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1

Corrosion protection of steel structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The protection of steelwork from corrosion is a matter of interest and concern to many engineers, architects, designers, and specifiers. To obtain economic protection of steelwork, a basic understanding of the processes and materials involved is necessary. The choice of coating material, preparation of the steel surface, the standard of coating application, the quality control procedures adopted and the type of specification prepared for the work must be considered. This book gives the current knowledge on the coatings and processes involved in achieving sound protection of steelwork.

Chandler, K.A.; Bayliss, D.A.

1985-01-01

2

Protection of Steel Constructions from Corrosive Destruction  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of the New Effective Sacrificial Anodes on the Basis of Secondary Aluminum for Protection of Steel Constructions of Hydropower Stations and Heat Stations of the Republic of Tajikistan from Corrosion Destruction

3

AC corrosion on cathodically protected steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report deals with the effect of alternating current on cathodically protected steel. AC corrosion has become relevant in the offshore industry due to the introduction of the direct electric heating system (DEH). The principle with DEH is to prevent wax solidification inside pipelines by heating them up with alternating current. This can give rise to AC corrosion.DC current densities, AC current densities and DC potential have been measured for steel samples under cathodic protection with...

Torstensen, Andreas

2012-01-01

4

Guidelines for the Protection of Steel Piles : Corrosive Marine Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The corrosion of steel is a common phenomenon. In a marine environment, steel is corroded at an accelerated rate due to the atmospheric conditions. To combat this corrosion, steel piles are coated in order to protect them. As a major supplier of steel piles, Rautaruukki Oyj (Ruukki) commissioned this project in order to streamline their coating process. Currently Ruukki supplies a different coating system for almost every job; the aim of the project was to reduce the number of systems used to...

Rhodes, Graham

2011-01-01

5

Water Soluble Corrosion Inhibitors to Protect Immersed Steel and Aluminum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water in tanks used for ultrasonic tests needs a corrosion inhibitor to protect immersed steel and aluminum metal parts. Very dilute concentrations of sodium nitrite and silicon dioxide (the active ingredient of sodium silicate) separately provide com...

H. Hartmann

1987-01-01

6

Electric corrosion protection method for steel material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A semiconductor having a thermoelectric performance of 920?V/K or more is incorporated between a steel material of a light water reactor to be in contact with high temperature water and an aqueous solution. This shifts the corrosion potential of the steel material in a high temperature water to more basic side. Satisfactory corrosion resistant metal silicate, for example, FeSi2 is preferably used for the thermoelectric semiconductor. Co is added to FeSi2 to form an n-type semiconductor. A layer of Si3N4 is formed to the circumference of a cylindrical FeSi2 to form an insulation layer. This member is disposed to a hole bored to a stainless steel pipe, and the one surface is brought into contact with high temperature water on the inner side of the stainless steel. On the other side in contact with the outer atmosphere is bonded to the outer surface of the stainless steel pipe by a lead wire. Since the n-type semiconductor has a positive potential on the side at a higher temperature, the potential of the stainless steel is determined to negative. (I.N.)

1995-10-12

7

Corrosion protection by sonoelectrodeposited organic films on zinc coated steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of coatings based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole were deposited on zinc coated steel in presence or absence of ultrasound, and studied in terms of corrosion protection. Cr III and Cr VI commercial passivation were used as references. Depth profiling showed a homogeneous deposit for Cr III, while SEM imaging revealed good surface homogeneity for Cr VI layers. These chromium-based passivations ensured good protection against corrosion. Polypyrrole (PPy) was also electrochemically deposited on zinc coated steel with and without high frequency ultrasound irradiation in aqueous sodium tartrate-molybdate solution. Such PPy coatings act as a physical barrier against corrosive species. PPy electrosynthesized in silent conditions exhibits similar properties to Cr VI passivation with respect to corrosion protection. Ultrasound leads to more compact and more homogeneous surface structures for PPy, as well as to more homogeneous distribution of doping molybdate anions within the film. Far better corrosion protection is exhibited for such sonicated films. PMID:22516111

Et Taouil, Abdeslam; Mahmoud, Mahmoud Mourad; Lallemand, Fabrice; Lallemand, Séverine; Gigandet, Marie-Pierre; Hihn, Jean-Yves

2012-11-01

8

Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1995-01-01

9

Inorganic coatings on stainless steel for protection against crevice corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to create protection against crevice corrosion stainless steel test specimens of type 316 steel with various inorganic coatings applied on crevice surfaces were tested for 3-50 months at 25 and 30 degree C in natural seawater containing 0.2-1.5 ppm free chlorine. Various metallic coatings, Ni base alloys with Cr and Mo, Ni with W, pure Ag and pure Mo, as well as ceramic coatings - Cr2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3 - were studied. All the coatings tested, except pure Molybdenum applied by plasma spraying in a max 0.1 mm thick layer were found to promote crevice corrosion of the stainless steel. A significant reduction of the crevice corrosion susceptibility was obtained with Molybdenum. The result is considered promising enough to justify full scale tests in seawater on flange joints of pipes, valves or pumps. (author)

1989-01-01

10

Characterisation of corrosion products on pipeline steel under cathodic protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onshore gas transmission lines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by cathodic protection (CP) and organic coatings. If both protection systems are simultaneously faulty, the pipe may be subjected to local loss of protection criteria. Consequently, the development of a corrosion due to the ground intrinsic corrosiveness may occur. To guarantee an optimal and safe use of its 31000 km buried gas transmission network, Gaz de France regularly inspects its pipelines. When indications of metal damage are suspected, excavations are realized to carry out a finer diagnosis and, if necessary, to repair. Whenever, corrosions are encountered, although it occurs very scarcely, it is necessary to evaluate its degree of gravity: activity, mechanism, and kinetics. Among corrosion defects, it is indeed essential to differentiate those active, from those older inactive at the time of excavation, since those last ones may possibly have been annihilated, by a PC reinforcement for instance. Eventually, the identification of the corrosion mechanism and its associated rate will provide an assessment of the risks encountered by other sections of the pipeline similar to that excavated. This study investigates to what extent the degree of gravity (activity, kinetics) of a corrosion can be determined by the characterization and identification of its associated corrosion products. Moreover, it will attempt to relate it to the close environment features as well as to the operating conditions of the pipe. The preliminary results presented in this paper consist in a laboratory study of the time evolution of corrosion products formed on the surface of ordinary low carbon steel samples. The specimens have been previously subjected to various polarization conditions in various aqueous media. The selected solutions are characteristic of ground waters. The main parameters considered for the definition of the media were its initial chemical composition, pH and dissolved gas composition. The corrosion products were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, SEM and X-rays diffraction. In-situ tests with the Raman spectrometer were carried out to monitor the corrosion products evolution with time. (authors)

Lanarde, Lise [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)]|[UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Campaignolle, Xavier; Karcher, Sebastien; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France); Joiret, Suzanne [UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2004-07-01

11

Spectroscopic identification of protective and non-protective corrosion coatings on steel structures in marine environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion research, and the need to fully understand the effects that environmental conditions have on the performance of structural steels, is one area in which Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a required analytical technique. This is in part due to the need to identify and quantify the nanophase iron oxides that form on and protect certain structural steels, and that are nearly transparent to most other spectroscopic techniques. In conjunction with X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman analyses, the iron oxides that form the rusts on steels corroded in different marine and other environments can be completely identified and mapped within the rust coating. The spectroscopic analyses can be used to determine the nature of the environment in which structural steels have been, and these act as a monitor of the corrosion itself. Moessbauer spectroscopy is playing an important role in a new corrosion program in the United States and Japan in which steel bridges, old and new, are being evaluated for corrosion problems that may reduce their serviceable lifetimes. Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to characterize the corrosion products that form the protective patina on weathering steel, as well those that form in adverse environments in which the oxide coating is not adherent or protective to the steel. Moessbauer spectroscopy has also become an important analytical technique for investigating the corrosion products that have formed on archaeological artifacts, and it is providing guidance to aid in the removal of the oxides necessary for their conservation

2005-10-01

12

Corrosion Protection of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel in Mortar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the major causes of structure degradation, requiring expensive maintenance. The using of hot dip galvanized steel (HDGS) has been recognized as one effective measure to increase the service life of reinforced concrete structures in marine environmental. Howev [...] er, HDGS corrodes in contact with high alkaline environment of fresh concrete. Although this initial corrosion process allows the formation of a protecting layer barrier, the corrosion that occurs initially is harmful and chromate conversion layers are usually used to prevent it. Due to toxicity of Cr(VI), these kinds of pre-treatments have been forbidden and hybrid coatings have been proposed as alternatives [1-3]. To evaluate the performance of these coatings, beyond the laboratory characterization, in situ tests in real conditions should be performed. An electrochemical system to measure the macrocell current density (i gal) was designed to evaluate the degradation of HDGS coated samples with different organic-inorganic hybrid films, embedded in mortar during 70 days, using an automatic data acquisition system. This system revealed to be feasible and highly sensitive to coatings degradation. Also, allow distinguishing different hybrid coatings with different thicknesses.

Figueira, Rita M.; Pereira, Elsa V.; Silva, Carlos J.R.; Salta, Maria M..

13

Method of forming a corrosion-preventing oxidic protective layer on steels, especially maraging steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a method of producing a corrosion-preventing oxidic protective layer on steels, especially maraging steels. The cleaned steel surfaces are first heated up to at least 200"0C in an atmosphere of air and oxygen. This is followed by treatment with superheated steam at a temperature between 450"0 and 520"0C under turbulent flow conditions. In this way a firmly adhering homogeneous protective film of mixed oxides is formed. One type of example is described. (GSCH)

1976-01-01

14

Studies and research work on the reinforcement steel and concrete surface corrosion protection methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methods for reinforcement steel corrosion protection and concrete surface protection are analyzed. Knowing the corrosion process mechanism reinforcement steel can be protected by different protection methods even in the presence of crevices larger than those anticipated by design. The selection of the corrosion protection method depends on the reduction level of the reinforcement steel corrosion which in its turn is determined by the atmospheric conditions. The selection of the accelerated corrosion test conditions was made revealing the mechanism of the processes that take place at the steel reinforcement surface under natural weathering conditions. Crevices ranging from 0.05mm to 1.00mm or larger were opened by bending reinforced concrete girders on special equipment and were maintained all over the period of the corrosion resistance study.

Gheorghe Croitoru

2013-06-01

15

Microbial Iron Respiration Can Protect Steel from Corrosion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MC) of steel has been attributed to the activity of biofilms that include anaerobic microorganisms such as iron-respiring bacteria, yet the mechanisms by which these organisms influence corrosion have been unclear. To study this process, we generated mutants of the iron-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that were defective in biofilm formation and/or iron reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine changes...

Dubiel, M.; Hsu, C. H.; Chien, C. C.; Mansfeld, F.; Newman, D. K.

2002-01-01

16

Polyacrylic Acid-Modified Zinc Phosphate Conversion Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyacrylic acid, p(AA), electrolyte macromolecules diffused into crystalline zinc phosphate (Zn(center dot)Ph) conversion coatings that are precipitated onto cold-rolled steel by dissolution- recrystallization processes, enhance the corrosion protection ...

T. Sugama L. E. Kukacka N. Carciello

1989-01-01

17

Improvement of corrosion protective film on stainless steels by UV light irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stainless steels have been widely used for many apparatuses of light water reactors for their excellent corrosion resistance. However, local corrosion sometimes occurs in solution including harmful ions such as dissolved oxygen and chloride ions. Then, it is necessary to make further improvement of the corrosion protective film on stainless steels. In this study, UV light irradiation was examined to modify the non-conductive film with semiconductor properties. It was observed that the resistance to the pitting corrosion of the film of 304 stainless steels was improved by UV light irradiations due to chromium enrichment. However, the effect of UV light irradiation on sensitivity for stress corrosion cracking of 60% cold-worked 316L stainless steels was not cleared. (A.H.)

2007-02-01

18

Corrosion protection of carbon steel by an epoxy resin containing organically modified clay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focusses on the use of montmorillonite clay (MMT) treated with an organic compound (aminotrimethylphosphonic acid (ATMP)) and dispersed in an epoxy resin to improve corrosion protection of carbon steel. X-ray diffraction was performed to verify that the individual silicate layers were separated and dispersed in the epoxy resin. Corrosion resistance of the coated steel was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEI...

Hang, To Thi Xuan; Truc, Trinh Anh; Nam, Truong Hoai; Oanh, Vu Ke; Jorcin, Jean-baptiste; Pe?be?re, Nadine

2007-01-01

19

Application of Self Assembled 6-aminohexanol layers for corrosion protection of 304 stainless steel surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grafting of 6-aminohexanol onto a 304 stainless steel substrate was performed with the assistance of polydopamine self assembly. The surface structure of the films was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the establishment of organic films. The corrosion resistance properties were characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Enhanced corrosion resistance performance was mainly ascribed to the compact film structure and the blocking characteristics against electron transfer of the modified 304 stainless steel substrate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic layers for corrosion protection of 304 stainless steel (SS) surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-inspired self assembly of polydopamine/composite films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6-aminohexanol membrane synthesized on polydopamine modified SS surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficiency route for improving corrosion protection.

Yu Fei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen Shougang, E-mail: sgchen2000@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li Houmin; Yang Lejiao [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Yin Yansheng [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China)

2012-05-31

20

Marine corrosion protective coatings of hexagonal boron nitride thin films on stainless steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, two-dimensional, layered materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have been identified as interesting materials for a range of applications. Here, we demonstrate the corrosion prevention applications of h-BN in marine coatings. The performance of h-BN/polymer hybrid coatings, applied on stainless steel, were evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated seawater media [marine media]. h-BN/polymer coating shows an efficient corrosion protection with a low corrosion current density of 5.14 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) and corrosion rate of 1.19 × 10(-3) mm/year and it is attributed to the hydrofobic, inert and dielectric nature of boron nitride. The results indicated that the stainless steel with coatings exhibited improved corrosion resistance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic analysis were used to propose a mechanism for the increased corrosion resistance of h-BN coatings. PMID:23618222

Husain, Esam; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Taha-Tijerina, Jose Jaime; Vinod, Soumya; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

2013-05-22

 
 
 
 
21

Evaluation of the effectiveness of selected corrosion inhibitors for protection of prestressing steels in PCPVs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion protection provided prestressing steel by portland cement-based grout in the presence of sulfide, nitrate, and chloride ion environments was evaluated. Results were compared to those obtained from selected, commercially available petroleum-microcrystalline waxes (petrolatums) compounded with organic corrosion inhibitors. The investigation was conducted in two phases: (1) a review of literature to establish the mechanisms of prestressing steel corrosion, techniques available for protection of prestressing steel in hostile environments, and the performance of structures that have utilized either nongrouted- or grouted-tendon prestressing systems; and (2) a laboratory study to develop relative performance data for portland cement grout and selected commercial petroleum-based greases and waxes containing inhibitors. Conclusions derived from the investigation indicate that (1) sulfide, nitrate, and chloride salts must be excluded from prestressing materials; (2) prestressing materials must be continuously protected from inimical environments; (3) the effectiveness of the protection provided by both the organic- and cement-based corrosion inhibitors is reduced unless the steel is completely covered; and (4) both cement- and organic-based corrosion inhibitors completely protect prestressing materials when properly applied

1979-01-01

22

Diffusion coatings for the high temperature corrosion protection of 9-12% Cr steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

9-12 % Cr steels are of high interest for the application as heat-exchanger tubes in power generation stations. Indeed they possess a high thermal conductivity and favourable mechanical properties at temperatures up to 650 deg. C. However, even though conventional ferritic-martensitic 9-12 % Cr steels are from a mechanical point of view designed for service temperatures up to 650 deg. C, their use at such high temperatures is rather limited in corrosive environments. One solution could consist in protecting these steels by suitable corrosion resistant coatings. Pack cementation is one of the easiest and cheapest coating processes for high temperature applications. Yet, for ferritic-martensitic steels, the coating temperature can lie at 650 deg. C maximum. Above this limit, the decomposition of the martensite is accelerated, and the mechanical properties of the material would be deteriorated. The present work consisted in coating the 9 % Cr steel P91 and the 12 % Cr steel HCM12A without modifying their microstructure. Therefore, the coating process was either carried out at 650 deg. C or combined with the heat treatment of the ferritic-martensitic steel. Due to the low coating temperature, aluminide coatings were developed first. Later, a two step Cr+Al coating was obtained. The corrosion resistance of the developed coatings was tested at 650 deg. C for 1000 h in a simulated coal firing atmosphere composed of: 14 % CO{sub 2}, 10 % H{sub 2}O, 1 % O{sub 2}, 0.1 % SO{sub 2}, 0.01 % HCl (bal. N{sub 2}). The corrosion behaviour of the coated samples showed a better resistance than the bare materials. Furthermore, the comparison was extended to aluminide coatings obtained by Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapour Deposition (FBCVD) on 9-12 % Cr steels. Eventually, the corrosion resistance was compared with bare and coated austenitic steels as well as the nickel-based alloy IN 617. (authors)

Rohr, V.; Donchev, A.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2004-07-01

23

Electrochemical synthesis and characterisation of hybrid materials polypyrrole/dodecatungstophosphate as protective agents against steel corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

The losses caused by the effect of the corrosion are of the order of 2-3,5% of the GDP of the developed countries or developing only in direct costs, losses in structures or products. This figure doubles by the indirect costs, losses of productivity or demands for delays. Beside the possible losses of human lives, any intent leaded to the decrease of the corrosion in rusty metals is a commendable objective from the point of view of the protection of the environment. Building industry employing reinforced concrete is able to project some structural elements (pillars, wrought, beam, etc.) in principle free of corrosion, assuring during many years the useful life of the work in service. However, the reinforced concrete would be' a perfect solution if the indefinite permanency of the passive state of the steel could be guaranteed. Indeed, although the steel is protected against corrosion due to basic pH which provides the cement, the severe action of saline media or the effect of CO2 can diminish this protection conditions beginning the corrosion in steel elements. Type-p doped conducting polymers, as polypyrrole, are firm candidates to protect carbon steel providing galvanic protection by stabilising the passive layer of Fe oxides initially grown. Doping the polymeric matrix with polioxometalates, concretely phosphotungstate PW12O403-, is a very interesting hypothesis due to their oxidising effect, improving the anodic protection by the hybrid material electrosynthesised on carbon steel substrate. First in the present work, a new method was developed by cyclic voltammetry in LiClO4 + acetonitrile medium in order to diminish the unavoidable oxidation of carbon steel when the electrosyntesis of the hybrid material polypyrrole/PW12O403- is carrying out. The beginning potential of polypyrrole polymerisation is about 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), a positive potential where oxidation of Fe substrate is high, not allowing the electrodeposition of the hybrid material. On the other hand, this pretreatment should guarantee appropriate conditions in order to obtain a coating with high adhesion on carbon steel. Once studied the better parameters for the synthesis of the hybrid material by cyclic voltammetry, hybrid material is morphological, chemical and electrochemical characterised by the following techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray, X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403-. chemical structure presents Fe oxides and hydroxide within the polypyrrole polycationic matrix. Hybrid material polypyrrol/PW12O403- diminishes the corrosion of carbon steel in NaOH and Porland cement filtering solutions. These cement solutions simulate the pore fluid conditions existing in cured mortar or concrete elements. Fe ion concentration data were determinated in corrosion tests. Voltammetric response of polymeric coatings was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Finally, the protection provided by hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403, in oxidised and reduced state, was evaluated on carbon steel electrodes embedded in Portland cement mortars immersed in seawater and submitted to an accelerated carbonation process for 265 days. Polymeric material covered carbon steel electrodes in reduced state suffer a Fe gravimetric loss 15 times lower than the ones of bare electrodes against chlorides attack, due to the effect of physical barrier. Hybrid material covered electrodes in oxidised state after being submitted to a carbonation process suffer a Fe gravimetric loss 2.5 times lower than the ones of bare electrodes, due to galvanic protection provided by hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403- on carbon steel.

Bonastre Cano, Jose Antonio

24

A polyaniline based intrinsically conducting coating for corrosion protection of structural steels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the various corrosion protection strategies for structural steels, coating techniques provide the most cost-effective protection and have been used as the primary mode of corrosion protection. Existing coating techniques however have been used mainly for their barrier capability and therefore all have a limited service life due to oxidation aging, electrolytic degradation, or various inadvertent defects and flaws occurred in and after coating applications. This work investigated the anti-corrosion potential of a ?-conjugated polymer-polyaniline (PANi), which was doped into an intrinsically conducting polymer and then included in a two-layer coating system as a primer layer. To achieve a long service life, the primer layer was made by mixing the conductive PANi in a waterborne poly-vinyl butyral solution to provide strong adhesion to steel surface, and then topcoated with a layer of elastomer-modified polyethylene to obtain extra mechanical and barrier protections. Two ASTM standard tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion durability and tensile adhesion of the two-layer system, in which the system demonstrated superior performance. The Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKPFM) was used to provide the microscopic evidences for the outstanding performance. PMID:24000080

Pan, Tongyan; Wang, Zhaoyang

2013-11-01

25

Polybenzoxazine/SiO2 nanocomposite coatings for corrosion protection of mild steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Corrosion resistance of the coating was improved using SiO2 nanoparticles. •Morphology and wetting properties were studied upon electrochemical behavior. •Interfacial interactions were enhanced by the reaction between two phases. -- Abstract: A series of nanocomposite coatings (PBS) consisting of silane functional polybenzoxazine (PB-TMOS) and SiO2 nanoparticles were developed for corrosion protection of mild steel. The influence of silica content on corrosion resistance of PBS coatings was investigated by electrochemical measurements. The surface chemistry of nanoparticles and its effect on morphology of the PBS coating was also studied utilizing Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy, 29Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses. The results indicate that the presence of the covalent bond between nanoparticles and PB-TMOS, greatly improves the interfacial interactions at the polymer/filler interfaces resulting in a better corrosion performance

2014-03-01

26

Prevention of crevice corrosion in duplex SS flanges using carbon steel bolts with cathodic protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Achieving reliable long-term performance of high strength bolts for flange connections in subsea service is a critical issue for the offshore industry. Viable bolting materials with high strength that are not susceptible to embrittlement or galvanic corrosion when the flanges are made of stainless steels are limited. A laboratory study was performed to determine the viability of using B7 carbon steel stud bolts and 316 stainless steel (SS) seal rings in a Duplex SS flange for subsea service The laboratory test system used full size commercial flanges, bolts and seal rings to simulate electrochemical conditions that will occur in crevices associated with carbon steel bolts in a Duplex SS flange and with the use of a 316 stainless steel seal ring in a Duplex SS flange. The flange systems were instrumented to enable monitoring of current densities and potentials at precise locations within the crevices throughout the tests as test parameters were changed. Test parameters included cathodic protection level, temperature, and sealing the outer flange gap. Cathodic protection was provided by remote aluminum sacrificial anodes to achieve potentials typical for a sub sea manifold. Both electrochemical data and examination of the components at the end of the 164 day exposure indicated that sufficient cathodic protection occurred in the crevices to provide long term corrosion control to all of the components involved. The capability to use B7 bolts rather than high alloy bolts enables a significant project savings.

Thomason, W.H.; Ivie, R.G.; Marlow, J.A.

1999-07-01

27

The Effect of Oil on Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Inhibition on Carbon Steel - Potential for Improved Corrosion Protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The search for robust and cost efficient ways to prevent internal corrosion of carbon steel piping and equipment in oil and gas production and transportation has lead to the development of highly sophisticated CO2 corrosion inhibitor products. This thesis studies oil wetting and corrosion inhibitor performance on bare steel and steel with corrosion product deposits on the surface, in the presence of a refined, low aromatic hydrocarbon oil. Three surfactants were used in...

Foss, Martin Smedstad

2010-01-01

28

Corrosion protection of metals, alloys and steels by ion bombardment (review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of different works on the problem of metal, alloy and steel protection against corrosion in different media by means of ion bombardment are systematized. Processes and mechanisms caused by ion bombardment and residual gases in a vacuum chamber, leading to an increase of metal material corrosion resistance are considered. Methods of thermodynamic analysis of complex heterogeneous systems of heat-resistant alloys for a correct choice of doping ions, optimal values of energy, radiation dose, current density and heat treatment conditions after ion implantation, are presented. 128 refs.; 9 tabs

1995-01-01

29

Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings as Cd replacement for corrosion protection of high strength steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings from an alkaline bath on a high strength steel. ? Complete characterisation of the coatings (corrosion, morphology and composition). ? Correlation of the electrodeposition conditions with the properties of the film. ? Similar corrosion resistance than Zn-Ni coatings deposited from acidic baths. ? Lower hydrogen content incorporated than for a post baked cadmium-coated steel. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings performed in acidic baths are not suitable for high strength steels due to their high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. In this work, Zn-Ni coatings were deposited on a high strength steel (4340) upon stirring conditions from an alkaline bath. A complete characterisation of the coatings (corrosion, morphology and composition) has been accomplished, correlating the electrodeposition conditions with these features. The best protective properties of the grown coatings were achieved for the alloys with a single phase structure of ?-Ni5Zn21 and a denser morphology. Additionally, the hydrogen content incorporated is lower than even cadmium-coated 4340 steel which has undergone a postbaking dehydrogenation treatment.

2011-04-01

30

Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings as Cd replacement for corrosion protection of high strength steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings from an alkaline bath on a high strength steel. {yields} Complete characterisation of the coatings (corrosion, morphology and composition). {yields} Correlation of the electrodeposition conditions with the properties of the film. {yields} Similar corrosion resistance than Zn-Ni coatings deposited from acidic baths. {yields} Lower hydrogen content incorporated than for a post baked cadmium-coated steel. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings performed in acidic baths are not suitable for high strength steels due to their high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. In this work, Zn-Ni coatings were deposited on a high strength steel (4340) upon stirring conditions from an alkaline bath. A complete characterisation of the coatings (corrosion, morphology and composition) has been accomplished, correlating the electrodeposition conditions with these features. The best protective properties of the grown coatings were achieved for the alloys with a single phase structure of {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} and a denser morphology. Additionally, the hydrogen content incorporated is lower than even cadmium-coated 4340 steel which has undergone a postbaking dehydrogenation treatment.

Conde, A., E-mail: a.conde@cenim.csic.e [Dpto.Corrosion y Proteccion, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arenas, M.A.; Damborenea, J.J. de [Dpto.Corrosion y Proteccion, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2011-04-15

31

Process for the formation of an oxide layer to protect against corrosion on steel liable to corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel liable to corrosion is treated with air at 200"0C, and then with superheated steam at 480"0C in a fluidised bed furnace (Re > 900) for some hours in order to remove organic impurities. Slow cooling in an air flow up to 100"0C provides a closed, non-porous and firm oxide layer of the Spinell type. There is no hydrogen embrittlement, and the meachanical properties are retained in full. The rate of corrosion in a UF_6 atmosphere is reduced 50 times compared to untreated steel. The thickness of the layer can be varied between 0.7 and 3 ?m by different durations of the treatment. Welded seams can be protected by this process without any loss of quality. (IHOE)

1976-01-01

32

Corrosion Protection Performance of Corrosion Inhibitors and Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel in a Simulated Concrete Pore Water Solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used a simulated concrete pore water solution to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of concrete corrosion-inhibiting admixtures and epoxy-coated reinforcing bars (ECR). We evaluated three commercial corrosion inhibitors, ECR from three coate...

W. A. Pyc R. E. Weyers M. M. Sprinkel

1998-01-01

33

On the inhibitor protection of high-strength steels from corrosion cracking on the crack propagation stage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibilities of applying inhibitors to protect high-strength steels from corrosion crack growth in water medium, are studied. Mechanisms of their effect are investigated. Tests are carried out using the heat treated 45KhN2MFA steel (tempering 200 deg C) at the temperature of 25 deg C using beam samples (12x18x160 mm). It is shown that inhibitor protection of high-strength steels from corrosion cracking is a prospective way of increasing their corrosion crack resistance. Oxoanions are inhibitors of crack growth if they are reduced during adsorption, absorbing hydrogen ions. Inhibitors of the ICG type (inhibitors of crack growth) which suppress the process of hydrogen discharge - is a highly effective means of increasing corrosion crack resistance of high-strength alloys in the water medium. The effectiveness of inhibitors considered proves the hydrogen mechanism of water medium effect on crack growth in high-strength steels

1981-01-01

34

Corrosion Protection of Steel with Oxide Nanolaminates Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum and tantalum oxide (Al(2)O(3) and Ta(2)O(5)) and their nanolaminates were applied as corrosion protection coatings on AISI 52100 steel. The aim was to combine the good sealing properties of Al(2)O(3) with the chemical stability of Ta(2)O(5) and to optimize the coating architecture in order to obtain the best possible long-term durability. Coating composition and morphology were studied with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA), time...

Harkonen, Emma; Diaz, Belen; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Vehkamaki, Marko; Sajavaara, Timo; Fenker, Martin; Marcus, Philippe; Ritala, Mikko

2011-01-01

35

Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

Jano, A.

2012-11-01

36

Influence of tantalum modifying addition on corrosion protective action of the diffusional chromized layers on carbon steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of tantalum as of a modifying addition under 45 steel thermodiffusional saturation with chromium is investigated and a favourable effect of this element on the increase of protective properties of chromium-carbide coatings produced is demonstrated. A conclusion is made that the favourable effect of tantalum is conditioned by the production of carbide and other corrosion-resistant tantalum microphases in more deficient places of the coating in which an intense diffusional carbon supply from the protected steel is provided

1993-01-01

37

Synthesis, characterization, and corrosion protection properties of poly(N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole-co-methyl methacrylate) on mild steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (MMBT) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been synthesised using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterized using FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the polymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion behaviors of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers have been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. These electrochemical properties were observed in 0.1 M HCl medium. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of MMBT and MMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations

2006-12-15

38

Synthesis, characterization, and corrosion protection properties of poly( N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole- co-methyl methacrylate) on mild steel  

Science.gov (United States)

The copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (MMBT) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been synthesised using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterized using FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the polymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion behaviors of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers have been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. These electrochemical properties were observed in 0.1 M HCl medium. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of MMBT and MMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations.

Srikanth, A. P.; Lavanya, A.; Nanjundan, S.; Rajendran, N.

2006-12-01

39

Synthesis, characterization, and corrosion protection properties of poly(N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole-co-methyl methacrylate) on mild steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (MMBT) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been synthesised using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterized using FT-IR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the polymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion behaviors of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers have been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. These electrochemical properties were observed in 0.1 M HCl medium. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of MMBT and MMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations.

Srikanth, A.P. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India); Lavanya, A. [Department of Chemistry, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Nanjundan, S. [Department of Chemistry, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Rajendran, N. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India)]. E-mail: nrajendran@annauniv.edu

2006-12-15

40

Synthesis, characterization and corrosion protection properties of poly(N-(acryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole-co-glycidyl methacrylate) coatings on mild steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(acryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (AMBT) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was achieved by using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterised using FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the synthesized copolymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion performances of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers were investigated in 0.1 M HCl by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of AMBT and GMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations

2007-06-15

 
 
 
 
41

Synthesis, characterization and corrosion protection properties of poly(N-(acryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole-co-glycidyl methacrylate) coatings on mild steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(acryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (AMBT) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was achieved by using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterised using FT-IR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the synthesized copolymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion performances of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers were investigated in 0.1 M HCl by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of AMBT and GMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations.

Srikanth, A.P. [Department of Chemistry, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India); Sunitha, T.G. [Department of Chemistry, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Raman, V. [Department of Chemistry, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India); Nanjundan, S. [Department of Chemistry, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Rajendran, N. [Department of Chemistry, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India)]. E-mail: nrajendran@annauniv.edu

2007-06-15

42

Study on cerium-doped nano-TiO2 coatings for corrosion protection of 316?L stainless steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many methods have been reported on improving the photogenerated cathodic protection of nano-TiO2 coatings for metals. In this work, nano-TiO2 coatings doped with cerium nitrate have been developed by sol–gel method for corrosion protection of 316?L stainless steel. Surface morphology, structure, and properties of the prepared coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosi...

