cut-off point of hormone levels to assess PCa risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective analysis was undertaken of 279 patients referred for first or second prostate biopsy in the Hospital Clínic Barcelona from November 2006 to May 2009. The indication for prostate biopsy was suspicion of PCa based on the results of digital rectal examination (DRE) and/or elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Screening was carried out with a 5+5-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Age, prostate volume, DRE (normal or abnormal), biopsy findings (normal or report of PCa), PSA, free-to-total PSA, PSA density, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were also prospectively recorded. Free and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, abnormal DRE [odds ratio (OR = 5.46, p < 0.001], SHBG levels ? 66.25 nmol/l [OR = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52 to 7.04, p < 0.002] and bioavailable testosterone levels ? 104 ng/dl (OR = 4.92, 95% CI 1.78 to 13.59, p = 0.002) were related to the diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma. Age, free testosterone, PSA, testosterone, PSA/testosterone, PSA/free testosterone and PSA/bioavailable testosterone were not related to PCa diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Low bioavailable testosterone levels and high SHBG levels were related to a 4.9- and 3.2-fold risk of detection of PCa on prostate biopsy owing to PSA elevation or abnormal DRE. This fact may be useful in the clinical scenario in counselling patients at risk for PCa.

García-Cruz E; Carrión Puig A; García-Larrosa A; Sallent A; Castañeda-Argáiz R; Piqueras M; Ribal MJ; Leibar-Tamayo A; Romero-Otero J; Alcaraz A

2013-08-01

251

Pre-diagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma : Etiological factors or risk markers?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated pre-diagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk (OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), ptrend =0.009). As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p=0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with pre-diagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as pre-diagnostic risk marker for HCC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen

2013-01-01

252

Characteristics of chemical binding to alpha 2u-globulin in vitro--evaluating structure-activity relationships  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

alpha 2u-Globulin (alpha 2u) has been shown to accumulate in the kidneys of male rats treated with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP). 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentanol (TMP-2-OH), a metabolite of TMP, is found reversibly bound to alpha 2u isolated from the kidneys of these treated rats. The objectives of the following study were to characterize the ability of (3H)TMP-2-OH to bind to alpha 2u in vitro and to determine whether other compounds that cause this protein to accumulate have the same binding characteristics. Although compounds that have been shown to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u in male rat kidneys compete in vitro with (3H)TMP-2-OH for binding to alpha 2u, they do so to varying degrees. The binding affinity (Kd) of the (3H)TMP-2-OH-alpha 2u complex was calculated to be on the order of 10(-7) M. The inhibition constant values (Ki) determined for d-limonene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol were all in the range 10(-4) M, whereas the Ki values for isophorone, 2,4,4- or 2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pentanol, and d-limonene oxide were determined to be in the range 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, respectively. TMP and 2,4,4- and 2,2,4-trimethylpentanoic acid did not compete for binding. This suggests that other factors, besides binding, are involved in the accumulation of alpha 2u. In this study the ability of a chemical to bind to alpha 2u was used as a measure of biological activity to assess structure-activity relationships among the chemicals tested and known to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u. The results so far suggest that binding is dependent on both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Borghoff, S.J.; Miller, A.B.; Bowen, J.P.; Swenberg, J.A. (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1991-02-01

253

Characteristics of chemical binding to alpha 2u-globulin in vitro--evaluating structure-activity relationships  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

alpha 2u-Globulin (alpha 2u) has been shown to accumulate in the kidneys of male rats treated with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP). 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentanol (TMP-2-OH), a metabolite of TMP, is found reversibly bound to alpha 2u isolated from the kidneys of these treated rats. The objectives of the following study were to characterize the ability of [3H]TMP-2-OH to bind to alpha 2u in vitro and to determine whether other compounds that cause this protein to accumulate have the same binding characteristics. Although compounds that have been shown to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u in male rat kidneys compete in vitro with [3H]TMP-2-OH for binding to alpha 2u, they do so to varying degrees. The binding affinity (Kd) of the [3H]TMP-2-OH-alpha 2u complex was calculated to be on the order of 10(-7) M. The inhibition constant values (Ki) determined for d-limonene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol were all in the range 10(-4) M, whereas the Ki values for isophorone, 2,4,4- or 2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pentanol, and d-limonene oxide were determined to be in the range 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, respectively. TMP and 2,4,4- and 2,2,4-trimethylpentanoic acid did not compete for binding. This suggests that other factors, besides binding, are involved in the accumulation of alpha 2u. In this study the ability of a chemical to bind to alpha 2u was used as a measure of biological activity to assess structure-activity relationships among the chemicals tested and known to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u. The results so far suggest that binding is dependent on both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding

1991-01-01

254

Repression of the human sex hormone-binding globulin gene in Sertoli cells by upstream stimulatory transcription factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Expression of the sex hormone-binding globulin gene (SHBG) in the liver produces SHBG, which transports sex steroids in the blood. In rodents, the SHBG gene is also expressed in Sertoli cells giving rise to the testicular androgen-binding protein, which is secreted into the seminiferous tubule where it presumably controls testosterone action. Evidence that the SHBG gene functions in this way in the human testis is lacking, and mice containing a human SHBG transgene (shbg4) under the control of its own promoter sequence are characterized by SHBG gene expression in the liver but not in the testis. A potential cis-element, defined as footprint 4 (FP4) within the human SHBG promoter, is absent in SHBG promoters of mammals that produce the testicular androgen-binding protein, and we have produced mice harboring a shbg4 transgene in which FP4 was deleted to evaluate its functional significance. Remarkably, these mice express the modified human SHBG transgene in the testis as well as the liver. Human SHBG transcripts were found within their Sertoli cells, primary cultures of which secrete human SHBG, and this was increased by treatment with follicle-stimulating hormone, retinoic acid, and estradiol but not testosterone. We have also found that the upstream stimulatory factors (USF-1 and USF-2) bind FP4 in vitro by electromobility shift assay of Sertoli cell nuclear extracts and in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and conclude that USF transcription factors repress human SHBG transcription in Sertoli cells through an interaction with FP4 within its proximal promoter. PMID:15574421

Selva, David M; Hogeveen, Kevin N; Hammond, Geoffrey L

2004-12-01

255

Repression of the human sex hormone-binding globulin gene in Sertoli cells by upstream stimulatory transcription factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Expression of the sex hormone-binding globulin gene (SHBG) in the liver produces SHBG, which transports sex steroids in the blood. In rodents, the SHBG gene is also expressed in Sertoli cells giving rise to the testicular androgen-binding protein, which is secreted into the seminiferous tubule where it presumably controls testosterone action. Evidence that the SHBG gene functions in this way in the human testis is lacking, and mice containing a human SHBG transgene (shbg4) under the control of its own promoter sequence are characterized by SHBG gene expression in the liver but not in the testis. A potential cis-element, defined as footprint 4 (FP4) within the human SHBG promoter, is absent in SHBG promoters of mammals that produce the testicular androgen-binding protein, and we have produced mice harboring a shbg4 transgene in which FP4 was deleted to evaluate its functional significance. Remarkably, these mice express the modified human SHBG transgene in the testis as well as the liver. Human SHBG transcripts were found within their Sertoli cells, primary cultures of which secrete human SHBG, and this was increased by treatment with follicle-stimulating hormone, retinoic acid, and estradiol but not testosterone. We have also found that the upstream stimulatory factors (USF-1 and USF-2) bind FP4 in vitro by electromobility shift assay of Sertoli cell nuclear extracts and in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and conclude that USF transcription factors repress human SHBG transcription in Sertoli cells through an interaction with FP4 within its proximal promoter.

Selva DM; Hogeveen KN; Hammond GL

2005-02-01

256

Prediagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma: Etiological factors or risk markers?  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated prediagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk [OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), ptrend = 0.009]. As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p = 0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with prediagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as prediagnostic risk marker for HCC. © 2013 UICC. PMID:23801371

Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen; Hüsing, Anika; Schock, Helena; Fedirko, Veronika; Trepo, Elisabeth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Benetou, Vassiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Nöthlings, Ute; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf

2013-08-02

257

Most probable origin of coeliac disease is low immune globulin A in the intestine caused by malfunction of Peyer's patches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coeliac disease frequency increases by obscure reasons and affects in some Western countries as much as 1% of the populations. The second one of monozygotic twins does not develop the disease in 100% but only in 20-50%. To unravel these mysteries, literature was searched to determine the disease background and find suggestions for research and prevention. The causal antigen of coeliac disease is gluten of wheat that is neutralised in the intestine by secretory immune globulin A (sIgA). SIgA is secreted by the secondary (lymphoid) immune system that develops in a newborn infant after the primary (central) immune organs thymus and bone marrow have been primed with antigens of the intestine. Predisposed infants are sensitive for development of coeliac disease during the time without sIgA secretion into the intestine. The risk of the disease diminishes when sIgA cycles of gluten neutralisation develop. Peyer's patches (PP) of the secondary immune system play a central role in the cycles and possibly do not function well in the case of coeliac disease. Coeliac disease in predisposed infants may be prevented by delay of bread consumption till the time of normal sIgA secretion and by application of a challenge period with gluten (see Discussion). It is concluded that sIgA secretion into body cavities and malfunction of immune cells in PP should be included in the future research of coeliac disease as well as in more allergic diseases (type 1 diabetes, Crohn disease, asthma, hay fever).

Mulder SJ; Mulder-Bos GC

2006-01-01

258

Most probable origin of coeliac disease is low immune globulin A in the intestine caused by malfunction of Peyer's patches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coeliac disease frequency increases by obscure reasons and affects in some Western countries as much as 1% of the populations. The second one of monozygotic twins does not develop the disease in 100% but only in 20-50%. To unravel these mysteries, literature was searched to determine the disease background and find suggestions for research and prevention. The causal antigen of coeliac disease is gluten of wheat that is neutralised in the intestine by secretory immune globulin A (sIgA). SIgA is secreted by the secondary (lymphoid) immune system that develops in a newborn infant after the primary (central) immune organs thymus and bone marrow have been primed with antigens of the intestine. Predisposed infants are sensitive for development of coeliac disease during the time without sIgA secretion into the intestine. The risk of the disease diminishes when sIgA cycles of gluten neutralisation develop. Peyer's patches (PP) of the secondary immune system play a central role in the cycles and possibly do not function well in the case of coeliac disease. Coeliac disease in predisposed infants may be prevented by delay of bread consumption till the time of normal sIgA secretion and by application of a challenge period with gluten (see Discussion). It is concluded that sIgA secretion into body cavities and malfunction of immune cells in PP should be included in the future research of coeliac disease as well as in more allergic diseases (type 1 diabetes, Crohn disease, asthma, hay fever). PMID:16403601

Mulder, S J; Mulder-Bos, G C

2006-01-05

259

Hyperimmune globulins and same-day thrombotic adverse events as recorded in a large healthcare database during 2008-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thrombotic events (TEs) are rare serious complications following administration of hyperimmune globulin (HIG) products. Our retrospective claims-based study assessed occurrence of same-day TEs following administration of HIGs during 2008-2011 and examined potential risk factors using HealthCore's Integrated Research Database (HIRD(SM) ) and laboratory testing of products' procoagulant Factor XIa activity by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Multivariable regression was used to estimate same-day TE risk for different products. Of 101,956 individuals exposed to 23 different HIG product groups, 86 (0.84 per 1,000 persons) had a TE diagnosis code (DC) recorded on the same day as HIG administration. Unadjusted same-day TE DC rates (per 1,000 persons) ranged from 0.4 to 148.9 for different products. GamaSTAN S/D IG >10cc had statistically significantly higher same-day TE DC risk compared to Tetanus IG (OR=57.57; 95% CI=19.72-168.10). Increased TE risk was also observed with older age (?45 years), prior thrombotic events, and hypercoagulable state(s). Laboratory investigation identified elevated Factor XIa activity for GamaSTAN S/D, HepaGam B, HyperHep B S/D, WinRho SDF, HyperRHO S/D full dose, and HyperTET S/D. Our study, for the first time, identified increase in the same-day TE DC risk with GamaSTAN S/D IG >10cc and suggests potentially elevated TE risk with other HIGs.

Menis M; Sridhar G; Selvam N; Ovanesov MV; Divan HA; Liang Y; Scott D; Golding B; Forshee R; Ball R; Anderson SA; Izurieta HS

2013-08-01

260

Prediagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma: Etiological factors or risk markers?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elevated prediagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk [OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), ptrend = 0.009]. As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p = 0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with prediagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as prediagnostic risk marker for HCC. © 2013 UICC.