Li, Suning; Wang, Qian; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Zhihua; Wang, Ying; Fu, Jiajun

2012-01-01

43

The effect of oil on carbon dioxide corrosion inhibition on carbon steel - potential for improved corrosion protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search for robust and cost efficient ways to prevent internal corrosion of carbon steel piping and equipment in oil and gas production and transportation has lead to the development of highly sophisticated CO2 corrosion inhibitor products. This thesis studies oil wetting and corrosion inhibitor performance on bare steel and steel with corrosion product deposits on the surface, in the presence of a refined, low aromatic hydrocarbon oil. Three surfactants were used in the experiments; two commercial inhibitor base chemicals; an oleic imidazoline salt (OI) and a phosphate ester (PE), and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a well characterized quaternary ammonium compound. Adsorption characteristics of the inhibitors on corroding iron and FeCO3 particles were also studied. Polarization resistance (PR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were used to study the effect of the oil on the performance of the inhibitors. The performance testing was done on corroding carbon steel without any surface deposits and on carbon steel with either ferrous carbonate (FeCO3) or ferric corrosion products on the surface. The results showed that the addition of oil in the inhibitor tests had a significant, positive effect on the performance of the two commercial corrosion inhibitors; decrease in corrosion rate of about one order of magnitude compared to the rate without oil was found. Based on the EIS data it was concluded that the improved performance was caused by a modification of the inhibitor film and not the formation of a macroscopic oil film on the steel surface. Indications of oil wetting of the steel surface were only found when ferric corrosion products were present and OI was used as the inhibitor. No such effects were seen on bare steel or on FeCO3 covered surfaces. Contact angle measurements and dispersion tests were used to investigate the effect of the inhibitors on the wettability of the three types of surfaces when they were exposed to water and oil. Both the behavior of an oil droplet on an already water-wet surface and a water droplet on an already oil wet surface were investigated to determine the ability of the inhibitors to alter the affinity of the surface to water and oil respectively. The results indicated the no hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition occurred on bare steel and FeCO3 covered steel. The testing on surfaces with ferric corrosion products revealed that a water wet to oil-wet transition was possible on the ferric deposits using both PE and OI as inhibitor. The effect was, however, significantly stronger with OI than with PE. It was also found that the addition of the two inhibitors enhanced the hydrophobic behavior of an already oil-wet surface for both bare steel and steel with FeCO3 deposits. Water droplets entrained in the oil was in these experiments not able to spread on the steel surface. Electrophoresis measurements were used to determine influence of the three inhibitors on the zetapotential of FeCO3 and corroding iron particles. The tendency of the inhibitors to adsorb on surfaces with the same charge as the head group of the inhibitor was investigated. The focus in the testing on corroding iron was to determine the suitability of zetapotential as a method for investigating surface potential of corroding surfaces. It was found that the inhibitors adsorbed on iron carbonate regardless of the surface charge on the iron carbonate. On iron particles the experiments indicated that measurements of the surface potential of corroding particles could only be done when the corrosion rate had been reduced significantly using corrosion inhibitors. (Author)

2009-01-01

44

The effect of oil on carbon dioxide corrosion inhibition on carbon steel - potential for improved corrosion protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The search for robust and cost efficient ways to prevent internal corrosion of carbon steel piping and equipment in oil and gas production and transportation has lead to the development of highly sophisticated CO{sub 2} corrosion inhibitor products. This thesis studies oil wetting and corrosion inhibitor performance on bare steel and steel with corrosion product deposits on the surface, in the presence of a refined, low aromatic hydrocarbon oil. Three surfactants were used in the experiments; two commercial inhibitor base chemicals; an oleic imidazoline salt (OI) and a phosphate ester (PE), and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a well characterized quaternary ammonium compound. Adsorption characteristics of the inhibitors on corroding iron and FeCO{sub 3} particles were also studied. Polarization resistance (PR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were used to study the effect of the oil on the performance of the inhibitors. The performance testing was done on corroding carbon steel without any surface deposits and on carbon steel with either ferrous carbonate (FeCO{sub 3}) or ferric corrosion products on the surface. The results showed that the addition of oil in the inhibitor tests had a significant, positive effect on the performance of the two commercial corrosion inhibitors; decrease in corrosion rate of about one order of magnitude compared to the rate without oil was found. Based on the EIS data it was concluded that the improved performance was caused by a modification of the inhibitor film and not the formation of a macroscopic oil film on the steel surface. Indications of oil wetting of the steel surface were only found when ferric corrosion products were present and OI was used as the inhibitor. No such effects were seen on bare steel or on FeCO{sub 3} covered surfaces. Contact angle measurements and dispersion tests were used to investigate the effect of the inhibitors on the wettability of the three types of surfaces when they were exposed to water and oil. Both the behavior of an oil droplet on an already water-wet surface and a water droplet on an already oil wet surface were investigated to determine the ability of the inhibitors to alter the affinity of the surface to water and oil respectively. The results indicated the no hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition occurred on bare steel and FeCO{sub 3} covered steel. The testing on surfaces with ferric corrosion products revealed that a water wet to oil-wet transition was possible on the ferric deposits using both PE and OI as inhibitor. The effect was, however, significantly stronger with OI than with PE. It was also found that the addition of the two inhibitors enhanced the hydrophobic behavior of an already oil-wet surface for both bare steel and steel with FeCO{sub 3} deposits. Water droplets entrained in the oil was in these experiments not able to spread on the steel surface. Electrophoresis measurements were used to determine influence of the three inhibitors on the zetapotential of FeCO{sub 3} and corroding iron particles. The tendency of the inhibitors to adsorb on surfaces with the same charge as the head group of the inhibitor was investigated. The focus in the testing on corroding iron was to determine the suitability of zetapotential as a method for investigating surface potential of corroding surfaces. It was found that the inhibitors adsorbed on iron carbonate regardless of the surface charge on the iron carbonate. On iron particles the experiments indicated that measurements of the surface potential of corroding particles could only be done when the corrosion rate had been reduced significantly using corrosion inhibitors. (Author)

Foss, Martin Smedstad

2009-07-01

45

Inhibitor protection of steel from corrosion-fatigue fracture in magnesium chloride solution using quaternary pyridinium salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of quaternary pyridine salts on the electro-chemical behaviour and corrosion-fatigue resistance of Kh18N10T steel in a 35% aqueous solution of magnesium chloride has been studied, the experimental temperature being 160 deg, pressure, 40 bar, concentration of inhibiting additions, 6x10-3 mole/l. It has been discovered that in case of alkyl-substituted quaternary salts the greatest protective effect is displayed by compounds capable of the maximum inhibition of anodic reaction. The slowing down of anodic process and corrosion fatigue protection have been shown to increase in the ortho-, metha-, parasubstituted series of alkyl substitutes

1977-03-01

46

Electrochemical determination of the minimum cathodic protection potential and underground steel corrosion rate. On the moderate criteria for the protection efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimentally are determined the minimum protection potential E_m_i_n and steel corrosion rate in a number of soils by means of calculation using the cathode polarization curve. Their correlation is shown with results of weight tests in conditions of the free corrosion and cathode polarization. It is shown too that E_m_i_n is not connected directly with the steel free corrosion rate but when lowering E_m_i_n normally is decreased. Using E_m_i_n as a characteristic for the soil corrosion effect and features of the cathode protection when softening the criteria of its efficiency are discussed. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

1994-01-01

47

The corrosion protection of AISI(TM) 1010 steel by organic and inorganic zinc-rich primers  

Science.gov (United States)

The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated AISI 1010 steel in 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR), were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electromechanical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 1010 steel cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. The galvanic test results demonstrated a very high current between the steel cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (38.8 and 135.2 microns A/sq cm for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The results of corrosion rate determinations demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. EIS equivalent circuit parameters confirmed this conclusion. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application on solid rocket booster steel hardware.

Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

1995-01-01

48

Stress Corrosion in Prestressing Steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Research into the embrittlement of prestressing steel (stress corrosion)--general review of the subject; Potential dynamic polarization curves and steel corrosion; Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete due to calcium chloride; and Endurance tes...

P. C. Kreijger W. L. Sluijter F. Etienne J. W. Boon F . Bergsma

1977-01-01

49

Chromium and tantalum oxide nanocoatings prepared by filtered cathodic arc deposition for corrosion protection of carbon steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Combined analysis by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) of the relation between chemical architecture of thin (10 and 50 nm) chromium and tantalum oxide coatings grown by filtered cathodic arc deposition (FCAD) on carbon steel and their corrosion protection properties is reported. Pre-etching in the deposition process allows reducing the substrate native oxide l...

Diaz, Belen; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Pisarek, Marcin; Seyeux, Antoine; Zanna, Sandrine; Tervakangas, Sanna; Kolehmainen, Jukka; Marcus, Philippe

2012-01-01

50

Multilayer Al2O3/TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition coatings for the corrosion protection of stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is used to deposit conformal nanometric layers onto different substrates. In this paper, characterization of different ALD layers has been carried out in order to evaluate the suitability of this deposition technolnique for the corrosion protection of stainless steel substrates. Al2O3, TiO2 and multilayer configurations, have been deposited on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel and have then been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers indentation and potentiodynamic polarizations (PP). AFM has been used to obtain a morphological characterization and to evaluate the thickness of the depositions. SEM has been used to investigate the presence of deposition defects. GDOES has been used to obtain a compositional profile. Vickers indentations were used in order to evaluate the resistance to delamination. PPs have been used in order to evaluate the corrosion protection. The results have showed that corrosion resistance can be effectively enhanced. Multilayer configuration proved to be more effective than single layers configurations. - Highlights: ? Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coatings with different thicknesses were tested. ? Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy gave in-depth composition profiles. ? Corrosion resistance was strongly enhanced by ALD. ? Coating to substrate adhesion was improved for thin and multilayer coatings. ? Multilayer ALD configurations proved to be more protective than single layers.

2012-11-01

51

Electrochemical synthesis of bilayer coatings of poly(N-methylaniline) and polypyrrole on mild steel and their corrosion protection performances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > The bilayers of poly(N-methylaniline) and polypyrrole-dodecylsulfate were synthesized. > These films on mild steel were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, FTIR and FESEM. > DS dopant allows permeation to cations and decreases the ingress of chloride ions. > The PNMA/PPy-DS bilayer coating exhibited the best corrosion resistance in 0.5 M HCl. > The protective properties of polymers was developed by preparing their bilayer coatings. - Abstract: Homopolymer and bilayer coatings of poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) and polypyrrole-dodecylsulfate (PPy-DS) have been electropolymerized on a mild steel (MS) surface by the potentiodynamic method in aqueous oxalic acid solutions. In order to include dodecylsulfate ion as dopant in the polypyrrole, sodium dodecylsulfate was also added to the polymerization solution of pyrrole. Characterization of coatings was carried out by the cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Corrosion behavior of the polymer coated MS electrodes was investigated in highly aggressive 0.5 M HCl solution by the Tafel test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Corrosion test revealed that among the protective coatings obtained, the PNMA/PPy-DS bilayer exhibited the best corrosion resistance at all immersion times.

Zeybek, Buelent [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Ozcicek Pekmez, Nuran, E-mail: npekmez@hacettepe.edu.t [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Esma [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

2011-10-30

52

Surface treatment as corrosion protection measure of stainless steels. Oberflaechenbehandlung als Korrosionsschutzmassnahme von nichtrostenden Staehlen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pickling behaviour of several stainless austenitic steels and of one steel with ferritic/austenitic grain structure were investigated in pickling solutions of different compositions based on hydrofluoric acid. Because of uncertainties in practical applications, the influence of temperature, time and acid content on the mass loss is of high interest. In another series of experiments, aqueous solutions of citric acid were tested for their suitability as pickling chemicals for the materials X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 (AISI 321) and X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 (AISI 316 Ti). Finally, the pickling procedures based on nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid mixtures were compared with mechanical cleansing methods and with pickling procedures based on aqueous citric acid solutions as well, to elucidate their influence on the corrosion resistance of the treated materials. The valuation followed a pitting corrosion test in sodium chloride solutions of different concentrations after Herbsleb and Schwenk. Pickling with hydrofluoric acid solutions is superior to other cleansing procedures, if corrosive environments are present. The ecologically beneficial citric acid solutions are only able to remove the annealing colours from stainless steels. (orig.).

Reichau, U.; Pletka, H.D.; Schuetze, K.G. (DEGUSSA Deutsche Gold- und Silber-Scheideanstalt, Hanau (Germany))

1992-11-01

53

Protection of carbon steel against hot corrosion using thermal spray Si- and Cr-base coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

A Fe75Si thermal spray coating was applied on the surface of a plain carbon steel baffle plate. Beneath this coating, a Ni20Cr coating was applied to give better adherence to the silicon coating. The baffle was installed in the high-temperature, fireside, corrosion zone of a steam generator. At the same time, an uncoated 304 stainless steel baffle was installed nearby for comparison. For 13 months the boiler burned heavy fuel oil with high contents of vanadium. The samples were studied employing scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques. After that, it was possible to inspect the structural state of the components, and it was found that the stainless steel baffle plates were destroyed almost completely by corrosion, whereas the carbon steel coated baffle plate did not suffer a significant attack, showing that the performance of the thermal spray coating was outstanding and that the coating was not attacked by vanadium salts of the molten slag.

Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. G.; Martinez, L.

1998-02-01

54

Corrosion of steel in concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study has been made of those properties of Massiv and Standard cements which are considered to determine their ability to protect steel reinforcement from corroding. Saturated Massiv cement has a higher evaporabel water content, but a significantly finer pore structure than has saturated Standard cement. This fine structure resulted in an electrical resistivity ten times higher and chloride diffusivity ten times lower than those of Standard cement. Electrochemical measurements have shown that the passive current density of steel in Massiv mortar is higher than that of steel in Standard mortar, but the higher current should lead to a more rapid decrease in potential to a level at which neither chloride attack of hydrogen evolution will occur. Whereas steel in Standard mortar was found to be highly susceptible to crevice corrosion, no such attack has been observed in Massiv mortar. Moreover, the initiation of chloride induced corrosion and the subsequent rates of corrosion were both lower in Massiv mortar than in Standard mortar. Thus, it may be predicted that Massiv cement would provide greater protection for steel reinforcement in underground structures exposed to chloride containing ground water than would Standard cement. (author)

1982-01-01

55

Nanocomposite films for corrosion protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes technical and scientific aspects of new types of composite films/coatings for corrosion protection of carbon steel, composite films with nanometer thickness consisting of mussel adhesive protein (Mefp?1) and ceria nanoparticles, and polymeric composite coatings with micrometre thickness consisting of conducting polymer and ceria nanoparticles in a UV?curing polyester acrylate (PEA) resin. The influence of microstructure on corrosion behaviour was studied for a Fe?C...

Sababi, Majid

2013-01-01

56

Failure mechanism of thin Al2O3 coatings grown by atomic layer deposition for corrosion protection of carbon steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combined analysis by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of the corrosion protection provided to carbon steel by thin (50 nm) Al2O3 coatings grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and its failure mechanism is reported. In spite of excellent sealing properties, the results show an average dissolution rate of the alumina coating of ?7 nm h-1 in neutral 0.2 M NaCl and increasing porosity of the remaining layers with increasing immersion time. Alumina dissolution is triggered by the penetration of the solution via cracks/pinholes through the coating to the substrate surface where oxygen reduction takes place, raising the pH. At defective substrate surface sites of high aspect ratio and concentrated residual mechanical stress (along scratches) presumably exposing a higher steel surface fraction, localized dissolution of the coating is promoted by a more facile access of the solution to the substrate surface enhancing oxygen reduction. De-adhesion of the coating is also promoted in these sites by the ingress of the anodic dissolution trenching the steel surface. Localized corrosion of the alloy (i.e. pitting) is triggered prior to complete dissolution of the alumina film on the elsewhere still coated surface matrix.

2011-11-01

57

Long term corrosion on T91 and AISI1 316L steel in flowing lead alloy and corrosion protection barrier development: Experiments and models  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the status of knowledge on corrosion and corrosion protection and especially the need for long term compatibility data of structural materials in HLM a set of experiments to generate reliable long term data was defined and performed. The long term corrosion behaviour of the two structural materials foreseen in ADS, 316L and T91, was investigated in the design relevant temperature field, i.e. from 300 to 550 °C. The operational window of the two steels in this temperature range was identified and all oxidation data were used to develop and validate the models of oxide scale growth in PbBi. A mechanistic model capable to predict the oxidation rate applying some experimentally fitted parameters has been developed. This model assumes parabolic oxidation and might be used for design and safety relevant investigations in future. Studies on corrosion barrier development allowed to define the required Al content for the formation of thin alumina scales in LBE. These results as well as future steps and required improvements are discussed. Variation of experimental conditions clearly showed that specific care has to be taken with respect to local flow conditions and oxygen concentrations.

Weisenburger, A.; Schroer, C.; Jianu, A.; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Steiner, H.; Müller, G.; Fazio, C.; Gessi, A.; Babayan, S.; Kobzova, A.; Martinelli, L.; Ginestar, K.; Balbaud-Célerier, F.; Martín-Muñoz, F. J.; Soler Crespo, L.

2011-08-01

58

Long term corrosion on T91 and AISI1 316L steel in flowing lead alloy and corrosion protection barrier development: Experiments and models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the status of knowledge on corrosion and corrosion protection and especially the need for long term compatibility data of structural materials in HLM a set of experiments to generate reliable long term data was defined and performed. The long term corrosion behaviour of the two structural materials foreseen in ADS, 316L and T91, was investigated in the design relevant temperature field, i.e. from 300 to 550 deg. C. The operational window of the two steels in this temperature range was identified and all oxidation data were used to develop and validate the models of oxide scale growth in PbBi. A mechanistic model capable to predict the oxidation rate applying some experimentally fitted parameters has been developed. This model assumes parabolic oxidation and might be used for design and safety relevant investigations in future. Studies on corrosion barrier development allowed to define the required Al content for the formation of thin alumina scales in LBE. These results as well as future steps and required improvements are discussed. Variation of experimental conditions clearly showed that specific care has to be taken with respect to local flow conditions and oxygen concentrations.

Weisenburger, A., E-mail: Alfons.weisenburger@kit.edu [KIT: Karlsruhe Instiute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz platz 1, 76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schroer, C.; Jianu, A.; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Steiner, H.; Mueller, G.; Fazio, C. [KIT: Karlsruhe Instiute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz platz 1, 76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gessi, A. [ENEA: ENEA, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Babayan, S.; Kobzova, A. [NRI: Ustav jaderneho vyzkumu Rez a.s., Husinec 130, Rez 256068 (Czech Republic); Martinelli, L.; Ginestar, K.; Balbaud-Celerier, F. [CEA: CEA, DEN, Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Materiaux dans leur Environnement, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Martin-Munoz, F.J.; Soler Crespo, L. [CIEMAT: CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

2011-08-31

59

Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

Simescu, Florica; Idrissi, Hassane [Laboratoire MATEIS UMR CNRS 5510, Equipe RI-2S INSA - Lyon, Bat. L. Vinci, 21 Av. Jean Capelle, 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: Hassane.Idrissi@insa-lyon.fr

2008-12-15

60

Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete  

Science.gov (United States)

We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

Simescu, Florica; Idrissi, Hassane

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO46(OH2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

Florica Simescu and Hassane Idrissi

2008-01-01

62

Oxide and nitride protective layers formed on stainless steel by thermal treatment: SEM, AES, WDS and corrosion measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protective oxide and/or nitride layers on AISI 321 stainless steel were prepared by thermal treatment in air and two controlled atmospheres in a laboratory simulation of an actual technological procedure. Samples’ surface was imaged by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, elemental composition of the substrates was checked by Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS and depth profiles of the samples were measured by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES. Since protective layer thicknesses were found to be of the order of hundreds of nanometers an attempt was made to obtain some fast averaged information about layers composition by Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS with appropriately adjusted primary beam energy. Electrochemical corrosion testing was also performed on samples.

Jenko, M.

2008-04-01

63

Electrochemical, atomic force microscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies of pre-formed mussel adhesive protein films on carbon steel for corrosion protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical measurements, in situ and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) analysis were performed to investigate the formation and stability as well as corrosion protection properties of mussel adhesive protein (Mefp-1) films on carbon steel, and the influence of cross-linking by NaIO4 oxidation. The in situ AFM measurements show flake-like adsorbed protein aggregates in the film formed at pH 9. The ex situ AFM images indicate multilayer-like films and that the film becomes more compact and stable in NaCl solution after the cross-linking. The IRAS results reveal the absorption bands of Mefp-1 on carbon steel before and after NaIO4 induced oxidation of the pre-adsorbed protein. Within a short exposure time, a certain corrosion protection effect was noted for the pre-formed Mefp-1 film in 0.1 M NaCl solution. Cross-linking the pre-adsorbed film by NaIO4 oxidation significantly enhanced the protection efficiency by up to 80%. - Highlights: ? Mussel protein was tested as “green” corrosion protection strategy for steel. ? At pH 9, the protein adsorbs on carbon steel and forms a multilayer-like film. ? NaIO4 leads to structural changes and cross-linking of the protein film. ? Cross-linking results in a dense and compact film with increased stability. ? Cross-linking of preformed film significantly enhances the corrosion protection.

2012-10-01

64

Ormocer (ZrO2-PMMA) films for stainless steel corrosion protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical protection of 316 L stainless steel coated with ORMOCER coatings of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and ZrO2 has been verified. The coatings were dip-coated on the substrates from sols prepared by mixing zirconium propoxide (ZrOC3H7)4, isopropanol (C3H7OH), glacial acetic acid (CH3COOH), polymethylmethacrylate and water under application of ultrasounds. The films were heat treated between 40 and 300°C in air up to 20 h. Their morphology was studied by electron scanning microscopy ...

Luna, Fernando P.; Atik, Mohamed; Messaddeq, Sandra H.; Aegerter, Michel A.

1997-01-01

65

Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

Morcillo, M.; La Fuente, D.; Di?az, I.; Cano, H.

2011-01-01

66

Field Investigation of the Corrosion Protection Performance of Bridge Decks and Piles Constructed with Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel in Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The corrosion protection performance of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel (ECR) was assessed in three bridge decks and the piles in three marine structures in Virginia in 1996. The decks were 17 years old, two of the marine structures were 8 years old, and t...

R. E. Weyers M. M. Sprinkel W. Pyc J. Zemajtis Y. Liu D. Mokarem

1997-01-01

67

Corrosion protection of type 304 stainless steel bipolar plates of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells by doped polyaniline coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyaniline coating doped with dodecylbenzesulfonate anions is electrodeposited galvanostatically on type 304 stainless steel used as bipolar plates of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell from a basic solution of 0.3 M aniline monomer solution containing sodium dodecylbenzesulfonate as a supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical measurements in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and in 0.3 M HCl show that the polyaniline coating increases the free corrosion potential of the steel by more than 300 mV and 450 mV, respectively, with a corrosion rate more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the uncoated steel. Long-term exposure studies show that the coating is highly stable and inhibits the corrosion of the steel effectively. (author)

Ren, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China); Chen, J. [Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China); Zeng, C.L. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

2010-04-02

68

Corrosion protection of nuclear fuel element welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method of corrosion protection of welds of zirconium-alloy fuel assemblies is described. It consists in depositing on the welds protective layers of a zirconium alloy having the same composition as the jackets and the caps of fuel elements, or possibly layers of stainless steel or a similar corrosion-resistant metal or alloy. The protective layers of several tens of microns to several microns in thickness are deposited using ion neutralization on the metallic surface. (B.S.)

1973-01-01

69

Effective corrosion protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following methods have been developed to minimize corrosion in conventional and nuclear power plants, heating station equipment, and other heat generating installations and district heat distribution grids: (1) chemical cleaning of steam and water boilers by using a special active agent which forms compounds with multivalent metal ions and dissolves already existing deposits on the wall, (2) corrosion protection of steam and hot water boilers of all systems and types during shut down by the use of a film-forming substance, and (3) corrosion protection of warm and hot water grids during operation or shut down by introducing a corrosion inhibitor which forms a protective film on all metal surfaces upon which the warm or hot water impinges during routine operation. The technical and economical advantages of the methods are summarized

1986-01-01

70

Corrosion of Landing Gear Steels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted on the corrosion behavior of landing gear steels, AerMet 100, 300M, AF1410, HYTUF and 4340. This study included investigations of stress corrosion cracking and immersion corrosion in an aqueous 3.5 percent NaCl solution, salt spray c...

E. U. Lee J. Kozol J. B. Boodey J. Waldman

1995-01-01

71

Electrodeposition of polyaniline, poly(2-iodoaniline), and poly(aniline- co-2-iodoaniline) on steel surfaces and corrosion protection of steel  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyaniline (PANi), poly(2-iodoaniline) (PIANi), and poly(aniline- co-2-iodoaniline) ( co-PIANi) were synthesized using cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile solution containing tetrabuthylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) and perchloric acid (HClO 4) on 304-stainless steel electrodes. Adherent and black polymer films were obtained on the electrodes. The structure and properties of these polymer films were characterized by FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical method. The corrosion performance of PANi, PIANi, and co-PIANi coated electrodes were investigated in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions by potentiodynamic polarization technique, open circuit potential-time curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS. It was found that the PANi film could provide much better protection than PIANi, and co-PIANi and PANi films have barrier property as well as acting as passivator. On the other hand PIANi and co-PIANi films are acting as barrier coatings which were related with the prevention of cathodic reaction taking place at metalelectrolyte interface. EIS measurement shows that every coating gives protection efficiency of greater than 75% after 48 h of immersion time in corrosive test solution.

Bereket, Gözen; Hür, Evrim; ?ahin, Yücel

2005-12-01

72

Corrosion of steel in concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research work that is presented in this thesis aims at mapping out the various mechanisms which control the process of steel corrosion in concrete. The process of corrosion is illustrated with a schematic model where the service life is divided into a period of initiation and a period of propagation. The time up to the initiation of the corrosion process is determined by the flow of penetrating substances into the concrete cover and by the threshold concentration for corrosion to start. T...

Tuutti, Kyo?sti

1982-01-01

73

Corrosion Behavior of Landing Gear Steels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted on the corrosion behavior of an AerMet 100 steel and a 300M steel. This study included investigations of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), immersion corrosion, salt spray corrosion, and humidity corrosion of both steels. For the SCC i...

E. U. Lee

1993-01-01

74

Layered double hydroxides as containers of inhibitors in organic coatings for corrosion protection of carbon steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work focuses on the use of layered double hydroxides (LDH) as containers for corrosion inhibitors in an epoxy coating. 2-Benzothiazolylthio-succinic acid (BTSA), used as corrosion inhibitor, was intercalated by co-precipitation in magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides. The obtained LDH-BTSA was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. BTSA release from LDH-BTSA in NaCl solutions was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The ...

Hang, To Thi Xuan; Truc, Trinh Anh; Duong, Nguyen Thuy; Pe?be?re, Nadine; Olivier, Marie-georges

2012-01-01

75

Evaluation of the protection behaviour of reinforcement steel against corrosion induced by chlorides in reinforced mortar specimens; Avaliacao do comportamento frente a corrosao pelo ataque de cloreto de argamassa armada apos varios tratamentos protetores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work various treatments for protecting reinforcing steels against corrosion induced by chlorides have been evaluated. Additives to mortars and surface treatments given to reinforcing steels were evaluated as corrosion protection measures. In the preliminary tests the corrosion resistance of a CA 50 steel treated by immersion in nearly 50 different solutions, was determined. The solutions were prepared with tannins (from various sources) and/or benzotriazole, and during immersion, a surface film formed on the steel. The corrosion resistance of the coated steels was evaluated in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution with 5% (wt) NaCl. Preliminary tests were also carried out with mortars reinforced with uncoated steel to which tannin or lignin was added. Two organic coatings, a monocomponent and a bicomponent type, formulated specially for this investigation, with both tannin and benzotriazole, were also tested in the preliminary tests to select the coating with better corrosion protection property. The bicomponent type (epoxy coating) showed better performance than the monocomponent type coating, and the former was therefore chosen to investigate the corrosion performance on CA 50 steel inside mortar specimens. From the preliminary tests, two solutions with tannin from two sources, Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) and Brazilian tea (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill), to which benzotriazole and phosphoric acid were added, were chosen. Mortar specimens reinforced with CA50 steel treated by immersion in these two solutions were prepared. Also, epoxy coated CA50 steel was tested as reinforcement inside mortar specimens. Mortars reinforced with uncoated CA50 steel were also prepared and corrosion tested for comparison. The effect of tannin and lignin as separate additives to the mortar on the corrosion resistance of uncoated steel was also studied. The reinforced mortar specimens were tested with various cycles of immersion for 2 days in 3.5% (wt) NaCl followed by with air drying for 5 days. The corrosion tests used in this investigation were gravimetric and electrochemical tests. The results showed satisfactory corrosion performance for all kinds of protection measures. However, the performance depended on the type of protection used. The best performance was obtained with tannin containing epoxy coated steel, followed by the steel treated by immersion in tannin containing solutions and finally by the addition of tannin (Black Wattle) or lignin to the mortar. All the protection measures evaluated in this study are economically viable and environmentally friendly and can therefore be considered for protecting reinforcement steels against corrosion. (author)

Crivelaro, Marcos

2002-07-01

76

Development of Nb2O5|Cu composite as AISI 1020 steel thermal spray coating for protection against corrosion by soil in buried structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Nb2O|Cu corrosion-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 steel substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two corrosively aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure protection. (author)

2012-01-01

77

Tantalum oxide nanocoatings prepared by atomic layer and filtered cathodic arc deposition for corrosion protection of steel: Comparative surface and electrochemical analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparative study by Tithe-of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, i-E polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of the corrosion protection of low alloy steel by 50 nm thick tantalum oxide coatings prepared by low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (FCAD) is reported. The data evidence the presence of a spurious oxide layer mostly consisting of iron grown by transient thermal oxidation...

Diaz, Belen; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Harkonen, Emma; Ritala, Mikko; Tervakangas, Sanna; Kolehmainen, Jukka; Marcus, Philippe

2013-01-01

78

Tantalum oxide nanocoatings prepared by atomic layer and filtered cathodic arc deposition for corrosion protection of steel: Comparative surface and electrochemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? 50 nm Ta2O5 coatings grown by ALD at 160 °C and FCAD for protection of steel. ? Combined analysis by ToF-SIMS, XPS, polarization curves and EIS. ? Relation between chemical architecture and corrosion protection properties studied. ? Localized corrosion by pitting with absence of coating dissolution demonstrated. ? Origin and role of spurious interfacial oxide promoting coating breakdown emphasized. -- Abstract: A comparative study by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, i–E polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of the corrosion protection of low alloy steel by 50 nm thick tantalum oxide coatings prepared by low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (FCAD) is reported. The data evidence the presence of a spurious oxide layer mostly consisting of iron grown by transient thermal oxidation at the ALD film/substrate interface in the initial stages of deposition and its suppression by pre-treatment in the FCAD process. Carbonaceous contamination (organic and carbidic) resulting from incomplete removal of the organic precursor is the major cause of the poorer sealing properties of the ALD film. No coating dissolution is demonstrated in neutral or acid 0.2 M NaCl solutions. In acid solution localized corrosion by pitting proceeds faster with the ALD than with the FCAD coating. The roles of the pre-existing channel defects exposing the substrate surface and of the spurious interfacial oxide promoting coating breakdown and/or delamination are emphasized

2013-02-15

79

Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of corrosion nucleation and their influence on corrosion depends on type of inclusion. Mechanism of corrosion of wheel steel corrosion was discussed.

Alexander SHRAMKO

2009-01-01

80

Corrosion protection of cold-rolled steel with alkyd paint coatings composited with submicron-structure types polypyrrole-modified nano-size alumina and carbon nanotubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Alumina/carbon nanotube (CNT) supported polypyrrole (PPy) particles were prepared. ? Various paint compositions with alkyd binder were immersion tested. ? Alumina-supported PPy based coating provided steel protection in NaCl solution. ? Polyelectrolyte modified CNT embedded coating afforded long-term stable protection. ? sulphonated CNT loaded coating indicated firm corrosion resistance in HCL solution. ? Results are interpreted on the basis of nano and microstructure of the particles. - Abstract: This paper is focused on studying corrosion protection of cold-rolled steel with alkyd paint coatings comprising nano-size alumina and either polystyrene-sulphonate (PSS) modified or sulphonated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) supported polypyrrole (PPy). Single layer coatings (in thickness of 40 ± 5 ?m) comprising PPy deposited alumina and PSS modified MWCNT supported PPy afforded viable protection during the 1 M sodium chloride test. The coatings containing PSS modified and weakly sulphonated MWCNTs (at volume fractions of 9.9 × 10?4 and 2.5 × 10?4) with PPy volume fractions of 3.5 × 10?3 and 2.5 × 10?3 provided effective corrosion prevention during the 1 M sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution tests. While inhibitor particles were characterised by infrared spectroscopy, corrosion products formed at the paint–steel interface were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Apart from the electron microscopy observations, rheology study of three-dimensional structure of the inhibitor particles was performed in dispersions at similar compositions to those used for the paint formulations. Thus, protection mechanism relating to both types of immersion tests is discussed in terms of properties of the inhibitor particles and their microstructure in the coatings.

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Corrosion fatigue of steel in concrete structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic objective of this research programme was to clarify to what extent the traditional alkaline protection is sufficient also under cyclic actions in chloride environments or under which conditions more protection efforts (coating, cathodic protection) would be required. As a measure of the efficiency of the protection the fatigue strength of the prestressing steel under simultaneous action of different corrosive environments has been investigated. Corrosion fatigue tests on 3 series of 3-point-loaded beams post-tensioned with a 7-wire monostrand tendon according to German standard specifications have been performed. The corrosive environment was produced for the beams of the first two series by wetting their surface with salt water in regular intervals. For the third series of beams chloride has been added to the concrete and the grouting mortar and the beams have been wetted with water at proper intervals. Constant amplitude load cycles have been applied. (orig./MM)

1988-01-01

82

Surface Analysis of Carbon Steel Protected from Corrosion by a New Ternary Inhibitor Formulation Containing Phosphonated Glycine, Zn2+ and Citrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on surface analysis of carbon steel protected from corrosion in low chloride and nearly neutral aqueous environment by a synergistic mixture containing N,N-bis(phosphonomethyl glycine (BPMG, zinc ions and citrate ions are presented. The effect of addition of citrate to the binary system, BPMG-Zn2+, is quite significant and is well explored through various studies. The surface protective nature is maintained in the pH range 5 - 9. Potentiodynamic polarization studies inferred that the ternary inhibitor is a mixed inhibitor. Impedance studies of the metal/solution interface indicated that the surface film is highly protective against the corrosion of carbon steel in the chosen environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS analysis of the surface film showed the presence of the elements namely iron, phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and zinc. Deconvolution spectra of these elements in the surface film inferred the presence of oxides/hydroxides of iron(III, Zn(OH2 and [Fe(III, Zn(II-BPMG-citrate] heteropolynuclear multiligand complex. This inference is further supported by the reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the surface film. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM is presented for both the corroded and protected metal surfaces. Based on all these results, a plausible mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed.

Boyapati Venkata Appa Rao

2013-01-01

83

Improvement of superficial protection of steel concrete supports of the contact network against corrosion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of different water-repellent rendering compounds for steel concrete supports of a contact network on change of their electric resistance and water absorption is under study. It is shown that the domestic production "Silol" has the best parameters on these indices.

V.G. Sychenko

2012-08-01

84

Corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplating steel by decanoic acid in aqueous solution: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XPS and ATR-FTIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inhibiting action of decanoic acid towards the corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. Results obtained revealed that decanoic acid is an effective inhibitor. The better performance was obtained in the case of electroplating steel. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis shows that, decanoic acid is chemisorbed on surface of galvanized steel and electroplating steel. These studies have shown that the active site for binding the film on metal surface is the anionic carboxylate head. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to identify the nature of the deposits on the metal surface.

2009-06-01

85

Oxidized tubes out of corrosion resistant steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations of corrosion resistance in different corrosive media (HNO3, NaCl, NaOH, H2SO4, HCl, H2SO4+HNO3, H2SO4+HCl, H2SO4+NaCl solutions) of tubes produced out of 12Kh18N10T steel oxidized in solutions of chromic anhydride and potassium bichromate have been carried out. Regularities of interaction of metal systems with gases are practically confirmed in Yuzhnotrubnyj plant conditions. Introduction of the procedure of tube oxidation out of corrosion-resistant steels simplifies essentially the technological cycle of tube preparation after rolling before heat treatment, increases their high-temperature - and acid resistance, decreases their tendency to ICC. Application of the tube oxidation method (in melts and solutions) as a measure of technological protection gives a considerable economic benefit

1987-01-01

86

Machineries corrosion and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Author.The phenomena of corrosion in acquiring increasing attention due to wear of friction parts in machines that will lead to loss of efficiency of these parts and decrease of the quality of the products in addition to the threat to industrial security beside massive power consumption used to operate these parts and machines. Some 30% of the national income in developed countries is wasted in replacement and maintenance of corroded parts in machines in spite of massive efforts to control this important economic issue. These parts will discuss the topic of corrosion in machines, types and causes, the methods to control and protection. There are lots of ways to confront and protect machines from corrosion of which: To depend on lubrication through injecting oil under definite pressure to reach friction parts, this can be managed more easily by supplying contact surfaces with holes for oil to reach the area of contact. Through selection of highly resistant metals for corrosion and highly resistant for high temperature solid and durable metals. To resort to know thermal treatment as to form hard surface layer to bear the applied load through nitrogen case hardening and carbonization or sulphurization. To depend on optimum design for friction parts as to lessen the friction factor, in using ball bearing instead of slide bearing in this field. To use surface membranes that adhere to the surface of solid body to protect this surface and to bear friction, in this way it will erode and be replaced; thickness of this layer ranges between few microns and millimeters, like those layers produced through expulsive painting, chemical reaction, or through magnetic fields wrapping or wrapping using titanium azotic layer through employment for plasma current

1997-10-08

87

Effect of gamma radiation on steel corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important materials issue of nuclear reactors concerns the chemical effects of ionizing radiation on steel corrosion. The effect of radiation on the corrosion kinetics of carbon steel and stainless steel was studied by electrochemical and chemical speciation analyses. The changes in the steel corrosion behaviour during the exposure to gamma radiation were followed by corrosion potential, linear polarization, and electrochemical impedance measurements. The corrosion kinetic measurements were also performed with steel exposed to H2O2 and O2 under non-irradiation conditions, and found the response of the corroding steel to gamma radiation could be mimicked with chemical addition of H2O2. (author)

2008-06-01

88

Volatile corrosion inhibitor film formation on carbon steel surface and its inhibition effect on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI), bis-piperidiniummethyl-urea (BPMU), was developed for temporary protection of carbon steel. Its vapor corrosion inhibition property was evaluated under simulated operational conditions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to study the inhibition effect of BPMU on the corrosion of carbon steel with a thin stimulated atmospheric corrosion water layers. Adsorption of BPMU on carbon steel surfaces was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that BPMU can form a protective film on the metal surface, which protects the metal against further corrosion. The structure of the protective film was suggested as one BPMU molecule chelated with one Fe atom to form a complex with two hexa-rings

2006-11-30

89

Steel corrosion in radioactive waste storage tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collaborative study is being conducted by CNEA and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America) to investigate the effects of tank waste chemistry on radioactive waste storage tank corrosion. Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks that contain a combination of salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide. The USDOE, Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site, has identified a need to conduct a laboratory study to better understand the effects of radioactive waste chemistry on the corrosion of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The USDOE science need (RL-WT079-S Double-Shell Tanks Corrosion Chemistry) called for a multi year effort to identify waste chemistries and temperatures within the double-shell tank (DST) operating limits for corrosion control and operating temperature range that may not provide the expected corrosion protection and to evaluate future operations for the conditions outside the existing corrosion database. Assessment of corrosion damage using simulated (non-radioactive) waste is being made of the double-shell tank wall carbon steel alloy. Evaluation of the influence of exposure time, and electrolyte composition and/or concentration is being also conducted. (author)

2004-11-23

90

Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

2014-03-01

91

Corrosion inhibition performance of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole compounds for protection of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of some mercapto functional azole compounds on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution was studied by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization studies showed depression of cathodic and anodic polarization curves in the presence of mercapto functional azole compounds, indicating mixed type corrosion inhibition of the compounds. Double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance values were derived from EIS results. Changes in impedance parameters are indicative of adsorption of these compounds on the metal surface. Surface analysis SEM/EDX showing presence of sulfur on the surface confirmed the adsorption of the azole compounds on the mild steel surface as showed by electrochemical methods. Both compounds contain a pyridine-like nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom in their molecular structure, while they differ in only one heteroatom: oxygen in the oxazole ring and pyrrole-like nitrogen in the imidazole ring. The results of the electrochemical techniques revealed that changing the pyrrole like nitrogen atom to oxygen atom in the azole ring results in a decrease of corrosion inhibition performance in hydrochloric acid solution, which could be related to more negative charge on pyrrole-like nitrogen atom in comparison to oxygen atom as depicted by quantum chemical calculations.