Lukanova A; Becker S; Hüsing A; Schock H; Fedirko V; Trepo E; Trichopoulou A; Bamia C; Lagiou P; Benetou V; Trichopoulos D; Nöthlings U; Tjønneland A; Overvad K; Dossus L; Teucher B; Boeing H; Aleksandrova K; Palli D; Pala V; Panico S; Tumino R; Ricceri F; Bueno-de-Mesquita HB; Siersema PD; Peeters PH; Quiros JR; Duell EJ; Molina-Montes E; Chirlaque MD; Gurrea AB; Dorronsoro M; Lindkvist B; Johansen D; Werner M; Sund M; Khaw KT; Wareham N; Key TJ; Travis RC; Rinaldi S; Romieu I; Gunter MJ; Riboli E; Jenab M; Kaaks R

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Prediagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma : Etiological factors or risk markers?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated pre-diagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk (OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), ptrend =0.009). As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p=0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with pre-diagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as pre-diagnostic risk marker for HCC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen

2014-01-01

262

Antibody specific for the glycophorin A complex mediates intravenous immune globulin-resistant anemia in a murine model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Therapy for patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) remains a major challenge. Patients with glycophorin A (GPA)-specific immunoglobulin?G antibodies can have severe hemolysis, which may occur by mechanisms independent from traditional macrophage-dependent Fc? receptor (Fc?R)-mediated extravascular hemolysis. As intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) is known to display its beneficial effects in Fc?R-mediated cytopenias, and IVIG responses in AHA are inconsistent at best, we sought to gain insight into the mechanism of anemia by a GPA complex-specific monoclonal antibody (TER119) in a mouse model of immune hemolytic anemia and evaluate the therapeutic effect of IVIG. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The anemic effect of the TER119 antibody was studied in vitro by incubation of mouse RBC with the antibody and in vivo by infusing the antibody into normal mice versus mice genetically deficient for the Fc receptor ? chain (Fc?), complement C3, mice naturally deficient in complement C5, and splenectomized mice. IVIG efficacy in anemia was determined by treating mice with an intensive IVIG dosing regimen. RESULTS: The TER119-mediated anemia was independent of classical Fc?R-, C3-, and C5-dependent mechanisms, but occurred by a mechanism consistent with RBC agglutination. In accordance with agglutination, the presence of the spleen accelerated the anemia observed but anemia could still occur in splenectomized mice. IVIG did not significantly affect the induction of anemia by TER119. CONCLUSION: The mechanism of anemia induced by AHA-causing antibodies may be an important factor to consider in the response to therapy with IVIG.

Chen X; Ghaffar H; Jen CC; Lazarus AH

2013-06-01

263

The global availability of rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine in clinics providing direct care to travelers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rabies, which is globally endemic, poses a risk to international travelers. To improve recommendations for travelers, we assessed the global availability of rabies vaccine (RV) and rabies immune globulin (RIG). METHODS: We conducted a 20-question online survey, in English, Spanish, and French, distributed via e-mail to travel medicine providers and other clinicians worldwide from February 1 to March 30, 2011. Results were compiled according to the region. RESULTS: Among total respondents, only 190 indicated that they provided traveler postexposure care. Most responses came from North America (38%), Western Europe (19%), Australia and South and West Pacific Islands (11%), East and Southeast Asia (8%), and Southern Africa (6%). Approximately one third of 187 respondents stated that patients presented with wounds from an animal exposure that were seldom or never adequately cleansed. RIG was often or always accessible for 100% (n = 5) of respondents in the Middle East and North Africa; 94% (n = 17) in Australia and South and West Pacific Islands; 20% (n = 1) in Tropical South America; and 56% (n = 5) in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Ninety-one percent (n = 158) of all respondents reported that RV was often or always accessible. For all regions, 35% (n = 58) and 26% (n = 43) of respondents felt that the cost was too high for RIG and RV, respectively. CONCLUSION: The availability of RV and RIG varied by geographic region. All travelers should be informed that RIG and RV might not be readily available at their destination and that travel health and medical evacuation insurance should be considered prior to departure. Travelers should be educated to avoid animal exposures; to clean all animal bites, licks, and scratches thoroughly with soap and water; and to seek medical care immediately, even if overseas.

Jentes ES; Blanton JD; Johnson KJ; Petersen BW; Lamias MJ; Robertson K; Franka R; Briggs D; Costa P; Lai I; Quarry D; Rupprecht CE; Marano N; Brunette GW

2013-05-01

264

Low sex hormone-binding globulin is associated with hypertension: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish population  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and hypertension in a Swedish population. Methods The study is based on a random sample of a Swedish population of men and women aged 30–74?years (n=2,816). Total testosterone, oestradiol and SHBG were measured in 2,782 participants. Free androgen index was then calculated according to the formula FAI=100 × (Total testosterone)/SHBG. Hypertension was diagnosed according to JNC7. Results In men, but not in women, significant association between SHBG and both diastolic (diastolic blood pressure: ?=?0.143 p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ?=?0.114 p<0.001) was found. The association was still significant after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (diastolic blood pressure: ?=?0.113 p<0.001; systolic blood pressure ?=?0.093 p=0.001). An inverse association was observed between SHBG and hypertension in both men (B=?0.024 p<0.001) and women (B=?0.022 p<0.001). The association was still significant in women older than 50?years after adjustments for age, BMI, physical activity, CRP and alcohol consumption (B=?0.014, p=0.008). Conclusion In conclusion, these results show a strong association between SHBG and blood pressure independent of major determinants of high blood pressure. This association might be addressed to direct effects of SHBG in endothelial cells through the receptor for SHBG. If this is confirmed by other observational and experimental studies, it might become a new field for the development of therapies for lowering blood pressure.

2013-01-01

265

Latent heat storage; Latentwaermespeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the latent heat storage equipment for automobiles. Topics are a short historical review, principals of latent heat storage, lithium-magnesiumnitrate-latent-heat-storage-equipment, thermodynamical properties of this salt mixture, requirements for latent heat storage. (SR) [Deutsch] Die Thermodynamik von Phasenumwandlungen bietet die Moeglichkeit, Waermeenergie kostenguenstig zu speichern und bei Bedarf wieder freizusetzen. Ein erstes Beispiel fuer die Umsetzung dieses Konzepts in ein marktfaehiges Produkt stellt die Entwicklung eines Latentwaermespeichers fuer Kraftfahrzeuge dar. (orig.)

Heckenkamp, J.; Baumann, H. [Merck (E.), Darmstadt (Germany). Spezial- und Feinchemikalien

1997-11-01

266

S-storage operators  

CERN Multimedia

In 1990, J.L. Krivine introduced the notion of storage operator to simulate, for Church integers, the "call by value" in a context of a "call by name" strategy. In this present paper, we define, for every $\\lambda$-term S which realizes the successor function on Church integers, the notion of S-storage operator. We prove that every storage operator is a $S-storage operator. But the converse is not always true.

Nour, Karim

2009-01-01

267

Latent heat storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Latent heat storage is of great advantage because of the high storage heat capacity which can be preserved at a constant temperature perfectly matched to the energy requirements of the solar appliances. Inorganic, organic substances and their eutectics have been considered for energy storage medium. Material selection, heat exchanger and their performance limitations are discussed.

Lal Chaurasia, P.B.

1981-04-01

268

Níveis séricos de globulinas e a intensidade da fibrose hepática em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica/ Serum globulin levels and intensity of hepatic fibrosis in patients with mansonic schistosomiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Tem sido descrita correlação entre os níveis séricos de globulinas e o grau de fibrose hepática nas hepatites crônicas, mas não se encontram relatos na esquistossomose mansônica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis séricos de globulinas e de IgG, e a intensidade da fibrose periportal mensurada pela ultrassonografia em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica. MÉTODOS: Entre novembro de 2006 e fevereiro de 2007, foram estudados 41 pacientes que preencheram fic (more) ha clínica e realizaram dosagens de IgG por imunoturbidimetria e de globulinas indiretamente pelo método do biureto. A ultrassonografia foi realizada por um único pesquisador, seguindo os protocolos do Cairo e de Niamey. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 41 anos, sendo 25 pacientes (61%) do sexo feminino. Dez dos 41 pacientes (24%) apresentaram elevação dos níveis séricos de globulinas e 21 (51%) dos de IgG. Conforme a classificação do Cairo, 21 pacientes apresentaram grau I de fibrose, 18 grau II e 2 grau III, e pela classificação de Niamey 8 apresentavam padrão C, 20 D e 13 E. Aqueles com graus II ou III de fibrose tiveram maiores níveis de IgG do que os de grau I (P = 0,047), assim como aqueles que apresentaram padrões D e E em relação ao C (P = 0,011). Não houve associação entre os níveis de globulinas e o grau ou padrão de fibrose. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica, observou-se elevação dos níveis séricos de IgG de acordo com a progressão do grau e do padrão de fibrose periportal, mas o mesmo não se observou com os níveis de globulinas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: A correlation between the levels of serum globulins and the hepatic fibrosis degree in chronic hepatitis was described, but reports in schistosomiasis mansoni have not been found. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum globulins and IgG levels, and periportal fibrosis intensity measured by ultrasound in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. METHODS: Between November, 2006 and February 2007, 41 patients which were eligible, filled them a questionnaire and had their (more) levels of serum IgG measured by immunoturbidimetry and globulins indirectly measured by the Biuret method. The ultrasound was carried out by a single researcher, according to the Cairo and Niamey protocols. RESULTS: The average age was 41 years old and 25 female patients (61%). Ten patients (24%) from 41 showed serum globulins levels raised and 21 (51%) presented elevated IgG levels. According to the Cairo classification, 21 patients showed grade I of fibrosis, 18 grade II and 2 grade III; and by the Niamey classification 8 showed standard C, 20 D, and 13 E. Those with grade II or III of fibrosis had higher IgG levels than the ones with grade I (P = 0,047), as well as those who showed standards D and E as compared to C (P = 0,011). There was no association between the globulins levels and the intensity of fibrosis. CONCLUSION: In patients with schistosomiasis mansoni, an increase of the IgG serum levels was observed according to the progression from periportal fibrosis intensity, but the same was not founded with globulins levels.

Correia, Henrique S. T.; Domingues, Ana Lucia C.; Lopes, Edmundo P. A.; Morais, Clarice N. L.; Sarteschi, Camila; Moura, Izolda M. F.

2009-09-01

269

Níveis séricos de globulinas e a intensidade da fibrose hepática em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica Serum globulin levels and intensity of hepatic fibrosis in patients with mansonic schistosomiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Tem sido descrita correlação entre os níveis séricos de globulinas e o grau de fibrose hepática nas hepatites crônicas, mas não se encontram relatos na esquistossomose mansônica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis séricos de globulinas e de IgG, e a intensidade da fibrose periportal mensurada pela ultrassonografia em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica. MÉTODOS: Entre novembro de 2006 e fevereiro de 2007, foram estudados 41 pacientes que preencheram ficha clínica e realizaram dosagens de IgG por imunoturbidimetria e de globulinas indiretamente pelo método do biureto. A ultrassonografia foi realizada por um único pesquisador, seguindo os protocolos do Cairo e de Niamey. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 41 anos, sendo 25 pacientes (61%) do sexo feminino. Dez dos 41 pacientes (24%) apresentaram elevação dos níveis séricos de globulinas e 21 (51%) dos de IgG. Conforme a classificação do Cairo, 21 pacientes apresentaram grau I de fibrose, 18 grau II e 2 grau III, e pela classificação de Niamey 8 apresentavam padrão C, 20 D e 13 E. Aqueles com graus II ou III de fibrose tiveram maiores níveis de IgG do que os de grau I (P = 0,047), assim como aqueles que apresentaram padrões D e E em relação ao C (P = 0,011). Não houve associação entre os níveis de globulinas e o grau ou padrão de fibrose. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica, observou-se elevação dos níveis séricos de IgG de acordo com a progressão do grau e do padrão de fibrose periportal, mas o mesmo não se observou com os níveis de globulinas.BACKGROUND: A correlation between the levels of serum globulins and the hepatic fibrosis degree in chronic hepatitis was described, but reports in schistosomiasis mansoni have not been found. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum globulins and IgG levels, and periportal fibrosis intensity measured by ultrasound in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. METHODS: Between November, 2006 and February 2007, 41 patients which were eligible, filled them a questionnaire and had their levels of serum IgG measured by immunoturbidimetry and globulins indirectly measured by the Biuret method. The ultrasound was carried out by a single researcher, according to the Cairo and Niamey protocols. RESULTS: The average age was 41 years old and 25 female patients (61%). Ten patients (24%) from 41 showed serum globulins levels raised and 21 (51%) presented elevated IgG levels. According to the Cairo classification, 21 patients showed grade I of fibrosis, 18 grade II and 2 grade III; and by the Niamey classification 8 showed standard C, 20 D, and 13 E. Those with grade II or III of fibrosis had higher IgG levels than the ones with grade I (P = 0,047), as well as those who showed standards D and E as compared to C (P = 0,011). There was no association between the globulins levels and the intensity of fibrosis. CONCLUSION: In patients with schistosomiasis mansoni, an increase of the IgG serum levels was observed according to the progression from periportal fibrosis intensity, but the same was not founded with globulins levels.