2010-02-01

92

Effect of magnetite as a corrosion product on the corrosion of carbon steel overpack  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is necessary to clear the effects of corrosion products on the corrosion life time of carbon steel overpack for geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Especially, it is important to understand the effects of magnetite because magnetite as a simulated corrosion product is reported to accelerate the corrosion rate of carbon steel. In this study, corrosion tests to reproduce the acceleration of corrosion due to magnetite was performed and the mechanism of the acceleration was investigated to evaluate the effects of magnetite as a corrosion product. Based on the results of experiments, following conclusions are obtained; (1) Magnetite powder accelerates the corrosion rate of carbon steel. The main reaction of corrosion under the presence of magnetite is the reduction of Fe(III) in magnetite to Fe(II), but the reaction of hydrogen generation is also accelerated. The contribution of hydrogen generation reaction was estimated to be about 30% in the total corrosion reaction based on the experimental result of immersion test under the presence of magnetite. (2) Actual corrosion products containing magnetite generated by the corrosion of carbon steel protect the metal from the propagation of corrosion. The corrosion depth of carbon steel overpack due to magnetite was estimated to be about 1 mm based on the results of experiments. Even if the effect of magnetite is taken into the assessment of corrosion lifetime of overpack, total corrosion depth in 1000 years is estimated to be 33 mm, which is smaller than the corrosion allowance of 40 mm described in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. It was concluded that the effect of magnetite on the corrosion life time of carbon steel overpack is negligible. (author)

Taniguchi, N.; Honda, A. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Masugata, T.; Tateishi, T.; Fujiwara, K. [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

2000-12-01

93

Corrosion fatigue of steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion fatigue phenomena can be classified into two main groups according to the electrochemical state of the metal surface in the presence of electrolytes: the active and the passive state with an important sub-group of corrosion fatigue in the unstable passive state. The allowable stress for structures exposed to the conjoint action of corrosion and fatigue is influenced by many factors: kind of media, number of cycles, frequency, mean stress, size, notches, loading mode, alloy composition and mechanical strength. A critical literature review shows contradictory results if a classification by the electrochemical surface state is not applied. Case histories and counter measures illustrate the practical importance of corrosion fatigue in many branches of industry as well as the urgent need for a better knowledge about the mutual influence of the phenomena to get rules by which the engineer can appraise the risk of corrosion fatigue. (orig.)

1975-11-21

94

Atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel in the prairie regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of atmospheric corrosion and carbon steel located in the prairie regions of Canada was presented. The study considered corrosion behaviour as well as the standards currently used to establish and predict corrosion in atmospheric conditions. The aim of the study was to develop an accurate predictive method of establishing corrosion amounts over time. The controlling parameters for atmospheric corrosion included acidic rainfall; temperature and humidity; time of wetness; and the presence of major contaminants such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). The predictive approach involved the study of a protective film of magnetite iron oxide that establishes itself on carbon steel over time. The presence of the film provides increased atmospheric corrosion resistance. An analysis of the atmospheric corrosion of steel tanks at the Hardisty terminal was used to demonstrate the method. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

Shaw, W.J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Andersson, J.I. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

95

Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.

La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.

Morcillo, M.

2011-10-01

96

Effects of cement chemistry, admixtures, and inhibitors on corrosion protection of steel pipelines by internal concrete liners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are reported from a study focusing on the performance of concrete materials for internal pipeline protection against the erosive and corrosive effects of flowing brine. Seventeen different liner formulations were examined in this study. Corrosion rates were measured by linear polarization on samples exposed in a test manifold to flowing brine. Samples were also exposed to static site-generated brine as a function of time. These samples were returned to the laboratory for visual analysis of damage, examination of brine penetration through the concrete by electron probe microchemical analysis, and for measurement of changes in the concrete-liner interfacial shear strength. The study focused on the performance of two liners applied by centrifugal casting: an oil field-standard calcium silicate-based concrete, and a high sulfate resistance-calcium aluminate cement. The study also focused on a calcium-silicate concrete liner applied by hand. Results showed that standard calcium silicate concrete (API RPIOE) and a rotary calcium aluminate concrete provided excellent protection. Pipewall corrosion rates were reduced from 10 to 15 mils per year to 1 mil per year or less. The hand-applied liners also reduced the pipewall corrosion rate, but not to the same degree as the cast liners. Further the risk of spalling of the hand-applied liner was judged to be greater than that of the cast liners, due to a lower measured pipewall-liner interfacial strength.

Buchheit, R.G. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Maestas, L.M.; Hinkebein, T.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-12-31

97

BWR steel containment corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report

1996-01-01

98

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECTS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION TO PREVENT MACRO-CELL CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE  

Science.gov (United States)

Reinforcing bars embedded in concrete tend to corrode due to salt attack under marine environments. Corrosion of bars might be often caused with phenomenon of macro-cell. Cathodic protection has been, so far, applied to control the corrosion of reinforcing bars in RC members. In order to make clear the mechanisms of macro-cell corr osion and the effect of cathodic protecti on, laboratory tests were carried out. Testing concrete specimens contained two reinforcing bars which were buried at upper area of specimens and at lower area of ones, respectively. Lower zone of the concrete specimens were immersed in water. Testing results indicated as follows: (1) reinforci ng bars under wetting condition were anode and reinforcing bars under drying one cathode, (2) current density of macro-cell between two bars increased according as the potential difference increased and electric resistance of the concrete between two bars decreased, and (3) cathodic protection was effective to prevented macro-cell corrosion of reinforcing bars in concrete. Furthermore, it was presumed that corroded iron might be reduced to metal iron due to the protection current.

Yamamoto, Satoru; Ueno, Moe; Ishii, Kouji; Seki, Hiroshi

99

Protection of compressor coolers from corrosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports on the introduction of organosilicate compositions for anticorrosion protection of high-pressure compressor coolers and the replacement of stainless steel by carbon steel in the coolers of air and oxygen compressors without lubricant. The tubes of high-pressure coolers (tube-in-tube type) of high-pressure compressors are damaged by pitting and point corrosion from the action of the return water. The investigated high-pressure tubes were produced from 20Kh3MVF steel. It is established that organosilicate-composition protective coatings have satisfactory corrosion resistance in the cooling (return) water of high-pressure compressor coolers and in the gaseous media (air and oxygen) of reciprocating compressors without lubricant.

Vericheva, L.A.; Kharitonov, N.P.; Khudobin, Y.I.; Lebedev, B.I.; Prudtsovskaya, V.S.; Teplitskii, E.Y.

1984-03-01

100

Polyamine compound as a volatile corrosion inhibitor for atmospheric corrosion of mild steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bis-piperidiniummethyl-urea (BPMU) was developed as a volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI) for mild steel. Its vapor corrosion inhibition property was evaluated by volatile inhibiting sieve test (VIS). Electrochemical measurements were conducted in simulated atmospheric corrosion water. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of a volatile corrosion inhibitor monitor cell (VCIM) was applied to study the effect of BPMU on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel under a thin electrolyte layer. The results show that BPMU has good protection effect for steel. It suppressed the anodic reaction of the steel electrode in a manner of promoted passivation. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the adsorption of BPMU on the steel surface. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Zhang, D.Q.; Gao, L.X.; Zhou, G.D. [Electrochemical Research Group, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, 200090 (China)

2007-08-15

 
 
 
 
101

Synthesis and application of hybrid polymer composites based on silver nanoparticles as corrosion protection for line pipe steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A facile method was developed to synthesize in high yield dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with small particle sizes of less than 10 nm. Silver nitrate was reduced to silver nanoparticles by p-chloroaniline in the presence of polyoxyethylene maleate 4-nonyl-2-propylene-phenol (NMA) as a stabilizer. The produced AgNPs were used to prepare hybrid polymer based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm), 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate (KPS) using a semi-batch solution polymerization method. The prepared AgNPs and hybrid polymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion inhibition activity of the AgNPs and hybrid polymer towards steel corrosion in the presence of hydrochloric acid has been investigated by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Polarization measurements indicate that the AgNPs and hybrid polymer acts as a mixed type-inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. The results of potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements clearly showed that the inhibition mechanism involves blocking of the steel surface by inhibitor molecules via adsorption. PMID:24840897

Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ezzat, Abdurrahman O

2014-01-01

102

Synthesis and Application of Hybrid Polymer Composites Based on Silver Nanoparticles as Corrosion Protection for Line Pipe Steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A facile method was developed to synthesize in high yield dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with small particle sizes of less than 10 nm. Silver nitrate was reduced to silver nanoparticles by p-chloroaniline in the presence of polyoxyethylene maleate 4-nonyl-2-propylene-phenol (NMA as a stabilizer. The produced AgNPs were used to prepare hybrid polymer based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and potassium persulfate (KPS using a semi-batch solution polymerization method. The prepared AgNPs and hybrid polymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The corrosion inhibition activity of the AgNPs and hybrid polymer towards steel corrosion in the presence of hydrochloric acid has been investigated by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. Polarization measurements indicate that the AgNPs and hybrid polymer acts as a mixed type-inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. The results of potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements clearly showed that the inhibition mechanism involves blocking of the steel surface by inhibitor molecules via adsorption.

Ayman M. Atta

2014-05-01

103

Recent trend of corrosion resistant stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In severe corrosive environment, the stainless steel having excellent workability and weldability has been used. On the other hand, new corrosive environment has been created by the heightening of industrial equipment efficiency and the development of new processes. In response to the needs of economical corrosion resistant materials withstanding this environment, coupled with the advance of manufacturing techniques, many new corrosion resistant stainless steels have been developed. Generally corrosion is divided into dry corrosion and wet corrosion, but in this report, only the wet corrosion is taken up as there have been many cases of wet corrosion. The trend of development of high purity ferritic stainless steel, corrosion resistant two-phase stainless steel, and highly corrosion resistant stainless steel by the effective utilization of nitrogen is outlined. The high purity ferritic stainless steel was developed by new steel making technology such as VOD, AOD, RH-OB and SS-VOD processes. The two-phase stainless steel is composed of austenite phase and ferrite phase in the ratio of nearly 1:1, and characterized by the high contents of Cr and Mo and the addition of N. About 0.1 % of nitrogen is added to austenitic stainless steel to stabilize and strengthen austenite and prevent the formation of the layer short of Cr. (Kako, I.)

1986-01-01

104

Corrosion and galvanic corrosion of steels. Pt. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of galvanic coupling of titanium with steels was studied in solutions containing 32.7 (g NaCl)l/sup -1/ at ambient temperature. The corrosion of coupled and uncoupled steels was studied from the loss in mass and by potentiostatic methods. The effect of temperature (25-100/sup 0/C) on the corrosion rate of carbon steels in aerated aqueous NaCl is described. An analysis of data shows that the coupling of different carbon steels with titanium accelerated corrosion. The corrosion rates in the solution used fit the Arrhenius equation.

Sanad, S.H.; Ismail, A.A.; Khedr, A.A.; El-Sobki, K.M.

1982-05-01

105

Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties of high-strength pipeline steel and the concentration of hydrogen present in the steel. B. Determine the degree hydrogen absorption by cathodically protected steel exposed in natural soil sediment, which include activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). C. Compare the above points with fracture mechanical considerations on the level of stress intensity actually present in pipelines during normal operational conditions. The results were used for a discussion - based on well established fracture mechanical relations - on which set of conditions (CP-level and operating pipeline pressure) could give crack propagation. This resulted in threshold curves that can be used for assessment of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking as a function of operating pressure and hydrogen content - having the flaw size as discrete parameter. The results are to be used mainly on a conceptual basis, but it was indicated that the requirements for crack propagation include an overprotective CP-condition, a severe sulphate-reducing environment, as well as a large flaw (8 mm or a leak in the present case). A 1 mm flaw (which may be the maximum realistic flaw size) is believed to be unable to provoke crack propagation in this steel. (EG) EFP-95. 16 refs.

Vendelbo Nielsen, L.

1998-08-01

106

Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties of high-strength pipeline steel and the concentration of hydrogen present in the steel. B. Determine the degree hydrogen absorption by cathodically protected steel exposed in natural soil sediment, which include activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). C. Compare the above points with fracture mechanical considerations on the level of stress intensity actually present in pipelines during normal operational conditions. The results were used for a discussion - based on well established fracture mechanical relations - on which set of conditions (CP-level and operating pipeline pressure) could give crack propagation. This resulted in threshold curves that can be used for assessment of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking as a function of operating pressure and hydrogen content - having the flaw size as discrete parameter. The results are to be used mainly on a conceptual basis, but it was indicated that the requirements for crack propagation include an overprotective CP-condition, a severe sulphate-reducing environment, as well as a large flaw (8 mm or a leak in the present case). A 1 mm flaw (which may be the maximum realistic flaw size) is believed to be unable to provoke crack propagation in this steel.

Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

1998-01-01

107

Protection of mild steel corrosion with Schiff bases in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three new Schiff bases, viz., N,N'-ethylen-bis (salicylideneamino) [S1], N,N'-isopropenyl-bis (salicylideneamino) [S2], and N-acetylacetone imine, N'-(2-hydroxybenzophenone imine) ortho-phenyl en [S3] have been investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (Ei). The three Schiff bases function as good inhibitors reaching inhibition efficiencies of ?97-98% at 300 ppm concentration. The fraction of the metal surface covered by the inhibitor is found to increase with inhibitor concentration. Of the three Schiff bases, the S shows better efficiency than the other two Schiff bases. The adsorption of the inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic calculations indicate the adsorption to be physical in nature

2007-03-01

108

Monitoring corrosion of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion. PMID:24558346

Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem

2014-01-01

109

Monitoring Corrosion of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion.

Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem

2014-01-01

110

Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3?2 and NO?3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10?4?M; 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration. (review)

2011-12-01

111

A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed

2007-09-16

112

A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

BOOMER, K.D.

2007-08-21

113

Corrosion protection at Crimean NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal-epoxide compositions modified by adsorption-active additions as well as reinforced coatings of the same type for pipeline protection against soil corrosion are investigated to provide for corrosion protection of water-supply systems at the Crimean NPP. Laboratory test in the Asov Sea water at 50-90 deg C confirmed the reliability of the coatings proposed. Works on NPP pipeline protection are performed using the coatings recommended which appeared to be quite efficient for construction and assemling works and as a result of corrosion prevention a sufficient economic effect (1.16 millions of roubles) is abtained

1988-01-01

114

Long term laboratory testing on buried stainless steel cathodically protected by carbon steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with reinforcing soil structures by means of metallic strips. In chloride contaminated soils, reinforcing strips have to overwhelm the severe corrosion on carbon and galvanized steels, as used in standard applications. Stainless steels (more common grade) do not withstand pitting and crevice corrosion when chloride ions. are present. Conversely, the cathodic protection of stainless steels, attained in the perfect passivity potential range, and applied since the beginning, avoids any localized corrosion occurrence. Such a cathodic protection has been obtained by coupling the stainless steel to the carbon steel. Results of long term testing are presented and discussed.

Bazzoni, B.; Lazzari, L. [Cescor srl, Milan (Italy); Pastore, T. [Univ. di Bergamo (Italy); Pedeferri, P. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

1995-11-01

115

METHOD FOR ARRANGEMENT OF HIGH-STRENGTH CORROSION-RESISTANT FOR EFFICIENT PROTECTION OF STEEL PIPELINES OPERATED IN THE EXTREME NORTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement. At present, the problem of main pipeline protection from corrosion is extremelyimportant. Principal gas-transport routes have the biggest length in the North areas whereclimatic and geotechnical conditions are adverse. Scientists of Voronezh State University of Architectureand Civil Engineering have developed new material, rubber concrete. This material isbased on liquid oligodienes and has unique set of operational characteristics. The material can beefficiently used as insulation material for metal pipe in the conditions of the Extreme North.Results. The method for arrangement of protective coating of metal pipe is developed on the basisof rubber concrete. The method is patented. Laboratory device which allows one to perform structuresformation of rubber mastic on the surface of metal pipe is constructed. Physicomechanicalproperties of rubber concrete as insulation material for steel pipes are determined.Conclusions. The results of experiments allow us to draw a conclusion on the expediency of the useof rubber concrete as a protection coating material for steel pipes operated in the Extreme North.

I. S. Surovtsev

2011-11-01

116

Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, Part I â?? Mechanisms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Throughout the world reinforced concrete is the most widely used construction material for buildings and civil engineering structures. Most reinforced concrete structures have performed satisfactory over many decades, but there still is an unacceptable large number of structures that deteriorate prematurely. Reinforcement corrosion is identified to be the foremost cause of deterioration. Steel in concrete is normally protected by a passive layer due the high alkalinity of the concrete pore solution; corrosion is initiated by neutralization through atmospheric carbon dioxide and by ingress of depassivation ions, especially chloride ions. The background and consequences of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures caused by steel corrosion are summarized. Selected corrosion mechanisms postulated in the literature are briefly discussed and related to observations. The key factors controlling initiation and propagation of corrosion of steel in concrete are outlined.

Küter, André; Møller, Per

2006-01-01

117

Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings on low carbon steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion resistant coatings of various metals and alloys such as Si, Ti, Ni and Ti-Ni were formed on steel rebars by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBR-CVD), paint-and-heat or FBR-plasma spray techniques. The paint-and-heat metallization and FBR-plasma spray are powder coating techniques that can be applied easily and economically on new components as well as on existing steel structures, such as bridges. These metallic powder coatings provide non-sacrificial, superior corrosion protection for a long time. Ti-Ni (70:30 wt.%) coatings on steel rebars provided a 20 fold increase in corrosion resistance over uncoated steel. These metallic coatings can be used to prevent corrosion in many industrial applications. (orig.)

Jayaweera, P. [SRI Int., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Mater. and Chem. Eng. Lab.; Lowe, D.M. [SRI Int., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Mater. and Chem. Eng. Lab.; Sanjurjo, A. [SRI Int., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Mater. and Chem. Eng. Lab.; Lau, K.H. [SRI Int., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Mater. and Chem. Eng. Lab.; Jiang, L. [SRI Int., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Mater. and Chem. Eng. Lab.

1996-12-15

118

Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin coatings for corrosion protection of steel: Surface and electrochemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? 10-100 nm Alumina coatings grown by ALD at 160 oC for protection of steel. ? Al2O3 stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by growth precursors. ? Iron oxide and siloxane presence at the buried coating/steel interface. ? Exponential decay of coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with thickness increase. ? Coating thickness increase required to seal the defective first deposited 10 nm. - Abstract: ToF-SIMS, XPS, voltammetry and EIS investigation of the anti-corrosion properties of thin (10, 50 and 100 nm) alumina coatings grown by atomic layer deposition at 160 oC on steel is reported. Surface analysis shows a thickness-independent Al2O3 stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by the growth precursors. The buried coating/alloy interface has iron oxide formed in ambient air and/or resulting from the growth of spurious traces in the initial stages of deposition. Electrochemical analysis yields an exponential decay of the coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with increasing thickness, achieved by sealing of the more defective first deposited 10 nm.

2011-06-01

119

Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS might be used for detection of MIC. EN is a suitable technique to characterise the type of corrosion attack, but is unsuitable for corrosion rate estimation. The concentric electrodes galvanic probe arrangement initiates localised corrosion on the anode and seems applicable to evaluate the risk of MIC. Hydrogen permeation measurements are very useful to monitor hydrogen induced cracking accelerated by MIC.

Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

2000-01-01

120

Corrosion-protective coatings from electrically conducting polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

In a joint effort between NASA Kennedy and LANL, electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed as corrosion protective coatings for metal surfaces. At NASA Kennedy, the launch environment consist of marine, severe solar, and intermittent high acid and/or elevated temperature conditions. Electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed which impart corrosion resistance to mild steel when exposed to saline and acidic environments. Such coatings also seem to promote corrosion resistance in areas of mild steel where scratches exist in the protective coating. Such coatings appear promising for many commercial applications.

Thompson, Karen Gebert; Bryan, Coleman J.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Wrobleski, Debra A.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Corrosion-protective coatings from electrically conducting polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a joint research effort involving the Kennedy Space Center and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, electrically conductive polymer coatings have been developed as corrosion-protective coatings for metal surfaces. At the Kennedy Space Center, the launch environment consists of marine, severe solar, and intermittent high acid/elevated temperature conditions. Electrically conductive polymer coatings have been developed which impart corrosion resistance to mild steel when exposed to saline and acidic environments. Such coatings also seem to promote corrosion resistance in areas of mild steel where scratches exist in the protective coating. Such coatings appear promising for many commercial applications.

Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL (United States). John F. Kennedy Space Center); Benicewicz, B.C.; Wrobleski, D.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-01-01

122

Corrosion-protective coatings from electrically conducting polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a joint research effort involving the Kennedy Space Center and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, electrically conductive polymer coatings have been developed as corrosion-protective coatings for metal surfaces. At the Kennedy Space Center, the launch environment consists of marine, severe solar, and intermittent high acid/elevated temperature conditions. Electrically conductive polymer coatings have been developed which impart corrosion resistance to mild steel when exposed to saline and acidic environments. Such coatings also seem to promote corrosion resistance in areas of mild steel where scratches exist in the protective coating. Such coatings appear promising for many commercial applications.

Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL (United States). John F. Kennedy Space Center; Benicewicz, B.C.; Wrobleski, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1991-12-31

123

Novel Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in HCl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrosion inhibitory effects of new synthesized compound namely 5,5'- ((1Z,1'Z-(1,4-phenylenebis(methanylylidenebis(azanylylidenebis(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (PBB on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl was investigated at different temperatures using open circuit potential (OCP, potentiodynamic polarization (PDP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Results showed that PBB inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiencies increased with the concentration of inhibitor, but decreased proportionally with temperature. Changes in impedance parameters suggested the adsorption of PBB on the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films.

Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

2014-01-01

124

Corrosion of Electrogalvanized Steel in 0.1 M NaCl Studied by SVET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The corrosion of electrogalvanized steel exposed to 0.1 M NaCl was studied using the SVET. Situations of localized corrosion, cathodic protection and corrosion protection due to surface pre-treatment were analyzed, putting in evidence the possibilities of the technique.

Bastos, A. C.; Simo?es, A. M.; Ferreira, M. G.

2003-01-01

125

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, 40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina

2005-04-26

126

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, 40%, or infrequent drying cycles, (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface, (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C.

2005-04-01

127

Characteristics of Corrosion Product Layer Formed on Weathering Steel Exposed to the Tropical Climate of Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The weathering steel (Corten B) was exposed to out-door atmosphere of Hanoi (urban site) and Donghoi (marine site). The results showed the protective ability of corrosion product layer formed on weathering steel in the initial stage. The SEM-EDX analysis detected the presence of chromium and copper in the inner layers of corrosion product formed on weathering steel. These elements improved corrosion re...

Le Thi Hong Lien; Hoang Lam Hong

2013-01-01

128

SYNERGIC MIXTURES PROTECTIVE ACTION AS THE FUNCTION OF WATER-SALINE MEDIUM COMPONENTS NATURE AND RATIO OF ITS CONCENTRATIONS AT CORROSION OF STEEL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relation between the ratio of concentrations of components in binary mixtures of adsorption and passivation effects inhibitors; its influence on the corrosion-electrochemical behavior in aqueous salt mediums (method of isomolar series) was studied. It was shown that this effect has an extremum character, where the most corrosion inhibition of anodic reaction is achieved at synergistic maximum where also achieved almost complete corrosion protection.

?????????, ????????? ???????????; ????????, ??????? ?????????????

2012-01-01

129

Role of climatic conditions on corrosion characteristics of structural steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion behaviour of low alloy (LASS) and plain carbon (PCSS) structural steels exposed in different types of climatic conditions and nature of rust formed on their surfaces have been studied after 2 years of exposures. The test sites were chosen to represent four types of environments who strongly influence the corrosion of metals and alloys. They include (a) humid-saline, (b) humid-saline-urban (c) humid-industrial and (d) plain dry-urban environments. Mass loss, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies have been performed to study the corrosion behaviour and characterise the nature of rusts formed on these steels. Mass loss measurement technique has been used to determine the loss of thickness of steels during their atmospheric and salt spray exposures. Results indicate that the corrosion rate of steels is strongly influenced by the climatic conditions prevailing at the exposure sites. The presence of SO2 and salinity in the environments change the structure and protective properties of rust formed on the steels' surface. Electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarisation studies of the steels in simulated environments have been performed to understand the mechanism of corrosion in different climatic conditions

2008-01-01

130

Role of climatic conditions on corrosion characteristics of structural steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion behaviour of low alloy (LASS) and plain carbon (PCSS) structural steels exposed in different types of climatic conditions and nature of rust formed on their surfaces have been studied after 2 years of exposures. The test sites were chosen to represent four types of environments who strongly influence the corrosion of metals and alloys. They include (a) humid-saline, (b) humid-saline-urban (c) humid-industrial and (d) plain dry-urban environments. Mass loss, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies have been performed to study the corrosion behaviour and characterise the nature of rusts formed on these steels. Mass loss measurement technique has been used to determine the loss of thickness of steels during their atmospheric and salt spray exposures. Results indicate that the corrosion rate of steels is strongly influenced by the climatic conditions prevailing at the exposure sites. The presence of SO{sub 2} and salinity in the environments change the structure and protective properties of rust formed on the steels' surface. Electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarisation studies of the steels in simulated environments have been performed to understand the mechanism of corrosion in different climatic conditions.

Singh, D.D.N. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)], E-mail: ddns@nmlindia.org; Yadav, Shyamjeet [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India); Saha, Jayant K. [Institute for Steel Development and Growth, Kolkata (India)

2008-01-15

131

Development of novel protective high temperature coatings on heat exchanger steels and their corrosion resistance in simulated coal firing environment; Developpement de revetements pour les aciers d'echangeurs thermiques et amelioration de leur resistance a la corrosion en environnement simulant les fumees de combustion et de charbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improving the efficiencies of thermal power plants requires an increase of the operating temperatures and thus of the corrosion resistance of heat exchanger materials. Therefore, the present study aimed at developing protective coatings using the pack cementation process. Two types of heat exchanger steels were investigated: a 17% Cr-13% Ni austenitic steel and three ferritic-martensitic steels with 9 (P91 and P92) and 12% Cr (HCM12A). The austenitic steel was successfully aluminized at 950 C. For the ferritic-martensitic steels, the pack cementation temperature was decreased down to 650 C, in order to maintain their initial microstructure. Two types of aluminides, made of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl, were developed. A mechanism of the coating formation at low temperature is proposed. Furthermore, combining the pack cementation with the conventional heat treatment of P91 allowed to take benefit of higher temperatures for the deposition of a two-step Cr+Al coating. The corrosion resistance of coated and uncoated steels is compared in simulated coal firing environment for durations up to 2000 h between 650 and 700 C. It is shown that the coatings offer a significant corrosion protection and, thus, an increase of the component lifetime. Finally, the performance of coated 9-12% Cr steels is no longer limited by corrosion but by interdiffusion between the coating and the substrate. (author)

Rohr, V.

2005-10-15

132

Scaling and corrosion damage of mild steel and low alloy steel in boiler feedwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial corrosion of mild steel and low alloy steel in boiler feed water results in corrosion restraining oxide layers. Experiments on formation of these layers in flowing (up to 4 m/s) simulated feedwater (up to 180 deg C) are presented. According to the oxygen content of the water and depending on the hydrodynamic conditions in the tubes three different types of layers were observed. Mechanism of formation and the effect of formation are discussed. Chloride can be damaging to the corrosion restraining or protecting effects of the oxides. The different effects of chloride contaminations are discussed for the three types of layers. (author)

1983-11-22

133

Internal corrosion of carbon steel piping in hot aquifers service  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internal corrosion of carbon steel pipelines is a major problem encountered in water service. In terms of prediction of the remaining lifetime for water pipelines based on the corrosion allowance, the three main approaches are corrosion modelling, corrosion inhibitor availability, and corrosion monitoring. In this study we used two theoretical corrosion models, CASSANDRA and NORSOK M-506 of quite different origin in order to predict uniform corrosivity of hot aquifers in eight different pipelines. Because of the varying calculation criteria for the different models, these can give very different corrosion rate predictions for the same data input. This is especially true under conditions where the formation of protective films may occur, such as at elevated temperatures. The evaluation of models was conducted by comparison using weight-loss coupons and three corrosion inhibitors were obtained from commercial suppliers. The tests were performed during the 60-day period. Even though inhibitors’ efficiencies of 98% had been achieved in laboratory testing, inhibitors’ availabilities of 85% have been used due to logistics problems and other issues. The results, given in mmpy, i.e. millimeter per year, are very consistent with NORSOK M-506 prediction. This is presumably because the model considers the effect of the formation of a passive iron carbonate film at temperatures above 80 °C and significant reduction in corrosion rate. Corrosion inhibitor A showed a better performance than inhibitors B and C in all cases but the target corrosion rates of less than 0.1 mmpy were achieved for all inhibitors. The chemical type of corrosion inhibitor A is based on quaternary amines mixed with methanol, isopropyl alcohol, xylene and ethylbenzene. Based on the obtained results the carbon steel lifetime of 30 years, provided proper inhibitors are present and 3mm corrosion allowance, can be achieved for hot aquifers service with presented water compositions.

Simi?i? Miloš V.

2011-01-01

134

Stainless steel acid corrosion inhibition by organic dyes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Azobenzene dyes are effective inhibitors for austenitic 304 L and 316 L stainless steel corrosion in high acidic medium up to 7N. A good efficiency is obtained from weight loss and electrochemical Rsub(p) measurements in hydrochloric acid, while no inhibition is observed in sulfuric solutions. Transformation from the primarily azobenzene to other compounds give rise to enhanced protection of steel samples, and probable structures of the inhibiting species are proposed in view of our results

1983-01-01

135

Corrosion of an austenite and ferrite stainless steel weld  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dissimilar metal connections are prone to frequent failures. These failures are attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties across the weld, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two types of steels and the resulting creep at the interface. For the weld analyzed in this research, it was shown that corrosion measurements can be used for a proper evaluation of the quality of weld material and for the prediction of whether or not the material, after the applied welding process, can be in service without failures. It was found that the corrosion of the weld analyzed in this research resulted from the simultaneous activity of different types of corrosion. In this study, electrochemical techniques including polarization and metallographic analysis were used to analyze the corrosion of a weld material of ferrite and austenitic stainless steels. Based on surface, chemical and electrochemical analyses, it was concluded that corrosion occurrence was the result of the simultaneous activity of contact corrosion (ferrite and austenitic material conjuction, stress corrosion (originating from deformed ferrite structure and inter-granular corrosion (due to chromium carbide precipitation. The value of corrosion potential of –0.53 V shows that this weld, after the thermal treatment, is not able to repassivate a protective oxide film.

BRANIMIR N. GRGUR

2011-07-01

136

Corrosion of steel in ionic liquids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel alloy has been investigated by electrochemical techniques. The ionic liquids studied were 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl, 1 hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6mim]PF6 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8mim]PF6, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide ([C4mim][Tf2N]. Potentiodynamic polarization and Tafel plots were used to determine the corrosion behavior of the carbon steel. Results showed that corrosion resistance of 1018 carbon steel in ionic liquids is outstanding as indicated by the low corrosion rates obtained which ranged from 3-13 µm/yr. Anodic polarization curves showed active/passive corrosion behavior of the alloy in most of the ionic liquids tested. However, ionic liquids containing chloride ions were unable to form a passive region.

Arenas M.F.

2003-01-01

137

Localized Corrosion of Chromium Coated Steel :  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we report on the studies of the local corrosion behaviour of chromium-coated ultra low carbon steel in NaCl solution using polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and SVET.

Zhang, X.; Beentjes, P.; Mol, A.; Terryn, H.

2006-01-01

138

Inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of mild steel by sodium gluconate  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of gluconate (G) anion on the inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of Delta vanadium steel has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of G ions, pH, potential scanning rate and composition of mild steel are discussed. The data show that complete protection of mild steel from pitting corrosion is achieved with a very low concentration of G ions in weak alkaline media. Pitting corrosion increases with increasing sodium gluconate (SG) concentrations due to a formation of soluble Fe-G complex. The critical pitting potential depends on the chloride and G ion concentrations, pH, scan rate and the composition of the steel. An increase of Mn% in the composition of the steel leads to the increase of the pitting corrosion potential towards the positive direction, i.e., increases the resistance to pitting corrosion. The presence of vanadium in the steel also increases its resistance to pitting corrosion.

Refaey, S. A. M.

2000-04-01

139

Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed).

Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

1997-01-01

140

Corrosion of carbon steel under waste disposal conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of carbon steel has been studied in the United Kingdom under granitic groundwater conditions, with pH between 5 and 10 and possibly substantial amounts of Cl"-, SO_4"2"- and HCO_3"-/CO_3"2"-. Corrosion modes considered include uniform corrosion under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; passive corrosion; localized attack in the form of pitting or crevice corrosion; and environmentally assisted cracking - hydrogen embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking. Studies of these processes are being carried out in order to predict the metal thicknesses required to give container lifetimes of 500 to 1000 years. A simple uniform corrosion model predicts a corrosion rate of around 13.4 ?m/a at 20C, rising to 69 ?m/a at 50C and 208 ?m/a at 90C. A radiation dose of 10"5 rad/h and a G-value of 2.8 for the production of oxidizing species would account for an increase in corrosion rate of 7 ?m/a. This model overestimates slightly the results actually achieved for experimental samples exposed for two years, the difference being due to a protective film formed on the samples. These corrosion rates predict that the container must be 227 mm thick to withstand uniform corrosion; however, they predict very high levels of hydrogen production. Conditions will be favourable for localized or pitting corrosion for about 125 years, leading to a maximum penetration of 160 mm. Since the exposure environment cannot be predicted precisely, one cannot state that stress corrosion cracking is impossible. Thus the container must be stress relieved. Other corrosion mechanisms such as microbial corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement are not considered significant

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Intercrystalline corrosion fatigue in steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of transcrystalline and intercrystalline fatigue cracking in failure analysis is shown. Characteristic differences between intercrystalline corrosion fatigue and intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking are pointed out. Time-dependent stress corrosion crack growth under sustained loads gives rise to strongly frequency-dependent corrosion fatigue crack growth under cyclic loads. Intercrystalline 'true' corrosion fatigue depends on the cyclic stress intensity range and on the environment. Intergranular cracks can definitely be due to fatigue. (orig.)

1975-11-21

142

Space Shuttle Corrosion Protection Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The launch pad environment can be corrosive to metallic substrates and the Space Shuttles are exposed to this environment when preparing for launch. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the thermal protection system and aging protective coatings are performing to insure structural integrity. The assessment of this cost resources and time. The information is invaluable when minimizing risk to the safety of Astronauts and Vehicle. This paper will outline a strategic sampling plan and some operational improvements made by the Orbiter Structures team and Corrosion Control Review Board.

Curtis, Cris E.

2007-01-01

143

Corrosion behaviour of solution nitrided stainless steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The case of near net shape parts made from austenitic steel X2CrNiMo17-13-2 and austenitic-ferritic steels X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 (wrought) and G-X3CrNiMoCuN26-6-3-3 (cast) is interstitially enriched with nitrogen by the diffusion-based process ''solution nitriding''. In order to obtain good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, the solution nitriding parameters and the applied cooling time are selected so, that precipitates are avoided (X2CrNiMo17-13-2, X2CrNiMoN22-5-3). However, in case of a superimposed hydroabrasive load, the presence of nitrides in the case is found to be beneficial. The solution nitrided and the solution annealed conditions of the steels are compared with respect to their susceptibility to corrosion by means of electrochemical polarisation curves. The erosion corrosion behaviour of the materials is analysed in pilot scale flow-loop tests using particle loaded corrosive and particle loaded non-corrosive media. It is shown that ''solution nitriding'' leads to improved corrosion behaviour and/or improved erosion corrosion resistance, in particular in the case of the duplex steels. (orig.)

1998-05-24

144

Corrosion of galvanized steel under fireproofing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion performance of galvanized steel under fireproofing was investigated by conducting plant case studies. Four plants were selected in Texas and Louisiana, and a corrosion analysis was conducted on a fireproofed galvanized steel beam that was in service for 14 years and then went through an extensive fire at a petroleum plant in Texas. Galvanized steel under fireproofing in all cases exhibited very satisfactory overall corrosion rates, in conditions which generally combined high humidity, rainfall and air salinity. Galvanized layers were detected even in 48 year old structures. Cases of significant corrosion were associated only with cracking or failure of the fireproofing layer after external damage of the layer occurred. Such failures allowed easy access of water from rainfall, presence of chlorides, and high pH values caused by chemical leaks from nearby reactors.

Stoneman, A.M.; Goodwin, F.E. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Meletis, E.I. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1994-12-31

145

Materials corrosion and protection from first principles  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials erode under environmental stresses such as high temperature, high pressure, and mechanical shock/stress, but erosion is often exacerbated by chemical corrosion. In this dissertation, periodic density functional theory (DFT) is employed to simulate interfacial adhesion, absorption kinetics, bulk diffusion, and other material phenomena (e.g., hydrogen-enhanced decohesion and shock-induced phase changes) with the intention of understanding corrosion and subsequent failure processes and guiding the design of new protective coatings. This work examines corrosion and/or protection of materials ( i.e., Fe, Ni, W) with important applications: structural steel, gun tubes, high-pressure oil recovery vessels, jet engine turbine blades, and fusion reactor walls. We use DFT to model the pressure-induced, bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in Fe, in which a new low energy pathway is predicted exhibiting nonadiabatic behavior coupling magnetic and structural changes. Protection of steel is addressed in two aspects: interfacial adhesion of protective coatings and assessment of corrosion resistance provided by a surface alloy. First, the current chrome-coated steel system is examined where extremely strong adhesion is predicted at the Cr/Fe interface originating in strong spin correlations. A ceramic coating, SiC, is considered as a possible replacement for Cr. Strong adhesion is predicted, especially for C-Fe interfacial bonds. To assess corrosion resistance, we model ingress of two common corrosive elements, H and C, into two Fe alloys, FeAl and Fe3Si. Adsorption and absorption thermodynamics and kinetics, as well as bulk dissolution and diffusion are calculated in order to determine whether these two alloys can inhibit uptake of H and C. Relative to pure Fe, dissolved H and C are less stable in the alloys, as the dissolution enthalpy is predicted to be more endothermic. Overall, the energy barriers and rate constants for adsorbed H/C diffusing into Fe3Si subsurface layers suggests that alloying Fe with Si can be an effective means to limit uptake of these elements into steel. Spallation of protective layers on jet engine turbine blades is a problem that arises during thermal cycling. An alternative thermal barrier coating system involving MoSi2 is considered and calculations predict strong adhesion at the MoSi2/Ni interface. The interfacial bonding structure reveals a mixture of metallic and covalent cross-interface bonds. The adhesion energy is similar across all three MoSi2 facets studied. Upon exposure to oxygen, this MoSi2 alloy will form a strongly adhered oxide scale, which in turn may strongly adhere the heat shield material (yttria-stabilized zirconia), thereby potentially extending the lifetime of the barrier coating. Lastly, the interaction of hydrogen isotopes (fusion fuel) with tungsten (a proposed fusion reactor wall material) is examined. Exothermic dissociative adsorption is predicted, along with endothermic absorption and dissolution. Surface-to-subsurface diffusion energy barriers for H incorporation into bulk W are large and the corresponding outward diffusion barriers are very small. In bulk W, deep energetic traps (trapping multiple H atoms) are predicted at vacancy defects. Thus, under high neutron fluxes that will produce vacancies in W, H are predicted to collect at these vacancies. In turn, locally high concentrations of H at such vacancies will enhance decohesion of bulk W, consistent with observed blistering under deuterium implantation. Limiting vacancy formation may be key to the survival of W as a fusion reactor wall material.

Johnson, Donald F.

146

Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

1998-06-01

147

Control of steel corrosion in chloride waters with anodic inhibitor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anodic inhibitors, the most versatile corrosion controls, are not used to their fullest, because they are considered dangerous in that crevice corrosion or pitting may occur, if they are used improperly. Of the many anodic inhibitors, sodium nitrite appears to be one of the most important. When sodium nitrite is used properly, essentially complete corrosion protection results. Sodium nitrite can be used in the presence of considerable chlorides and still provide good corrosion protection. Other advantages of sodium nitrite are that it is one of the least expensive inhibitors, and it creates minimum waste disposal problems, because it is colorless and nondetrimental to organic materials. Difficulties encountered when using sodium nitrite are the microbiological destruction of nitrite to nitrate and the lack of information about the mechanism by which the inhibitor prevents corrosion. The major problems when using the inhibitor are accurately predicting the inhibitor concentration needed for corrosion protection and the factors which will destroy passivation. For this investigation, corrosion control of steel in chloride solutions treated with sodium nitrite was chosen as the prevailing problems. (30 refs.)

De Chant, J.; Bruckner, W.H.

1969-01-01

148

Radioindicator methods application for studies corrosion of steels in the gaseous media and liquids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion of steels in the city and industrial atmospheres is a considerable problem because of the high content of the sulphur dioxide in these atmospheres. This sulphur dioxide is formed during combustion of the fossile fuels. Corrosion protection is not effective beacause up to now the mechanism of the corrosion process is non completelly clear. Pure electrochemical approach in explanation of the corrosion mechanisms is impossibly mainly because in the connection that periodical presence of electrolyte and commulation of the corrosion stimulators - sulphites accures. Sulphites form agglomerates, being collected in the corrosion products. In the laboratory model conditions the problem of atmospheric corrosion was investigated by means of labelling by radionuclide sulphur-35. The results obtained partly have given explanations of the mechanism of the atmospheric corrosion of steels and also have shown the ways for creation of the more perfect corrosion protection. By means of the tracer technique dissolving of the corrosive-resistant steels in different media was investigated. The results obtained quantatively describe kinetics of the corrosion process and point to the selectivity of corrosion process with preferable extraction into solution od certain components of steel, especially in the initial stages of the process and in transforming of the corrosion process into the passive state. Activity of samples and separate fractions were measured by means of a semiconfuctor detector with application of a multichannel annalyzer, connected to a computer for processing of the results

1978-09-29

149

Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Hansen, T.

2006-11-15

150

Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

Cook, R

2012-01-01

151

Metallic corrosion of steels embedded in calcium aluminate cement mortars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present paper, the corrosion levels of reinforcing steels embedded in Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC) mortars have been studied. Experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the following factors in steel corrosion: cover thickness, type of steel (carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS)), temperature at mixing and curing, influence of chloride concentration, nitrite ion as corrosion inhibitor and carbonation of mortar. The reinforcing steel bars do not become more corrod...

Garci?a Andio?n, Luis; Garce?s Terradillos, Pedro; Cases Iborra, Francisco Javier; Garci?a Andreu, Ce?sar; Va?zquez Pico?, Jose? Luis

2001-01-01

152

Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is...

Jian Song; Liangliang Wang; Andre Zibart; Christian Koch

2012-01-01

153

Kinetics and structural studies of the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels in Panama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of a carbon steel was studied in different atmospheres at sites in the Republic of Panama. The weight loss (corrosion penetration) suffered by the carbon steel is related to time by a bilogarithmic law. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated the rust was composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4), maghemite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH) of intermediate particle size, lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and superparamagnetic particles. Magnetite formation is related to the alternating dry-wet cycles. Goethite is related to corrosion penetration by a saturation type of behavior, following a Langmuir type of relationship. Goethite in rust protects steel against further atmospheric corrosion

1997-09-01

154

Radiation-enhanced corrosion of mild steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A problem which may be encountered in high-level radioactive waste repositories in geological salt formations is the possibility of groundwater infiltrating the repository, dissolving the salt and forming a corrosive brine solution. This brine may then attack the steel overpack which surrounds the primary waste container. The presence of a high-level gamma radiation field has been known to significantly increase the rate of corrosion. The increased corrosion rate has been attributed to the formation of corrosive, oxidizing radiolysis products. The objective of this research was to study corroded metal surfaces to determine the type of corrosion (uniform, pitting, intergranular, etc.) that is taking place in a radiation field. An understanding of the corroded surface may yield some insight to the mechanisms that contribute to corrosion in a high-level waste repository. Immersion corrosion tests were conducted on Type 1018 mild steel. The steel coupons were immersed in deaerated solutions of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride. The solutions were of various compositions and concentrations ranging from 0% NaCl to 0% MgCl_2 to saturated solutions. Half of the immersion tests were conducted in a 60 Gy/min (6000 rad/min) "6"0Co gamma radiation field. The second half of the samples were placed in a low background area to act as a reference

1986-11-16

155

Concrete Bridge Design and Maintenance: Steel Corrosion in Concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 9 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Correlation between corrosion of reinforcing steel and voids and cracks in concrete structures; Deicing salt corrosion with and without inhibitors; Technical review of calcium nitrite corrosion inh...

B. Borgard C. Warren S. Somayaji R. Heidersbach M. R. Callahan

1989-01-01

156

Corrosion of steel in ionic liquids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel alloy has been investigated by electrochemical techniques. The ionic liquids studied were 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1 hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6mim]PF6) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8mim]PF6), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ([C4mim][Tf2N]). Potentiodynamic polarization and Tafel plots were used to determine the corrosion behavior of the carbon...

2003-01-01

157

Alternating Current Corrosion of Carbon Steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective was to investigate if the established theory concerning corrosion calculations and electrochemical behavior of carbon is valid when steel is exposed to AC in an electrolyte consisting of 3,5 wt% NaCl and distilled water. The experimental work was divided in two main parts. The first part concerned corrosion testing, including weight loss measurements in stagnant conditions in combination with linear polarization resistance experiments. AC-current densities investigated was 0-, 5...

Belland, Eirik

2011-01-01

158

Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

G.O. Oluwadare

2007-01-01

159

Corrosion protection of equipment in recirculating water supply systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metals in the condensers, coolers and heat exchangers of petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants are subject to corrosion, and this is responsible for forced shutdowns. This paper notes that the shortest service life is given by the carbon and silicon-manganese steels, the longest by the chrome-nickel steels and arsenic-alloyed brasses. It reports that a high level of protection is provided by the use of the inhibitor IKB-4V at the Industrial Association ''Novopolotsknefteorgsintez'' and a so-called complex corrosion retarder consisting of a mixture of zinc sulfate and orthophosphoric acid at the Novo-Ufa refinery. It also points out that the most desirable method for corrosion protection of cooling towers, from the standpoint of technical and economic justification, is the use of protective paint coatings. It urges scientific research and design organizations and also the plants of the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry to take a multipronged approach in solving problems in corrosion control. It is pointed out that protection by inhibitors must be combined with the use of paints and other types of organic and inorganic coatings, protection against salt deposition and biological overgrowth, and the rational use of corrosion-resistant materials of construction.

Teslya, B.M.; Burlov, V.V.; Shadrina, A.N.; Vyazhevich, A.V.

1983-01-01

160

Corrosion of austenitic steel in leakage lithium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-temperature lithium, which is used as the neutron source in the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, reacts with oxygen, nitrogen, and moisture in the atmosphere. We estimated which lithium compounds might be stable under environmental conditions by using chemical equilibrium calculations, then performed austenitic stainless steel corrosion tests with the selected lithium compounds. The lithium compounds (reagents) and a steel specimen were heated to 1120 K in an Al2O3 Tammann crucible. After the test, the steel specimen was cleaned with alcohol and water and then weighed and metallurgically examined. We found that the steel was significantly corroded in Li3N, LiOH, and Li2O2 environments. Because Li2O2 is not stable according to the chemical equilibrium calculations, corrosion by Li3N and LiOH needs to be considered in high-temperature lithium applications

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

New design pitting corrosion resistance stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new material, usually, is a classic material with small modifications. The modifications provide new and/or superior properties to the material, making it competitive. The development of a new austenitic stainless steel based on the modified AISI 304 is described in the present work. This new steel shows a pitting corrosion resistance similar, or even better, than AISI 316, the behaviour of a stainless duplex steel with a low content in Ni is also described here. Its pitting corrosion resistance is similar than a conventional duplex steel. In both cases the ratio properties/price turns out to be competitive. The work was carried out by Acerinox S. A. inside the general plan of I + D, which is developed in collaboration with several public research centers whose principal activities are related to science and Technology of Materials. (Author) 38 refs

2005-01-01

162

Statistical approach to underground corrosion of carbon steel pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field corrosion studies were performed on polyethylene (PE) coated carbon steel gas transmission pipeline buried in Korea. Chemical and biochemical analysis of the soil adjacent to coating defects of pipes were performed at both field and laboratory. Correlation between the maximum corrosion depth and environmental factors was evaluated by applying statistical methods. The factors controlling corrosion were considered by linear regression analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis. The corrosion site had a strongly positive correlation with chemical factors such as low pH and high levels of chloride, and anaerobic nature of soil that promoted the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), characterized by low level of soil resistivity and reduction-oxidation potential and finally on pipe-to-soil potential. it was proved that the statistical approach described results of field and laboratory works satisfactorily. Finally, the prediction equation for the maximum corrosion depth of carbon steel in soil environment is presented. It is important that the chemical, biochemical and cathodic protection (CP) effects should be considered together for the precise prediction of corrosion behavior in soil environments

2002-12-01

163

Corrosion studies on alpha tantalum and beta tantalum coated steel  

Science.gov (United States)

Tantalum coating by sputtering, one form of physical vapor deposition (PVD), has been investigated as a replacement for chromium coatings on gun bores to protect them from erosion and corrosion due to its high ductility and high corrosion resistance in aggressive environments. When deposited as a film on steel substrates by sputtering, either alpha-Ta, beta-Ta, or a mixture of both phases have been observed under varying deposition conditions. To evaluate corrosion behavior of Ta coatings, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were conducted as a function of coating thickness. The coating porosity was observed to decrease with increasing coating thickness and hence, coatings greater than 50 mum exhibited corrosion resistance consistent with the bulk phase. Substrate roughness appeared to have little to no effect on the coating duality with respect to corrosion performance for 50 mum alpha-Ta coatings. Coatings produced in full scale processes revealed that for Ta coating (<50 mum), the corrosion process was dominated by dissolution of the steel substrate through open pores, however, at the end of 5 days, coating degradation was not observed. In contrast, while open pores were not observed with the Cr coatings, the corrosion resistance decreased as a function of time under acidic conditions, resulting in dissolution and oxidation of Cr. Initially, however, the sputtered Cr coating exhibited improved corrosion resistance over the electrodeposited one, potentially due to its oxide film. The unique properties of tantalum oxide films produced from anodic oxidation and thermal oxidation demonstrates that the nanoscale oxide films formed exhibit an ordered local structure reflecting the very compact nature that enhances its corrosion resistance.

Maeng, Sung Min

164

Corrosion of martensitic and ferritic steels in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear reactor operation martensite or ferritic corrosion resistant steels come in contact with solutions used for desactivation prior to dismantling, repairs, etc. The most frequent type of corrosion is stress corrosion cracking. For achieving good corrosion resistance material heating should be avoided in mechanical treatment. Low-resistance corrosion centres may also result from the penetration of common steel particles, eg., in grinding. The corrosion resistance test can be effected by placing filter paper soaked with the said solution on the steel surface. Corrosion centres will be evident by their blue colouring after 10 minutes. (J.B.)

1977-09-22

165

Stress Corrosion Cracking of High Strength Steels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was investigated for AerMet 100 and 300M steels in four aqueous NaCl solutions of different concentrations (0. 035-3.5%), three of which had an identical electrical conductivity (12.44 x 10 to the -4th power sq m S/mol)...

E. U. Lee H. Sanders B. Sarkar

1995-01-01

166

Permeation and corrosion testing of flexible steel pipe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flexible steel pipes can offer significant cost advantages over welded steel pipes, as the inner and outer sheaths of the pipes give added corrosion resistance and increase their reliability and life span. The continuous lengths of the pipes reduce the number of welds and potential leak paths associated with traditional steel pipes. This paper discussed a series of tests conducted to determine the resistance of flexible steel pipes in sour gas environments. The aim of the study was to develop a methodology for establishing sour service thresholds for the pipes as well as to demonstrate the effectiveness of FlexSteel pipes in harsh operating conditions. Tests were conducted according to NACE International guidelines on steel strip specimens. Full-scale laboratory tests were conducted to determine the protective effect of the polyethylene (PE) liner in a section of the steel pipe. The environment in the annular spaces between the pipe's thermoplastic layers was modelled in order to predict the permeation and diffusion of gases. Samples of FlexSteel pipe were then tested in order to validate the models in an active field environment. Test program results showed good correlation with the permeation model, and confirmed that the environment of the annulus was milder than the gas environment. The steel pipe samples were not attacked by the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in the sour gas environment. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

Ethridge, A. [Wellstream International Ltd., Houston, TX (United States); Buchner, S. [Polymer Consult Buchner GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Yarmuch, M. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

167

The behaviour of praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate as an inhibitor for carbon dioxide corrosion and oxygen corrosion of steel in NaCl solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate (Pr(4OHCin)3) highly effective corrosion inhibitor. •Mechanism of inhibition different in CO2-saturated solutions compared to aerated system. •In natural aerated solutions a continuous protective film forms on the steel surface. •In CO2-saturated solutions inhibiting deposits form at active corrosion sites. -- Abstract: Praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate (Pr(4OHCin)3) was investigated as a novel corrosion inhibitor for steel in NaCl solutions, and found to be effective at inhibiting corrosion in both CO2-containing and naturally-aerated systems. Surface analysis results suggest that the corrosion inhibition ability of Pr(4OHCin)3 in the naturally-aerated corrosion system could be attributed to the formation of a continuous protective film. For the CO2-containing system, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of Pr(4OHCin)3 was predominantly because of formation of protective inhibiting deposits at the active electrochemical corrosion sites, in addition to a thinner surface film deposit

2014-03-01

168

Examination of corrosion behavior of 08Kh14MF steel in solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors assess the feasibility of using Steel-08Kh14MF as a heat exchanger material from the viewpoint of its corrosion resistance to a variety of solvents used to clean and descale the exchanger. The corrosional behavior of the chromium steel is electrochemically tested as that behavior is variously influenced by the corrosive action of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, oxalic acid, phthalic acid, versene, and ammonium monocitrate. The protective properties of the corrosion inhibitor captrax are also examined. Corrosion products are determined by absorption spectroscopy.

Afanas' ev, A.A.; Egorov, V.Ya.; Shishkunov, V.A.

1987-01-01

169

Corrosion of two kinds of cast steels containing chromium in hot concentrated alkaline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A typical hot concentrated alkaline corrosion environment exists in alumina metallurgical industry, so that steel materials with outstanding alkaline corrosion resistance are strongly demanded for its processing equipment. In this paper, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of martensitic cast steels containing chromium in static 303g/L NaOH alkaline solution at 85? was studied through polarization and potential-time curves, corrosion weight loss and corrosion morphology analysis. Experimental results showed that protection effect by passive film of cast steel containing Cr was temporary. The low carbon steel without Cr content also exhibited chemical passivity in the same solution. The corrosion mode of the tested Cr-containing cast steel was composed of active dissolving corrosion and caustic embrittlement cracking. Dissolving corrosion was the primary mechanism for the induced weight loss, while severe caustic embrittlement cracking was secondary. With the increase of chromium content in the cast steel, the tendency of the caustic embrittlement cracking decreased, while the active dissolving corrosion increased.

LI Wei

2007-02-01

170

Corrosion inhibition of reinforcing steel by using acrylic latex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acrylic latex was introduced into steel-reinforcing steel concrete as concrete admixtures or rebar coatings in order to prevent corrosion of steel reinforcements. The results showed that applying the latex by both methods took effect in different ways, while the latter was more noticeable. The corrosion prevention mechanism and the surface state of the steel rebar were also explored, based on which suggestions for enhancing the corrosion-resistant ability were made.

Wang, S.X.; Lin, W.W.; Ceng, S.A.; Zhang, J.Q. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)

1998-05-01

171

Influence of microalloying on the corrosion resistance of steel in saturated calcium hydroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of microalloying vanadium or titanium on improving the corrosion resistance of mild steel in saturated calcium hydroxide solution was investigated. Potential-time, potentiodynamic polarization, and impedance measurement techniques were employed. The corrosion products have been examined by infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis and by scanning electron microscopy. It has been shown that the grain refining, due to microalloying, plays an important role in enhancing the corrosion resistance of steel. Scales of calcite and iron oxides on top of a protective oxide are formed on the investigated steels

1996-06-01

172

Influence of microalloying on the corrosion resistance of steel in saturated calcium hydroxide  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of microalloying vanadium or titanium on improving the corrosion resistance of mild steel in saturated calcium hydroxide solution was investigated. Potential-time, potentiodynamic polarization, and impedance measurement techniques were employed. The corrosion products have been examined by infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis and by scanning electron microscopy. It has been shown that the grain refining, due to microalloying, plays an important role in enhancing the corrosion resistance of steel. Scales of calcite and iron oxides on top of a protective oxide are formed on the investigated steels.

Hegazy, M. M.; Eissa, M. M.

1996-06-01

173

Point corrosion in steel 17 247  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Susceptibility to point and intergranular corrosion was studied for titanium-stabilized steel CSN 17 247. Specimens were used from two melts featuring different surface finish, placed in three different corrosion media, viz.: 10% iron chloride solution, a solution of copper sulfate, sulfuric acid and distilled water with an addition of copper dust, and a boiling solution of 65% nitric acid. The specimens did not show susceptibility to intergranular corrosion in the sulfuric acid medium. In the boiling nitric acid, the melt with a higher titanium level and a coarser grain showed a lower corrosion rate than that with a lower titanium level, finer grain and the presence of delte-ferrite in the structure. An intensive course of point corrosion was found in the iron chloride medium. As for working, the lowest corrosion rate was found for conventional metal cutting treated surfaces, a higher rate for electrolytically polished surfaces. The highest rate of corrosion was observed for cast grit blasted surfaces. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 8 refs

1987-12-01

174

Corrosion Properties for Hot-dip Aluminized Steel and 304 Stainless Steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper dealt with the corrosion properties of hot-dip aluminized steel and 304 type stainless steel in various corrosion environments. Pitting and crevice corrosion rates of hot-dip aluminized steel were larger than those of 304 type stainless steel, but corrosion mode of the former was general corrosion and its mode of the latter was localized corrosion. By immersion test in 3.5% NaCl solution, also, corrosion rate of hot-dip aluminized steel was faster than that of 304 type stainless steel. In anodic polarization test, corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel was noble than that of hot-dip aluminized steel and showed better passivation behavior

2010-12-01

175

Galvanic corrosion between carbon steel 1018 and Alloy 600 in crevice with boric acid solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work dealt with the evaluation of galvanic corrosion rate in a corrosion cell having annular gap of 0.5 mm between carbon steel 1018 and alloy 600 as a function of temperature and boron concentration. Temperature and boron concentration were ranged from 110 to 300 .deg. C and 2000?10000 ppm, respectively. After the operating temperature of the corrosion cell where the electrolyte was injected was attained at setting temperature, galvanic coupling was made and at the same time galvanic current was measured. The galvanic corrosion rate decreased with time, which was described by corrosion product such as protective film as well as boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel with time. From the galvanic current obtained as a function of temperature and boron concentration, it was found that the galvanic corrosion rate decreased with temperature while the corrosion rate increased with boron concentration. The experimental results obtained from galvanic corrosion measurement were explained by adhesive property of corrosion product such as protective film, boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel wall and dehydration of boric acid to be slightly soluble boric acid phase. Moreover the galvanic corrosion rate calculated using initial galvanic coupling current instead of steady state coupling current was remarked, which could give us relatively closer galvanic corrosion rate to real pressurized water reactor

2005-06-01

176

The assessment of corrosion type and corrosion rate of carbon steel in compacted bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon steel is one of the candidate materials for overpacks for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Japan. The estimation of corrosion allowance of carbon steel overpack needs to clarify the type of corrosion and the corrosion rate under repository conditions. The type of the corrosion occurring on overpacks depends on whether carbon steel is passivated or not. If carbon steel is passivated under repository conditions, localized corrosion such as pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking may occur under some conditions. On the other hand, if carbon steel is not passivated under repository conditions, general corrosion will occur. Passivation behavior and corrosion rate of carbon steel were investigated by electrochemical measurements under simulated repository conditions. The results of the measurements showed that carbon steel was hard to passivate in highly compacted bentonite. The immersion tests were carried out in compacted bentonite and average corrosion rates were measured from weight loss and the AC impedance of carbon steel specimens. The database of average corrosion rate were made from the data obtained by the weight loss technique. Based on the database of average corrosion rate in compacted bentonite, the relationship between average corrosion rates and test conditions were investigated. The average corrosion depth for 1000years was also estimated to be less than 5 mm. In order to simulate the accumulation of corrosion products after long term, the external current were supplied to carbon steel specimens. After the formation of corrosion products, corrosion rates were measured using AC impedance technique. The results of the measurements showed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel did not increase in the presence of corrosion products formed by external current supply. (author)

177

Corrosion behavior of low alloy steels containing Cr, Co and W in synthetic potable water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion behavior of new alloy steels was investigated using potentiodynamic (PD) tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic test in synthetic potable water. PD test results showed that all specimens exhibited active corrosion behavior, and corrosion rate tended to decrease as a result of adding alloying elements. The EIS measurements were taken to determine the polarization resistance (RP) of the rust layer. The RP values of the new alloy steel were much larger than that of carbon steel. Furthermore, more alloying elements led to a remarkable increase in the RP values. The chemical state of alloying elements (Cr, Co and W) in the rust layer of new alloy steels was analyzed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). EPMA and XPS results showed that alloying elements existed in protective compounds in the rust layer. Corrosion of the new alloy steels was suppressed by insoluble compound formed near the surface

2004-11-15

178

Corrosion resistance and mechanism of steel rebar coated with three types of enamel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Three types of enamel coatings have different microstructures. ? All enamel coatings improve corrosion resistance of rebar to various extents. ? Unlike damaged FBE coating, enamel coatings experience no under-film corrosion. ? Enamel coatings are less sensitive to mechanical damage than FBE coating. ? Pure/double enamel coatings have higher corrosion resistance than mixed enamel coating. - Abstract: Corrosion resistances of steel rebar with different enamel coatings, and with fusion bonded epoxy coatings were investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity to damage of the coatings was characterized and it was found that the pure and double enamel coatings can protect the steel rebar better than the mixed enamel coating due to their denser microstructures with isolated pores. Damaged enamel coating was locally corroded, whereas corrosion at a defect often undercut the epoxy coating. The intact epoxy coating offered better corrosion protection than the enamel coatings.

2012-06-01

179

Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

Jian Song

2012-11-01

180

Influence of alloying elements on the corrosion properties of shape memory stainless steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The corrosion properties of three Fe–Mn–Si–Cr–Ni–(Co) shape-memory stainless steels (SMSSs) were compared with those of a type 304 (SS 304) austenitic stainless steel. ? A considerably high Si content (about 40 at%) is present in the anodic passive films formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. ? The high protectiveness of the anodic passive film formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution results from a protective film consisting of a (Fe, Cr)–mixed silicate. ? The SMSSs exhibited higher corrosion resistance than SS 304 in highly oxidizing environments. ? The SMSSs showed poor corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution compared to that of SS 304. - Abstract: The corrosion properties of three Fe–Mn–Si–Cr–Ni–(Co) shape memory stainless steels were studied based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, immersion and polarization tests. The test results were compared with those of a type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The XPS analyses indicated substantial Si content in the anodic passive films formed on shape memory stainless steels in sulfuric acid solution and that the high protectiveness of these films results from a protective film consisting of a (iron, chromium)–mixed silicate. The corrosion rate of the shape memory stainless steels in boiling nitric acid solution was lower than that of austenitic stainless steel. The high silicon content was found to play an important role in the corrosion behavior of these shape memory alloys in highly oxidizing environments. Due to their high manganese content, the shape memory stainless steels showed poor corrosion behavior in 3.5% sodium chloride solution when compared with austenitic stainless steel.

2012-04-16

 
 
 
 
181

Influence of alloying elements on the corrosion properties of shape memory stainless steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion properties of three Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-(Co) shape-memory stainless steels (SMSSs) were compared with those of a type 304 (SS 304) austenitic stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A considerably high Si content (about 40 at%) is present in the anodic passive films formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high protectiveness of the anodic passive film formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results from a protective film consisting of a (Fe, Cr)-mixed silicate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SMSSs exhibited higher corrosion resistance than SS 304 in highly oxidizing environments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SMSSs showed poor corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution compared to that of SS 304. - Abstract: The corrosion properties of three Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-(Co) shape memory stainless steels were studied based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, immersion and polarization tests. The test results were compared with those of a type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The XPS analyses indicated substantial Si content in the anodic passive films formed on shape memory stainless steels in sulfuric acid solution and that the high protectiveness of these films results from a protective film consisting of a (iron, chromium)-mixed silicate. The corrosion rate of the shape memory stainless steels in boiling nitric acid solution was lower than that of austenitic stainless steel. The high silicon content was found to play an important role in the corrosion behavior of these shape memory alloys in highly oxidizing environments. Due to their high manganese content, the shape memory stainless steels showed poor corrosion behavior in 3.5% sodium chloride solution when compared with austenitic stainless steel.

Della Rovere, C.A., E-mail: carlosdrovere@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Alano, J.H.; Silva, R.; Nascente, P.A.P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Otubo, J. [Division of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Institute of Aeronautics Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, Vila das Acacias, 12228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Kuri, S.E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2012-04-16

182

Corrosion of Carbon Steel Welds.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the...

B. Daniel

1988-01-01

183

Melting of corrosion resistant steel in converter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique permitting to melt chromium-nickel low-carbon corrosion resistant steel in a converter type aggregate by the method of gas-acid refining is developed. The metal temperature is regulated using the combined elasting, cooling agents and changing the gas-acid mixture content. A steel temperature does not exceed 1770 deg C. A chromium ore ad-- dition in amounts of 20-28 kg/t permits to increase a degree of chromium usage by 4% and to decrease melting loss by 2.0-2.2%

1983-01-01

184

Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. Assessment of soil corrosivity using an electrochemical soil corrosion probe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrochemical soil corrosion probe has been designed, manufactured, and tested at five different locations in the field. The probe includes facilities for hydrogen permeation measurements, local soil resistivity measurements by the Wenner fourpoint method, and open circuit potential measurements on carbon steel- and high-alloyed (SMO-254) stainless steel electrodes. The carbon steel electrodes were arranged as two sets of three-electrode arrangements. Using these arrangements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), galvanostatic pulse (GP) measurements, and DC polarisation scans were applied for characterisation of the corrosion conditions present in the soil. (au) EFP-95. 21 refs.

Vendelbo Nielsen, L.

1998-08-01

185

Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel by sodium metavanadate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of sodium metavanadate (SMV-adipic acid (AA system in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- has been evaluated by weight-loss method; 250 ppm of SMV exhibits inhibition efficiency of 56 %. Addition of adipic acid to SMV improves the inhibition efficiency of the system. The formulation consisting of 250 ppm of SMV and 250 ppm of adipic acid has inhibition efficiency of 98 %. A synergistic effect exists between SMV and adipic acid with the synergism parameters greater than 1. Mecha¬nistic aspects of corrosion inhibition have been studied by electrochemical methods like potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-SMV complex and Fe2+-adipic acid complex. The protective film has been analyzed by fluorescence spectra, SEM and EDAX.