Henrique S. T. Correia; Ana Lucia C. Domingues; Edmundo P. A. Lopes; Clarice N. L. Morais; Camila Sarteschi; Izolda M. F. Moura

2009-01-01

270

The role of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in conversion of testosterone to 5 ?-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione in skin from suprapubic area of women. Part 1. In vitro study with skin sections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) on testosterone metabolism into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione in skin sections from the suprapubic area women of reproductive age was investigated. The SHBG was obtained by precipitating plasma proteins of women in the third trimester of pregnancy with ammonium sulphate. Steroids were isolated from the incubation medium by extraction with acetone and reextraction with ether and purified using column chromatography on aluminum oxide, thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel and following formation of acetyl derivatives the thin layer chromatography on silica gel was again carried out. Individual recovery of androstenedione was calculated using radioisotope and the recovery of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone was determined with gas chromatography. Mean value of identified 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the presence of inactive globulin was 52.77 fg/mg, whereas following the addition of active globulin the value decreased to 19.62 fg/mg. Mean value of identified androstenedione in preparations with inactive globulin (62.97 fg/mg), in the presence of active globulin was also reduced to 18.15 fg/mg. (author)

1978-01-01

271

Sensitization with 7S Globulins from Peanut, Hazelnut, Soy or Pea Induces IgE with Different Biological Activities Which Are Modified by Soy Tolerance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: It is not known why some foods sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are prevalent allergenic foods and others are not. Eating habits, processing, and the food matrix have been suggested to influence the allergenicity of a given food. Factors related to protein structure, such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their ‘normal’ matrix. Methods: Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3 times with 100 ?g purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. Results: The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical level of specific antibodies, but peanut 7S induced IgE of higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, hada higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. Soy tolerance reduced the functionality of IgE without influencing antibody titers. Conclusions: Although the 4 7S globulins are structurally related allergens, they induce antibodies with different antigen-binding characteristics. Peanut 7S induces IgE of a higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, has a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. We also show that soy tolerance influences the function of antibodies to peanut 7S. These findings may help explain how antibodies of different clinical significances can develop in different individuals sensitized to the same allergen.Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

Kroghsbo, Stine; BØgh, Katrine Lindholm

2011-01-01

272

Cytoplasmic androgen binding protein of rat liver: molecular characterization after photoaffinity labeling and functional correlation with the age-dependent synthesis of alpha 2u-globulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liver of the mature male rat contains a moderate affinity (Kd = 10(-8)M), low-capacity, cytoplasmic androgen binding protein (CAB) whose appearance during puberty and disappearance during senescence correlate with the androgen-dependent synthesis of alpha 2u-globulin. Molecular properties of CAB were examined by photoaffinity labeling with tritiated methyltrienolone (R-1881), a synthetic androgen, and by its localization within the hepatocytes which are competent to produce alpha 2u-globulin. Photoaffinity labeling of the liver cytosol derived from postpubertal male rats, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography, showed a predominant androgen binding band corresponding to Mr 31,000. This 31-kilodalton (kDa) binding component was conspicuously absent in the liver of androgen-insensitive prepubertal and senescent male rats and in adult male rats treated with estradiol-17 beta. In addition, unlike the cytoplasmic extract, the nuclear lysate of the male rat hepatocytes did not contain the 31-kDa androgen binder. Disappearance of the 31-kDa androgen binding band from the cytosolic fraction of androgen-insensitive animals was associated with a concomitant appearance of a minor androgen binding component of apparent Mr 29,000. The livers of postpubertal male rats normally contain two subpopulations of hepatocytes, only one of which is highly active (competent) in alpha 2u-globulin synthesis. Separation of these two subpopulations through a fluorescence-activated cell sorter followed by whole cell labeling showed more than a 2-fold higher uptake of R-1881 by the competent cells

1987-06-30

273

Latent heat storage device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upon heat being liberated, a latent heat storage material is kept in indirect contact with a heat transfer medium through a heat liberation or output accelerating material. Thus, the heat of fusion of the storage material is taken out with high efficiency. Since a heat input accelerating material is taken into a solid phase of the storage material, the heat input velocity at which heat is transferred to the storage material is greatly increased when heat is transferred or stored thereinto. Thus, a practical latent heat storage device having excellent heat input and output characteristic has been materialized.

Ishii, T.; Uno, H.; Yamashita, K.

1985-08-20

274

Cloud storage for dummies  

CERN Multimedia

Understand cloud computing and save your organization time and money! Cloud computing is taking IT by storm, but what is it and what are the benefits to your organization? Hitachi Data Systems' Cloud Storage For Dummies provides all the answers, With this book, you discover a clear explanation of cloud storage, and tips for how to choose the right type of cloud storage for your organization's needs. You also find out how cloud storage can free up valuable IT resources, saving time and money. Cloud Storage For Dummies presents useful information on setting up a

Xu, Linda; Loughlin, Tanya

2010-01-01

275

Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A 125I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation. (author)

1979-01-01

276

In vivo T-cell depletion with antithymocyte globulins improves overall survival after myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematologic disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess the effect of prophylactic treatment with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in myeloablative transplant patients, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized and cohort studies. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register and the Science Citation Index were searched for studies on ATG treatment in patients with hematologic disorders undergoing myeloablative transplantation. Four randomized controlled trials, six retrospective and one prospective cohort study were included, covering 1,549 patients. The summary hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival were 0.84.

Sheng Z; Ma H; Pang W; Niu S; Xu J

2013-01-01

277

A case of non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia treated by combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil in a dog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 12-year-old female Shih Tzu dog was referred with diarrhea. Hematological examination indicated severe non-regenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspiration smears and core biopsy specimens revealed normal bone marrow. Based on those results, non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia was diagnosed. The dog was initially treated using prednisolone and cyclosporine. However, this treatment regimen did not prove effective. Nevertheless, the patient achieved a good hematological response after the administration of a combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil. Such a combination therapy may prove effective against non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia.

M. Yuki

2011-01-01

278

INH-A21: a donor-selected Staphylococcal human immune globulin for the prevention of late-onset neonatal Staphylococcal infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INH-A21 is an experimental human immune globulin for intravenous infusion (IGIV) derived from donors specifically selected for elevated levels of antibodies against the Staphylococcal fibrinogen-binding proteins, serine aspartate dipeptide repeat G and clumping factor A. Phase II results demonstrated that infusions of INH-A21 were well tolerated and there were no trends for increasing adverse events, or the common morbidities associated with prematurity. Enrollment has been completed in (but no results have been released from) a Phase III human trial testing INH-A21 as a prophylactic agent against staphylococcal infection in very low birth weight infants (500-1250 g).

Bloom BT

2006-06-01

279

Identification, characterization and expression of novel Sex Hormone Binding Globulin alternative first exons in the human prostate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) gene, located at 17p13.1, comprises, at least, two different transcription units regulated by two different promoters. The first transcription unit begins with the exon 1 sequence and is responsible for the production of plasma SHBG by the hepatocytes, while the second begins with an alternative exon 1 sequence, which replaces the exon 1 present in liver transcripts. Alternative exon 1 transcription and translation has only been demonstrated in the testis of transgenic mice containing an 11-kb human SHBG transgene and in the human testis. Our goal has been to further characterize the 5' end of the SHBG gene and analyze the presence of the SHBG alternative transcripts in human prostate tissue and derived cell lines. Results Using a combination of in silico and in vitro studies, we have demonstrated that the SHBG gene, along with exon 1 and alternative exon 1 (renamed here exon 1A), contains four additional alternative first exons: the novel exons 1B, 1C, and 1E, and a previously identified exon 1N, which has been further characterized and renamed as exon 1D. We have shown that these four alternative first exons are all spliced to the same 3' splice site of SHBG exon 2, and that exon 1A and the novel exon 1B can be spliced to exon 1. We have also demonstrated the presence of SHBG transcripts beginning with exons 1B, 1C and 1D in prostate tissues and cell lines, as well as in several non-prostatic cell lines. Finally, the alignment of the SHBG mammalian sequences revealed that, while exons 1C, 1D and 1E are very well conserved phylogenetically through non-primate mammal species, exon 1B probably aroused in apes due to a single nucleotide change that generated a new 5' splice site in exon 1B. Conclusion The identification of multiple transcription start sites (TSS) upstream of the annotated first exon of human SHBG, and the detection of the alternative transcripts in human prostate, concur with the prediction of the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements) project, and suggest that the regulation of SHBG is much more complex than previously reported.

Pinós Tomàs; Barbosa-Desongles Anna; Hurtado Antoni; Santamaria-Martínez Albert; de Torres Inés; Morote Joan; Reventós Jaume; Munell Francina

2009-01-01

280

Comparison of two doses of antithymocyte globulin in patients undergoing matched unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) as part of conditioning regimens is known to reduce the incidence and severity of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD). The influence of ATG on transplant-related mortality (TRM) and disease-free survival (DFS) is controversial, and may depend on the dose and timing of ATG. We retrospectively compared 2 doses of ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) in patients undergoing matched unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematologic malignancies. A dose of 60 mg/kg body weight has previously been recommended for ATG-F. All patients received cyclosporine A and short course methotrexate. ATG-F was administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg on day -1 (ATG-30 group, n = 34) or 20 mg/kg/day on days -3 to -1 (ATG-60 group, n = 49). There was no difference in time to leukocyte and platelet engraftment in the 2 groups. The incidence of aGVHD grade II-IV (50% versus 53%, P = .83) and grade III-IV (27 versus 20%, P = .60) was similar in the ATG-30 versus ATG-60 groups, respectively. There was a trend to a higher incidence of cGVHD in the ATG-30 group (59% versus 40%, P = .14). The estimated 3-year incidence of relapse was similar in the ATG-30 and ATG-60 groups (15% versus 16%, P = .84) whereas the 2-year TRM was lower for the ATG-30 group (12% versus 33%, P = 0.02), mainly because of a higher incidence of fatal infections in the ATG-60 group. This resulted in a better DFS (73% versus 51%, P = .07) for the ATG-30 group. ATG-F (30 mg/kg) administered as a single dose on day -1 may lead to better outcome in patients undergoing unrelated donor allogeneic HSCT compared to 60 mg/kg given in 3 equivalent doses. A prospective randomized study comparing these 2 doses of ATG-F is warranted.

Ayuk F; Diyachenko G; Zabelina T; Wolschke C; Fehse B; Bacher U; Erttmann R; Kröger N; Zander AR

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Comparison of two doses of antithymocyte globulin in patients undergoing matched unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) as part of conditioning regimens is known to reduce the incidence and severity of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD). The influence of ATG on transplant-related mortality (TRM) and disease-free survival (DFS) is controversial, and may depend on the dose and timing of ATG. We retrospectively compared 2 doses of ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) in patients undergoing matched unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematologic malignancies. A dose of 60 mg/kg body weight has previously been recommended for ATG-F. All patients received cyclosporine A and short course methotrexate. ATG-F was administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg on day -1 (ATG-30 group, n = 34) or 20 mg/kg/day on days -3 to -1 (ATG-60 group, n = 49). There was no difference in time to leukocyte and platelet engraftment in the 2 groups. The incidence of aGVHD grade II-IV (50% versus 53%, P = .83) and grade III-IV (27 versus 20%, P = .60) was similar in the ATG-30 versus ATG-60 groups, respectively. There was a trend to a higher incidence of cGVHD in the ATG-30 group (59% versus 40%, P = .14). The estimated 3-year incidence of relapse was similar in the ATG-30 and ATG-60 groups (15% versus 16%, P = .84) whereas the 2-year TRM was lower for the ATG-30 group (12% versus 33%, P = 0.02), mainly because of a higher incidence of fatal infections in the ATG-60 group. This resulted in a better DFS (73% versus 51%, P = .07) for the ATG-30 group. ATG-F (30 mg/kg) administered as a single dose on day -1 may lead to better outcome in patients undergoing unrelated donor allogeneic HSCT compared to 60 mg/kg given in 3 equivalent doses. A prospective randomized study comparing these 2 doses of ATG-F is warranted. PMID:18640575

Ayuk, Francis; Diyachenko, Galina; Zabelina, Tatjana; Wolschke, Christine; Fehse, Boris; Bacher, Ulrike; Erttmann, Rudolf; Kröger, Nicolaus; Zander, Axel R

2008-08-01

282

A retrospective comparison of the efficacy and safety in kidney transplant recipients with basiliximab and anti-thymocyte globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Induction therapy are utilized to achieve an adequate immunosuppression at the time of transplantation. The use of basiliximab or anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) for induction therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of acute rejection episodes post-transplantation. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the basiliximab in patients with immuno-induction therapy after kidney transplantation with the ATG. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was carried out in kidney transplant recipients including 146 patients with the basiliximab and 116 cases with the ATG and the acute rejection, graft function, infective complications and 1-year and 5-year actuarial patient and graft survival after renal transplantation were compared between the two treatment groups. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant difference between groups regarding age, sex, cold ischemic time, warm ischemic time, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching type between the donor and recipient, lymphotoxin test and the use of immunosuppressive agents. There was no statistical significance regarding the incidence of the acute rejection (9.59% vs. 8.62%, P = 0.481) and delayed graft function (10.27% vs. 9.48%, P = 0.501) between groups. There were significantly lower lung infection incidence (5.48% vs. 12.93%, P = 0.029) in the basiliximab-treated group in comparison with the ATG-treated group. One-year patient and graft survival rates were 98%, 97% for the basiliximab-treated group, and 95%, 73% for the ATG-treated group, respectively. Five-year patient and graft survival rates were 92%, 86% for the basiliximab-treated group and 93%, 72% for the ATG-treated group, respectively. Log rank test showed statistically significant difference with P = 0.038 for patients and P = 0.033 for grafts, respectively. There were significantly lower the incidence of granulocytopenia (8.22% vs. 17.24%, P = 0.022) and thrombocytopenia (4.11% vs. 19.83%, P = 0.000) after transplantation in the basiliximab-treated group in comparison with the ATG-treated group. There was no statistical significance regarding the incidence of the heart dysfunction after transplantation between the two groups (6.16% vs. 6.90%, P = 0.502). CONCLUSION: The immuno-induction therapy with the basiliximab in kidney transplant recipients is efficient and safe with less complication compared with the ATG.