VIJAYA GOPAL SRIBHARATHY

2012-08-01

186

Tantalum films for protective coatings of steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deposition of tantalum films for protective coatings on steel by DC magnetron sputtering have been investigated. Conditions resulting in the deposition of bcc and tetragonal phases of tantalum and the evolution of the phase composition and crystallinity during the film growth from nanometers to tens of micrometers are described. Heating the substrates to only 400 deg. C resulted in the growth of pure bcc phase tantalum, which is tough and ductile and thus preferred for protective coatings, while lower temperatures promote nucleation and growth of the hard and brittle tetragonal phase. Adhesion tests by scratching with a diamond tip showed that while well adhering coatings of both phases can be obtained, the tetragonal phase films develop cracks under load, well below the critical value that results in delamination. This has important implications for application of tantalum films for protection against corrosion of steel elements subjected to mechanical stress and wear, as the cracks would locally expose the substrate to the surrounding environment. With proper choice of deposition conditions and moderate heating that does not compromise the steel properties, coatings of the preferred bcc phase of tantalum with excellent adhesion can be deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

2004-11-22

187

Corrosion of steel in concrete in cooling water walls. Report part 3 - Corrosion of steel in water saturated concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a well known fact that for concrete structures exposed to water the splash zone exhibit the greatest risk for corrosion on the reinforcement. Chloride ions are enriched and the supply of oxygen is good. Below the water table reported corrosion damages are few. The threshold for chloride content is in most cases exceeded but the propagation rate is low due to slow diffusion rate of oxygen in water saturated concrete. Despite this, ongoing corrosion of reinforcement has been observed in cooling water systems at the Swedish nuclear power plants. The aim of this project has been to identify and qualitatively quantify the importance of different possible mechanisms involved in corrosion of reinforcement in water saturated concrete. This has been achieved by collecting experiences, literature survey, modelling, theoretical calculations, experimental investigations as well as field measurements. The investigations have resulted in several new findings. The following have been concluded: In water saturated concrete, without the existence of macro cells, the reinforcement corrodes in an active state but with a very low rate. This active corrosion proceeds independently of the chloride content of the concrete. The corrosion rate is low even with thin concrete cover and most probably even if the concrete has been leached. Nor does high velocity of the cooling water create serious attacks. Inspections have unveiled attacks of reinforcement corrosion in the splash zone, in walls externally exposed to air and in the vicinity to pumps. In the splash zone the attacks occur above the water level. The absence of a macro cell resulting in increased corrosion on parts below the water line is of subordinate importance and is judged being without practical influence. The corrosion takes place where the environmental conditions are optimal. The same is valid for walls externally exposed to air. The macro cell is of subordinate importance. In the vicinity of pumps, observed corrosion, is probably caused by galvanic corrosion as a consequence of incomplete cathodic protection of stainless steel surfaces within the pumps. Single rebar's being isolated from the rest of the reinforcement can be exposed to stray current corrosion if they are located close to a cathodically protected structure having a high demand for protective current. Concrete structures of greater extent can be exposed to stray current interference caused by high voltage direct current transmission lines located in the neighbourhood. Future installations of cathodic protection in extended culverts should not imply connection of separate parts to each other. The risk of alternating current corrosion is judged to be minimal. If it was not for the corrosion observed on reinforcement on the Oeland Bridge and in Gothenburg harbour, which until now has not been explained, corrosion should be possible to exclude in other positions than the splash zone, walls externally exposed to air and in the vicinity to unprotected structures of stainless steel

2009-01-01

188

Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Mossbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

189

Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

2006-01-01

190

Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

Gismelseed, Abbasher, E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K. [College of Science, Department of Physics (Oman)

2006-01-15

191

Improvement of barrier properties of a hybrid sol-gel coating by incorporation of synthetic talc-like phyllosilicates for corrosion protection of a carbon steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of metals are a good alternative to toxic chromate treatments. The present work focussed on the incorporation of inorganic fillers in a sol-gel coating to improve the barrier properties of the film. Talc-like phyllosilicates obtained by hydrothermal synthesis at 160°C, 260°C and 350°C, called T160, T260 and T350 respectively, were selected as inorganic fillers. The synthetic materials showed talc lamellar structure but, in contrast with natural tal...

Joncoux-chabrol, Karine; Bonino, Jean-pierre; Gressier, Marie; Menu, Marie-joe?lle; Pe?be?re, Nadine

2012-01-01

192

Experience of corrosion and corrosion protection in seawater systems in the Nordic countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is given of the experience of the corrosion resistance of pumps, heat exchangers, valves and pipings in different seawater cooling systems in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. For pumps and heat exchangers the experience have been so extensive that a clear picture of today's status can be given. Owing to more scanty data concerning valves and pipes the survey of the corrosion in these components is less well substantiated. The commonest pumps in the cooling systems of power stations are vertically extended shaft pumps. To counteract corrosion on column and casing with organic surface coating and on stainless steel shafts and impellers under shutdown conditions, these should be provided with internal and external cathodic protection. For heat exchangers, both tube and plate, titanium has proved to be far and away the best choice. In the optimal blanket solution for a titanium heat exchanger the tubes are seal-welded to tube shuts of explosion-bonded titanium clad steel. Pipings of rubber-lined carbon steel or thick coatings og solvent-free epoxy resin have shown very good corrosion resistance in the seawater systems of power stations. Valves in seawater cooling systems have been affected, in particular, by corrosion due to defectively executed or damaged organic coating on cast iron. Different seawater-resistant bronzes (gunmetal, tin, bronze and aluminium bronze) are therefore preferable as valve material. 14 references.

Henrikson, S.

1985-01-01

193

Corrosion protection of Koeberg nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Koeberg is South Africa's first nuclear power station. This paper describes the manner in which a corrosion protection specification for the project was compiled, the types of coatings used and the particular requirements of this project

1982-01-01

194

Electrochemical Studies of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Peroxide Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects corrosion aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted on stainless steel 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild steel in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion ...

Singh, Ajay K.; Vipin Chaudhary; Sharma, A.

2012-01-01

195

Corrosion Behavior of Copper-Steel Particulate Composite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work was conducted to study the corrosion behavior of the steel particle reinforced copper matrix composites, under different conditions; namely heat treatment, concentration of corrosion media, and different weight percent of steel particles.

The density, corrosion rate, micro-structure, and Vickers micro-hardness, were investigated. The results showed that composites with limited steel particle contents can be used. The microstructure of the composites showed...

Al-haidary, J. T.; Emad Al-Hassani; Areef, Sheelan R.

2011-01-01

196

A study on the N-, S- and Cl-modified nano-TiO2 coatings for corrosion protection of stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nano-titania coatings doped with anions of nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine have been supplied on the surface of 316L stainless steel by a sol-gel process and dip-coating technique. The measurements of XRD, SEM, ATR-IR, Raman and XPS were carried out to characterize the chemical composition and structure for the prepared samples. The corrosion performances of the coating in 0.5 M NaCl were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization measurements. According to the measurements of EIS and electrochemical polarization, the N-modified TiO2 nano-coatings show a highest corrosion resistance among the prepared coatings. It is revealed, from the SEM, XRD and Raman characterizations, that the surface of N-modified TiO2 nano-coatings are more compact and uniform, relatively well-crystallized and able to act as an optimal barrier layer to metallic substrates. The XPS analysis confirms the presence of low concentration of N element in two forms, atomic ?-N (interstitial state) and chemisorbed ?-N2 on the surface of TiO2 nano-coatings. It is suggested that the addition of nitrogen is beneficial to improve the compact structure and enhance the hydrophobic property

2007-08-01

197

Corrosion of austenitic steel in leakage lithium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-temperature lithium, which is used as the neutron source in the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, reacts with oxygen, nitrogen, and moisture in the atmosphere. We estimated which lithium compounds might be stable under environmental conditions by using chemical equilibrium calculations, then performed austenitic stainless steel corrosion tests with the selected lithium compounds. The lithium compounds (reagents) and a steel specimen were heated to 1120 K in an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tammann crucible. After the test, the steel specimen was cleaned with alcohol and water and then weighed and metallurgically examined. We found that the steel was significantly corroded in Li{sub 3}N, LiOH, and Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} environments. Because Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not stable according to the chemical equilibrium calculations, corrosion by Li{sub 3}N and LiOH needs to be considered in high-temperature lithium applications.

Furukawa, Tomohiro, E-mail: furukawa.tomohiro@jaea.go.jp; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kato, Shoichi

2013-10-15

198

21 CFR 178.3300 - Corrosion inhibitors used for steel or tinplate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Corrosion inhibitors used for steel or tinplate. 178.3300 Section 178.3300...Corrosion inhibitors used for steel or tinplate. Corrosion inhibitors may be safely used for steel or tinplate intended for use in, or to be...

2009-04-01

199

21 CFR 178.3300 - Corrosion inhibitors used for steel or tinplate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Corrosion inhibitors used for steel or tinplate. 178...and Production Aids § 178.3300 Corrosion inhibitors used for steel or tinplate. Corrosion inhibitors may be safely used for steel...

2009-04-01

200

Nitrogen addition and localized corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nitrogen as an alloying element has been reported to improve the localized corrosion resistance, particularly pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steels in chloride containing aqueous environments. The authors highlight the corrosion behaviour of nitrogen-alloyed (up to 0.56 wt%) austenitic stainless steels and compared the studies carried out by several groups. The influence of various metallurgical variables including cold working, thermal ageing, grain size and surface treatment on the pitting corrosion behaviour of the nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless steels is addressed. The mechanism by which nitrogen enhanced the corrosion resistance is elucidated with the help of results obtained using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. The role of nitrogen on the formation of passive films and the semiconducting nature of passive film with nitrogen addition, are discussed to understand the corrosion resistance offered by the passive films with increasing nitrogen addition. The differences in the localized corrosion behaviour between various nitrogen alloyed stainless steels are highlighted. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Regularities of transition of steel corrosion products into aqueous medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of different factors on a degree of steel corrosion product transition to a water medium has been studied. Ratio of a specific masm qsub(c) of the corrosion products transferring to the water and a specific masm q of all the steel corrosion products produced under the given conditions was used as a criterium characterizing a degree of corrosion product transition from steel surfaces to water. The transition degree to water at a high temperature of different kind steel corrosion products differs relatively few (qsub(c)/q=0.5-0.7) in the water containing oxygen and different salts on increasing temperature, the corrosion process is characterized with continuous decrease of a relative amount of the corrosion products transferring to the medium. On the contrary, in the deaerated water the transition degree of perlite steel corrosion products to water remains constant in a wide temperature range (100-320 deg C). Besides chromium, nickel being a part of austenitic steel composition affects positively decrease of the transition degree of the corrosion products to water as well as q and qsub(c) reduction. The most difference in corrosion characteristics and the transition degree to water is observed when affecting colant steels in the low-temperature zone of the steam generator

1981-08-01

202

Corrosion of mild steel in ozonised air-conditioning cooling tower water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field trial in an open-evaporative cooling water system resembling those used for air-conditioning units has shown that ozonisation of the water is ineffective in protecting mild steel from corrosion. This finding is at variance with reported favourable experience in the USA. In the trial, the corrosion resistance of steel test coupons in water treated with sodium nitrite - a conventional corrosion inhibitor - was more than five times better than in ozonised water. The results were corroborated by electrochemical measurements. Ozone is not recommended for use for air-conditioning cooling system water, therefore, even though it is an effective biocide against the bacteria responsible for Legionnaires' disease.

Bird, T.L.

1987-08-01

203

The effect of ion implantation on the resistance of 316L stainless steel to crevice corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of an investigation of the influence of aluminium, titanium and scandium implantation on the electrochemical and chemical crevice corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel are presented and discussed. Ion implantation, in addition to improving markedly the protective quality of the passive film at the free corrosion potential, greatly increases the resistance of 316L stainless steel to crevice corrosion in both neutral NaCl and acidic FeCl3 solutions. A moderate decrease in pitting resistance is possibly due to coverage effect of implanted species on the surface molybdenum constituent. (Auth.)

1983-01-01

204

Effect of debonded interfaces on corrosion of mild steel composites in supercritical CO2-saturated brines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2} is a proposed method to limit greenhouse gas emissions and has been the subject of many studies in the last decade. Wellbore systems achieve isolation of the storage reservoir through a combination of steel (generally carbon steel) and Portland cement. CO{sub 2} leakage along the steel-cement interface has the potential to accelerate corrosion. We conduct experiments to assess the corrosion risk at cement-steel interface under in situ wellbore conditions. Wellbore interfaces were simulated by assemblies constructed of J55 mild steel and Portland class G (Epoxy was used in this study to separate) cement and corrosion was investigated in supercritical CO{sub 2} saturated brines, (NaCl = 1 wt%) at T = 50 C, pCO{sub 2} = 1200 psi with interface gap size = 100 {micro}m and {infinity} (open surface). The experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, 1.8 L autoclave. The corrosion kinetics were measured employing electrochemical techniques including linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The corrosion scales were analyzed using secondary electron microscopy, back scattering electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Corrosion rates decreased as time with or without interface gap. In this case corrosion rates are controlled by scale protectivity through the interface gap. Scaled steel corrosion rates were two orders of magnitude less compared with fresh steel. The corrosion scale is pseudo crystalline at the open interface. Well-crystallized scale was observed at interface gap sizes 100 {micro}m. All corrosion scales were composed of iron carbonates.

John, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-10-07

205

Investigation of corrosion behavior of Mg-steel laser-TIG hybrid lap joints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Galvanic corrosion increases the corrosion rate of the Mg-steel joint. ? Fe splashes lower the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. ? The effect of grain refinement on the corrosion behavior of the joint is slight. ? Ni or Cu interlayer could not improve the corrosion resistance of fusion zone. ? The arc-sprayed coating could enhance the reliability of weld joint. - Abstract: The paper investigates the corrosion behavior of the lap joint of AZ31 magnesium alloy to Q235 steel with salt solution immersion testing and electrochemical testing. It is demonstrated that grain refinement resulting from the welding process has little effect on the corrosion behavior of the lap joint. However, the cathodic phases formed in the welding process and the galvanic corrosion between magnesium alloy and steel decrease the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Besides, neither Cu nor Ni, as filler material, could improve the corrosion resistance of the joint, but the arc-sprayed Al coating acting as a protective layer could.

2012-01-01

206

Investigation of corrosion behavior of Mg-steel laser-TIG hybrid lap joints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Galvanic corrosion increases the corrosion rate of the Mg-steel joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe splashes lower the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of grain refinement on the corrosion behavior of the joint is slight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni or Cu interlayer could not improve the corrosion resistance of fusion zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The arc-sprayed coating could enhance the reliability of weld joint. - Abstract: The paper investigates the corrosion behavior of the lap joint of AZ31 magnesium alloy to Q235 steel with salt solution immersion testing and electrochemical testing. It is demonstrated that grain refinement resulting from the welding process has little effect on the corrosion behavior of the lap joint. However, the cathodic phases formed in the welding process and the galvanic corrosion between magnesium alloy and steel decrease the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Besides, neither Cu nor Ni, as filler material, could improve the corrosion resistance of the joint, but the arc-sprayed Al coating acting as a protective layer could.

Liu Liming, E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liaoning Advanced Welding and Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xu Rongzheng [Key Laboratory of Liaoning Advanced Welding and Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-01-15

207

Atmospheric corrosion of galvanized steel in a marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atmospheric corrosion is the electrochemical process of metal deterioration from the action of atmospheric factors, both meteorological as well as chemical. Metals deteriorate due to their spontaneous oxidation when their surface is moistened with a film of condensed water, dew, fog or rain and this process leads to the formation of a protective film that acts as a physical barrier between the metal and the environment. However, this layer of corrosion can become a non protective film, due to a physical discharge or a partial dissolution of some soluble corrosion products of the material (galvanized steel) during rainfall or in condensed water on the material's surface. This process is known as metal runoff. In order to estimate the runoff process for galvanized steel and to study its behavior to atmospheric corrosion in a marine environment, samples of 10x10x0,6cm galvanized steel, with a coating thickness of 100 m Zn, were exposed in the city of Valparaiso, Region V, Chile. The atmospheric station is located at lat. 32AS and long. 71oW, classified according to ISO 9223 to 9226 as C2, S1 and P1, with a humidification time of 0.6 and chloride ion and sulfur dioxide content of 40.65 mgm-2day-1 and 7.18 mgm-2day-1, respectively. The deterioration of the galvanized steel was evaluated by weight loss measurements, determination of 'in situ' corrosion potential and morphology of the attack using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of the corrosion products was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The runoff solutions collected after the rainfall events were analyzed with different techniques to determine the content of Cl- ions, SO4-2 and dissolved solids, and pH and conductivity were measured as well. The concentration of Zn+2 is obtained by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. After four months of exposure of the test pieces preliminary results show that the potential for corrosion of the galvanized steel increased over time, which corroborates the formation of a protective film for zinc corrosion products, These were identified as zincite (ZnO) and simonkolleite (Zn5(OH)8Cl.H2O). The pH values from the runoff solutions from the rainfall events (first three events) are similar to the pH of the rainwater (white), while the conductivity and dissolved solids content of these solutions diminishes in relation to the exposure time. The chloride content also tends to decrease and stabilize over time, unlike the sulphate content that behaves randomly in relation to the amount of atmospheric SO2. The total amount of zinc lost as a soluble product increases over time and tends to stabilize

2008-10-01

208

Importance of Surface Preparation for Corrosion Protection of Automobiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An overview of science and technology of pretreatment process suitable for automotive finishing with cathodic electrodeposition primer is presented in details in this paper. Both the theoretical principles and practical aspects of tricationic phosphating process that are used in automotive industry are discussed in details. The characteristic features of phosphate coatings of both conventional high zinc phosphating formulations and modern tricationic phosphating formulations on steel surface are compared in details by SEM, EDX and XRD techniques. The corrosion protection of the phosphated and painted steel panels were evaluated by both salt spray test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The analysis of impedance data in terms of pore resistance (Rpo, coating capacitance (Cc and breakpoint frequency (fb as a function of salt spray exposure time provides a clear insight into the mechanism of superior corrosion resistance provided by the modern tricationic phosphating formulations compared with conventional high zinc phosphating formulations.

Narayan Chandra Debnath

2013-02-01

209

Aminopyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors for corrosion of 1018 carbon steel in nitric acid solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of some aminopyrimidine derivatives on the corrosion of 1018 carbon steel in 0.05 M HNO3 solution was studied using weight loss and polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. The addition of KI to aminopyrimidine derivatives enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect. The inhibitors are adsorbed on the steel surface according to Temkin isotherm. Some thermodynamic functions were computed and discussed. It was found that the aminopyrimidine derivatives provide a good protection to steel against pitting corrosion in chloride containing solutions

2006-07-01

210

Aminopyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors for corrosion of 1018 carbon steel in nitric acid solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of some aminopyrimidine derivatives on the corrosion of 1018 carbon steel in 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} solution was studied using weight loss and polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. The addition of KI to aminopyrimidine derivatives enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect. The inhibitors are adsorbed on the steel surface according to Temkin isotherm. Some thermodynamic functions were computed and discussed. It was found that the aminopyrimidine derivatives provide a good protection to steel against pitting corrosion in chloride containing solutions.

Abdallah, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)]. E-mail: metwally552@hotmail.com; Helal, E.A. [Corrosion Department, Badr El-Din Petroleum company (Egypt); Fouda, A.S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)]. E-mail: asfouda@yahoo.com

2006-07-15

211

The influence of carbon steel microstructure on corrosion layers An XPS and SEM characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion related failures in the oil and gas industry represent a very serious and costly problem. The successful application of carbon steels in oil and gas pipelines and production tubulars in CO2 containing environments depends mainly on either the formation of protective corrosion product film or the use of corrosion inhibitors. Both laboratory experiments and field experience have shown that the protective properties and adherence of the film may vary significantly for carbon steels with apparently the same composition and microstructure. In the present work, characteristics such as morphology, thickness and composition of corrosion layers formed on carbon steel with two different microstructures (annealed, and quenched and tempered) have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosive media was a deoxygenated 5% NaCl solution, saturated with CO2 at 40 deg. C and pH 6. The effect of the addition of benzimidazol as a corrosion inhibitor has also been analyzed. It is concluded that the microstructure of steel influences the inhibitor efficiency and the properties of the corrosion layers, such as morphology and proportion of the various chemical compounds present

2003-02-28

212

A study for localization of corrosion on carbon steel overpack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon steel is one of the candidate materials for overpacks for high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan. The estimation of corrosion allowance needs to clarify the localization of corrosion. One of the most extreme case of the localization under oxidizing condition at the initial stage of repository is considered to be localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion due to the break down of passive film formed on the metal surface. In this study, the critical condition for the initiation and the propagation behavior of pitting and crevice corrosion were assessed by the experimental study. The results of the electrochemical experiments in carbonate-chloride aqueous solution showed that carbon steel have high sensitivity for the pitting and crevice corrosion in passive region. The propagation behavior of pitting and crevice corrosion was studied by the immersion tests under aerated condition. The results of the immersion tests showed that the degree of localization became small and seemed to be like general corrosion in appearance as the localized corrosion propagate. The extreme value statistical analysis were applied to the corrosion depth measured in the immersion tests. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the equation for maximum corrosion depth due to oxygen obtained in our previous study would give conservative assessment even in the assumption of propagation of pitting corrosion or crevice corrosion. The localization of corrosion for carbon steel under reducing condition after consumption of oxygen was also estimated. The external current was supplied to the carbon steel specimens in compacted bentonite to accelerate the corrosion and corrosion depth were measured for each specimens and extreme value statistical analysis were applied to the results. The pitting factor became small as the average corrosion depth became large. Assuming that the average corrosion depth in 1000 years is 5-10 mm, the pitting factor is estimated to be about 2. (author)

1999-01-01

213

Corrosion Behavior of Nitrogen Ion Implanted Stainless Steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion behavior of nitrogen ion implanted 440C stainless steel was studied as a practical application of ion implantation. 440C stainless steel was subjected to the same implantation condition which showed the significant improvement of corrosion resistance of a high purity iron. The composition and structure of implanted layer were examined. The corrosion tests of the samples were performed in deaerated 1N H2SO4 and 0.1M NaCl aqueous solution using a potentiodynamic polarization method. The corrosion mechanisms of nitrogen ion implanted 440C stainless steel were investigated

1986-09-01

214

Microstructure and corrosion behaviour of plasma-nitrocarburized sintered steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Powder characteristics and manufacturing processes determine the microstructure, and therefore, the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of sintered steels. In particular, porosity and corrosion resistance are intimately related, since the contact area between substrate and electrolyte significantly affects the corrosion resistance of sintered steels. This study addresses the effect of powder characteristics and pressing parameters on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of low-carbon sintered and sintered/plasma-nitrocarburized steel. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance increased with increasing density and decreasing specific surface area. Additionally, plasma-nitrocarburizing was highly effective in coating open pores of the material. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Borges, P.C. [CEFET-PR, Departmento Academico de Mecanica, Av. Sete de Stembro 3165, Curitiba, PR, 80230-901 (Brazil); Martinelli, A.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departemento de Engenharia Mecanica, Lagoa Nova Campus, Natal, RN, 59072-970 (Brazil); Franco, C.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, Trindade Campus, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

2004-08-01

215

Understanding corrosion via corrosion product characterization: II. Role of alloying elements in improving the corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Mg coatings on steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Origins of better corrosion resistance of ZnAlMg coatings than galvanized steel. ? Comparative study of corrosion products formed on ZnAlMg, ZnMg and Zn coatings. ? Modeling of dissolution and precipitation stages of corrosion. ? At early stages Mg stabilizes protective zinc basic salts during dry-wet cycling. ? At later stages Al dissolves at high pH forming protective layered double hydroxides. - Abstract: Corrosion products are identified on Zn, ZnMg and ZnAlMg coatings in cyclic corrosion tests with NaCl or Na2SO4 containing atmospheres. For Mg-containing alloys the improved corrosion resistance is achieved by stabilization of protective simonkolleite and zinc hydroxysulfate. At later stages, the formation of layered double hydroxides (LDH) is observed for ZnAlMg. According to thermodynamic modeling, Mg2+ ions bind the excess of carbonate or sulfate anions preventing the formation of soluble or less-protective products. A preferential dissolution of Zn and Mg at initial stages of corrosion is confirmed by in situ dissolution measurement. The physicochemical properties of different corrosion products are compared.

2011-08-01

216

Improved Ceramic Anodes for Corrosion Protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramic anodes used for cathodic protection are currently made with expensive metals (niobium, tantalum) as substrates, and these anodes have a limited useful life. This study investigated plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings on aluminum and stainless steel su...

J. H. Boy M. Olson V. Hock A. Kumar

1984-01-01

217

Water corrosion test of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of feasibility study of ODS steel cladding, its water corrosion resistance was examined under water pool condition. Although addition of Cr is effective for preventing water corrosion, excessive Cr addition leads to embrittlement due to the Cr-rich ?' precipitate formation. In the ODS steel developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Cr content is controlled in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite. In this study, water corrosion test was conducted for these ODS steels, and their results were compared with that of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Corrosion rate of 9Cr-ODS martensitic and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel are significantly small and no pitting was observed. Thus, these ODS steels have superior resistance for water corrosion under the condition of 60degC and pH8-12. (2) It was showed that 9Cr-ODS martensitic steel and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel have comparable water corrosion resistance to that of PNC316 and PNC-FMS at 60degC for 1,000h under varying pH of 8, 10. Water corrosion resistance of these alloys is slightly larger than that of PNC316 and PNC-FMS at pH12 without significant difference of appearance and uneven condition. (author)

2006-01-01

218

Corrosion behavior of duplex polyaniline/epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on mild steel and on mild steel with electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI film were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The aim of the paper was to present new findings on the corrosion protection of mild steel by a duplex PANI/-epoxy coating in 3% NaCI solution and to determine the effect of thin PANI film on the protective properties of the coating. PANI film was deposited electrochemically on mild steel from an aqueous solution of 0.5 mol dm"3 sodium benzoate and 0.1 mol dm"3 aniline at a constant current density of 1.5 mA cm"2. Non-pigmented epoxy coatings on mild steel and on mild steel with PANI film were obtained by cathodic electrode position at constant voltage and stirring conditions. The resin concentration in the electrode position bath was 10 wt.% solid dispersion in water at pH 5.7. The applied voltage was 250 V, the temperature 26°C and the deposition time 3 min. It was shown that thin PANI film could be used to modify the surface of mild steel prior to epoxy coating deposition, due to the increased corrosion protection of a duplex PANI/epoxy coating comparing to an epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl solution.

Gvozdenovi? Milica M.

2005-01-01

219

Results of investigation into corrosion resistance of certain structural steels and nickel in fluoride products of fast reactor fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of investigation into corrosion resistance of carbon steel (steel-3), steel-Kh18N10T and nickel (NP-1) in the spent fuel reprocessing products of BOR-60 reactor by the fluoride volatility method. The effect of chemical medium, temperature and time on metal corrosion is considered. The effect of gamma radiation on corrosion resistance of steels and nickel in fluoride salts is estimated. It is shown that the corrosion of investigated materials increases with temperature and moisture of the environment. The formation of protective films on the metal surface after the durable contact with the fluoride salts is discovered. The protective properties of these films depend on their structure and environment conditions. The investigation into metal corrosion properties provides the recommendations on conditions of their utilization as construction materials in the fluoride volatility reprocessing of spent fuel

1977-04-01

220

Inhibition properties of self-assembled corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline for mild steel corrosion in chloride solution saturated with carbon dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline effectively protects mild steel from CO2 corrosion. •Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to the investigate kinetics of corrosion inhibitor adsorption. •Adsorption of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) on corrosion of mild steel in chloride solutions saturated with CO2 was investigated by weight loss measurements (WL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption mechanism and kinetics of self-assembled (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) monolayers formation on gold were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance measurements (QCM). WL and AFM results demonstrated that TOFA/DETA imidazoline can effectively protect mild steel surface from corrosion. QCM measurements shown that the adsorption of TOFA/DETA imidazoline onto gold follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm and further investigation of the adsorption process will be carried out on a corroding metal surface

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Inhibition of mild steel corrosion by thiourea derivatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning implies the removing of the contamination from the component surfaces using: the mechanical action, the chemical and electrochemical cleaning solutions and other procedures. A decontamination process is applied using a solution containing 2M formic acid, 0.1M formaldehyde and some inhibitors. These inhibitors must maintain between the reasonable limits the rates of two concurrent processes: the dissolution of deposits and the attack on the base metal. In this aim, the following thiourea derivatives have been used as corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in the decontamination processes executed at relative high temperature (85-90 deg. C): thiourea, Nphenylthiourea and N, N'-diphenylthiourea. The concentrations used in the case of all inhibitors have been comprised between 3.10-4M and 3.10-3M. To evaluate their efficiency was used mainly the potentiodynamic method. Applying this method, their efficiency was determined by two methods: from Tafel slopes and from polarization resistance (Rp). In presence of these compounds high inhibition efficiency (I.E.) in the decommissioning solutions have been recorded, their efficiency varying with their concentrations and molecular weights. As result of our tests, we established the following rank in which decreases their efficiency: N, N'-diphenylthiourea >N-phenylthiourea> thiourea The protectiveness accorded by these corrosion inhibitors will permit simultaneous decontamination of mild steel and stainless steels in same solution in identical conditions

2007-10-14

222

Silica nanocontainers for active corrosion protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel self-healing protective coatings with nanocontainers of corrosion inhibitors open new opportunities for long-term anticorrosion protection of different metallic materials. In this paper a new type of functional nanoreservoir based on silica nanocapsules (SiNC) synthesized and loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in a one-stage process is reported for the first time. Unlike conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles, SiNC possess an empty core and shell with gradual mesoporosity, arising from the particular conditions of the synthetic route adopted, which confers significant loading capacity and allows prolonged and stimuli-triggered release of the inhibiting species. The kinetics of inhibitor release was studied at different pH values and concentrations of NaCl. The results show a clear dependence of the release profiles on corrosion relevant triggers such as pH and Cl- concentration. When SiNC loaded with MBT are dispersed in NaCl solution, there is a significant decrease of the corrosion activity on aluminium alloy 2024. More importantly, when SiNC-MBT is added to a conventional water-based coating formulation, the modified coating hampers corrosion activity at the metal interface, better than in the case of direct addition of corrosion inhibitor. Furthermore, self-healing is observed before and after artificially inflicting defects in the modified coatings. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in new generation of active protective coatings.

Maia, Frederico; Tedim, João; Lisenkov, Aleksey D.; Salak, Andrei N.; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Ferreira, Mário G. S.

2012-02-01

223

Silica nanocontainers for active corrosion protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel self-healing protective coatings with nanocontainers of corrosion inhibitors open new opportunities for long-term anticorrosion protection of different metallic materials. In this paper a new type of functional nanoreservoir based on silica nanocapsules (SiNC) synthesized and loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in a one-stage process is reported for the first time. Unlike conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles, SiNC possess an empty core and shell with gradual mesoporosity, arising from the particular conditions of the synthetic route adopted, which confers significant loading capacity and allows prolonged and stimuli-triggered release of the inhibiting species. The kinetics of inhibitor release was studied at different pH values and concentrations of NaCl. The results show a clear dependence of the release profiles on corrosion relevant triggers such as pH and Cl(-) concentration. When SiNC loaded with MBT are dispersed in NaCl solution, there is a significant decrease of the corrosion activity on aluminium alloy 2024. More importantly, when SiNC-MBT is added to a conventional water-based coating formulation, the modified coating hampers corrosion activity at the metal interface, better than in the case of direct addition of corrosion inhibitor. Furthermore, self-healing is observed before and after artificially inflicting defects in the modified coatings. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in new generation of active protective coatings. PMID:22249939

Maia, Frederico; Tedim, João; Lisenkov, Aleksey D; Salak, Andrei N; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L; Ferreira, Mário G S

2012-02-21

224

Undervehicle corrosion testing of zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Undervehicle and on-vehicle coupon corrosion test programs are initiated by Dofasco Inc. in 1981, using two commercial trucks operated in the deicing salt/snow belt area of Southern Ontario, Canada. The purpose was to investigate the relative corrosion performance of numerous zinc and zinc alloy coated steels. Seventeen coated steels were tested. Results to date indicate that the hot dip coated steels with the thicker coatings are outperforming the electrolytic coated steels in both the unpainted and phosphated/cathodic primed conditions. Fully painted on-vehicle test coupons show minimal corrosion and little difference to date.

Neville, R.J.; de Souza, K.M.

1986-12-01

225

Localized corrosion of stainless steels in ammonium chloride solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ammonium chloride deposition is a well-known problem in oil refining. When these deposits form in a moist environment, they are corrosive to carbon steel. When unexpected corrosion problems are faced, the material is often changed to alloys like stainless steels (SS). Electrochemical measurements were used to study the corrosion resistance of SS in ammonium chloride environments with different chloride contents and at different temperatures.

Forsen, O.; Aromaa, J.; Tavi, M.; Virtanen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Corrosion and Materials Chemistry

1997-05-01

226

Corrosion of martensitic steels in flowing Pb17Li  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion tests carried out in the CAMILLE loop at 475 deg C evidence that the corrosion rate of martensitic steels is strongly dependent on Pb17Li velocity, suggesting that the rate limiting step is diffusion of dissolved elements in the laminar sub-layer. The comparison of various corrosion data available in the literature corroborates this result. The other parameters also investigated in these studies (metallurgical state, surface preparation, type of steel, position of specimens) comparatively seem to be of minor importance

1990-09-03

227

A Study of Localized Corrosion in Supermartensitic Stainless Steel Weldments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This doctoral thesis is concerned with pitting corrosion in super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) weldments in slightly sour service. Thee main objective with the present thesis has been to find out why pitting corrosion occurs in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at ambient rather than at elevated temperatures and how the corrosion mechanism depends on the welding process.The thesis is divided into six parts. Part I gives a general introduction to martensitic stainless steels, focusing on the ...

Enerhaug, Jakob

2002-01-01

228

A Study of Localized Corrosion in Supermartensitic Stainless Steel Weldments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This doctoral thesis is concerned with pitting corrosion in super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) weldments in slightly sour service. Thee main objective with the present thesis has been to find out why pitting corrosion occurs in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at ambient rather than at elevated temperatures and how the corrosion mechanism depends on the welding process. The thesis is divided into six parts. Part I gives a general introduction to martensitic stainless steels, focusing on the...

Enerhaug, Jakob

2002-01-01

229

Corrosion of SUS304 stainless steel in oxalic acid solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion rate of oxidized and unoxidized SUS304 stainless steel was measured in 0.1M oxalic acid at 80degC under the potentiostatically polarized conditions. The dissolved amounts of Fe, Cr and Ni were determined by atomic absorption analysis after 166 min of polarization as a function of the potential. The corrosion potential and the sweep potentiostatic polarization curve were also measured in the same solution. The unoxidized specimen was severely attacked at the cathodic potential between -200 and -700 mV vs Ag-AgCl. Similar cathodic corrosion was also found, but with a decreased dissolution rate, for oxidized specimens. Since the corrosion potential of the alloy situated nearly at the boundary of active passive transition, both specimens frequently suffered localized attack due to insufficient passivation during spontaneous immersion. The dissolution rate of the surface oxide was slightly effected by the electrode potential within the active and the passive regions. Therefore, weakly anodic polarization is desirable for the dual purposes of the effective dissolution of surface oxide and the protection of substrate alloy surface. (author)

1988-01-01

230

Corrosion resistance of Cu-Ni-stainless steel multilayers for EMI shielding materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metallic coatings for ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding must have a low electric resistance for effective electromagnetic wave shielding as well as good corrosion resistance to guarantee reliability of the electronic devices. Normally, the metallic coating for EMI shielding consist of conductive layer, corrosion resistance layer and buffer layer. As the corrosion induced the delamination of coating layer, it could not function of EMI shielding. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of the stainless steel layer on the corrosion resistance was investigated. Several metals were deposited onto polycarbonate by RF magnetron sputtering. The structural characteristics of the film were investigated by means of X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties were examined by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS showed that 2205 stainless steel of upper layer had the better protective efficiency than 310S stainless steel.

Kim, Sang Hyun; Shin, Dong Ho; Choi, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jung Gu [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Ho [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

2005-08-15

231

Corrosion resistance of Cu-Ni-stainless steel multilayers for EMI shielding materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metallic coatings for ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding must have a low electric resistance for effective electromagnetic wave shielding as well as good corrosion resistance to guarantee reliability of the electronic devices. Normally, the metallic coating for EMI shielding consist of conductive layer, corrosion resistance layer and buffer layer. As the corrosion induced the delamination of coating layer, it could not function of EMI shielding. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of the stainless steel layer on the corrosion resistance was investigated. Several metals were deposited onto polycarbonate by RF magnetron sputtering. The structural characteristics of the film were investigated by means of X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties were examined by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS showed that 2205 stainless steel of upper layer had the better protective efficiency than 310S stainless steel

2005-08-01

232

The Corrosion Behavior of Cold Sprayed Zinc Coatings on Mild Steel Substrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc and its alloy coatings have been used extensively for the cathodic protection of steel. Zinc coating corrodes in preference to the steel substrate due to its negative corrosion potential. Numerous studies have been conducted on the corrosion behavior of zinc and its alloy coatings deposited using several techniques viz., hot dip galvanizing, electrodeposition, metalizing or thermal spray etc. Cold spray is an emerging low temperature variant of thermal spray family which enables deposition of thick, dense, and pure coatings at a rapid rate with an added advantage of on-site coating of steel structures. In the present study, the corrosion characteristics of cold sprayed zinc coatings have been investigated for the first time. In addition, the influence of heat treatment of zinc coating at a temperature of 150 °C on its corrosion behavior has also been addressed.

Chavan, Naveen Manhar; Kiran, B.; Jyothirmayi, A.; Phani, P. Sudharshan; Sundararajan, G.

2013-04-01

233

Corrosion cracking of chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels in chloride solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tendency to corrosion cracking of chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels (12KhN4MF, 15KhN5MF, 12KhN5M1F, 20KhN9K4MF) and different zones of welded joints of these steels at the temperature of 25 deg C in 3% solution of NaCl has been studied. It is established that the fusion zone possesses minimum stability against corrosion cracking in the welded joints, which is explained by considerable inhomogeneity of the structure and stresses. Investigation of electrochemical characteristics has shown that the tendency to corrosion cracking of the steels considered is stimulated by anode polarization while inconsiderable cathode polarization is a protective one. At considerable shift of the polarizing potential to the cathode direction, corrosion cracking is observed

1980-01-01

234

A Novel Hydrazinecarbothioamide as a Potential Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in HCl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 2-(1-methyl-4-((E-(2-methylbenzylideneamino-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-ylidene-hydrazineecarbothioamide (HCB was synthesized as a corrosion inhibitor from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine, thiosemicarbazide and 2-methylbenzaldehyde. The corrosion inhibitory effects of HCB on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The results showed that HCB inhibited mild steel corrosion in acidic solution and inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency was up to 96.5% at 5.0 mM. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested that HCB adsorbed on the surface of mild steel, leading to the formation of a protective film. The novel corrosion inhibitor synthesized in the present study was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral data.

Abu Bakar Mohamad

2013-04-01

235

Kinetics and structural studies of the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels in Panama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of a carbon steel was studied in different atmospheres at sites in the Republic of Panama. The weight loss (corrosion penetration) suffered by the carbon steel is related to time by a bilogarithmic law. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated the rust was composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}), maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) of intermediate particle size, lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) and superparamagnetic particles. Magnetite formation is related to the alternating dry-wet cycles. Goethite is related to corrosion penetration by a saturation type of behavior, following a Langmuir type of relationship. Goethite in rust protects steel against further atmospheric corrosion.

Jaen, Juan A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares (Panama); Sanchez de Villalaz, Mariela [Universidad Tecnologica de Panama, Laboratorio de Metalurgia (Panama); Araque, Lilibeth de [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares (Panama); Bosquez, Agnes de [Universidad de Panama, Departamento de Quimica (Panama)

1997-09-15

236

Influence of temperature on corrosion rate and porosity of corrosion products of carbon steel in anoxic bentonite environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The study focuses on the porosity of layers of corrosion products and its impact on corrosion rate of carbon steel in moist bentonite. Measurements were performed in an aggressive Czech type of bentonite - Rokle B75 at temperatures of 90 and 40 °C. Aggressiveness of B75 bentonite consists in low content of chlorides. Presence of chlorides in pore solution allows formation of more protective magnetite. The evaluation was made by electrochemical techniques (red/ox potential, open circuit potential, linear polarization resistance, impedance spectroscopy) and resistometric sensor measurements. The result imply that the higher the temperature the more compact is the layer of corrosion products that slightly decelerates corrosion rate compared to the state at 40 °C. The state of corrosion products at both temperatures is reversible.

Stoulil, J.; Ka?ok, J.; Kou?il, M.; Parschová, H.; Novák, P.

2013-11-01

237

Steel Piling Corrosion Management of Al-Zubare Harbor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Damage due to corrosion is a significant problem worldwide. Countries around the world have estimated that the cost of corrosion to their national economies to be 3-4% of their gross national product. Approach: Design and implementation a new steel piling of the Corrosion Management Program (CMP) in Al-Zubare harbor. Corrosion management algorithm can be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 of the program is the programmatic assessment of the project. Phas...

Hafiz, Mohammed H.; Mohyaldeen, Hemin M.

2009-01-01

238

Corrosion behaviour of plastically deformed high-Mn austenitic steels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was the comparison of corrosion resistance in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution of two high-manganese austenitic steels of the 0.05C-25Mn-Al-Si-Nb-Ti type in a plastically deformed state.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were carried out on specimens obtained from a thermo-mechanically rolled sheet and then plastically deformed through bending and immersed in corrosive solutions (1N H2SO4 for 100 hours. The mass decrement was calculated by the gravimetric method, whereas the character of corrosion damages was observed in metallographic investigations using light and scanning electron microscopes both in the polished and etched states.Findings: It was found that after the thermo-mechanical processing one steel is characterized by an austenitic structure with numerous annealing twins, whereas in the second steel lamellar martensitic phases in an austenitic matrix occur. The investigations showed that the examined high-manganese steels have very low corrosion resistance in normal H2SO4. Higher impact on the corrosion resistance than the phase composition has the chemical composition. The mass decrement of the steel with martensite plates is a bit higher than that witha single-phase austenitic matrix. The specimens were intensively dissolved due to general corrosion accompanying by pitting and hydrogen cracking.Research limitations/implications: To investigate in more detail the corrosion behaviour of high-manganese austenitic steels, the polarization tests and the analysis of corrosion products should be carried out.Practical implications: The obtained results can be used for searching the appropriate way of improving the corrosion resistance of high-strength high-manganese austenitic steels.Originality/value: The corrosion resistance of two types of advanced high-manganese austenitic steels with different initial structures was compared. Hydrogen impact in austenitic steels was discussed.

A. Grajcar

2010-11-01

239

Effect of environment on corrosion characteristics of newly developed DMR-1700 structural steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of any metallic material depends on the environment to which it is exposed. DMR-1700 steel is a material for structural applications that has been recently developed at Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory by changing the chemistry of alloying elements. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its corrosion characteristics under different environmental conditions is essential. In the present paper, we report the results of a systematic corrosion study that was carried out on the new steel to determine the effect of the environment on the protective nature of the oxide scale that forms on its surface under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, the oxide scale as well as the resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion were studied in various environments. The surface morphologies of the corroded steels were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM to determine the nature of the corrosion. On the basis of studies by different techniques, DMR-1700 steel is recommended for the manufacture of components used in various systems in conjunction with the application of an appropriate protective coating to improve its resistivity to corrosion.

Injeti Gurrappa and Guntupalli Malakondaiah

2008-01-01

240

Hot Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Coatings on ASTM SA213-T11 Steel  

Science.gov (United States)

Cr3C2-NiCr, NiCr, WC-Co and Stellite-6 alloy coatings were sprayed on ASTM SA213-T11 steel using the HVOF process. Liquid petroleum gas was used as the fuel gas. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on the uncoated as well as HVOF sprayed specimens after exposure to molten salt at 900 °C under cyclic conditions. The thermo-gravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. XRD, SEM/EDAX and EPMA techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All these overlay coatings showed a better resistance to hot corrosion as compared to that of uncoated steel. NiCr Coating was found to be most protective followed by the Cr3C2-NiCr coating. WC-Co coating was least effective to protect the substrate steel. It is concluded that the formation of Cr2O3, NiO, NiCr2O4, and CoO in the coatings may contribute to the development of a better hot-corrosion resistance. The uncoated steel suffered corrosion in the form of intense spalling and peeling of the scale, which may be due to the formation of unprotective Fe2O3 oxide scale.

Sidhu, H. S.; Sidhu, B. S.; Prakash, S.

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Well casing corrosion and cathodic protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Well casing failures in Alberta were discussed. A study conducted between 1987-1988 and casing failure statistics from the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) were used to investigate the corrosion mechanisms that contribute to well casing corrosion and to examine the geographic regions and geologic zones prone to external casing corrosion. The study also examined cathodic protection methods for preventing external corrosion. Common corrosion mechanisms included dissimilar metal corrosion; dissimilar soils; differential aeration; bacteria; and stray current interference. Results of the study showed that wells with strings of mixed casing grades showed an increased tendency towards external corrosion, and that the majority of casing penetrations occurred in the top 1500 m of the casing. While the number of well casing failures per year is increasing, the average time to failure is approximately 30 years, as compared with an average time to failure of between 10 to 15 years in the 1970s. Improved drilling and completion practices have reduced the failure rate. 14 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs.

Oliphant, S. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

242

Evaluation of corrosion protection of carbon black filled fusion-bonded epoxy coatings on mild steel during exposure to a quiescent 3% NaCl solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon black (CB) was mixed with fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coatings to generate a series of formulations with 0.5-4% by weight of carbon black. The degradation of these FBE coatings on mild steel exposed to a quiescent 3% NaCl solution was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results showed that the electrochemical behaviour of coated systems changed dramatically when the CB concentration reached 3% by weight. This phenomenon was relevant to the formation of the percolation regime in the coating, at which a sharp drop in the electrical resistance of the coating was achieved by the generation of a continuous conducting network. A comparison of the protective properties of the FBE coatings filled with various CB loadings, along with the inspection of view underneath the coatings, indicated that the protective performance of the FBE coating was significantly improved when the CB loading exceeded the threshold concentration. This conclusion was confirmed by the results obtained from Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements

2007-02-01

243

Evaluation of corrosion protection of carbon black filled fusion-bonded epoxy coatings on mild steel during exposure to a quiescent 3% NaCl solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon black (CB) was mixed with fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coatings to generate a series of formulations with 0.5-4% by weight of carbon black. The degradation of these FBE coatings on mild steel exposed to a quiescent 3% NaCl solution was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results showed that the electrochemical behaviour of coated systems changed dramatically when the CB concentration reached 3% by weight. This phenomenon was relevant to the formation of the percolation regime in the coating, at which a sharp drop in the electrical resistance of the coating was achieved by the generation of a continuous conducting network. A comparison of the protective properties of the FBE coatings filled with various CB loadings, along with the inspection of view underneath the coatings, indicated that the protective performance of the FBE coating was significantly improved when the CB loading exceeded the threshold concentration. This conclusion was confirmed by the results obtained from Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements.

Wei, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, 110016 Shenyang (China)]. E-mail: yhwei@imr.ac.cn; Zhang, L.X. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, 110016 Shenyang (China); Ke, W. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, 110016 Shenyang (China)

2007-02-15

244

Ranking corrosion inhibitors by percent protection misleading  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sooner or later most petroleum engineers will hear or read statements saying a certain corrosion inhibitor is the best and has 95% protection on the wheel test. Is that better than a 91% inhibitor In fact both inhibitors may be equivalent. For low weight losses there is a wide degree of variability in the 95% confidence interval because of two problems: (1) Weight loss determination near the accuracy limit of the analytic balance is plus or minus 0.1 mg. (2) Cleanup procedures used before weighting. One solution is to use more corrosive medium to obtain greater weight loss so that the inhibitors have a greater difference. A 20--80% weight loss range would yield more accurate results than a range above 85%. The paper describes the wheel test, experimental procedures, and results on 22 pipeline corrosion inhibitors and 30 downhole corrosion inhibitors.

Walters, F.H.; Garber, J.D.; Garber, S.J. (Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States))

1994-10-10

245

Corrosion Protection under Thermal Insulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is an extensive and costly problem for the petrochemical and chemical industry. Both good coatings to mitigate the problem and test methods to ensure the quality of these coatings are needed. In this thesis, four coatings; standard epoxy coating, epoxy phenolic coating, titanium modified inorganic copolymer (TMIC) and thermally sprayed aluminium (TSA), were tested for their ability to mitigate the problem. To simulate the CUI conditions, several test methods m...

Sigbjørnsen, Karen

2013-01-01

246

Modeling of structural steels and magnetite for NDE corrosion sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper Jiles-Atherton model, a phenomenological model, is proposed to model physical properties of structural steel and magnetite(corrosion product). The Jiles-Atherton model parameters based on mean field approximation were optimized to simulate the curves obtained from magnetic measurements using conventional quasi-static method. Results from hot rolled steel, a low carbon steel, were simulated using Jiles model to understand and correlate the measured and simulated curves. Hysteresis curves for magnetite, one of the most prevalent corrosion product and the only ferromagnetic component, are obtained to simulate the effect of corrosion products on the magnetic measurements of corroded structural steel. Since corrosion is initially a surface phenomenon, high frequency measurements were suggested from the simulations obtained to reduce the skin depth estimates and increase the accuracy of corrosion measurement.

Singh, Varsha; Lloyd, George M.; Wang, Ming L.

2004-07-01

247

Investigation of Carbon steel corrosion in water base drilling mud  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon steel, the most widely used engineering material, accounts for approximately 85%, of the annual steel production worldwide. Despite its relatively limited corrosion resistance, carbon steel is used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants, transportation, chemical processing, petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. This paper Investigate Carbon steel corrosion in water. The corrosion rate in production and casing pipes in water base drilling mud (packer fluid, different salt concentration (100gm/L , 150 gm/L , 200gm/L have been used and different temperature (30co , 50 co , 70 co have been investigated. Weight loss and polarization methods were applied. The results indicate that the corrosion rates decrease with the increasing of salt concentration while the corrosion rates increase with increasing of temperature

Fadhil Sarhan Kadhim

2011-01-01

248

Corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel in sulphuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Duplex stainless steels are alloyed and processed to develop microstructure of roughly equal amounts of ferrite and austenite. Duplex stainless steel constitute a new class of materials because they have balanced amounts of ferrite and austenite. Since they have high content of chromium and molybdenum present, thus they have good corrosion resistance. Their corrosion resistance is double to that of annealed austenitic stainless steels with regard to pitting, crevice corrosion, sulphide stress corrosion, and chloride stress corrosion environments. The corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel in various concentrations of sulphuric acid was studied. The reactions were carried out by placing the steel specimen in a beaker containing a known concentration of sulphuric acid at room temperature for a definite period. Pits were initiated in duplex stainless steel specimen and the propagation of pits depends upon the concentration of the acid solution in which the sample is in contact. The weight loss for definite period of time were measured and corrosion rates were calculated in millimetres per year. The corrosion rates increases with an increase in acid concentration at room temperature. A comparison of the results obtained from various concentrations of sulphuric acid with the same concentrations of nitric acid is also discussed. (author)

2003-01-01

249

Sensitization-induced localized corrosion in austenitic stainless steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitization-induced localized corrosion can be broadly classified into two categories, namely, intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These two forms of corrosion affect several grades of austenitic stainless steels and nickel based alloys, and are commonly observed in power, chemical and petrochemical industries. Majority of corrosion failures of critical austenitic stainless steel components in these industries can be attributed to IGC and IGSCC. It is therefore essential to monitor the extent and rate of these localized forms of corrosion periodically. This paper will discuss the following issues related to sensitization induced localized corrosion in austenitic stainless steels: low temperature sensitization (LTS) in austenitic stainless steels, modification to ASTM test for evaluation of IGC susceptibility in austenitic stainless steels and NDT methods (UT and ECT) for monitoring IGC and IGSCC in austenitic stainless steels. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), attributed to solute segregation (Si, P) and chromium depletion at grain boundaries induced by irradiation will also be discussed. (author)

2010-01-01

250

Corrosion Behavior of Copper-Steel Particulate Composite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was conducted to study the corrosion behavior of the steel particle reinforced copper matrix composites, under different conditions; namely heat treatment, concentration of corrosion media, and different weight percent of steel particles.The density, corrosion rate, micro-structure, and Vickers micro-hardness, were investigated. The results showed that composites with limited steel particle contents can be used. The microstructure of the composites showed severe corrosion of the steel particles especially in the low steel particle content ones, which gave an effect more or less similar to the pitting corrosion. The Vickers micro-hardness showed a development in the hardness of the different zones of the composite due to the effect of the cold working and subsequent annealing, but yet with the same marked increment in micro-hardness at the particle-matrix interface. The later gave a strong indication that diffusion was taken place. Corrosion rate increased with increasing steel particle contents, because of severity corrosion in steel particles.

J. T. AL-Haidary

2011-06-01

251

Corrosion protection of metals by silane surface treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for toxic chromate replacements in metal-finishing industries has prompted an intensive search for replacement technologies in recent years. Among the replacements that have been proposed, those that are based upon the use of organofunctional silanes rank very high in terms of performance, broad applicability as well as ease of application. This dissertation presents a four-part work: (1) structural characterization of silane films on metals, (2) mechanism studies of silane-treated metal systems, (3) development of water-based silane systems, and (4) measurements of other properties of silane films. In part 1, silane films, i.e., bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide (bis-sulfur silane) and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine (bis-amino silane) were deposited on AA 2024-T3 and were characterized mainly using reflection-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-RA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. In part 2, the mechanistic study of corrosion protection of AA 2024-T3 by bis-sulfur silane film was carried out. In summation, the following two factors play critical roles in the corrosion protection of AA 2024-T3: (1) the formation of a highly crosslinked interfacial layer, and (2) high water resistance of silane films. The former inhibits corrosion in the following two ways: (1) blocking favorable sites for water adsorption by the formation of AlOSi bonds at the interface which effectively reduces the tendency of aqueous corrosion; and (2) bonding tightly to the metal and thus restricting transportation of the existing corrosion products away from their original sites which hinders pit growth. It should be noted that a high density of AlOSi bonds can be obtained employing bis-silanes rather than mono-silanes. A high water resistance makes water penetration difficult in silane films. This is essential for preventing AlOSi bonds from hydrolysis. In part 3, test results for newly-developed water-based silane systems were reported. The major advantage of these silane systems is that they are highly miscible with water, which makes them more industrially acceptable than alcohol-based silanes. Test results demonstrated that these silanes provide excellent corrosion protection as well as paint adhesion on a variety metals including, Al alloys, Zn-coated steels, carbon steels, and stainless steels. Part 4 reported several other properties of silane films, such as resistivity/conductivity, mechanical properties, and thermal stabilities of silane films. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Zhu, Danqing

252

Synthesis of the functional derivatives of thioglycolic acid and research of influence of structural factors on their protective properties at corrosion of steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Results of influence of structural factors investigation on protective properties of some mono-and di-replaced functional derivatives with general formulas HS-CH2COOH and R'-S-CH2-COOR, synthesized on the basis of thioglycolic acids (TGA) have been considered. It is established, that in biphasic sour system 0.04% water solution CH3COOH-kerosene, all the investigated compounds-both mono and di-replaced, process inhibitor properties. Influence of the nature, structure and lengths of radicals on efficiency of obtained compounds is also established. It is revealed, that among the investigated connections, bi-replaced derivatives of TGA: cyclohexyl propoxycarbonylmethyl sulphide and deputy ether butoxycarbonyymethyl this iconic acids are the most effective inhibitors. As well it is revealed, that all the mono-replaced derivatives of TGA, expect the compound with formula HS-CH2-COOCH2-OH, in biphasic neutral system 3% water solution NaCI- kerosene stimulate corrosion process St-3.It is established, that above-stated di-replaced derivatives TGA also process inhibitor properties in neutral system, however efficiency of these compounds turned to be much less, than in sour system

2007-05-01

253

Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Low Carbon Steel in Tomato Fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research work investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel plated low carbon steel in tomato fluid. It simulated the effect of continuous use of the material in a tomato environment where corrosion products are left in place. Low carbon steel samples were nickel electroplated at 4V for 20, 25, 30 and 35 mins using Watts solution.The plated samples were then subjected to tomato fluid environment for for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5 days for the duration of the exposure period. The result showed corrosion attack on the nickel- plated steel, the severity decreasing with the increasing weight of nickel coating on substrate. The result showed that thinly plated low carbon steel generally did not have any advantage over unplated steel. The pH of the tomato solution which initially was acidic was observed to progress to neutrality after 4 days and then became alkaline at the end of the thirty days test (because of corrosion product contamination of the tomatocontributing to the reduced corrosion rates in the plated samples after 10 days. Un-plated steel was found to be unsuitable for the fabrication of tomato processing machinery without some form of surface treatment - thick nickel plating is suitable as a protective coating in this environment.

Oluleke OLUWOLE

2010-12-01

254

Corrosion '85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These proceedings collect papers on corrosion in energy technology. Topics include: corrosion of low-nickel weldments in coal gasification atmospheres, materials for fuel cells, corrosion of Cr steels, materials failures in sour gas service, hydrogen sulfide corrosion, steels in coal liquids, pipeline protection, mothballing in oil field producing facilities, corrosion resistance of nuclear waste containment vessels, optimization of a PWR decontamination process, and core debris from Three Mile Island

1985-03-25

255

Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Behaviors of Low and Medium Carbon Steels in Agro-Fluid Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to study critically the corrosion behaviour and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC of low and medium carbon steels in cassava and cocoa extracts by weight loss measurement and constant extension to fracture method respectively. The results obtained showed that medium carbon steel is more susceptible to corrosion than low carbon steel in both media. SCC is also more in medium carbon steel than low carbon steel in the two media under study. These deductions are due to higher carbon content in medium carbon steel coupled with various aggressive corrosion constituents contained in these media. Hydrogen embrittlement, as well as carbon cracking, is responsible for SCC of these materials in the agro-fluid media.

Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

2007-01-01

256

Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

1986-01-01

257

Electrochemical Studies of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Peroxide Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects corrosion aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted on stainless steel 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild steel in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion and attack around the weld area. Corrosion attack estimated from long term immersion tests is found in agreement, by and large, with that analyzed from electrochemical test. E-pH diagrams drawn for water-peroxide system have been used to understand the corrosivity of the peroxide media. An attempt has been made to suggest a suitable material of construction for handling the test media on the basis of degree of corrosion attack on them and their cost and the mechanical properties.

Ajay K. Singh

2012-03-01

258

Optimal Piling Network Corrosion Protection System for Al-Zubair Harbor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cathodic protection is an effective electrochemical technique for preventing corrosion of metallic structures, for large structures like piles network impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system is usually preferred. The main aim of this study is to obtain the optimum protection potential that would provide a full cathodic protection for steel piles net-work immersed in sea water at Al-Zubair harbor. The effect of one immeasurable factor (path of anode (?1)) an...

Hafiz, Mohammed H.; Hamdan, Wisam K.; Ruaa Kaream Salman

2012-01-01

259

Silicon oxide coatings as protection against corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silicon oxide films (SiO_x (0< or approx.x< or approx.2)) were deposited onto Inconel 617 alloy for the purpose of corrosion protection in an impure helium environment. The protective behaviour of the deposited films was examined as a function of their chemical composition. The hypostoichiometric SiO_x (x<2) coatings showed poor protective effects. Rather, they enhanced carburization of the Inconel 617 substrate. This is because the interdiffusion of silicon and nickel is faster than the oxidation of SiO_x to form protective SiO_2. In the helium environment used, the rate of supply of oxygen was quite low. Stoichiometric SiO_2 coatings, however, showed good protective qualities. They protected the Inconcel 617 substrate from carburization and from selective oxidation at 1170 and 1270 K for 200 h. However, some deterioration in the protective effect is expected for longer exposure to this environment at 1270 K. (orig.)

1986-12-01

260

Cavitation corrosion of duplex stainless steel in seawater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory study was conducted on the cavitation corrosion behavior of a commercial cast duplex stainless steel (DSS) in seawater using an ultrasonically-induced cavitation facility. Mass loss, free-corrosion potential, potentiodynamic polarization, and microscopic examinations were compared in the absence and presence of cavitation. The rate of mass loss was negligible in quiescent seawater. However, the rate was 0.64 mg/h-cm{sup 2} after testing for 11 h in the presence of cavitation. Cathodic protection (CP) reduced the rate of mass loss by 19%. Cavitation caused an active shift in the free-corrosion potential by {approximately}140 mV. During polarization in the absence and presence of cavitation, the alloy passivated spontaneously without an active-to-passive transition. Cavitation slightly increased the cathodic and anodic currents, shifted the corrosion potential in the noble direction by 75 mV, and decreased the breakdown potential by {approximately}50 mV. Under the free-corrosion condition, small cavities initiated in the ferrite matrix and at the ferrite-austenite boundaries. With the progress of cavitation, the attack concentrated in the austenite phase but spread to the ferrite phase and was associated with ductile tearing, cleavage-like facets, river patterns, and crystallographic steps at later stages. CP decreased the number of cavities slightly. Specimen cross sections revealed microcracks initiating from the ferrite matrix at the bottom of cavities. Crack propagation into the bulk of the material was impeded by the austenite islands and branched along parallel slip systems.

Al-Hashem, A.; Caceres, P.G.; Abdullah, A.; Shalaby, H.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Hardfaced welded protective coatings for corrosion and wear stresses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a rule, materials which resist even extremely high corrosion and wear stresses, are very expensive and/or difficult to work. For this reason many efforts are made to avoid massive types of construction, if possible, and only to provide the stressed surface with a suitable protective coating. An economically favourable alternative, which is particularly used for thick-walled components, is hardfacing welding. With this it is possible to use coated basic materials, eg: unalloyed steels as the sources of mechanical strength, and to coat the surface with different hardfacing welding processes according to the stresses on it. (orig.)

1992-01-01

262

Structure and corrosion resistance of oxides grown on maraging steel in steam at elevated temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

The microstructure of oxides formed on 250 maraging steel in steam at elevated temperatures was established. The coating consisted of at least two sub-layers, an innermost layer of austenitic phase and a layer of magnetite Fe 3O 4. When low loads of steel were used, a third top layer of hematite Fe 2O 3 was found. The coating provides good protection against atmospheric corrosion, which was significantly better than phosphating.

Rezek, J.; Klein, I. E.; Yahalom, J.

1997-01-01

263

Corrosion behaviors of austenitic and ferritic steels in supercritical water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general corrosion behaviors of austenitic and ferritic steels in supercritical water are investigated in this paper. After exposed to deaerated supercritical water at 480 degree C/25 MPa for 500 h, the above steel samples were characterized by gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results show that 316L steel with higher Cr and Ni content has the best corrosion-resistant performance among the steels. In addition to a oxide layer mixed with Fe3O4 and (Fe, Cr)3O4 formed on all of the samples, a Fe3O4 loose outer layer was observed on 410 steel. The corrosion mechanism of stainless steels in supercritical water is discussed based on the above results. (authors)

2007-10-23

264

Corrosion and corrosion control of aluminum and steel in lightweight automotive applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book features 23 papers presented at the Corrosion/95 symposium, Corrosion of Light-Weight and Precoated Metals for Automotive Applications, and selected Corrosion/93 papers. It is one of the first symposia covering both lightweight and durability effects for steel and aluminum in automotive body construction. Topics include conversion coatings, laboratory and field testing, novel applications, and the study of automotive corrosion mechanisms.

Simpson, T.C.; Moran, J.P.; Soepenberg, E.N. [eds.

1995-12-31

265

Corrosion behavior of Al-alloying high Cr-ODS steels in lead-bismuth eutectic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion resistances of ODS steels with 0-3.5 wt% Al and 13.7-17.3 wt% Cr, and a 12Cr steel were examined. The experiments were conducted at 550 and 650 deg. C for up to 3000 h in stagnant LBE containing 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -8} wt% oxygen for the ODS steels, and at 550 deg. C for up to 5000 h in that containing 10{sup -8} wt% oxygen for the 12Cr steel. Protective Al oxide scales were formed on the surfaces of the ODS steels with approximately 3.5 wt% Al and 13.7-17.3 wt% Cr. Addition of Al is very effective in improving the corrosion resistance of ODS steels. The ODS steel with 16 wt% Cr and no Al did not show any corrosion resistance except in LBE with 10{sup -6} wt% oxygen at 550 deg. C. The corrosion resistance may not be improved by solely increasing Cr concentration.

Takaya, S. [Advanced Nuclear System R and D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-Arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)], E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp; Furukawa, T.; Aoto, K. [Advanced Nuclear System R and D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-Arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Mueller, G.; Weisenburger, A.; Heinzel, A. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Inoue, M. [Advanced Nuclear System R and D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-Arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Okuda, T. [Kobelco Research Institute, 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Abe, F. [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ohnuki, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Fujisawa, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, 1 Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2009-04-30

266

Corrosion behavior of Al-alloying high Cr-ODS steels in lead-bismuth eutectic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion resistances of ODS steels with 0-3.5 wt% Al and 13.7-17.3 wt% Cr, and a 12Cr steel were examined. The experiments were conducted at 550 and 650 deg. C for up to 3000 h in stagnant LBE containing 10-6 and 10-8 wt% oxygen for the ODS steels, and at 550 deg. C for up to 5000 h in that containing 10-8 wt% oxygen for the 12Cr steel. Protective Al oxide scales were formed on the surfaces of the ODS steels with approximately 3.5 wt% Al and 13.7-17.3 wt% Cr. Addition of Al is very effective in improving the corrosion resistance of ODS steels. The ODS steel with 16 wt% Cr and no Al did not show any corrosion resistance except in LBE with 10-6 wt% oxygen at 550 deg. C. The corrosion resistance may not be improved by solely increasing Cr concentration.

2009-04-30

267

Microscopic characterization of corrosion of pipe steel under defected coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is known to cause pipeline failures. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques used to characterize coating performance and steel corrosion often fail to identify smaller defects in pipelines. In this study, a localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to describe microscopic steel corrosion under pipeline coating in conditions replicating pipeline SCC. Laboratory experiments were conducted using working electrodes with pipeline steels with high performance composite coatings (HPCC). The 3-layer coating system consisted of a fusion-bonded epoxy primer, a polyethylene outer layer, and a tie layer with an adhesive. The study showed that the localized corrosion process and steel mechanisms of coating defects changed with time. Conventional measurements on a macroscopic-coated electrode containing the defect showed distinctly different results from those obtained during the low energy ion scattering (LEIS) experiments. The diffusion process dominated the interfacial corrosion reaction, which combined with the deposited corrosion product and the geometrical factor of the large coating thickness defect width ratio. It was concluded that the LEIS measurements accurately characterized the local electrochemical corrosion reaction of the steel under the defective coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Zhong, C.; Cheng, Y.F. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2008-07-01

268

Corrosion Protection Properties of 4-[(E)-[(2,4-Dihydroxy phenyl)methylidene] amino]-6-methyl-3-sulfanylidene-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-5-one [DMSTT] Toward Mild Steel in Sulfuric Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in aerated 0.5 N H2SO4 solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization studies (Tafel), linear polarization studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, adsorption studies, and surface morphological studies. The effect of inhibitor concentration on corrosion rate, the effect of temperature, degree of surface coverage, adsorption kinetics, and surface morphology are investigated. The inhibition efficiency increased markedly with increase in the additive concentration and decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The presence of DMSTT decrease the double-layer capacitance and increase the charge transfer resistance. The value of activation energy ( E a) of metal corrosion, adsorption equilibrium constant ( K ads), and free energy of adsorption (? G ads) were calculated from the temperature dependence of corrosion current. The adsorption of inhibitor molecule on mild steel surface follow Langmuir isotherm. DMSTT offers excellent inhibition properties and acts as a mixed-type inhibitor.

John, Sam; Joseph, Abraham

2013-02-01

269

Corrosion by concentrated sulfuric acid in carbon steel pipes and tanks: state of the art  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PETROBRAS, allied to the policy of reduction of emission of pollutants, has been adjusting the processes of the new refineries to obtain products with lower sulfur content. Thus, the sulfur dioxide, extracted from the process gases of a new refinery to be built in the Northeast, will be used to produce sulfuric acid with concentration between (94-96) %. This acid will be stored in carbon steel tanks and transported through a buried 8-km carbon steel pipe from the refinery to a pier, where it will be loaded onto ships and sent to the consumer markets. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel by concentrated acid will become a great concern for the mentioned storage and transportation. When the carbon steel comes into contact with concentrated sulfuric acid, there is an immediate acid attack with the formation of hydrogen gas and ferrous ions which, in turn, forms a protective layer of FeSO{sub 4} on the metallic surface. The durability of the tanks and pipes made of carbon steel will depend on the preservation of this protective layer. This work presents a review of the carbon steel corrosion in concentrated sulfuric acid and discusses the preventive methods against this corrosion, including anodic protection. (author)

Panossian, Zehbour; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de; Sousa, Raquel Maria Ferreira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg de Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento (CENPES); Marques, Leandro Bordalo Schmidt [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

270

Corrosion tests of an industrial apparatus made of boiler steel plates Type KL-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major structural material of multicompartment hydrostatical sterilizers used in the food-processing industries is a steel plate, Type KL-2. Its thickness varies between 4 and 12 mm. The elements of the apparatus in contact with water, steam and condensed water are subject to corrosion due to oxygen, carbon-dioxide and salts present in the system. A radiometric measurement technique has been used to determine the extend of corrosion in two such systems by measuring the wall-thickness. The protection provided by various inhibitor solutions were compared in a laboratory model experiment using activated steel plate samples. (author)

1980-11-05

271

Corrosion behavior of carbon steels under tuff repository environmental conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon steels may be used for borehole liners in a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff in Nevada. Borehole liners are needed to facilitate emplacement of the waste packages and to facilitate retrieval of the packages, if required. Corrosion rates of low carbon structural steels AISI 1020 and ASTM A-36 were determined in J-13 well water and in saturated steam at 1000C. Tests were conducted in air-sparged J-13 water to attain more oxidizing conditions representative of irradiated aqueous environments. A limited number of irradiation corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed. Chromium-molybdenum alloy steels and cast irons were also tested. These materials showed lower general corrosion but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when welded. 4 references, 4 tables

1984-11-26

272

3D Numerical modelling of steel corrosion in concrete structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Formulation of processes in reinforced concrete relevant for corrosion of steel. ? 3D finite element formulation of the processes relevant for corrosion of steel. ? Implementation of the formulation into a 3D finite element code. ? 3D finite element study for RC beam in the splash zone. - Abstract: The paper deals with a 3D numerical model for transient analysis of processes after depassivation of reinforcement in concrete, which are relevant for calculation of corrosion rate. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the concrete quality, cracking and water saturation in concrete on the current density. The results show that the corrosion rate is higher in poor quality concrete than in good quality concrete. The model predicts that cracks do not influence corrosion rate for the case where the only influence of the crack is on the rate at which oxygen can reach the steel.