Wang W; Yin H; Li XB; Hu XP; Yang XY; Liu H; Ren L; Wang Y; Zhang XD

2012-03-01

283

Living related liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related liver disease without hepatitis B immune globulin prophylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is routinely used in liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. With potent oral antivirals, HBIG may not be required. We conducted a prospective trial to evaluate living related liver transplantation (LRLT) without HBIG. Eighty-nine patients with HBV-related liver disease underwent LRLT between January 2005 and January 2012. All donors were vaccinated with the HBV vaccine. All patients were given oral antivirals for HBV before transplantation. Patients with HBV DNA levels ? 2000 IU/mL were not given HBIG, and patients with HBV DNA levels > 2000 IU/mL were given HBIG. Recurrence was defined as HBV DNA positivity 6 months after transplantation. Seventy-five of the 89 patients who underwent LRLT for HBV-related liver disease were not given HBIG. Nineteen patients received a combination of lamivudine and adefovir, 42 received entecavir, 12 received tenofovir, and 2 received a combination of entecavir and tenofovir. At the last follow-up (median = 21 months, range = 1-83 months), all patients were HBV DNA-negative. Sixty-six patients cleared hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 19 patients formed antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). The cumulative probabilities of clearing HBsAg were 90% and 92% at 1 and 2 years after transplantation, respectively. Nine patients were HBsAg-positive with undetectable DNA at the last follow-up. The recurrence rate in our series was 8% (6/75). Five of these 6 patients had stopped taking oral antivirals, and 1 had entecavir resistance. All recurrences were salvaged with changes in the oral antivirals. The actuarial probability of survival in this cohort was 73.7% at 83 months. There was no mortality due to HBV recurrence. In conclusion, HBV prophylaxis with oral antivirals and without HBIG is safe and effective in LRLT. A majority of the patients will clear HBsAg, and some will develop anti-HBs antibodies. Liver Transpl 19:1030-1035, 2013. © 2013 AASLD. PMID:23788470

Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subash; Goyal, Neerav; Taneja, Sunil; Kumar, Ajay

2013-08-18

284

Energy storage technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This book takes stock of the advantages and drawbacks of the different energy storage solutions apart from the classical fossil fuels (oil, uranium, gas), and details the technologies developed for an electric end-use. Storage is one of the most critical point for the development of new energy technologies, in particular those that use the electricity vector all along the energy source chain (generation, production, transport, utilisation). Storage is important not only for individual or independent applications, that use renewable energies or not, often intermittent, but also to secure coupled systems like power transportation and distribution systems. The development and choice of the most relevant technologies is dependent of technical-economical parameters. It can also supply new services, in particular in the framework of new electricity markets. Content: power film-capacitors, magnetic storage, kinetic energy storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), hydro-pneumatic storage, high-temperature thermal storage of electricity, hydraulic gravity storage, power electronic systems for energy storage. (J.S.)

2009-01-01

285

Antibodies against the gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131 complex comprise the majority of the anti-cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) neutralizing antibody response in CMV hyperimmune globulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anti-cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) hyperimmune globulin (HIG) has demonstrated efficacy in preventing CMV disease in solid-organ transplant patients as well as congenital disease when administered to pregnant women. To identify the neutralizing component of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG), we performed serial depletions of CMV-HIG on cell-surface-expressed CMV antigens as well as purified antigens. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the major neutralizing antibody response is directed at the gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131 complex, suggesting little role for anti-gB antibodies in CMV-HIG neutralization.

Fouts AE; Chan P; Stephan JP; Vandlen R; Feierbach B

2012-07-01

286

Review of energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of energy storage in different countries has been briefly described. An inventory of energy storage in relation to different energy sources has been given, such as electrical, chemical, mechanical and thermal energy. A classification of energy storage in relation to size has been made: on a national level, a regional level, a city level, a district level, for the construction of buildings and houses.

van Mourik, G.J.

1982-06-01

287

Target vacuum storage facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A storage facility was constructed and is now in operation for use with targets which must be kept in a vacuum. The storage chamber of this facility will handle up to ninety targets at a pressure of 5 x 10-7 torr. Typically, targets are evaporated, moved into a small transfer chamber, and then placed in the storage chamber of the facility--all under vacuum. There are safety devices which minimize accidents

1975-09-29

288

BASE COVER FOR FOOD STORAGE AND FOOD STORAGE USING THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A base cover for food storage is provided to maintain a device compactly and to maximize capacity of the storage by forming a depression part on an upper part of the base cover. A base cover(200) for food storage includes a panel stalled between a machine room(240) and a storage part. A depression part(211) is formed on one side on an upper part of the panel. The food storage includes the storage part, the machine room and the base cover. A first storage(110a) and a second storage(110b) are formed on the storage part.

PARK KYUNG HO

289

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01

290

Solar heat storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spiral solar heat storage unit having air ducts radially spaced from the center to the rim of the spiral storage unit so the air from the solar collector can be delivered to the various ducts located radially along the spiral storage unit. By delivering the hottest air to the center of the spiral storage unit and the cooler air to the outer portion of the spiral, one provides a radial temperature gradient from the center of the spiral chamber to the rim of the spiral chamber.

Carlson, N.G.

1980-03-25

291

Underground thermal energy storage  

CERN Multimedia

""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" (UTES) provide us with a flexible tool to combat global warming through conserving energy while utilizing natural renewable energy resources. Primarily, they act as a buffer to balance fluctuations in supply and demand of low temperature thermal energy. ""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" provides an comprehensive introduction to the extensively-used energy storage method. ""Underground Thermal Energy Storage"" gives a general overview of UTES from basic concepts and classifications to operation regimes. As well as discussing general procedures for des

Lee, Kun Sang

2012-01-01

292

Storage in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

2007-01-01

293

Effect of Subsoiling in Fallow Period on Soil Water Storage and Grain Protein Accumulation of Dryland Wheat and Its Regulatory Effect by Nitrogen Application  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0–300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60–160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40–160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm?2, was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat.

Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing

2013-01-01

294

Bone marrow transplantation in thalassemia major patients using "short" anti-thymocyte globulin therapy in Shiraz, Southern Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed on 113 Iranian transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients from May 1993 through September 2003. To have at least 2 years follow-up, we report BMT on 90 patients transplanted up to December 2001. The donors were human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)-nonreactive siblings (n = 74) on parents (n = 6); HLA-identical MLC-reactive siblings (n = 5) or parents (n = 1); and one HLA antigen-mismatched sibling (n = 4). The induction regimen in 11 patients was oral busulfan (BU) (14 mg/kg) and IV cyclophosphamide (CY; 200 mg/kg); in fifteen patients it was BU (15 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 200 mg/kg); in 47 patients, BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg), and short course of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG, horse; 40 mg/kg including 10 mg/kg on days -2, -1, +1, +2); and in 15 patients, BU (15 mg/kg) CY (200 mg/kg), and ATG (60 to 100 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg at 3 to 5 days before and after BMT). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and prednisolone. The group who received BU (14 mg/kg) and CY (200 mg/kg), as compared to the group receiving BU (15 mg/kg) and CY (200 mg/kg), was of younger age and lower risk; median age 7 versus 10 years, and 46% versus 7% in Lucarelli's risk group class I (the best prognostic group), respectively. These patients showed a lower disease-free survival (DFS), namely 64% versus 73%, with a follow up of 2 to 10.5 years. Thus from 9.5 years ago, our standard protocol for BU has been 15 mg/kg. The group who received "short" ATG (40 mg/kg), BU (15 mg/kg), and CY (200 mg/kg) showed almost the same outcome as the group who received a higher dose of ATG (60 to 100 mg/kg), namely DFS 72% versus 73%, respectively, despite the fact that half of both groups were included in the Lucarelli's risk group class III (the worst prognostic group) 49% versus 53%. We showed the same DFS for the patients who received BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg), and no ATG compared with the ATG group (73% vs 72%), but 27% of the group without ATG developed grade IV acute GVHD and 54% developed chronic GVHD. In the group with short ATG, 15% and 17% of patients developed grade IV acute and chronic GVHD, respectively. There was no significant difference for falls in platelets and white blood cell or engraftment days and the number of packed red blood cell transfusions among the groups. The median hospital stay was longer for the group with BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg) namely 81 versus 61 to 65 days. Second bone marrow infusions were needed in 6% and 20% of patients who received ATG doses of (40 versus 60 to 100 mg/kg; respectively (1 to 2 month post-BMT). BU at a dose of 15 mg/kg was more effective than 14 mg/kg BU for its myeloablative properties. By adding "short" ATG course to the conditioning regimen, the incidence of grade IV acute and chronic GVHD was reduced in thalassemic patients, especially when an HLA disparity was present.

Zakerinia M; Khojasteh HN; Ramzi M; Haghshenas M

2005-12-01

295

Bone marrow transplantation in thalassemia major patients using "short" anti-thymocyte globulin therapy in Shiraz, Southern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed on 113 Iranian transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients from May 1993 through September 2003. To have at least 2 years follow-up, we report BMT on 90 patients transplanted up to December 2001. The donors were human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)-nonreactive siblings (n = 74) on parents (n = 6); HLA-identical MLC-reactive siblings (n = 5) or parents (n = 1); and one HLA antigen-mismatched sibling (n = 4). The induction regimen in 11 patients was oral busulfan (BU) (14 mg/kg) and IV cyclophosphamide (CY; 200 mg/kg); in fifteen patients it was BU (15 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 200 mg/kg); in 47 patients, BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg), and short course of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG, horse; 40 mg/kg including 10 mg/kg on days -2, -1, +1, +2); and in 15 patients, BU (15 mg/kg) CY (200 mg/kg), and ATG (60 to 100 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg at 3 to 5 days before and after BMT). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and prednisolone. The group who received BU (14 mg/kg) and CY (200 mg/kg), as compared to the group receiving BU (15 mg/kg) and CY (200 mg/kg), was of younger age and lower risk; median age 7 versus 10 years, and 46% versus 7% in Lucarelli's risk group class I (the best prognostic group), respectively. These patients showed a lower disease-free survival (DFS), namely 64% versus 73%, with a follow up of 2 to 10.5 years. Thus from 9.5 years ago, our standard protocol for BU has been 15 mg/kg. The group who received "short" ATG (40 mg/kg), BU (15 mg/kg), and CY (200 mg/kg) showed almost the same outcome as the group who received a higher dose of ATG (60 to 100 mg/kg), namely DFS 72% versus 73%, respectively, despite the fact that half of both groups were included in the Lucarelli's risk group class III (the worst prognostic group) 49% versus 53%. We showed the same DFS for the patients who received BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg), and no ATG compared with the ATG group (73% vs 72%), but 27% of the group without ATG developed grade IV acute GVHD and 54% developed chronic GVHD. In the group with short ATG, 15% and 17% of patients developed grade IV acute and chronic GVHD, respectively. There was no significant difference for falls in platelets and white blood cell or engraftment days and the number of packed red blood cell transfusions among the groups. The median hospital stay was longer for the group with BU (15 mg/kg), CY (200 mg/kg) namely 81 versus 61 to 65 days. Second bone marrow infusions were needed in 6% and 20% of patients who received ATG doses of (40 versus 60 to 100 mg/kg; respectively (1 to 2 month post-BMT). BU at a dose of 15 mg/kg was more effective than 14 mg/kg BU for its myeloablative properties. By adding "short" ATG course to the conditioning regimen, the incidence of grade IV acute and chronic GVHD was reduced in thalassemic patients, especially when an HLA disparity was present. PMID:16387149

Zakerinia, M; Khojasteh, H N; Ramzi, M; Haghshenas, M

2005-12-01

296

Heat storage material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heat storage material having a melting point in the range of 90* to 100* C is described. It is excellent in that it is neither corrosiv inflammable nor toxic. The heat storage material comprises a mixture of dimethyl terephthalate and one member selected from the group consisting of dimethyl fumarate and dihydroanthracene.

Mita, N.; Murai, Y.; Sato, A.

1982-01-05

297

Electricity: the necessary storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As they are intermittent, renewable energies raise the issue of energy storage. A first article evokes the existence of energy-transfer pumping stations in France (they are associated with dams) and outlines that energy storage requires important investments. It also evokes the different considered and currently tested energy storage technologies (compressed air, hydrogen, flywheels, methane, batteries, or phase-change materials) and outlines that each of them is associated to a specific application. A second article discusses the issue of a precise control of the coupling between energy production and storage. Some experiments are evoked. A last article addresses the development of positive-energy buildings which require energy storage solutions which are based on smart grids

2013-01-01

298

Electricity Storage. Technology Brief  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable natural storage sites. Electrical batteries have a large potential with a number of new materials and technologies under development to improve performance and reduce costs. Heat storage is practical in CSP plants. The choice between large-scale storage facilities and small-scale distributed storage depends on the geography and demography of the country, the existing grid and the type and scale of renewable technologies entering the market. While the energy storage market is quickly evolving and expected to increase 20-fold between 2010 and 2020, many electricity storage technologies are under development and need policy support for further commercial deployment. Electricity storage considerations should be an integral part of any plans for electric grid expansion or transformation of the electricity system. Storage also offers key synergies with grid interconnection and methods to smooth the variability of electricity demand (demand side management)

Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

2012-04-15

299

A Generic Storage API  

CERN Multimedia

We present a generic API suitable for provision of highly generic storage facilities that can be tailored to produce various individually customised storage infrastructures. The paper identifies a candidate set of minimal storage system building blocks, which are sufficiently simple to avoid encapsulating policy where it cannot be customised by applications, and composable to build highly flexible storage architectures. Four main generic components are defined: the store, the namer, the caster and the interpreter. It is hypothesised that these are sufficiently general that they could act as building blocks for any information storage and retrieval system. The essential characteristics of each are defined by an interface, which may be implemented by multiple implementing classes.

Kirby, Graham; Dearle, Alan; Morrison, Ron

2010-01-01

300

Spent fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A space is formed underground by partitioning walls made of radiation shielding material, in which only a storage cell is contained. The storage cell comprises metal blocks made of a heat conductive material such as stainless steels. A great number of holes each having a predetermined diameter are vertically arranged to the metal block, and storage pits are constituted by the holes. Spent nuclear fuels are contained in a first columnar vessel and the first columnar vessel is further contained in a large second columnar vessel. Both of the first columnar vessel and the second columnar vessel are made of a durable metal material such as stainless steels. The second columnar vessel is inserted to the storage pit of the storage cell. With such a constitution, heat emitted from the second columnar vessel is transferred to the metal block by radiation and dissipated from the metal block. Accordingly, a heat dissipation efficiency can be increased. (I.N.)

1992-03-26

 
 
 
 
301

Spent fuel storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A space is formed underground by partitioning walls made of radiation shielding material, in which only a storage cell is contained. The storage cell comprises metal blocks made of a heat conductive material such as stainless steels. A great number of holes each having a predetermined diameter are vertically arranged to the metal block, and storage pits are constituted by the holes. Spent nuclear fuels are contained in a first columnar vessel and the first columnar vessel is further contained in a large second columnar vessel. Both of the first columnar vessel and the second columnar vessel are made of a durable metal material such as stainless steels. The second columnar vessel is inserted to the storage pit of the storage cell. With such a constitution, heat emitted from the second columnar vessel is transferred to the metal block by radiation and dissipated from the metal block. Accordingly, a heat dissipation efficiency can be increased. (I.N.).

Futami, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Kazuaki.

1993-10-22

302

Spent fuel storage racks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To decrease a spent fuel storage area occupied in a storage pool by increasing the storage density of the spent fuel, thereby enabling semi-permanent storage. Constitution: A framework of a spent fuel storage racks is made of stainless steel; and cells for holding fuel rod assemblies are formed by fitting, in its wall surface, ceramic tiles produced by sintering a mixture of such medium materials as Al2O3, SiO2, and ZrO2 and such elements as Eu, Hf, Gd, Sm, Co and Rh used as neutron absorbers which emit gamma rays in the process of reaction to neutrons. The most desirable neutron absorber to be used is Hf which has a high neutron absorbing capacity and a long half-life, is capable of keeping on absorbing neutrons even after neutron absorption, and makes (n,?) neutron absorption reaction, emitting gamma rays without accompanying any change of the ceramic tiles with time. (Sekiya, K.).

1984-12-27

303

Storage resource manager  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management on shared storage components on the Grid[1,2]. SRMs support protocol negotiation and reliable replication mechanism. The SRM standard supports independent SRM implementations, allowing for a uniform access to heterogeneous storage elements. SRMs allow site-specific policies at each location. Resource Reservations made through SRMs have limited lifetimes and allow for automatic collection of unused resources thus preventing clogging of storage systems with ''orphan'' files. At Fermilab, data handling systems use the SRM management interface to the dCache Distributed Disk Cache [5,6] and the Enstore Tape Storage System [15] as key components to satisfy current and future user requests [4]. The SAM project offers the SRM interface for its internal caches as well.

Perelmutov, T.; Bakken, J.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

304

Storage-ring experiments with negative ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Negative heavy ions can be stored for several seconds in the Aarhus STorage RIng Denmark (ASTRID), allowing long-time observation of particles. A direct application of the long storage times is the measurements of ? 10 ?s - 100 ms autodetachment lifetimes of ions which are almost inaccessible via traditional beam techniques. The measurement of structural or dynamic properties of weakly bound negative-ion systems provides an excellent test of calculations on many-body systems in atomic physics. Experiments with 4He- lifetimes have been conducted with the ASTRID storage ring, experimental technique established. Magnetic field-induced effects in the ring and influence of blackbody radiation were studied. The lifetime studies will be further developed to allow studies of highly excited negative ions such as Li-(1s2s2p2 5P) and of molecular ions, in particular of He2. The storage ring can also be utilized to study auto-ionizing, positively charged atomic or molecular ions or long-lived ions decaying by photon emission. A few experiments utilizing these possibilities are being planned. (EG) (12 refs.)

1993-01-01

305

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-07-06

306

Impact of alemtuzumab versus anti-thymocyte globulin after unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning as treatment for AML in CR1: a survey from the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the EBMT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vivo T cell depletion of the graft with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or with alemtuzumab has been frequently used in the setting of RIC allo-SCT from unrelated donors. This survey compared allo-SCT outcomes between 364 AML patients in first CR given unrelated PBSC after chemotherapy-based RIC an...

Baron, Frédéric; Labopin, M.; Mufti, G.; Arnold, R.; Craddock, C.; Bilger, K.; Kroger, N.; Nagler, A.; Mohty, M.

307

SERI solar energy storage program  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research and development activities is described.

Baylin, F.; Copeland, R. J.; Kotch, A.; Kriz, T.; Luft, W.; Nix, R. G.; Wright, J. O.

1982-05-01

308

Food storage house  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a grain storage bin, which belongs to a grain storage device. The grain storage bin mainly overcomes the defects existing in the commonly used grain storage method that the grains cannot be prevented from being robbed by rats, and the grains are mildewed and worm-eaten due to air-tightness. The grain storage bin comprises a bin casing with an outlet and a top cover, and is characterized in that an air outlet hole is arranged on the top cover, the bin casing, an inner liner and a breather pipe form a bin body, wherein the inner liner is arranged in the bin casing, a ventilation sandwich layer is formed between the periphery and the bottom of the inner liner and the periphery and the bottom of the bin casing, the upper end of the breather pipe is positioned in the air outlet hole, the lower end of the breather pipe is communicated with the ventilation sandwich layer, and an air inlet hole communicated with the ventilation sandwich layer is arranged on the bin casing. The utility model has the advantages that the grain storage bin has simple structure and convenient use, can effectively prevent the grains from being eaten by the rats, mildewed and worm-eaten and has adjustable storage capability.

ZUODONG LU

309

Storage of radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

1992-01-01

310

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

311

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi{sub 5} and other AB{sub 5} type materials and AB{sub 5+x} materials, where x is from about {minus}2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemical homogeneity as a result of rapid solidification from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, I.E.; Ellis, T.W.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Ting, J.; Terpstra, R.; Bowman, R.C.; Witham, C.K.; Fultz, B.T.; Bugga, R.V.

2000-06-13

312

Coping with extreme: highland eurasian tree sparrows with molt-breeding overlap express higher levels of corticoserone-binding globulin than lowland sparrows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In birds, suppressed expression of stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) during pre-basic molt is generally thought to reflect a physiological trade-off in self-maintenance. And reduced CORT during breeding in extreme environments may maximize reproductive success and optimize their fitness. Highland Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) are known to express significantly higher stress-induced CORT levels during the pre-basic molt stage. Here, we show that these highland sparrows are characterized by a life history strategy of molt-breeding overlap, with higher corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) levels favoring molt and breeding consistent with fitness optimization on the Tibetan Plateau. These unique behavioral and physiological strategies reflect natural selection under strong evolutionary pressures in extreme high-altitude environments. J. Exp. Zool. 319A: 482-486, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Li D; Zhang J; Liu D; Zhang L; Hu Y; Duan X; Wu Y

2013-10-01

313

Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E2), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m2; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E2 levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

1995-01-01

314

Effect of triiodothyronine (L-T/sub 3/) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T/sub 3/ (200 ..mu..g/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein diet. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S level. There were changes in serum T/sub 3/ which rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of the 60-day period of L-T/sub 3/ administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals.

Cavaliere, H.; Medeiros Neto, G.A. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina)

1984-06-01

315

The effect of triiodothyronine (L-T3) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T3 (200 ?g/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S leves. There was changes in serum T3 rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of de 60-day period of L-T3 administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals. (M.A.C.)

1984-01-01

316

Intravenous and standard immune serum globulin preparations interfere with uptake of 125I-C3 onto sensitized erythrocytes and inhibit hemolytic complement activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes were used as a model to determine the effects of therapeutic immune serum globulin (ISG) preparations on the ability of this particulate activator to fix C3 and initiate hemolysis. Both standard and intravenous forms of ISG inhibit uptake of 125I-C3, presumably by competing for the deposition of ''nascent'' C3b molecules onto the erythrocytes. Both forms of ISG also inhibit hemolytic activity of whole serum or purified complement components. The inhibition appears to be a specific property of IgG itself, since similar inhibition was not caused by equivalent concentrations of human serum albumin, and was not affected by the buffer in which the ISG was dissolved. Interference with C3 uptake onto antibody-sensitized platelets and/or inhibition of hemolytic complement activity could contribute to the efficacy of high dose intravenous ISG in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

1985-01-01

317

Intravenous and standard immune serum globulin preparations interfere with uptake of /sup 125/I-C3 onto sensitized erythrocytes and inhibit hemolytic complement activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes were used as a model to determine the effects of therapeutic immune serum globulin (ISG) preparations on the ability of this particulate activator to fix C3 and initiate hemolysis. Both standard and intravenous forms of ISG inhibit uptake of /sup 125/I-C3, presumably by competing for the deposition of ''nascent'' C3b molecules onto the erythrocytes. Both forms of ISG also inhibit hemolytic activity of whole serum or purified complement components. The inhibition appears to be a specific property of IgG itself, since similar inhibition was not caused by equivalent concentrations of human serum albumin, and was not affected by the buffer in which the ISG was dissolved. Interference with C3 uptake onto antibody-sensitized platelets and/or inhibition of hemolytic complement activity could contribute to the efficacy of high dose intravenous ISG in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Berger, M.; Rosenkranz, P.; Brown, C.Y.

1985-02-01

318

Coping with extreme: highland eurasian tree sparrows with molt-breeding overlap express higher levels of corticoserone-binding globulin than lowland sparrows.  

Science.gov (United States)

In birds, suppressed expression of stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) during pre-basic molt is generally thought to reflect a physiological trade-off in self-maintenance. And reduced CORT during breeding in extreme environments may maximize reproductive success and optimize their fitness. Highland Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) are known to express significantly higher stress-induced CORT levels during the pre-basic molt stage. Here, we show that these highland sparrows are characterized by a life history strategy of molt-breeding overlap, with higher corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) levels favoring molt and breeding consistent with fitness optimization on the Tibetan Plateau. These unique behavioral and physiological strategies reflect natural selection under strong evolutionary pressures in extreme high-altitude environments. J. Exp. Zool. 319A: 482-486, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23847036

Li, Dongming; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yonghong; Duan, Xianglin; Wu, Yuefeng

2013-07-11

319

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

Joel Morrison

2005-09-14

320

Network file storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Common File System (CFS) is a large, online centralized storage system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's computer network. The CFS provides Los Alamos computer users a relatively simple set of primitives with which they can store and retrieve files. A tree-structured directory allows the users to organize their data in a logical and reasonable manner. Eighteen months of operational experience and statistics have provided considerable insight into the best methods of providing optimum service and response to CFS users. Automatically moving, or migrating, files between storage devices based on usage characteristics has provided a cost-effective storage system.

Christman, R.D.; Collins, M.W.; Devaney, M.A.; Willbanks, E.W.

1981-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Potato seed storage method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a potato seed storage method, which comprises the following steps: selecting potato seeds with uniform size using 1 to 16 mg/l of uniconazole to soak the potato seeds for 15 to 30 min and storing the potato seeds under the condition of 18 to 20 DEG C after the moisture is dried. The method prolongs the storage period of the potatoes, and can also regulate and control the storage period of the potatoes so that the dormancy can be fast broken when the potatoes needs to sprout, and strong and healthy seedlings are sprouted. The method has simple operation, and is suitable for wide popularization and application.