2011-12-01

273

Corrosion behavior of carbon steels under tuff repository environmental conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon steels may be used for borehole liners in a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff in Nevada. Borehole liners are needed to facilitate emplacement of the waste packages and to facilitate retrieval of the packages, if required. Corrosion rates of low carbon structural steels AISI 1020 and ASTM A-36 were determined in J-13 well water and in saturated steam at 100"0C. J-13 well water is representative of water which has percolated through the tuff horizon where the repository would be located. Tests were conducted in air-sparged J-13 water to attain stronger oxidizing conditions. a limited number of irradiation corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed. Chromium-molybdenum alloy steels and cast irons were also tested. These materials showed lower general corrosion but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when welded. 4 refs., 7 tabs

1984-01-01

274

Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expired ranitidine was tested as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in this medium at 303 K. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdel Hameed, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15032916"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of chromium-nickel <span class="hlt">steel</span> containing rare earths</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effect of additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex alloy (foundry alloy) calcite-silicon-magnesium-rare earth metal on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the 03Kh18N20M3D3C3B <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been studied. It is shown that introduction of low additions of rare earths improves its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance improves its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in agressive media (in 70% - sulfuric acid) in the range of transition from active to passive state. Effect of additional introduction of rare earth metals is not considerable, if potential of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is in the range of stable passive state (32% - sulfuric acid). Additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex foundry alloy, containing rare earth metals, provides a possibility to use a <span class="hlt">steel</span> with a lower content of Cr, Ni, Mo, than in conventional acid-resistant <span class="hlt">steels</span> in highly agressive media</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19670000069&hterms=ferrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dferrite"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controlled ferrite content improves weldability of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steel</span> that adds restrictions on chemical composition to ensure sufficient ferrite content decreases the tendency of CRES to develop cracks during welding. The equations restricting composition are based on the Schaeffler constitution diagram.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malin, C. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.archivesmse.org/vol41_2/4122.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to compare the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of two new-developed high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in 1N H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions.Design/methodology/approach: The <span class="hlt">steels</span> used for the investigation were thermo-mechanically rolled and then solution heat-treated from a temperature of 850°C. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of investigated <span class="hlt">steels</span> was examined using the immersion test. The specimens were weighed and dipped in the prepared solutions for 100 h. After the test, the percentage weight loss was calculated. The metallographic investigations of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damages included light and scanning electron microscope observations both in the polished and etched states.Findings: It was found that after the thermo-mechanical processing one <span class="hlt">steel</span> is characterized by an austenitic structure with numerous annealing twins, whereas in the second <span class="hlt">steel</span> ? and ?’ martensite plates in an austenitic matrix were observed. According to the results of the immersion tests it was found that the examined <span class="hlt">steels</span> exhibit a comparable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. They show very poor <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in H2SO4 solution and low <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in NaCl medium. The weight loss in chloride solution is much lower, what is explained by different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms. In both the solutions, the intensive general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> pitting were observed. In acidic medium they are created in a way of hydrogen depolarization and in NaCl in the way of oxygen depolarization.Research limitations/implications: To investigate in more detail the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>, the investigations should include polarization tests and an analysis of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products.Practical implications: The obtained results can be used to search for the appropriate way of improving the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of high-manganese <span class="hlt">steels</span> with a single-phase austenitic structure as well as the austenite structure containing ? and ?’ martensite.Originality/value: The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of two types of advanced high-strength high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> with different initial structures was compared in acidic and chloride solutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Grajcar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=291796"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical methods for characterisation of thermal spray <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of thermal spray stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings for <span class="hlt">protection</span> of low alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> against different types of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is limited due to high porosity levels and oxide inclusions. In this paper electrochemical methods like <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential monitoring and cyclic voltammetry are reported to monitor the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of thermal spray coatings. The studied stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI 316 coatings are deposited by arc spraying, plasma spraying or high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The electrochemical tests are performed in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. It is found that none of the tested coatings had an electrochemical response equal to that of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloy AISI 316. The results indicate that the HVOF coating has the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of arc spray coatings can be improved by spraying in an inert argon atmosphere. The electrochemical response of the studied arc spray coatings is independent of substrate type (including the case of no substrate), indicating that the underlying alloy does not contribute to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process and only the coating itself is attacked. The HVOF coatings age rapidly in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. It is proposed that this is due to pore opening and pore widening. (orig.) 11 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hofman, R.; Vreijling, M.P.W.; Wit, J.H.W. de [Delft Univ. of Technol. (Netherlands). Lab. of Mater. Sci.; Ferrari, G.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30000899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical methods for characterisation of thermal spray <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of thermal spray stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings for <span class="hlt">protection</span> of low alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> against different types of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is limited due to high porosity levels and oxide inclusions. In this paper electrochemical methods like <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential monitoring and cyclic voltammetry are reported to monitor the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of thermal spray coatings. The studied stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI 316 coatings are deposited by arc spraying, plasma spraying or high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The electrochemical tests are performed in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. It is found that none of the tested coatings had an electrochemical response equal to that of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloy AISI 316. The results indicate that the HVOF coating has the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of arc spray coatings can be improved by spraying in an inert argon atmosphere. The electrochemical response of the studied arc spray coatings is independent of substrate type (including the case of no substrate), indicating that the underlying alloy does not contribute to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process and only the coating itself is attacked. The HVOF coatings age rapidly in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. It is proposed that this is due to pore opening and pore widening. (orig.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-08-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41068645"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, ferritic and austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of four different <span class="hlt">steels</span>: mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> 1145, ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> 403 and austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (Eoc) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, 403 ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> and 304L austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of Eoc ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended essentially on the nature of the material. This effect was due to the capacity of G. sulfurreducens to create a direct cathodic reaction on <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces, extracting the electrons directly from material. The presence of bacterial cells modified the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> features of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> and ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span>, so that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attacks were gathered in determined zones of the surface. Local <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was significantly enhanced on ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Potential ennoblement was not sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> on austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>. In contrast G. sulfurreducens delayed the occurrence of pitting on 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> because of its capability to oxidize acetate at high potential values. The electrochemical behaviour of 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> was not affected by the concentration of soluble electron donor (acetate, 1-10 mM) or the amount of planktonic cells; it was directly linked to the biofilm coverage. After polarization pitting curves had been recorded, microscopic observations showed that pits propagated only in the surface zones where cell settlement was the densest. The study evidenced that Geobacter sulfurreducens can control the electrochemical behaviour of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in complex ways that can lead to severe <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. As Geobacteraceae are ubiquitous species in sediments and soils they should now be considered as possible crucial actors in the microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of buried equipment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_14 div --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21332792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, ferritic and austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of four different <span class="hlt">steels</span>: mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> 1145, ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> 403 and austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (E{sub oc}) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, 403 ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> and 304L austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of E{sub oc} ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended essentially on the nature of the material. This effect was due to the capacity of G. sulfurreducens to create a direct cathodic reaction on <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces, extracting the electrons directly from material. The presence of bacterial cells modified the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> features of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> and ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span>, so that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attacks were gathered in determined zones of the surface. Local <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was significantly enhanced on ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Potential ennoblement was not sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> on austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>. In contrast G. sulfurreducens delayed the occurrence of pitting on 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> because of its capability to oxidize acetate at high potential values. The electrochemical behaviour of 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> was not affected by the concentration of soluble electron donor (acetate, 1-10 mM) or the amount of planktonic cells; it was directly linked to the biofilm coverage. After polarization pitting curves had been recorded, microscopic observations showed that pits propagated only in the surface zones where cell settlement was the densest. The study evidenced that Geobacter sulfurreducens can control the electrochemical behaviour of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in complex ways that can lead to severe <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. As Geobacteraceae are ubiquitous species in sediments and soils they should now be considered as possible crucial actors in the microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of buried equipment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehanna, Maha [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS - Universite de Toulouse, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP1301, 31029 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: mum34@psu.edu; Basseguy, Regine; Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS - Universite de Toulouse, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP1301, 31029 Toulouse (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24037631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> for silver reflectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes a method of <span class="hlt">protecting</span> a silver reflector from damage caused by contact with gaseous substances. It comprises: at least partially coating the reflector to a thickness of 15 Angstrom or less with a substance selected from a group containing aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, and praseodymium oxide</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-10-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042004000300004"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Sour Gases and Some Anions on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The effect of the presence of CO2 and H2S in the well water used in the petroleum plant on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been tested using impedance measurements. Carbon dioxide leads to decrease in the resistivity of the film developed on the metallic surface, while the effect of hydrogen sulfide is less pronounced. Scanning electron micrographs have shown that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products cover only small part of metallic surface in water containing CO2. Studies under polarization conditions will allow concluding that the dissolved gases in the well water reduce the ability of the film to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the metal against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The influence of the oxoanions and halide ions on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> has also been analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S.A. Salih</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12612856"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of sulphur content, sulphur distribution and deoxidation practice on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in seawater</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seven <span class="hlt">steels</span>, mainly differing by the sulphur content have been exposed for two years in the splash water-, alternate immersion-, and continuous immersion zones of the test stand Helgoland of the Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute. High sulphur contents led in the splash water zone to a markedly higher <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack. This is attributable to the formation of sulphate clusters, reducing the <span class="hlt">protective</span> effect of formed rust layers. In addition, the sulphur content influences to a slight extent also the formation of the surface layers in the alternate immersion zone. In the continuous immersion zone, there is no evidence of any influence of the sulphur on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The deoxidation practice and the distribution of the sulphur had no bearing on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates. A localy increased <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack, being in a causal connection with the sulphides in the <span class="hlt">steel</span>, was not observed. (orig./RW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22046025"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> under stress of AISI 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span> in thiocyanate solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> susceptibility under stress of AISI 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span> sensitized in a sodium thiocyanate solution has been studied and results were compared with those obtained with solutions of thiosulfate and tetrathionate. Sensitized <span class="hlt">steel</span> type 304 is highly susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> when under intergranular stress (IGSCC) in thiocyanate solutions but the aggressiveness of this anion is less than that of the other sulphur anions studied (thiosulfate and tetrathionate). This work has been partly carried out in the Chemistry Department. (Author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::5d944675e839d44be2c8e50fefcd979b"> <span id="translatedtitle">AFM study of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in aqueous solutions in concrete</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> stages are studied in carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> by means of a solution simulating that contained in concrete pores. Non-carbonated solution contains 5% NaCl. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique is used to study material performance after different immersion times (up to 48 h). Obtained data are compared to electrochemical ones (<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential and polarization resistance). Analysis of images and roughness evolution along time shows that <span class="hlt">steel</span> initially tends to reach passivity,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di?az-benito, B.; Velasco, F.; Guzma?n, S.; Calabre?s, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______260::3e684e868c03a34cfee3c3871965ecb3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen-assisted stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of high strength <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, Slow Strain Rate Test (SSRT) testing, Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to study the effect of micro-structure, <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments and cathodic polarisation on stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (SCC) of two grades of high strength <span class="hlt">steels</span>, Type A and Type B. Type A is manufactured by quench and tempered (Q&T) method. Type B, a normalize <span class="hlt">steel</span> was used as reference. This study also supports electrochemical polarisation resistance metho...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghasemi, Rohollah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______260::1e8c4f4a8e0d122f6633d7ef155c333e"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen-assisted stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of high strength <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, Slow Strain Rate Test (SSRT) testing, Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to study the effect of microstructure, <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments and cathodic polarisation on stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (SCC) of two grades of high strength <span class="hlt">steels</span>, Type A and Type B. Type A is manufactured by quench and tempered (Q&T) method. Type B, a normalize <span class="hlt">steel</span> was used as reference. This study also supports electrochemical polarisation resistance method...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghasemi, Rohollah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::ef695b77ed71f342e7bab7b2e012fa96"> <span id="translatedtitle">PITTING <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> OF STAINLESS <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> AT THE VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface treatment is very important with regard to its pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility. An effect of various types surfacing on pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI 304stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is investigated in this work. The samples of the tested material are turned, blasted, peened, grinded and a half of them are pickled to achieve higher purity of surfaces and better quality of passive film. Eight types of different finished surfaces are tested by electrochemical and immer...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viera Zatkalíková; Tatiana Liptáková</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13683308"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of a ferritic 18 Cr-2 Mo-<span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The investigations carried out with 18Cr-2Mo <span class="hlt">steel</span> were aimed at its behaviour under pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking conditions. This was done in autoclave laboratory experiments and under experimental heat exchanger conditions in Rhine river water with a chloride content of max. 400 ppm. The test temperatures were 80, 100 and 130"0C. Model heat exchangers were fabricated and operated to investigate the influence of filler materials and weld joints between the ferritic 18Cr-2Mo <span class="hlt">steel</span> and a standard austenitic <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The possibilities of fabricating tube sheers by applying a weld overaly and using explosive bonding were explored. 18Cr-2Mo <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been shown to be suited for applications in cooling water which a chloride content of 400 ppm. No stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking occurs under such conditions. Tubes with a wall thickness up to 3 mm have sufficient toughness. Tube sheets can be made of boiler plate <span class="hlt">protected</span> by an explosive cladding or a weld overlay of 18Cr-2Mo. A combination of Type 321 or 304 L and 18Cr-2Mo is possible. Provided 18Cr-2Mo is sufficiently resistant to the product to be cooled, it is an alternative to austenitic CrNi-(Mo) <span class="hlt">steels</span> (e.g. AISI 304) when stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking is likely to occur. (orig.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21042538"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation effects on noble <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in nitric acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The highgrade <span class="hlt">steel</span> 1.4301 with 17% Cr and 8.5% Ni was preferably analyzed: the time-invariant rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depends on the nitric acid concentration (?[HNO3]5/3) and the temperature (activation energy 63.1 kJ). Foreign salts (Ce4+, chromate, fluoride, J-, JO3-, JO4-) increase the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate only if the ions have either an oxidizing or complexing effect. Iodate ions decrease the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. With ?- or ? radiation, a significant increase of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was not noticed in any case after eliminating experimental difficulties. The higher <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate caused by oxidizing agents (Cr6+, Ce4+) is, however, decreased, since these compounds are also reduced by the reactive species occurring in water radiolysis. A mechanical damage of the passive layer of highgrade <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the presence of nitric acid and foreign salts does not lead to an increased <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate in subsequent total immersion tests. (orig./MM)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::fd2c113ff15b5ad3818f9b994a34992e"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Pipe <span class="hlt">Protection</span> Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problem statement: The cost due to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> Damage have estimated to be 3-4% of their gross national product which significantly Countries problem around the world. Approach: In this study, a novel carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe <span class="hlt">protection</span> based on RBFNN was proposed. The RBFNN used to predict the minimum current density required in impressed current cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> to <span class="hlt">protect</span> low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe. Learning data was performed by using a 30 samples test with different concentration C%, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ajeel, Sami A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=568861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbially Influence <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in Type 304 Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Buried Pipe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, microbially influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>(MIC) of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weld has been identified as one of the serious problems in water supply systems, energy plants and chemical process plants. However, there are few informations about the soil <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> involved MIC of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe in water supply systems, The present investigation was conducted to get a better understanding of MIC by particularly focussing on the soil <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in a buried stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe line. Leaking was found at several welded joints of 1.2mm wall thickness 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe line systems. The failure in the weld joint occurred within six months from the system start up. As the estimated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the weld metal was too fast, metallurgical failure analysis including MIC environmental factors was carried out in order to clarify this <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior. The characteristic results could be drawn from the case studies on MIC of type 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the soil reclaimed from the seabed in Incheon bay : (1) Tunneling pits which was preferential attack of the austenitic structure in the weld metal and heat affected zone were observed. (2) The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sites were correlated with the anaerobic sites characterized by high level of organic and water content, and ferrous sulfide formed by sulfate reducing bacteria. (3) The type of bacteria taken from the soil was identified as sulfate reducing bacteria(SRB). The formation of tubercles on the weld surface by sulfate reducing bacteria was promoted, resulting in further soil <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryu, Seung Ki; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Yong Deuk [POSCO Technical Research Laboraotories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-09-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40019821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multilayer coatings for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of coal gasifier components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deposition of TiAlN/Nb, TiAlN/Ta, TiAlN/W and TiAlN/Zr multilayer coatings on 409 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was studied by CVD in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR-CVD). The coatings consisted of four TiAlN layers with individual thickness of 2.5-3.5 ?m, and four metal interlayers with thicknesses in the range of 100-250 nm. The W interlayers suffered partial nitridation during the coating process and the resulting coatings had poor adhesion. Deposition of Zr through reduction of ZrI4 by H2 was found to be inefficient. Both TiAlN/Nb and TiAlN/Ta coatings showed good adhesion, but only TiAlN/Nb provided sulfidation resistance to 409 <span class="hlt">steel</span> during exposure to simulated coal gas at 1173 K for 300 h. Though outward diffusion of Cr took place during the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test, the results reported in this paper suggest that TiAlN/Nb coatings are promising candidates for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> under typical coal gasifier conditions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21107529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multilayer coatings for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of coal gasifier components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deposition of TiAlN/Nb, TiAlN/Ta, TiAlN/W and TiAlN/Zr multilayer coatings on 409 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was studied by CVD in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR-CVD). The coatings consisted of four TiAlN layers with individual thickness of 2.5-3.5 {mu} m, and four metal interlayers with thicknesses in the range of 100-250 nm. The W interlayers suffered partial nitridation during the coating process and the resulting coatings had poor adhesion. Deposition of Zr through reduction of ZrI4 by H{sub 2} was found to be inefficient. Both TiAlN/Nb and TiAlN/Ta coatings showed good adhesion, but only TiAlN/Nb provided sulfidation resistance to 409 <span class="hlt">steel</span> during exposure to simulated coal gas at 1173 K for 300 h. Though outward diffusion of Cr took place during the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test, the results reported in this paper suggest that TiAlN/Nb coatings are promising candidates for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> under typical coal gasifier conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perez-Mariano, J.; Lau, K.H.; Alvarez, E.; Malhotra, R.; Hornbostel, M.; Krishnan, G.; Sanjurjo, A. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Materials Research Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19044231"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical concentration of chlorides for point <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in alloy <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discussed are the limit concentration of chloride ions in an aqueous solution and temperature permissible with regard to the danger of point <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of industrial installations manufactured from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant <span class="hlt">steel</span> of the Cr18Ni10Ti type. The results are processed into mathematical relations for the calculation of limit conditions. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19101532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ? 20 and 4000C. The hydrolysis of Mg2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 250C, which, in turn, influences the <span class="hlt">protective</span> nature of the magnetite <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for the <span class="hlt">steels</span> were analyzed, and an analytical model for general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-03-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21110935"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> - less defects, more operational safety</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Beginning with June 2005, the year of the Distrigaz Nord privatization, new technical approaches started to be implemented. A <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipeline rehabilitation strategy was initiated according to European and Romanian Norms, as well as western technology, in order to improve the operational safety. Thus, a few important directions were established: replacement or repairing of old <span class="hlt">steel</span> grids, which are in bad technical condition with polyethylene or <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipelines and cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> for grids worth to be <span class="hlt">protected</span>, according to the E.ON Ruhrgas technology. These rehabilitations are performed both by our own and by third party companies. In the near future a complex data base (collected within the framework of the P.I.M.S. activity - pipeline integrity management system) will support this strategy. New leak detection techniques as well as pipeline repairing techniques were also implemented. All these operation and construction activities are improved by new techniques, procedures, equipments and trainings. (orig.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calin, Cristian; Mihai Filip, Stefan [E.ON Gaz Distributie SA Targu-Mure (Romania). Network Management Div.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41029099"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in SULFIRAN process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was evaluated in Fe-EDTA solution designed to be used in acid gas treatment process (SULFIRAN plant) in the temperature range between 35 deg. C and 45 deg. C. Electrochemical techniques, i.e. polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied for laboratory evaluations. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) and weight loss techniques were used to determine the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate for pilot tests. In addition, several surface analysis techniques such as XRD, XRF, SEM and optical microscopy were employed to determine the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> morphology. Metallurgical and SEM investigations of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> showed <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-induced damages in SULFIRAN process. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> demonstrated in the forms of severe uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, wide shallow pits formation, under deposit <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, hydrogen micro-void formation, and hydrogen induced disbonding between the interfaces of the inclusion (MnS) and metal matrix. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloy is predicted to be very high (>200 mils per year or mpy) in this process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ijettjournal.org/volume-8/number-3/IJETT-V8P222.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficiency of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors on Cathodic <span class="hlt">Protection</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available This study is on experiment being carried out to determine the efficiency of in inhibitors on catholically <span class="hlt">protected</span> medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea water in Bonny and Ogbokoro in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The experiment was conducted using the total immersion technique in a non-flowing media containing sea water inhibited with potassium dichromate, sodium nitrate, ECIO21A, sarvor CK 368, and Kurizets 636. In the course of this research work, Cathodically <span class="hlt">protected</span> and unprotected medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> were totally immersed in seawater containing the aforementioned inhibitors differently. Their weight loss, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, pH value and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials were determined at intervals of 72 hours, over 2016 hours the test lasted. The results obtained shows that inhibitor EC1021A has efficiency of 79.8%, other results are as follows: Kurizet S.636, 77%, savor CK368, 43%, potassium dichromate, 35% and sodium nitrate, 1.88%. It was concluded that EC1021A is the most efficient inhibitor, under a non-flow system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tobinson Briggs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_15 div --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22..787M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Rebars in Concrete Structures Under Chloride Ion Attack</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of reinforced concrete is the most challenging durability problem that threatens reinforced concrete structures, especially structures that are subject to severe environmental conditions (i.e., highway bridges, marine structures, etc.). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> leads to cracking and spalling of the concrete cover and billions of dollars are spent every year on repairing such damaged structures. New types of reinforcements have been developed to avoid these high-cost repairs. Thus, it is important to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of these new types of reinforcements and compare them to the traditional carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcements. This study aimed at characterizing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of three competing reinforcing <span class="hlt">steels</span>; conventional carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, micro-composite <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MMFX-2) and 316LN stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, through experiments in carbonated and non-carbonated concrete exposed to chloride-laden environments. Synthetic pore water solutions have been used to simulate both cases of sound and carbonated concrete under chloride ions attack. A three-electrode <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cell is used for determining the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> characteristics and rates. Multiple electrochemical techniques were applied using a Gamry PC4™ potentiostat manufactured by Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). DC <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> measurements were applied on samples subjected to fixed chloride concentration in the solution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamed, Nedal; Boulfiza, Mohamed; Evitts, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-40422012000800005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Desenvolvimento e uso do compósito de Nb2O5|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersão térmica sobre o aço AISI 1020 para proteção contra a corrosão pelo solo em estruturas enterradas Development of Nb2O5|Cu composite as AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal spray coating for <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by soil in buried structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available An Nb2O|Cu <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two <span class="hlt">corrosively</span> aggressive and two less aggressive. Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oscar Regis Junior</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-40422012000800005&lang=en"> <span id="translatedtitle">Desenvolvimento e uso do compósito de Nb2O5|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersão térmica sobre o aço AISI 1020 para proteção contra a corrosão pelo solo em estruturas enterradas / Development of Nb2O5|Cu composite as AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal spray coating for <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by soil in buried structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english An Nb2O|Cu <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two <span class="hlt">corrosively</span> aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatin [...] gs in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Regis Junior, Oscar; Silva, José Maurílio da; Portella, Kleber Franke; Paredes, Ramon Sigifredo Cortes.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/22012568/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite as AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal spray coating for <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by soil in buried structures; Desenvolvimento e uso do composito de Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersao termica sobre o aco AISI 1020 para protecao contra a corrosao pelo solo em estruturas enterradas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An Nb{sub 2}O|Cu <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two <span class="hlt">corrosively</span> aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite for use in buried structure <span class="hlt">protection</span>. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Regis Junior, Oscar [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica; Silva, Jose Maurilio da; Portella, Kleber Franke [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa em Engenharia Civil; Paredes, Ramon Sigifredo Cortes, E-mail: regis@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19093888"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products having the amakinite structure is less <span class="hlt">protective</span> than <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products having the spinel structure. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H2O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H2, would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-03-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20671850-rcfPqK/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends in the automotive paint industry for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since many years ED-paints are <span class="hlt">protecting</span> car bodies against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> package' interact. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41014484"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour in alkaline medium of zinc phosphate coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work evaluated the ability of zinc phosphate coating, obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment, to <span class="hlt">protect</span> mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar against the localized attack generated by chloride ions in alkaline medium. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was assessed by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and the morphology of the coated surfaces were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Cathodically phosphated mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar have been studied in alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating the concrete pore solution. For these conditions, the results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates the formation of calcium hydroxyzincate (Ca(Zn(OH)3)2.2H2O). After a long immersion time in alkaline solution with and without Cl-, the coating is dense and provides an effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance compared to mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21265084"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour in alkaline medium of zinc phosphate coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work evaluated the ability of zinc phosphate coating, obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment, to <span class="hlt">protect</span> mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar against the localized attack generated by chloride ions in alkaline medium. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was assessed by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and the morphology of the coated surfaces were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Cathodically phosphated mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar have been studied in alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating the concrete pore solution. For these conditions, the results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates the formation of calcium hydroxyzincate (Ca(Zn(OH){sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O). After a long immersion time in alkaline solution with and without Cl{sup -}, the coating is dense and provides an effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance compared to mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simescu, Florica [Laboratoire MATEIS UMR CNRS 5510, Equipe RI-2S, INSA - Lyon, Bat. L. Vinci, 21 Av. Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Idrissi, Hassane [Laboratoire MATEIS UMR CNRS 5510, Equipe RI-2S, INSA - Lyon, Bat. L. Vinci, 21 Av. Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: Hassane.Idrissi@insa-lyon.fr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14775211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-cycle fatigue of building <span class="hlt">steels</span> in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media containing chlorides with sulfates or fluorides on resistance to low-cycle deformation and fracture of building, low-alloyed 10KhSND and 16 G2AF <span class="hlt">steels</span> as well as their welded joints is investigated. It has been stated that the above media do not affect the <span class="hlt">steel</span> resistance to deformation or crack propagation under low-cycle loading while the durability decrease is caused by the propagation of a crack initiated by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage the magnitude of which depends on duration of metal contact with a <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41070286"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heat transfer <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in nitric acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full text of publication follows: In nuclear reprocessing plants, interest is focused on the behaviour of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in nitric acid solutions, the principal heated process vessels being spent-fuel dissolvers and evaporators. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> by nitric acid is known to be complex, being affected by a host of metallurgical and environmental factors. Amongst the latter, temperature exerts a strong effect, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate typically doubling for a temperature increase of 7-10 C depending on the exact liquor composition. The type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> which occurs is intergranular whereby grain boundaries between individual stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> crystals are subject to attack. This is due to differing local concentrations of alloying metals and interstitial contaminants at the grain boundaries and eventually causes entire crystals to detach from the bulk <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Less well understood is what, if any, effect a temperature gradient between the liquor and the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> vessel exerts on this <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism and therefore the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of dissolvers and evaporators exposed to these conditions. Possible effects include changing mass transport mechanisms to the surface of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>, a temperature gradient could also influence what <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products are formed at the surface which in turn has a considerable affect on the passivity of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This project is concerned with the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> heat transfer surfaces contacted by nitric acid solutions and comparing this with <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate data obtained isothermally at equivalent effective surface temperatures. This comparison will confirm or deny whether additional <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> effects occur. A wide range of heat transfer conditions will be tested using a variety of nitric acid liquors. Using weight loss and electrochemical techniques it is possible to deduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate as a function of time. Various microscopy techniques are also employed to provide a qualitative understanding of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms involved. This has been achieved under isothermal conditions. It is far more challenging to design and construct experimental apparatus which allow a comparison with heat transfer surfaces. Such a novel test rig was completed and commissioned in January 2009. Due to the timescales of the procedures involved and the complexity and originality of the apparatus a comparison of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates is not imminent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=397822"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors with corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effects of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products of iron or <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solutions are reviewed. Several organic and inorganic compounds seem to have sufficient inhibition effects on rusted surfaces, but details such as the mechanism or influence of solution properties are not known. Although the complexity of the chemistry of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products makes it difficult to study the interaction between inhibitors and rusted <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, there is a need for a better understanding of the interaction to meet with success in a practical use of inhibitors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kowata, Kenji; Takahashi, Kuniyuki [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan). Kurita Central Labs.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______119::9a94fd9791fdd92a107f17ecf6383901"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> fatigue of a superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weldment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> have superior mechanical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties compared to austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> such as the grade 300 series. This is a result of a microstructure consisting of roughly equal percentages of austenite (y) and ferrite (a) and negligible inclusion content.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36078611"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and passivation mechanism of chromium diboride coatings on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of fully crystalline CrB2 coatings magnetron sputtered onto AISI 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was tested in acidic solutions. CrB2 coatings showed excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>, but suffered a breakdown when an anodic potential of greater than about +1 V (SHE) was applied to the surface in a 1 M HCl electrolyte. The coating failure at high potentials is attributed to transpassive dissolution of the coating at volume defects, enabling the electrolyte to reach the underlying 316L substrate, resulting in its rapid <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and subsequent fracturing of the coating. Electrochemical data and potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams, constructed from thermodynamic data, indicate that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of CrB2 is due to the formation of a Cr(III) oxide passive film in the absence of activation <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20635310"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and passivation mechanism of chromium diboride coatings on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of fully crystalline CrB{sub 2} coatings magnetron sputtered onto AISI 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was tested in acidic solutions. CrB{sub 2} coatings showed excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>, but suffered a breakdown when an anodic potential of greater than about +1 V (SHE) was applied to the surface in a 1 M HCl electrolyte. The coating failure at high potentials is attributed to transpassive dissolution of the coating at volume defects, enabling the electrolyte to reach the underlying 316L substrate, resulting in its rapid <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and subsequent fracturing of the coating. Electrochemical data and potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams, constructed from thermodynamic data, indicate that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of CrB{sub 2} is due to the formation of a Cr(III) oxide passive film in the absence of activation <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jordan, Larry R.; Betts, Anthony J.; Dahm, Karl L.; Dearnley, Peter A.; Wright, Graham A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40033661"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solution: AC impedance study and XPS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficiency of a new triazole derivative, namely, 2-{(2-hydroxyethyl)[(4-methyl-1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amino} ethanol (TTA) has been studied for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solution. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that TTA was a very good inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solution was also investigated in the presence of 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (TTA unsubstituted) by EIS. These studies have shown that the ability of the molecule to adsorb on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface was dependent on the group in triazole ring substituent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with TTA shows that it chemisorbed on surface of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApSS..254.6943L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solution: AC impedance study and XPS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficiency of a new triazole derivative, namely, 2-{(2-hydroxyethyl)[(4-methyl-1 H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amino}ethanol (TTA) has been studied for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solution. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that TTA was a very good inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solution was also investigated in the presence of 4-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (TTA unsubstituted) by EIS. These studies have shown that the ability of the molecule to adsorb on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface was dependent on the group in triazole ring substituent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with TTA shows that it chemisorbed on surface of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> and electroplating <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lebrini, M.; Fontaine, G.; Gengembre, L.; Traisnel, M.; Lerasle, O.; Genet, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30000665"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> resulting from short term exposures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products from short term atmospheric exposures of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, is very important to understand the processes that lead to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and ultimately improve the performance of such <span class="hlt">steel</span> in highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments. Many regions along the Gulf of Mexico have extremely <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments due to high mean annual temperature, humidity, time-of-wetness and every high atmospheric pollutants. The process the formation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products resulting from short term exposure of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, both as a function of environmental conditions and exposure time, has been investigated. Two sets of coupons were exposed at marine and marine locations, in Campeche, Mexico. Each set was exposed between 1 and 12 months to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> as a function of time. During the exposure periods, the relative humidity, rainfall, mean temperature, wind speed and wind direction were monitored along with the chloride and sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air. The corroded coupons were analyzed by Moessbauer, Raman, Infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction in order to completely identify the oxides and map their location in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> coating. Scattering and transmission Moessbauer analysis showed some layering of the oxides with lepidocrocite and akaganeite closer to the surface. The fraction of akaganeite phase increased at sites with higher chloride concentrations. A detailed analysis on the development of the oxide phases as a function of exposure time and environmental conditions will be presented. (Author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25034729"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated nuclear waste solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Processing of inhibited nuclear waste to forms for long-term storage will cause waste tank environments to have dynamic conditions. During processing compositional changes in the waste may produce a <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environment for the plain carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks. Large concentrations of nitrates which corrode <span class="hlt">steel</span> are contained in the waste. Nitrite and hydroxides are added to inhibit any <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Concentration changes of nitrate and nitrite were investigated to identify <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> regimes that may occur during processing. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> testing was performed with cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization resistance. Test samples were plain carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> which was similar to the material of construction of the waste tanks. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> morphology of test samples was investigated by visual evaluation and scanning electron microscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis was also performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism changed as a function of the nitrate concentration. As the nitrate concentration was increased the <span class="hlt">steel</span> transitioned from a passive state to general attack, and finally pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The nitrate anion appeared to destabilize the surface oxide. Nitrite countered the oxide breakdown, although the exact mechanism was not determined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44059011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of gamma radiation versus peroxide on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of water radiolysis products produced by ionizing radiation on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been studied at pH 10.6 and room temperature, using electrochemical and chemical speciation analyses. The present study investigates the effect of ?-radiation on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and compares it with that of chemically added H2O2, which is considered to be the key radiolytically produced oxidant at room temperature. Various oxide films were pre-grown potentiostatically on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes, and then exposed to either ?-radiation or H2O2. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics were studied by monitoring the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (ECORR), and periodically measuring the polarization resistance. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5561079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbially influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in nuclear power plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the components, causative agents, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sites, and potential failure modes of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> components susceptible to microbially influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (MIC). The stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> components susceptible to MIC are located in the reactor coolant, emergency, and reactor auxiliary systems, and in many plants, in the feedwater train and condenser. The authors assessed the areas of most high occurrence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and found the sites most susceptible to MIC to the heat-affected zones in the weldments of sensitized stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Pitting is the predominant MIC <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms, caused by sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB). Also discussed is the current status of the diagnostic, preventive, and mitigation techniques, including use of improved water chemistry, alternate materials, and improved thermomechanical treatments. 37 refs., 3 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sinha, U.P.; Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=354453"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> H piles in decomposed granite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> H piles in a completely decomposed granite, piles were exposed by excavation 22 years after their installation. The thickness of the pile sections was measured. The average <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> piles was estimated to be 0.011 mm/year, and the maximum <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was estimated to be 0.015--0.018 mm/year. The rates are low. The results confirm the conclusions derived from tests done in places with temperate climate that <span class="hlt">steel</span> piles installed in undisturbed, native soils undergo little <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Thus, such conclusions are also applicable to the completely decomposed granite in a place like Singapore with high year-round temperatures ranging from 25 to 35 C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, I.H. [Mitic Associates, Cashew Heights (Singapore); Law, K.H. [Land Transportation Authority, Singapore (Singapore)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12636878"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acid electrolyte fuel cell method having improved carbon <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon containing members susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in an acid electrolyte fuel cell are <span class="hlt">protected</span> against such <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> through the practice of supplying carbon dioxide gas to the fuel cell regions adjacent these members</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14741142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of sodium phenylanthranilate as an inhibitor of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in neutral media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effect of sodium phenylanthranilate (SPhN) on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and electrochemical behaviour of armco- and Kh18N10T <span class="hlt">steels</span> is studied in borate buffer solutions (pH=7.36) and in water. It is established that <span class="hlt">protective</span> effect on Kh18N10T <span class="hlt">steels</span> is higher, that is connected with the increased chromium content. Presence of F and CH_3COO"- ions in studied solutions does not cause the pitting of armco and Kh18N10T <span class="hlt">steels</span>. It is proposed to use SPhN as a practically safe inhibitor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-14/pdf/2011-32092.