XUELI HUANG; CHEN LIU; FAN LIU; YISHENG LIU; SU NI; XIYAO WANG; XUEGUI WANG; YUMING WANG; KUNQIANG YANG; XIANQUAN YANG; ZHAN JUN

322

On Storage Operators  

CERN Multimedia

In 1990 Krivine introduced the notion of storage operators. They are $\\lambda$-terms which simulate call-by-value in the call-by-name strategy. Krivine has shown that there is a very simple type in the AF2 type system for storage operators using G\\"odel translation from classical to intuitionistic logic. Parigot and Krivine have shown that storage operators play an important tool in classical logic. In this paper, we present a synthesis of various results on this subject.

Nour, Karim

2009-01-01

323

MUCK STORAGE PAD ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to define the spatial requirements of the area (pad) for storage of muck removed from the tunnel area during the construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). This analysis uses the estimate for the amount of material to be removed and determines the required area of the storage pad. Two different areas, Areas 1 and 2, considered as primarily suitable areas, will be analyzed (see Attachment I). An Optional Muck Storage Area, to be located to the east of the ESF pad, will also be analyzed for available volume, with an option of raising the stockpile of muck to 49 feet (see Attachments II and III).

H.R. Montalvo

1996-05-15

324

Storage tank management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage tank management as a component of risk and environmental management systems (EMS) was described. Part 1 of a three-part series of articles deals with management practices and environmental regulations, codes of practices and guidelines. The risks of improper storage tank management, including fires, explosions, leaks and spills which impact on public safety, business operation and profitability, were briefly mentioned. Part 2 of the series will cover management practices. Part 3 will present results of compliance audits of an industrial facility with storage tank systems.

Crocker, W.P.; Miyamoto, H.K. [Bovar Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada)

1996-09-01

325

Hydrogen storage using borohydrides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

2006-01-01

326

Integrated waste storage plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to assess the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Uranium Enrichment process and Environmental Restoration waste storage integration, assuming no off-site shipments other than currently approved avenues and no off-site disposal.

Warner, C.L.

1992-09-01

327

Nuclear Materials Storage  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Creation of System for Storage, Operative Control and Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Ampoule Sources of Ionizing Radiation (ASIR) on "Baikal-1" stand Complex Meeting the International Requirements of Radioactive Materials Control...

328

Storage: Asset or albatross?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of storage was originally intended to: act as a surrogate for transportation capacity and capture seasonal commodity differentials. Historically, storage was developed by the pipeline companies as a means to minimize capital expenditures in terms of long haul transportation. By building storage, gas could be transported to the market are and stored using available transportation capacity when load requirements were down in the summer, then withdrawn during the winter season without requiring additional transportation capacity to be built. With the advent of deregulation, gas prices were no longer fixed with respect to time. Due to the seasonal demand of gas, there developed a fairly predictable and very consistent corresponding seasonality to the pricing of natural gas. With this phenomenon, seasonal storage developed an added local distribution companies.

Peldner, P.J. [Tejas Power Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

329

Heat storage in aquifers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long term energy storage in underground aquifers has been studied both on theoretical and experimental levels for several years in France and abroad. The paper presents the research work results which are the basis for future real scale demonstration projects. The problem now is to devise space heating systems with such a storage and to define which heat source to store and in which economical conditions.

Iris, P. (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre d' Informatique Geologique, 77 - Fontainebleau (France))

1984-10-01

330

Concrete cask storage technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents the design and operation of the new dry storage system for nuclear waste. The system has been designed by complete nuclear, thermal-hydraulic and structural analysis to the requirements of 10 CFR 72 and ANSI 57.9. It offers the utilities a low-cost, easy-to-operate, maintenance-free option for on-site storage of irradiated fuel

1990-01-01

331

Thermal energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal energy storage medium is disclosed comprising Na/sub 2/.SO/sub 4/.10H/sub 2/O and Na/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/.12H/sub 2/O. This material provides advantages over Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.10H/sub 2/O alone such as constancy of heat delivery temperature and energy output, improved reversibility, and greater usable volumetric storage capacity after repeated cycling.

Despault, G.J.; Capes, C.E.; Fouda, A.E.; Taylor, J.B.

1983-09-27

332

Analog storage integrated circuit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

Walker, J. T. (Palo Alto, CA); Larsen, R. S. (Menlo Park, CA); Shapiro, S. L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01

333

Spent nuclear fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

2005-01-01

334

Energy Storage: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficient and economic energy storage, if implemented in the current power infrastructure on a large scale, could bring about some of the greatest changes in the power industry in decades. Additionally, energy storage would improve the reliability and dynamic stability of the power system by providing stable, abundant energy reserves that require little ramp time and are less susceptible to varying fuel prices or shortages. Energy storage can shift the higher peak load to off-peak hours in order to level the generation requirement, allowing generators to run more efficiently at a stable power level, potentially decreasing the average cost of electricity. Additionally, increased energy storage capacity can avoid generation capacity, decrease transmission congestion, and help enable distributed generation such as residential solar and wind systems.In this paper energy storage methods are discussed in such a way to provide a detailed overview of how each of the energy storage devices work so that the reader is able to get a better feel for the potential benefits and drawbacks of each device.

Himanshu Verma,; Prof. Jaimala Gambhir,; Sachin Goyal,

2013-01-01

335

Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC). Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2%) and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds) and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cie?lak; Dariusz J. Michalczyk; Kamila Górska; Zofia Buli?ska-Radomska; Ryszard J. Górecki

2008-01-01

336

High-temperature storage battery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-temperature storage battery with a double-walled housing and insulating material between the housing walls. At least one storage cell as well as a heat sink is arranged in the interior of the housing. The cooling device for the storage cell is designed as a heat exchanger and at least one and preferably several storage cells are associcated with each exchanger.

Reiss, H.; Ziegenbein, B.

1985-05-14

337

Globulina beta do líquido cefalorraqueano no prognóstico de processos inflamatórios do sistema nervoso central/ The beta-globulin content of the cerebrospinal fluid and the evaluation of the prognosis in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi feita avaliação do comportamento da globulina beta do LCR em processos inflamatórios do SNC e/ou de seus envoltórios no sentido de verificar até que ponto podem ser úteis para o prognóstico as informações obtidas. Essa avaliação foi baseada no fato de a concentração dessa globulina no LCR estar relacionada ao metabolismo do parênquima nervoso, aumentando em condições que acarretem seu sofrimento. Os proteinogramas do LCR de 45 pacientes com processos i (more) nflamatórios do SNC e/ou de seus envoltórios, distribuídos em 6 grupos de casos, foram analisados segundo a possibilidade de o processo inflamatório estar acarretando, ou não, sofrimento do parênquima encefálico. A análise dos resultados mostrou que o estudo da concentração da globulina beta no LCR fornece elementos que permitem avaliar o comprometimento do parênquima encefálico nessas condições, aduzindo dados úteis para a avaliação prognóstica. A intensidade do aumento da concentração dessa globulina no LCR era maior do que a do aumento da concentração de albumina nos casos em que o processo inflamatório determinava comprometimento do parênquima encefálico. Abstract in english The CSF proteins of 45 patients with inflammatory diseases of the CNS were studied in order to evaluate the information that the beta-globulin content may bring about the occurrence of involvement of brain tissue. The material was distributed in 6 groups according to the diagnosis of the cases: 10 patients had spinal cord and/or radicular inflammatory disease, associated or not with leptomeningeal involvement (group 1); 5 had acute leptomeningitis (group 2); in 5 the diag (more) nosis of tuberculous meningo-encephalitis was made (group 3); in 10, of cysticercosis of the CNS (group 4); in 5, of neurosyphilis (group 5); in 10, of encephalitides (group 6). Total protein content was determined by the turbidimetric method of the trichloroacetic acid. The protein fractions were analyzed through paper strip electrophoresis. The results were evaluated in respect to normal values previously reported. The high gamma-globulin content of the CSF in inflammatory processes of the CNS hinders the evaluation of the changes occurring in the content of the other globulins; the interference of such factor is more marked when the inflammatory process is chronic. In such conditions the evaluation of the content of the other globulin fractions is better achieved by comparison with the albumin content, the values reported for each globulin being statistically compared to those obtained for the albumin fraction. By this procedure it was shown that in all 45 cases changes in the alpha-globulin content were not different from that found for the albumin fraction and it was concluded that these data bring no evidences indicating interference of other factors than those related to the blood-CSF barrier for the explanation of the changes in the alpha-globulins content of the samples studied. Significant differences were found in respect to beta and gamma globulins. The changes found in the gamma-globulin support the possibility that the increase of this globulin is conditioned by the local production. Data concerning to beta-globulin in the cases of groups 5 and 6 showed that the increases in the amount of this globulin were more marked than those observed for the albumin. This difference was statistically significant. It brings evidence of participation of a different factor in the explanation of the finding other than those accepted for the albumin fraction. The discussion on the nature of this factor supports the possibility of its relation to the changes in the protein metabolism of the brain, since the damage of the latter was present in the cases of these groups of patients. These data are in agreement to the findings on the changes registered in the content of this globulin in the CSF in degenerative diseases as it is reported in the literature. The changes in the beta-globulin content of the CSF which are more marked than thos

Spina-França, A.

1964-03-01

338

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the second 3-months of the project and encompasses the period December 31, 2003, through March 31, 2003. During this 3-month, the dialogue of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was continued and resulted in a constitution for the operation of the consortium and a draft of the initial Request for Proposals (RFP).

Robert W. Watson

2004-04-17

339

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA on November 8, 2006; {lg_bullet} Draft and compile an electronic newsletter, the GSTC Insider; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-09-30

340

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the first 3-months of the project and encompasses the period September 30, 2003, through December 31, 2003. During this 3-month period, the first meeting of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was held. The purpose of this meeting was to initiate the dialogue necessary to for the creation and adoption of a constitution that would be used to govern the activities of the consortium.

Robert W. Watson

2004-04-23

 
 
 
 
341

IP Storage: The Challenge Ahead  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advanced networking technology has led to the genesis of the storage area networkmodel, where host servers can access storage as a service from various devices connectedto the network. While the initial approach to storage area networks has involvedspecialized networking technology, the emergence of Gigabit Ethernet technology hasraised the question of whether we can use commodity IP networks for storage. This paperexamines the issues involving IP storage networks and presents a performance analysis todispel some of the myths and outline some of the challenges.

Prasenjit Sarkar; Kaladhar Voruganti

342

Radioactive waste storage issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

Kunz, D.E.

1994-08-15

343

Battery energy storage technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

1993-03-01

344

Distributed Storage Allocations  

CERN Multimedia

We examine the problem of allocating a given total storage budget in a distributed storage system for maximum reliability. A source has a single data object which it can code and store over a set of storage nodes; it is allowed to store any amount of coded data in each node, as long as the total amount of storage used does not exceed the given budget. A data collector subsequently attempts to recover the original data object by accessing only the data stored in a random subset of the nodes. By using an appropriate code, successful recovery can be achieved whenever the total amount of data accessed is at least the size of the original data object. The goal is to find an optimal storage allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery. This optimization problem is challenging in general because of its discrete and nonconvex nature, despite its simple formulation. We study several variations of the problem, assuming different allocation models and access models. The optimal allocation and the opt...

Leong, Derek; Ho, Tracey

2010-01-01

345

Photo storage cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention concerns a photo storage element with both the photoelectric transfer function and the photoelectric storage function and relates to a photo storage element with a big electric capacity. As the material for solar cells, inorganic semiconductors are mainly being studied, but organic semiconductors using organic compounds are also being studied. Organic semiconductors make film-shaped solar cells with large area inexpensively and have excellent workability, but as electrically active elements, many of them have lower efficiency and show considerably more deterioration than inorganic semiconductors. This invention intends to form a layer of pigment on a conductive substrate (particularly a glass substrate or an ITO substrate with Au coating), and compose a cell by laminating in sandwich form a semitransparent electrode (aluminum, etc.) on the above pigment layer in order to manifest the storage function of electricity in addition to the photoelectric transfer function. Thus it offers a photo storage cell with both the photoelectric motive force and the high electric capacity. It shows the structural formulae of squalilium-based pigments as the especially preferable pigments to be used. (2 figs)

Yanai, Kazuki; Iwata, Tomoo; Furusho, Noboru

1987-12-17

346

Radioactive waste storage issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

1994-01-01

347

Inertial energy storage device  

Science.gov (United States)

The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

Knight, Jr., Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Kelly, James J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Pollard, Roy E. (Powell, TN)

1978-01-01

348

MUCK STORAGE PAD ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this analysis is to define the spatial requirements of the area (pad) for storage of muck removed from the tunnel area during the construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). This analysis uses the estimate for the amount of material to be removed and determines the required area of the storage pad. Two different areas, Areas 1 and 2, considered as primarily suitable areas, will be analyzed (see Attachment I). An Optional Muck Storage Area, to be located to the east of the ESF pad, will also be analyzed for available volume, with an option of raising the stockpile of muck to 49 feet (see Attachments II and III)

1996-01-01

349

Oil storage in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The political nature of today's oil industry means that crude oil supplies are no longer guaranteed. It is essential that oil-consuming nations maintain stocks of crude and/or refined products in excess of 'working' requirements; these must now be kept at a level which would adequately meet demand in the event of an oil supply disruption. In Western Europe, so-called 'emergency reserves' are determined according to EC regulation as part of either primary, secondary of tertiary storage capacity. Emergency reserve capacity in the primary sector can be quantified; as part of secondary or tertiary storage however this task is less easy, since reliable data is scarce. The three stages of storage are examined and the ways in which Western Europe satisfies its mandatory stock obligation are considered.