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 77775 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Trade Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...review of the countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products...2009, through December 31, 2009. See <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-05/pdf/2012-5188.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 13093 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Trade Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products...1\\ See <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::0d2848a8f8881401be078d14116ccb79"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The aim of the paper is to compare the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of two new-developed high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in 1N H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions.Design/methodology/approach: The <span class="hlt">steels</span> used for the investigation were thermo-mechanically rolled and then solution heat-treated from a temperature of 850°C. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of investigated <span class="hlt">steels</span> was examined using the immersion test. The specimens were weighed and dipped in the prepared solutions for 100 h. After the test, the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fstroj.uniza.sk/journal-mi/PDF/2011/20-2011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">PITTING <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> OF STAINLESS <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> AT THE VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface treatment is very important with regard to its pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility. An effect of various types surfacing on pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI 304stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is investigated in this work. The samples of the tested material are turned, blasted, peened, grinded and a half of them are pickled to achieve higher purity of surfaces and better quality of passive film. Eight types of different finished surfaces are tested by electrochemical and immersion tests to determine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour in conditions where pitting is evoked by controlled potential and second by solution with high redox potential. By this way the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatment on the resistance to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, character, size and shape of pits are compared in the conditions of different mechanisms of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viera Zatkalíková</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/20"> <span id="translatedtitle">PITTING <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> OF STAINLESS <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> AT THE VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface treatment is very important with regard to its pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility. An effect of various types surfacing on pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI 304stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is investigated in this work. The samples of the tested material are turned, blasted, peened, grinded and a half of them are pickled to achieve higher purity of surfaces and better quality of passive film. Eight types of different finished surfaces are tested by electrochemical and immersion tests to determine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour in conditions where pitting is evoked by controlled potential and second by solution with high redox potential. By this way the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatment on the resistance to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, character, size and shape of pits are compared in the conditions of different mechanisms of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viera Zatkalíková</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21054489"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> nuclear waste containers in marine sediment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report describes a study of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> nuclear waste containers in deep ocean sediments, which had the objective of estimating the metals allowance needed to ensure that the containers were not breached by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for 1000 years. It is concluded that, under such disposal conditions, carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> would not be subject to localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Therefore, the study concentrated on evaluating the rate of general attack. This was done by developing a mechanistically based mathematical model that was formulated on the conservative assumption that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> would be under activation control and would not be impeded by the formation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layers. This model predicted that an allowance of 33 mm would be required for a 1000-year life</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23076415"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistivity assessment of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and stainless alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The disposal facility for radioactive wastes requires long-term integrity. Metal is considering to use as the engineered barrier which constructs the outer walls in such facility, in order to prevent groundwater from percolating into such disposal facility. The present report discusses crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistivity assessment of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and stainless alloys. Potential-pH (E-pH) diagram for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is obtained in the environment of water which imitates groundwater in Japan. And the repassivation potential for crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, ER,CREV, is measured by an electro-chemical test. And natural <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential, ESP, and ER,CREV for stainless alloys. Type 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Titanium alloys (ASTM Gr. 1-Ti, Gr, 12-Ti), are measured in the environment of neutral and alkalized water. And usable condition of these materials are discussed. The conclusion of this paper are: 1) In the environment of higher values of pH, carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is in the state of passivation. In this state it can occur crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, at least in the condition of [Cl-]? 10ppm. So, using carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is inadequate for coexistence with concrete lining which shows higher pH environment. In neutral pH environment which without concrete, carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is in the state of uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and can be used by previous consideration of diminishing its thickness by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. 2) Usable diagram for crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless alloys is obtained, which includes [Cl-] concentration and temperature as a parameter. And it can be said that the adequate selection of materials by using this diagram can assure long-term integrity for groundwater <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33063076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests in flowing liquid Pb/Bi at 420-600 deg. C after 2000 h</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests were carried out on austenitic AISI 316L and 1.4970 <span class="hlt">steels</span> and on MANET <span class="hlt">steel</span> up to 2000 h of exposure to flowing (up to 2 m/s) Pb/Bi. The concentration of oxygen in the liquid alloy was controlled at 10-6 wt%. Specimens consisted of tube and rod sections in original state and after alloying of Al into the surface. After 2000 h of exposure at 420 and 550 deg. C the specimen surfaces were covered with an intact oxide layer which provided a good <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack of the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. After the same time <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack at 600 deg. C was severe at the original AISI 316L <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens. The alloyed specimens containing FeAl on the surface of the alloyed layer still maintained an intact oxide layer with good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> up to 600 deg. C</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20302070"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests in flowing liquid Pb/Bi at 420-600 deg. C after 2000 h</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests were carried out on austenitic AISI 316L and 1.4970 <span class="hlt">steels</span> and on MANET <span class="hlt">steel</span> up to 2000 h of exposure to flowing (up to 2 m/s) Pb/Bi. The concentration of oxygen in the liquid alloy was controlled at 10{sup -6} wt%. Specimens consisted of tube and rod sections in original state and after alloying of Al into the surface. After 2000 h of exposure at 420 and 550 deg. C the specimen surfaces were covered with an intact oxide layer which provided a good <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack of the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. After the same time <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack at 600 deg. C was severe at the original AISI 316L <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens. The alloyed specimens containing FeAl on the surface of the alloyed layer still maintained an intact oxide layer with good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> up to 600 deg. C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mueller, G. E-mail: georg.mueller@ihm.fzk.de; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Schumacher, G.; Weisenburger, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Engelko, V.; Rusanov, A.; Markov, V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JNuM..301...40M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests in flowing liquid Pb/Bi at 420-600 °C after 2000 h</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests were carried out on austenitic AISI 316L and 1.4970 <span class="hlt">steels</span> and on MANET <span class="hlt">steel</span> up to 2000 h of exposure to flowing (up to 2 m/s) Pb/Bi. The concentration of oxygen in the liquid alloy was controlled at 10 -6 wt%. Specimens consisted of tube and rod sections in original state and after alloying of Al into the surface. After 2000 h of exposure at 420 and 550 °C the specimen surfaces were covered with an intact oxide layer which provided a good <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack of the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. After the same time <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack at 600 °C was severe at the original AISI 316L <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens. The alloyed specimens containing FeAl on the surface of the alloyed layer still maintained an intact oxide layer with good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> up to 600 °C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Müller, G.; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Schumacher, G.; Weisenburger, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Engelko, V.; Rusanov, A.; Markov, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11551596"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in lithium-stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal-convection systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of types 304L and 316 austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> by flowing lithium was studied in thermal-convection loops operated at 500 to 650"0C. Both weight and compositional changes were measured on specimens distributed throughout each loop and were combined with metallographic examinations to evaluate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> processes. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate and mass transfer characteristics did not significantly differ between the two austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Addition of 500 or 1700 wt ppM N to purified lithium did not increase the dissolution rate or change the attack mode of type 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Adding 5 wt % Al to the lithium reduced the weight loss of this <span class="hlt">steel</span> by a factor of 5 relative to a pure lithium-thermal-convection loop</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-04-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18010081"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and denting of ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in aqueous chloride at 300"0C</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of aqueous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 0-23% Cr ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and binary alloys has been carried out in pure water, NiCl_2 solutions, and mixtures of FeCl_2 or CuCl_2 with NiCl_2 and seawater at 300"0C. The main series of tests on Cr containing alloys was in a standard solution of 0.1 M NiCl_2 for up to 1200 h. Low (1 - 2%) Cr alloys showed initially <span class="hlt">protective</span>, duplex oxide growth. Subsequently lamination of the inner spinel layer occurred, with the onset of linear <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates which were slower than those of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. For higher %Cr <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the standard solution, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates are approximately two orders of magnitude less than for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The oxides were duplex with an inner iron/chromium spinel layer of equal volume to the metal consumed, surmounted by an outer layer of solution deposited magnetite. Oxide morphologies and growth mechanisms are discussed and the implications for PWR steam generator <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> are analyzed. Recommendations are proposed for maximum seawater levels in steam generator bulk water to avoid long term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=475411"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> for their resistance to intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are being considered as structural materials for first wall/blanket systems in the international thermonuclear reactor (ITER). The uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in water is well known and is not a critical issue limiting its application for the ITER design. The sensitivity of austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> to intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (IGC) can be estimated rather accurately by means of calculation methods, considering structure and chemical composition of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. There is a maximum permissible carbon content level, at which sensitization of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is eliminated: K=Cr{sub eff}-{alpha}C{sub eff}, where {alpha}-thermodynamic coefficient, Cr{sub eff}-effective chromium content (regarding molybdenum influence) and C{sub eff}-effective carbon content (taking into account nickel and stabilizing elements). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests for 16Cr11Ni3MoTi, 316L and 316LN <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens, irradiated up to 2 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} fluence have proved the effectiveness of this calculation technique for determination of austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> tendency to IGC. This method is directly applicable in austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> production and enables one to exclude complicated experiments on determination of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> susceptibility to IGC. (orig.).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Korostelev, A.B. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Abramov, V.Ya. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belous, V.N. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28024397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> for their resistance to intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are being considered as structural materials for first wall/blanket systems in the international thermonuclear reactor (ITER). The uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in water is well known and is not a critical issue limiting its application for the ITER design. The sensitivity of austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> to intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (IGC) can be estimated rather accurately by means of calculation methods, considering structure and chemical composition of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. There is a maximum permissible carbon content level, at which sensitization of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is eliminated: K=Creff-?Ceff, where ?-thermodynamic coefficient, Creff-effective chromium content (regarding molybdenum influence) and Ceff-effective carbon content (taking into account nickel and stabilizing elements). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests for 16Cr11Ni3MoTi, 316L and 316LN <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens, irradiated up to 2 x 1022 n/cm2 fluence have proved the effectiveness of this calculation technique for determination of austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> tendency to IGC. This method is directly applicable in austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> production and enables one to exclude complicated experiments on determination of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> susceptibility to IGC. (orig.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39103625"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of AISI 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> with Cu coatings in H2SO4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The work addresses the influence of cementation and electrodeposition of copper coatings on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> immersed in 30 wt.% H2SO4 at temperatures of 25 and 50 deg. C. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> process was evaluated by gravimetric tests, DC measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specimen surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of AISI 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solution was greatly improved by copper coatings. The amount of copper deposited by the cementation process was sufficient to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. A greater amount of copper obtained by electrodeposition treatments does not supply further improvement in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour. The improved <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance is related to copper dissolution at the initial stages of immersion tests and the presence of Cu2+ in the solution, which makes the medium more oxidizing, increasing the stability of the passive layer. In addition, the presence of copper at the surface reduces the overpotential of cathodic reaction, enabling the transition from an active region to the passive one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______571::bff9c41904c2211a32cba1c96894dce1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and Cathodic <span class="hlt">Protection</span> in Reinforced Concrete. I: Application of Electrochemical Techniques:</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electrochemical behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcement in conditions of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> was studied, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and compared to reference (noncorroding) conditions. Polarization resistance (PR) method and potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) were employed as well, in addition to ac 2 pin electrical resistance monitoring, thus deriving a comparison of the involved parameters, mainly polarization resistance and bulk electrical properties, obt...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koleva, D. A.; Wit, J. H. W.; Breugel, K.; Lodhi, Z. F.; Westing, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=106120"> <span id="translatedtitle">Erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of a carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> elbow in CO{sub 2} environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that for many conditions erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> can produce much higher wall penetration rates than erosion or <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> acting alone. While flow velocity generally is believed to be an important factor in erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, more needs to be learned about how flow conditions influence erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Toward this end, a flow loop was used to study erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> elbows in a CO{sub 2} environment with sand entrained in the flowing liquid. Three typical behaviors were found. At low velocities a <span class="hlt">protective</span> iron carbonate scale formed over all surfaces of the elbow, and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates were very low. At high velocities, impingement on elbow surfaces by sand particles entrained in the flow prevented <span class="hlt">protective</span> scales from forming anywhere in the elbow. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates for this case were high and uniform over the entire surface. At intermediate velocities, <span class="hlt">Protective</span> scales formed over all of the elbow surface except at very localized points where the impinging sand particles prevented scale formation. Deep pits formed at these points and wall penetration rates were extremely high. These conditions are very damaging but can be avoided, if recognized in advance, by reducing or increasing the flow velocities. A computational model for predicting sand erosion in piping systems was used to simulate the experiments to explain the three observed behaviors and to predict conditions defining the boundaries between them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shadley, J.R.; Shirazi, S.A.; Dayalan, E.; Ismail, M.; Rybicki, E.F. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110014690&hterms=corrosion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2522corrosion%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molybdate Coatings for <span class="hlt">Protecting</span> Aluminum Against <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conversion coatings that comprise mixtures of molybdates and several additives have been subjected to a variety of tests to evaluate their effectiveness in <span class="hlt">protecting</span> aluminum and alloys of aluminum against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Molybdate conversion coatings are under consideration as replacements for chromate conversion coatings, which have been used for more than 70 years. The chromate coatings are highly effective in <span class="hlt">protecting</span> aluminum and its alloys against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> but are also toxic and carcinogenic. Hexavalent molybdenum and, hence, molybdates containing hexavalent molybdenum, have received attention recently as replacements for chromates because molybdates mimic chromates in a variety of applications but exhibit significantly lower toxicity. The tests were performed on six proprietary formulations of molybdate conversion coatings, denoted formulations A through F, on panels of aluminum alloy 2024-T3. A bare alloy panel was also included in the tests. The tests included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), measurements of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______935::052c277da40fca0f27514bc34f969cae"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour at the interface of <span class="hlt">steel</span> bars embedded in cement slurries: effect of phenol polymer coatings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyclic voltammetry has been employed to investigate the behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes in solutions obtained by ?ltering of calcium aluminate cement and portland cement slurries. Electro-polymerized phenol coating on <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes has also been studied in carbonate medium. The phenol electro-polymerization occurs on a passivated surface and leads to adherent and stable polymeric ?lm exhibiting a partial <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The Fourier transform in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garci?a Andio?n, Luis; Garce?s Terradillos, Pedro; Lapuente Arago?, Roci?o; Va?zquez Pico?, Jose? Luis; Cases Iborra, Francisco Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20671815-J8q2Qy/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oil field chemicals synergistic effects on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of L-80 <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea and formation waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of tubular grade L-80 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> under downhole conditions of a northern oil field of Kuwait was investigated. This was done using the injection seawater, formation water and a 50:50 mixture of both waters in the presence of commercially available <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor, scale inhibitor, and biocide products separately and in combination with each other. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor and its interaction with the scale inhibitor and the biocide, as seen in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of L80 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This was done using the manufacturers' recommended dosage levels of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor, scale inhibitor and biocide. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates were measured by linear polarization. Tests were conducted using the rotating cylinder electrode method with rotational speeds of 1000 and 2000 rpm at 80 deg. C. The seawater results indicated that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-scale inhibitor and biocide-scale inhibitor combinations provided the best <span class="hlt">protection</span> at both rotation speeds. In formation water, the effects of rotation speed were more apparent with higher <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of L-80 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> accompanying higher shear forces. In the 50: 50 mix waters and the formation water, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-scale inhibitors-biocide combination provided the best <span class="hlt">protection</span> at both rotational speeds under downhole conditions of a northern oil field of Kuwait. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al Hashem, A.; Carew, J. [Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat Kuwait (Kuwait); Al-Borno, A. [Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd., no 6, 4604, 13 Street N.E., Calgary, AB T2E 6P1 (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21027077"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between composition of passive layer and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of high Si-containing austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in nitric acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 18% Cr have a good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior in pure nitric acid. However, when oxidizing power of the solution increases, this kind of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> faces a severe intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Adding a sufficiently high concentration of silicon to the <span class="hlt">steel</span> avoids this type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>: in oxidizing solutions, those stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> exhibit generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> but their dissolution rate is higher than the one of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> without silicon. To find out the role of silicon on such effects, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of two different stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with equivalent chromium content but with different silicon content (304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N) has been studied in concentrated nitric acid solutions. Correlations have been evidenced between the passive layer composition investigated by XPS analysis and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior characterized by electrochemical techniques. The presence of silicon in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> changes neither the oxidation state of chromium or iron, nor the ratio between iron and chromium in the passive layer. Silicon is present in the passive layer in an important content (35 at.%) and thus decreases the chromium content of the passive layer (80 and 50 at.% respectively for 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N after nitric passivation). Uranus S1N exhibits a less <span class="hlt">protective</span> passive layer and so its generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is higher than the one of 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span>. A selective deposition of platinoids highlights differences of polarization distribution on the surface between the grain boundaries and grain faces for theses <span class="hlt">steels</span>. For Uranus S1N, the similar electrochemical behavior of grain boundaries and faces might be connected with the homogeneous silicon distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robin, R. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME, Bat. 458, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)], E-mail: rapheal.robin@cea.fr; Miserque, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCP, Bat. 391, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Spagnol, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME, Bat. 458, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JNuM..375...65R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between composition of passive layer and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of high Si-containing austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in nitric acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 18% Cr have a good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior in pure nitric acid. However, when oxidizing power of the solution increases, this kind of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> faces a severe intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Adding a sufficiently high concentration of silicon to the <span class="hlt">steel</span> avoids this type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>: in oxidizing solutions, those stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> exhibit generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> but their dissolution rate is higher than the one of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> without silicon. To find out the role of silicon on such effects, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of two different stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with equivalent chromium content but with different silicon content (304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N) has been studied in concentrated nitric acid solutions. Correlations have been evidenced between the passive layer composition investigated by XPS analysis and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior characterized by electrochemical techniques. The presence of silicon in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> changes neither the oxidation state of chromium or iron, nor the ratio between iron and chromium in the passive layer. Silicon is present in the passive layer in an important content (35 at.%) and thus decreases the chromium content of the passive layer (80 and 50 at.% respectively for 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N after nitric passivation). Uranus S1N exhibits a less <span class="hlt">protective</span> passive layer and so its generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is higher than the one of 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span>. A selective deposition of platinoïds highlights differences of polarization distribution on the surface between the grain boundaries and grain faces for theses <span class="hlt">steels</span>. For Uranus S1N, the similar electrochemical behavior of grain boundaries and faces might be connected with the homogeneous silicon distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robin, R.; Miserque, F.; Spagnol, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39048979"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between composition of passive layer and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of high Si-containing austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in nitric acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 18% Cr have a good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior in pure nitric acid. However, when oxidizing power of the solution increases, this kind of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> faces a severe intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Adding a sufficiently high concentration of silicon to the <span class="hlt">steel</span> avoids this type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>: in oxidizing solutions, those stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> exhibit generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> but their dissolution rate is higher than the one of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> without silicon. To find out the role of silicon on such effects, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of two different stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with equivalent chromium content but with different silicon content (304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N) has been studied in concentrated nitric acid solutions. Correlations have been evidenced between the passive layer composition investigated by XPS analysis and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior characterized by electrochemical techniques. The presence of silicon in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> changes neither the oxidation state of chromium or iron, nor the ratio between iron and chromium in the passive layer. Silicon is present in the passive layer in an important content (35 at.%) and thus decreases the chromium content of the passive layer (80 and 50 at.% respectively for 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N after nitric passivation). Uranus S1N exhibits a less <span class="hlt">protective</span> passive layer and so its generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is higher than the one of 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span>. A selective deposition of platinoids highlights differences of polarization distribution on the surface between the grain boundaries and grain faces for theses <span class="hlt">steels</span>. For Uranus S1N, the similar electrochemical behavior of grain boundaries and faces might be connected with the homogeneous silicon distribution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21199849"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of al-alloying high Cr-ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> in lead-bismuth eutectic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full text of publication follows: Development of high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant fuel cladding materials is very important for enhancement of the efficiency of a Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled fusion reactor and a fast breeder reactor. Concerning an Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) <span class="hlt">steel</span>, which is one of the promising candidate materials, recently, the authors' group has reported that Al alloying high Cr-ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> have much higher <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in LBE than a 9Cr-ODS <span class="hlt">steel</span> without Al. Addition of Al, however, may cause coarsening of ODS particles and decrease in high-temperature strength. Too much higher Cr content also has a problem of aging embrittlement. Therefore, it is needed to reveal the effect of Al and Cr on formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> scales on the material surface and find optimal amount of Al and Cr to balance <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance and high-temperature strength. In this study, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests were performed for the ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> with various Al and Cr contents, from 0 wt% to 3.5 wt% and from 13.7 wt% to 17.3 wt%, respectively, in stagnant LBE containing 10{sup -6} wt% and 10{sup -8} wt% oxygen at temperature of 823 K and 923 K for 1000 h and 3000 h. Before and after the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests, the scanning electron microscopy observation and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were done. While the ODS <span class="hlt">steel</span> containing 16.0 wt% Cr and no Al suffered from dissolution attack just after 1000 h in all the cases, the ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing Al showed relatively good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance even after 3000 h. For example, in the case of the ODS <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloyed with 17.3 wt% Cr and 3.5 wt% Al exposed in LBE with 10{sup -6} wt% oxygen at 923 K for 3000 h, the whole surface was <span class="hlt">protected</span> by around 1 mm-thick alumina scale, and there is no oxygen diffusion zone. Among the ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing the same level of Al, there is tendency that less internal oxidation is formed in higher Cr-ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span>. In the presentation, the effect of Cr will be discussed further in comparison with the 12Cr <span class="hlt">steel</span>. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takaya, S.; Aoto, K.; Inoue, M. [Advanced Nuclear System R and D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Ibaraki (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Muller, G.; Weisenburger, A.; Heinzel, A. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruh (Germany); Okuda, T. [Kobelco Research Institute, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Abe, F. [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohnuki, S. [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Sapporo (Japan); Fujisawa, T. [Nagoya Univ., EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Kimura, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21565187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ni-W coatings electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>: Chemical composition, mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highlights: > Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. > New procedures for achieving deposits by current pulse techniques. > Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define coating characteristics. > Ni-W coatings <span class="hlt">protect</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions. - Abstract: Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings were electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from electrolyte solutions containing sodium tungstate, nickel sulfate and sodium citrate, using different current pulse programs. Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define chemical composition, grain size, thickness and hardness. According to the electrodeposition conditions the deposited coatings showed 15-30 at% W, the grain size ranged from 65 to 140 nm, and the hardness varied from 650 to 850 Hv. Tungsten carbide also present in the coating contributed to its hardness. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the Ni-W coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was tested by potentiodynamic polarization in a neutral medium containing sulphate ions. The Ni-W coating <span class="hlt">protected</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arganaraz, M.P. Quiroga; Ribotta, S.B. [INQUINOA-CONICET, Instituto de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, (4000) San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina); Folquer, M.E., E-mail: mefolquer@fbqf.unt.edu.ar [INQUINOA-CONICET, Instituto de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, (4000) San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina); Gassa, L.M.; Benitez, G.; Vela, M.E.; Salvarezza, R.C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, Suc. 4, C.C. 16, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43042995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ni-W coatings electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>: Chemical composition, mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highlights: ? Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. ? New procedures for achieving deposits by current pulse techniques. ? Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define coating characteristics. ? Ni-W coatings <span class="hlt">protect</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions. - Abstract: Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings were electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from electrolyte solutions containing sodium tungstate, nickel sulfate and sodium citrate, using different current pulse programs. Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define chemical composition, grain size, thickness and hardness. According to the electrodeposition conditions the deposited coatings showed 15-30 at% W, the grain size ranged from 65 to 140 nm, and the hardness varied from 650 to 850 Hv. Tungsten carbide also present in the coating contributed to its hardness. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the Ni-W coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was tested by potentiodynamic polarization in a neutral medium containing sulphate ions. The Ni-W coating <span class="hlt">protected</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7267872"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of high chromium ferritic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span> developed for seawater desalination and containing 20 to 28% chromium, up to 5% Mo and additions of nickel and copper have been tested with respect to their <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour, in particular in chloride containing media. The materials in the sensibilized state were tested for intercrystalline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility in the Strauss-, Streicher-, nitric acid hydrofluoric acid- and Huey-Tests. No intercrystalline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was encountered in the case of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 28% Cr and 2% Mo. The resistance to pitting was assessed on the basis of rupture potentials determined by potentiokinetic tests. The resistance of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 20% Cr and 5% Mo or 28% Cr and 2% Mo is superior to that of the molybdenum containing austenitic types. Addition of nickel yields a significant increase in crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance; the same applies to resistance in sulfuric acid. In boiling seawater all the materials tested are resistant to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking. No sign of any type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was found on nickel containing <span class="hlt">steels</span> after about 6,000 hours exposure to boiling 50% seawater brine even under salt deposits. (orig.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ApSS...20..257F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Protection</span> of stainless-<span class="hlt">steels</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in sulphidizing environments by Ce oxide coatings: X-ray absorption and thermogravimetric studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a study is reported concerning ceramic coatings containing cerium oxide, prepared by the sol-gel method, used to <span class="hlt">protect</span> Incoloy 800H against sulphidation. When the coating is sintered in air at 850°C good <span class="hlt">protection</span> is obtained. In an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the coatings it was observed that the best <span class="hlt">protective</span> coating contains all cerium as Ce IV after pretreatment. After sulphidizing cerium was reduced to Ce III. Possible mechanisms to explain the <span class="hlt">protective</span> properties are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fransen, T.; Gellings, P. J.; Fuggle, J. C.; Van der Laan, G.; Esteva, J.-M.; Karnatak, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38054013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> used in drill collars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work, studies the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking behavior in austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, in as received, solubilized and sensitized conditions, submitted to several chlorides environments. To evaluate the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking susceptibility, double cantilever beam specimens, fatigue precracked, side grooved and wedge loaded were used. The environments employed were boiling solution of 45wt.% of MgCl2 at 154 deg. C and synthetic marine environment at ambient and boiling temperature. The susceptibility to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking has been evaluated in terms of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> stress intensity limit factor, KISCC, applying the fracture-mechanics concept. The results showed that only the specimens in the as received and sensitized conditions, were susceptible to the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking effect in the boiling solution of 45wt.% of MgCl2 at 154 deg. C, and mean values of the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> intensity limit factor, KISCC, of 15MPam and 7.8MPam, respectively</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16046117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sensitivity in stabilized stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stabilized stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are used in ASEA-ATOM BWR's in a number of forged and casted components, viz. valve housings. Samples of <span class="hlt">steels</span> that are Ti-stabilized have been analyzed for carbon, and then CERT-tested for intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (IGSCC). The <span class="hlt">steels</span> tested are Sandvik 8R30 and VEW A700. The medium was water with 8 ppm O2 and at 286 degreeC, and a feed conductivity of less than 0.1?Scm-1. The tests show that the zone near welds in these stabilized <span class="hlt">steels</span> which in strongly oxidizing acids are sensitive to knife line attack, are also in BWR systems sensitive to IGSCC. This type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> can be inhibited by minimizing the carbon content of the <span class="hlt">steels</span>. (Aa)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34000114"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviors of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in naphthenic acid media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The naphthenic acid <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (NAC) and erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (NAEC) behaviors of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> were investigated detailedly in laboratory. The resistance to NAEC of pack-aluminized carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> coated by high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal-sprayed AISI 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, was also investigated in both laboratory and an oil refinery. It was found that the control-step of NAC was primarily dependent on the temperature. The NAC rate of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> increased markedly with the increase of the total acid number and temperature, which may be attributed to the enhanced absorption and active reaction of naphthenic acid molecules on the metal surface. Increasing the velocity of flow seriously aggravated NAEC, especially in the high temperature range. The reasons were closely associated with the enhanced mass transfer and the accelerated active reaction as well as the rapid spallation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products from the metal surface. Both the aluminized carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> covered by HVOF coating showed better resistance against NAEC compared to the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> due to higher microhardness and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of their surface-layers. The HVOF coating is hopeful to be applied for NAEC prevention of the components in oil refineries in view of present experimental results. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22233866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> detection in stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> using ultrasounds; Deteccion de la <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> por picadura en aceros inoxidables empleando ultrasonidos</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Passive metallic systems are able to develop in a spontaneous way a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on the metallic surface that offers excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance since really in a physical barrier for the reaction with the environment. However, some factors can break locally this layer, promoting one of the most insidious attack, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, which produces local chemical conditions that favouring the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> process causing defects in the material, as externals and internals ones, with a random distribution on the metal surface. In this work, ultrasounds non destructive technique has been employed using as variable the maximum amplitude of the back wall echo in order to detect this type of attack. The material employed is an austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI 304, wherein appear several defectology distributions as superficial such as depths simulating pits. (Author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez, C.; Biezma, M. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28012157"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated cesium elution process solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The West Valley Support Project is being conducted to meet technology needs for the West Valley Demonstration Project and to provide support to the site cleanup and stabilization activities, which involves removing residual Cs in Tank 8D-1 after waste retrieval. In-tank oxalic acid elution of Cs-loaded zeolite is being evaluated. The work reported here involved evaluating the potential for increased <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of Tank 8D-1 during Cs elution, because oxalic acid is <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> to carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This included <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests with mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (A516 Grade 55) at 27-50 C with 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid, for 2, 4, and 6 days. Results agreed with Sept. 1995 tests at 50 C for 1-3 weeks. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rate of A516 Grade 55 mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in oxalic acid is quite high (about 150 mils/y or 3.8 mm/y). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> increased three- or fourfold going from 27 to 50 C. Although the tests resulted in a very rough surface appearance, indicating potential for localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, eg, pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, the exposure times used were apparently too short to initiate pitting</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38088417"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks in liquid nuclear wastes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this work is to understand how solution chemistry would impact on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of waste storage <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks at the Hanford Site. Future tank waste operations are expected to process wastes that are more dilute with respect to some current <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibiting waste constituents. Assessment of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage and of the influence of exposure time and electrolyte composition, using simulated (non-radioactive) wastes, of the double-shell tank wall carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloys is being conducted in a statistically designed long-term immersion experiment. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates at different times of immersion were determined using both weight-loss determinations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility was assessed using short-term cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results presented in this paper correspond to electrochemical and weight-loss measurements of the immersed coupons during the first year of immersion from a two year immersion plan. A good correlation was obtained between electrochemical measurements, weight-loss determinations and visual observations. Very low general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates (-1) were estimated using EIS measurements, indicating that general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> in contact with liquid wastes would no be a cause of tank failure even for these out-of-chemistry limit wastes. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0012-73532009000400022&lang=en"> <span id="translatedtitle">PROTECCIÓN CONTRA LA CORROSIÓN EN SALES FUNDIDAS DE UN ACERO HOT ROLLED, EN EL RANGO DE TEMPERATURAS DE 400 ºC-600 ºC, RECUBIERTO POR ROCIADO TÉRMICO CON ACERO INOXIDABLE 312 / <span class="hlt">PROTECTION</span> AGAINST THE HOT <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> OF <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> HOT ROLLED, BETWEEN TEMPERATURES OF 400ºC - 600ºC, COATED BY THERMAL SPRAY, WITH STAINLESS <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> 312</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la corrosión por sales fundidas mediante la técnica gravimétrica en un acero de bajo carbono tipo hot rolled, rociado térmicamente con una aleación de acero inoxidable tipo 312, con el equipo Rototec, en una mezcla de sal 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, entre 400ºC - 600ºC, durante tiempos de 1-7-2 [...] 2 horas. Los resultados mostraron una moderada protección de la capa rociada térmicamente y se presentó alta degradación en el recubrimiento a 600ºC. Se concluyó que la velocidad de corrosión aumenta con la temperatura y disminuye con el tiempo de exposición. Abstract in english The hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was evaluated by gravimetric techniques in a hot rolled <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protected</span> by thermal spraying with a 312 stainless alloy, with the equipment Rototec, in a mixture of salt 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, amoung 400ºC - 600ºC, during times of 1-7-22 hours. The test results showed a moderate pro [...] tection of the layer thermally sprayed and presented high degradation in the <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings to 600ºC. It was concluded that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate increases with temperature and decreases with exposure time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MARULANDA, JOSE LUDDEY; TRISTANCHO, JOSE LUIS; CAÑAS, ADRIANA.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP..tmp..171M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> on Borided and Non-borided <span class="hlt">Steels</span> Immersed in 1 M HCl Solution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistances of AISI 1018 and AISI 304 borided and non-borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> were estimated using polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Boriding of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples was conducted using the powder-pack method at 1223 K with 6 h of exposure. Structural examinations of the surfaces of the borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> showed the presence of a Fe2B layer with isolated FeB teeth on the AISI 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span>, whereas a compact layer of FeB/Fe2B was formed on the AISI 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Polarization resistance and EIS of the borided and non-borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> surfaces were performed in a <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> solution of 1 M HCl. The EIS data were analyzed during 43 days of exposure to the acid solution. Impedance curves obtained during this period for the borided and non-borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> were modeled using equivalent electrical circuits. The results of both electrochemical techniques indicated that boride layers formed at the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces effectively <span class="hlt">protect</span> the samples from the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> effects of HCl. The main <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> processes observed on the boride layers were pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mejía-Caballero, I.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.; Herrera-Hernández, H.; Herrera-Soria, O.; Campos Silva, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42080980"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloyed with nitrogen in an acid solution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highlights: ? ASS alloyed with nitrogen treated at 1150 oC exhibits microstructure homogeneity. ? Passivation peak of ASS corresponds to oxidation of metal and absorbed hydrogen. ? Transfer phenomena and conductivity depend on the film formation potential. ? Electronic structure of the passive film and its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance correlate well. ? Passive film on ASS with nitrogen is low disordered and high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant. - Abstract: Passivity of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> containing nitrogen (ASS N25) was investigated in comparison with AISI 316L in deareated acid solution, pH 0.4. A peculiar nature of the passivation peak in a potentiodynamic curve and the kinetic parameters of formation and growth of the oxide film have been discussed. The electronic-semiconducting properties of the passive films have been correlated with their <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. Alloying austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> with nitrogen increases its microstructure homogeneity and decreases the concentration of charge carriers, which beneficially affects the <span class="hlt">protecting</span> and electronic properties of the passive oxide film.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_18 div --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="steel corrosion protection" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38107534"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of gamma radiation on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An important factor influencing the aging of nuclear reactor coolant piping and the transport of activation products in the piping is the chemical effects of ionizing radiation on <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. In the presence of ionizing radiation (e.g., gamma radiation), water decomposes into both oxidizing and reducing species (e.g., ·OH, H2O2, O2-) whose net interactions with <span class="hlt">steels</span> are not fully understood. The effect of radiation on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was studied by following the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential, ECORR, of a carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrode during its exposure to ?-radiation. The changes in the surface film composition and morphology due to radiation were studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The gas and aqueous samples were analyzed for H2, O2, and H2O2 using a GC-MS/TCD (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer/Thermal Conductivity Detector) and UV-visible spectrophotometer, respectively. The results of the radiation study were then compared with those obtained with carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to H2O2 under non-irradiation conditions. The comparison indicates that the main influence of gamma radiation on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is via the radiolytic production of H2O2 in the aqueous phase. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45043721"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> piping in nuclear power plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (FAC) is a process whereby the normally <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide layer on carbon or low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> dissolved into a stream of flowing water resulting in increasing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. Major influencing factors that affect the FAC are flow velocity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and <span class="hlt">steel</span> composition. The experimental study described in this paper was focused on evaluating the FAC behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> according to environment conditions. Feasibility tests for the mitigation method against the FAC were also carried out with controlling the water chemistry and with applying the magnetic field. A high temperature rotating cylinder electrode (HTRCE) and a water chemistry control system was developed to perform the electrochemical test in high temperature water environments. The main design concept of HTRCE is to assure stable operation of working electrode in a severe environment, to insulate electrode housing except working electrode surface against external fluid, and to extract <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> parameter from the rotating cylinder to outside of the autoclave safely. The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (ECP) and current density were measured as a function of temperature and rotating speed using polarization monitoring. ECP values dropped at a rate of -1.51 mV/.deg. C above 150 .deg. C, which may be come from the formation of magnetite on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. With increasing rotation of the RCE, the ECP shifted upward in all temperature ranges. This shift may be attributed to the diffusion enhancement of the oxidizing agents in the rapidly flowing of fluid. From the velocity exponent of the cathodic half-cell current density on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, it was evident that a mass transfer process first dominated the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction at 150 .deg. C, and then an activation process partly controlled the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics with increasing temperature. From the results of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> experiment at high temperature water, HTRCE has been proved as an effective device to evaluate the velocity sensitivity of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction in high temperature water. An electrochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of fluid flow and dissolved oxygen on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and to correlate electrochemical