1988-07-01

350

Plutonium storage phenomenology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed.

1995-01-01

351

Evolution of clustered storage  

CERN Document Server

The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

2007-01-01

352

Nuclear fuel storage arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compact nuclear fuel storage arrangement is described and diagrams with explanatory notes and dimensions given. The object of the invention is to provide an arrangement wherein the storage space for spent fuel assemblies is efficiently utilized without accumulation of a critical mass. Elongated nuclear reactor fuel assemblies each with an active and an inactive section along its longitudinal axis are stored. The arrangement comprises a frame structure forming a plurality of elongated cells, one for each fuel assembly, these being positioned radially adjacent to each other without spaces between. The fuel assemblies are axially positioned in staggered relation along the longitudinal axis of the cells so that the active section of each fuel assembly is adjacent to the inactive section of each radially adjacent fuel assembly. This allows a reduction in the storage space required but the radial distance between the closest active sections is at least one cell diameter. (UK)

1977-01-01

353

Neptunium storage at Hanford  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decision must be made regarding whether the United State`s stockpile of neptunium should be discarded into the waste stream or kept for the production of Pu-238. Although the cost of long term storage is not inconsequential, to dispose of the material means the closing of our option to maintain control over our Pu-238 stockpile. Within the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at Hanford there exists a remotely operated facility that can be converted for neptunium storage. This paper describes the facility and the anticipated handling requirements.

Alderman, C.J.; Shiraga, S.S.; Schwartz, R.A.; Smith, R.J.; Wootan, D.W.

1993-06-01

354

Neptunium storage at Hanford  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A decision must be made regarding whether the United State's stockpile of neptunium should be discarded into the waste stream or kept for the production of Pu-238. Although the cost of long term storage is not inconsequential, to dispose of the material means the closing of our option to maintain control over our Pu-238 stockpile. Within the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at Hanford there exists a remotely operated facility that can be converted for neptunium storage. This paper describes the facility and the anticipated handling requirements.

1993-01-01

355

Diffusion local time storage  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we study a storage process or a liquid queue in which the input process is the local time of a positively recurrent stationary diffusion in stationary state and the potential output takes place with a constant deterministic rate. For this storage process we find its stationary distribution and compute the joint distribution of the starting and ending times of the busy and idle periods. This work completes and extends to a more general setting the results in Mannersalo, Norros, and Salminen (2003).

Kozlova, M

2004-01-01

356

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc.) increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever then, the storage of electrical energy has become a necessity.

ELENA RADUCAN; LUMINITA MORARU

2011-01-01

357

Flywheel energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The strategic importance of energy storage at remote sites has been recognised in previous work. This study has identified the technical, economic and other benefits to be gained from energy storage as part of rural distribution networks. The specific application studied is the electrical distribution system supplying the Islands of Islay, Jura and Colonsay in the Scottish Inner Hebrides. In addition, a general list of benefits and the situations in which they can be obtained, has been developed for a range of island and remote network configurations. (author)

Barker, G. [International Energy Systems Ltd. (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

358

A simple and rapid Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) titration assay based on antibiotic resistance of infected cells: evaluation of the HAV neutralization potency of human immune globulin preparations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in general does not cause cytopathic effect and is detected by immunochemical or molecular probes. Simple HAV titration assays could be developed using currently available viral construct containing selectable markers. Results We developed an antibiotic resistance titration assay (ARTA) based on the infection of human hepatoma cells with a wild type HAV construct containing a blasticidin (Bsd) resistance gene. Human hepatoma cells infected with the HAV-Bsd construct survived selection with 2 ?g/ml of blasticidin whereas uninfected cells died within a few days. At 8 days postinfection, the color of the pH indicator phenol red in cell culture media correlated with the presence of HAV-Bsd-infected blasticidin-resistant cells: an orange-to-yellow color indicated the presence of growing cells whereas a pink-to-purple color indicated that the cells were dead. HAV-Bsd titers were determined by an endpoint dilution assay based on the color of the cell culture medium scoring orange-to-yellow wells as positive and pink-to-purple wells as negative for HAV. As a proof-of-concept, we used the ARTA to evaluate the HAV neutralization potency of two commercially available human immune globulin (IG) preparations and a WHO International Standard for anti-HAV. The three IG preparations contained comparable levels of anti-HAV antibodies that neutralized approximately 1.5 log of HAV-Bsd. Similar neutralization results were obtained in the absence of blasticidin by an endpoint dilution ELISA at 2 weeks postinfection. Conclusion The ARTA is a simple and rapid method to determine HAV titers without using HAV-specific probes. We determined the HAV neutralization potency of human IG preparations in 8 days by ARTA compared to the 14 days required by the endpoint dilution ELISA. The ARTA reduced the labour, time, and cost of HAV titrations making it suitable for high throughput screening of sera and antivirals, determination of anti-HAV antibodies in human immune globulin preparations, and research applications that involve the routine evaluation of HAV titers.

Konduru Krishnamurthy; Virata-Theimer Maria; Yu Mei-ying W; Kaplan Gerardo G

2008-01-01

359

Network file-storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central File System (CFS) is a file management and file storage system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's computer network. The CFS is organized as a hierarchical storage system: active files are stored on fast-access storage devices; larger, less active files are stored on slower, less expensive devices; and archival files are stored offline. Files are automatically moved between the various classes of storage by a file migration program that analyzes file activity, file size and storage device capabilties. This has resulted in a cost-effective system that provides both fast access and large data storage capability.

Collins, M.W.; Devaney, M.J.; Willbanks, E.W.

1983-01-01

360

Spent-fuel-storage alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Beyond DVD: Holographic Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

InPhase Technologies is exploring holographic storage; however, its goal is to create a device that could be the successor to the DVD. In this article, the potential capabilities and specifications of such a device are discussed. A working prototype has already been demonstrated, paving the way for future commercially viable drives based on the technology.

Whitmer, Clair

2008-02-15

362

Muon storage ring  

CERN Multimedia

The muon storage ring where the g-2 of the muon is being measured with extremely high accuracy. The ring is 14-m in diameter and has very precise magnetic bending and electric focussing fields so that the muons orbit the ring under well-defined conditions.

1974-01-01

363

Abstract Storage Devices  

CERN Document Server

A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be read, but that there is a degree of freedom as to which partial information should be retrieved. This concept leads to a number of interesting problems which we address, like the reduction of one device to another device, the equivalence of devices, direct products of devices, as well as the factorization of a device into primitive devices. We prove that every ASD has an equivalent ASD with minimal number of states and of possible read operations. Also, we prove that the reducibility problem for ASD's is NP-complete, that t...

Koenig, Robert; Tessaro, Stefano

2007-01-01

364

Tuber storage proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

Shewry PR

2003-06-01

365

Tuber storage proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

Shewry, Peter R

2003-04-09

366

Interim onsite radwaste storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems associated with state compacts for disposing of radioactive waste are well known. Presently, it appears that no compact will be capable of receiving waste by January 1996. Most compacts and independent states are essentially at ground zero. Politics, the open-quotes Not in MY backyardclose quotes (NIMBY) factor, poor public relations, public mistrust, public unawareness of engineering radwaste disposal, unfavorable media hype, and a multitude of other issues will delay projects even further. The financial burden imposed on electric utility rate payers is monumental. An economical and viable solution is onsite radwaste storage at nuclear stations. For example, the Bechtel design can store waste for $32/ft3, whereas burial costs per cubic foot are approximately $300.00/ft3 for a LSA box, $350.00/ft3 for low-level resins, and $570.00/ft3 for high-level resins, plus transportation costs of approximately $2.00 per mile. This Bechtel onsite radwaste storage is designed for maximum radwaste storage per square foot. In the overall design, emphasis was placed upon operations, maintenance, health physics, personnel, radiation exposure, and economics. Many utility personnel were consulted for their input. The final design has encompassed most of these views to provide the optimum onsite storage facility

1994-03-03

367

Interim onsite radwaste storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems associated with state compacts for disposing of radioactive waste are well known. Presently, it appears that no compact will be capable of receiving waste by January 1996. Most compacts and independent states are essentially at ground zero. Politics, the {open_quotes}Not in MY backyard{close_quotes} (NIMBY) factor, poor public relations, public mistrust, public unawareness of engineering radwaste disposal, unfavorable media hype, and a multitude of other issues will delay projects even further. The financial burden imposed on electric utility rate payers is monumental. An economical and viable solution is onsite radwaste storage at nuclear stations. For example, the Bechtel design can store waste for $32/ft{sup 3}, whereas burial costs per cubic foot are approximately $300.00/ft{sup 3} for a LSA box, $350.00/ft{sup 3} for low-level resins, and $570.00/ft{sup 3} for high-level resins, plus transportation costs of approximately $2.00 per mile. This Bechtel onsite radwaste storage is designed for maximum radwaste storage per square foot. In the overall design, emphasis was placed upon operations, maintenance, health physics, personnel, radiation exposure, and economics. Many utility personnel were consulted for their input. The final design has encompassed most of these views to provide the optimum onsite storage facility.

Bouchard, V.F.; Roddy, F.M.

1994-12-31

368

Fuel storage rack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spline connectors for interconnecting adjacent corners of diagonally adjacent rectangular nuclear fuel cell modules are provided with a novel shape including only two attachment arms to permit assembly of a multiplicity of rows of fuel cells while affording access to the edges of the splines for welding them to the storage modules

1978-01-01

369

Distributed Mass Storage System  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore massstorage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System(DMSS) Project at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is building such a system and expects to put it intoproduction use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in itsdevelopment and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: 1)workstation class file servers running UniTree software; 2) third party I/O; 3) HIPPI network; 4) HIPPI/IPI3 diskarray systems; 5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; 6) CRAY ResearchIncorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; 7) file server redundancy provision; and 8) a transitionmechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.1. IntroductionThe Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS...

Juliet Z. Pao; D. Creig Humes

370

DPM: Future Proof Storage  

CERN Multimedia

The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

2012-01-01

371

The role of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in conversion of testosterone to 5 ?-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione in skin from suprapubic area of women. Part 2. In vitro study with skin homogenates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and of microsomal supernatant (cytosol) on 3H-testosterone transformation into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone by skin microsomes of the suprapubic area of women in reproductive age was studied. Microsomal fractions were incubated with different forms of cytosol and with active and inactive globulin. Steroids, following isolation from the incubation material, were purified with the use of column and thin layer chromotographies. Individual recovery of identified androstenedione was calculated using radioisotopes, and the recovery of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone was determined with gas chromatography. The transformation of 3H-testosterone into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione by skin microsomes in the presence of active globulin has become significantly reduced. Microsomal supernatant (cytosol) has not changed the quantity of identified 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, whereas the quantity of formed androstenedione has slightly decreased. The lack of cyprosterone influence on 5 alpha reductase activity and a slight decrease in 17-dehydrogenase activity in the skin microsomal fraction were found. (author)

1978-01-01

372

Entangled Cloud Storage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation, along with protocols for using the encoding scheme in practice. Protocols for cloud storage find applicationin the cloud setting, where clients store their files on a remote server and need to be ensured that the cloud provider will not delete their data illegitimately. Current solutions, e.g., based on Provable Data Possession and Proof of Retrievability, catch a malicious server “after-the-fact”, meaning that the server needs to be challenged regularly to provide evidence that the clients’ files are stored at a given time. Entangled storage makes all clients equal and with the same rights: It makes it financially inconvenient for a cloud provider to alter specific files and exclude certain “average” customers, since doing so would undermine all customers in the system, even those considered “important” and, thus, profitable. Therefore, entangled storage schemes offer security “before-the-fact”.

Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür

2012-01-01

373

Silo Storage Preconceptual Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

2012-09-01

374

Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

2008-09-12

375

Practical Defenses Against Storage Jamming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Storage jamming is malicious but surreptitious modification of stored data, to reduce its quality. The person initiating the storage jamming does not receive any direct benefit. Instead, the goal is more indirect, such as deteriorating the position of a c...

J. McDermott J. Froscher

1997-01-01

376

Radiatioactive Contamination in Storage Vaults  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Determination of Radioactive Contamination and Conditions for Radioactive Wastes Storage in Interim Storage Ficilities (Vaults) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) for Substantiation of Measures for Safe Decommissioning of Plutonium-Production Reactors (PUGR)

377

Uranium storage and protection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The uranium storage and protection device of the present invention comprises an uranium storage vessel for containing uranium and an uranium protection vessel for incorporating fluids such as sands and water and covering the uranium storage vessel. Since the storage vessel is surrounded and protected by powder/fluid, the impact shocks applied to the storage vessel can be absorbed by the elastic deformation/compositional deformation and viscosity of fluids, thereby enabling to sufficiently protect the uranium storage vessel from ruptures. Even if an object having an energy exceeding a storage vessel rupture preventing performance collides and the uranium storage vessel is ruptured by the impact shock, since the fluids prevails through out gaps caused by the rupture, the contact of uranium, in either gaseous or solid form, with external air can be interrupted, thereby enabliing to prevent the diffusion of uranium to the circumstances. (N.H.)

1990-06-26

378

Uranium storage and protection device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uranium storage and protection device of the present invention comprises an uranium storage vessel for containing uranium and an uranium protection vessel for incorporating fluids such as sands and water and covering the uranium storage vessel. Since the storage vessel is surrounded and protected by powder/fluid, the impact shocks applied to the storage vessel can be absorbed by the elastic deformation/compositional deformation and viscosity of fluids, thereby enabling to sufficiently protect the uranium storage vessel from ruptures. Even if an object having an energy exceeding a storage vessel rupture preventing performance collides and the uranium storage vessel is ruptured by the impact shock, since the fluids prevails through out gaps caused by the rupture, the contact of uranium, in either gaseous or solid form, with external air can be interrupted, thereby enabliing to prevent the diffusion of uranium to the circumstances. (N.H.).

Yamamoto, Hitomi.

1992-02-24

379

Cell-Freeze® Cryogenic Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cell-Freeze® Cryogenic Storage. Applicant: Charter Medical, Ltd,. 510(k) number: BK100049. Product: Cell-Freeze® Cryogenic Storage. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

380

Latent heat storage element. Latentwaermespeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A latent heat exchanger to be installed between the engine and the radiator in the coolant loop of vehicle engines which is formed by several flat latent heat storage elements filled with the heat storage medium.

Damsohn, H.; Schmitz, A.; Wolf, W.

1992-07-09

 
 
 
 
381

Primary structure of human corticosteroid binding globulin, deduced from hepatic and pulmonary cDNAs, exhibits homology with serine protease inhibitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs for corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) prepared from human liver and lung mRNAs. The results indicate that CBG mRNA is relatively abundant in the liver but is also present in the lung, testis, and kidney. The liver CBG cDNA contains an open reading frame for a 405-amino acid (M/sub r/ 45,149) polypeptide. This includes a predominantly hydrophobic, leader sequence of 22 residues that precedes the known NH/sub 2/-terminal sequence of human CBG. We, therefore, predict that the mature protein is composed of 383 amino acids and is a polypeptide of M/sub r/ 42,646. A second, in-frame, 72-base-pair cistron of unknown significance exists between the TAA termination codon for CBG and a possible polyadenylylation signal (AATAAA) located 16 nucleotides before the polyadenylylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of mature CBG contains two cysteine residues and consensus sequences for the attachment of six possible N-linked oligosaccharide chains. The sequences of the human lung and liver CBG cDNAs differ by only one nucleotide within the proposed leader sequence,and they attribute this to a point mutation. No sequence homology was found between CBG and other steroid binding proteins, but there is a remarkable similarity between the amino acid sequences of CBG and of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, and this extends to other members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) superfamily

Hammond, G.L.; Smith, C.L.; Goping, I.S.; Underhill, D.A.

1987-08-01

382

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

1988-07-01

383

Elevation of corticosteroid-binding globulin in Obese strain (OS) chickens: possible implications for the disturbed immunoregulation and the development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basal plasma levels of corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) have been investigated in Obese strain (OS) chickens afflicted with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT). Corticosterone was determined radioimmunologically, and CBG by using a highly sensitive radioligand saturation assay. OS chickens displayed total corticosterone levels not different from healthy normal White Leghorn (NWL) chickens. CBG, however, was found to be twice as high in OS chickens as compared with their healthy counterparts, irrespective of sex or age. This quantitative difference in the CBG level is not compensated for by either altered affinity or specificity of the molecule. Furthermore, no differences were found in the response of OS and NWL lymphocytes to the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids in vitro. It was therefore assumed that OS animals are deficient in free, hormonally active corticosterone. An additional indication for such a diminished glucocorticoid tonus was that in vivo treatment of OS chickens with glucocorticoid hormones, thus increasing the free and active hormone fraction, normalizes the T cell hyperreactivity and significantly reduces thyroid infiltration. Possible pathophysiological implications of a diminished glucocorticoid tonus for spontaneous autoimmunity, as well as possible explanations for the beneficial effects of glucocorticoid treatment on the development of SAT, are discussed.

Faessler, R.; Schauenstein, K.; Kroemer, G.; Schwarz, S.; Wick, G.

1986-05-15

384

High incidence of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after antithymocyte globulin-based conditioning and ineffective prediction by day 28 EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The largest study on post-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) epidemiology showed a cumulative incidence of 1.7% in patients receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG). We had noted an apparently higher incidence in our transplant recipients whose conditioning included ATG. Therefore, we formally determined the incidence of PTLD through chart review. We also evaluated whether counts of EBV-specific T lymphocytes measured by cytokine flow cytometry could identify patients at risk of developing PTLD. Among 307 allogeneic transplant recipients, 25 (8.1%) developed PTLD. This was biopsy proven in 11 patients, and was fatal in seven patients. Patient age, EBV serostatus, donor type/match or GVHD did not influence PTLD risk significantly. Median onset of PTLD was 55 (range, 28-770) days post transplant. Day 28 EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts were not significantly different in 11 patients who developed PTLD and 31 non-PTLD patients matched for published risk factors for PTLD. In summary, when using conditioning with thymoglobulin 4.5 mg/kg, the incidence of PTLD is relatively high and cannot be predicted by day 28 cytokine flow cytometry-determined EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts. Thus, in this scenario PTLD prevention may be warranted, for example, using EBV DNAemia monitoring with preemptive therapy.

Hoegh-Petersen M; Goodyear D; Geddes MN; Liu S; Ugarte-Torres A; Liu Y; Walker JT; Fonseca K; Daly A; Duggan P; Stewart D; Russell JA; Storek J

2011-08-01

385

Primary structure of human corticosteroid binding globulin, deduced from hepatic and pulmonary cDNAs, exhibits homology with serine protease inhibitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs for corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) prepared from human liver and lung mRNAs. The results indicate that CBG mRNA is relatively abundant in the liver but is also present in the lung, testis, and kidney. The liver CBG cDNA contains an open reading frame for a 405-amino acid (M/sub r/ 45,149) polypeptide. This includes a predominantly hydrophobic, leader sequence of 22 residues that precedes the known NH2-terminal sequence of human CBG. We, therefore, predict that the mature protein is composed of 383 amino acids and is a polypeptide of M/sub r/ 42,646. A second, in-frame, 72-base-pair cistron of unknown significance exists between the TAA termination codon for CBG and a possible polyadenylylation signal (AATAAA) located 16 nucleotides before the polyadenylylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of mature CBG contains two cysteine residues and consensus sequences for the attachment of six possible N-linked oligosaccharide chains. The sequences of the human lung and liver CBG cDNAs differ by only one nucleotide within the proposed leader sequence,and they attribute this to a point mutation. No sequence homology was found between CBG and other steroid binding proteins, but there is a remarkable similarity between the amino acid sequences of CBG and of ?1-antitrypsin, and this extends to other members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) superfamily

1987-01-01

386

Elevation of corticosteroid-binding globulin in Obese strain (OS) chickens: possible implications for the disturbed immunoregulation and the development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basal plasma levels of corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) have been investigated in Obese strain (OS) chickens afflicted with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT). Corticosterone was determined radioimmunologically, and CBG by using a highly sensitive radioligand saturation assay. OS chickens displayed total corticosterone levels not different from healthy normal White Leghorn (NWL) chickens. CBG, however, was found to be twice as high in OS chickens as compared with their healthy counterparts, irrespective of sex or age. This quantitative difference in the CBG level is not compensated for by either altered affinity or specificity of the molecule. Furthermore, no differences were found in the response of OS and NWL lymphocytes to the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids in vitro. It was therefore assumed that OS animals are deficient in free, hormonally active corticosterone. An additional indication for such a diminished glucocorticoid tonus was that in vivo treatment of OS chickens with glucocorticoid hormones, thus increasing the free and active hormone fraction, normalizes the T cell hyperreactivity and significantly reduces thyroid infiltration. Possible pathophysiological implications of a diminished glucocorticoid tonus for spontaneous autoimmunity, as well as possible explanations for the beneficial effects of glucocorticoid treatment on the development of SAT, are discussed

1986-05-15

387

Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E{sub 2}), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m{sup 2}; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E{sub 2} levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

Ostrowska, Z.; Buntner, B.; Marek, B.; Zwirska-Korczala, K. [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

1995-12-31

388

Identification of urinary Gc-globulin as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer by two-dimensional fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Improving the early detection rate and surveillance of bladder cancer remains a great challenge in medicine. Here, we identified sixteen proteins including Gc-globulin (GC) in urine from bladder cancer patients and normal controls by two-dimensional fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Bioinformatics analyses indicated GC played important roles in the regulation of growth, apoptosis, death and epidermal growth factor receptor activity. The GC expression patterns in urine or tissue from cases and controls were further quantified by western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA quantification by correcting for creatinine expression showed GC-Cr was significantly increased in bladder cancer patients than in benign bladder damages cases and normal controls (1013.70±851.25 versus 99.34±55.87, 105.32±47.81 ng/mg, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested that at 161.086 ng/mg urinary GC, bladder cancer could be detected with 92.31% sensitivity and 83.02% specificity, and 1407.481 ng/mg with 82.61% sensitivity and 88.24% specificity could be used for the detection of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma of bladder cancer. Taken together, we identified GC as a potential novel urinary biomarker for the early detection and surveillance of bladder cancer.

Li F; Chen DN; He CW; Zhou Y; Olkkonen VM; He N; Chen W; Wan P; Chen SS; Zhu YT; Lan KJ; Tan WL

2012-12-01

389

Globulinas totales y recuento linfocitario como marcadores de mortalidad en sepsis y shock séptico/ Total globulins and lymphocyte count as markers of mortality in sepsis and septic shock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: No existen estudios que demuestren si pacientes en sepsis o shock séptico que presentan globulinas plasmáticas totales y/o recuento linfocitario plasmático disminuidos, tendrían mayor mortalidad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 103 pacientes ingresados a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, que cumplían criterios de sepsis o shock séptico, seguidos diariamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke entre junio y noviembre de 2009. Resul (more) tados: Hubo asociación entre mortalidad y recuento linfocitario medido a partir del tercer día (valor p Abstract in english Background: There are no studies probing if patients in sepsis or septic shock with lower levels of total plas-matic globulins and/or lymphocyte count have higher mortality. Patients and Method: Prospective cohort study of 103 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit followed daily at the Dr. Gustavo Fricke Hospital between June and November of 2009, with sepsis or septic shock criteria. Results: There was association between mortality and lymphocytic count measured from (more) the third day of their hospitalization (P

Conlledo, Rodrigo; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Godoy, Javiera; Merino, Carlos; Martínez, Felipe

2012-04-01

390

Storage Management in Data Centers  

CERN Multimedia

Helps administrators tackle the complexity of data center mass storage. This book shows how to exploit the potential of Veritas Storage Foundation by conveying information about the design concepts of the software as well as its architectural background. It explains why to use Storage Foundation in a particular way, along with what goes on inside.

Herminghaus, Volker

2009-01-01

391

Normal matter storage of antiprotons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

Campbell, L.J.

1987-01-01

392

Multi-functional storage cabinet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a multi-functional storage cabinet, relates to a tobacco processing machine and provides the multi-functional storage cabinet. The multi-functional storage cabinet fully utilizes a fault cabinet and comprehensively solves the problems that tobacco leaves cannot be landed and automatically return to be mixed. The multi-functional storage cabinet is provided with an electric trolley, a distributing trolley, a storage cabinet body, discharge shifting rollers and a storage cabinet bottom tape, wherein the electric trolley is arranged on a transverse guide rail of the storage cabinet body and can transversely move along the transverse guide rail, the distributing trolley is arranged on a longitudinal guide rail of the storage cabinet body, can longitudinally move along the longitudinal guide rail and is arranged under the electric trolley, the discharge shifting rollers and discharge holes are arranged at both ends of the storage cabinet, and the storage cabinet bottom tape is arranged on a guide rail at the bottom of the storage cabinet body and is driven by a left speed reducer and a right speed reducer through side chains. With the adoption of the multi-functional storage cabinet, the requirements of direct back-mixing and re-machining are met, the overall requirement that the tobacco leaves cannot be landed after re-drying is ensured, and multiple demands after re-drying are met.

QIURONG CHEN; WEI ZHANG; XINFENG LI; LIANGBIN ZHANG; JINJIN WANG

393

PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage  

CERN Multimedia

Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low cost PC cluster based storage server is configured to be activated for large amount of data to provide cloud users. Moreover, one of the contributions of this system is proposed an analytical model using M/M/1 queuing network model, which is modeled on intended architecture to provide better response time, utilization of storage as well as pending time when the system is running. According to the analytical result on experimental testing, the storage can be utilized more than 90% of storage space. In this paper, two parts...

Yee, Tin Tin

2011-01-01

394

Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale s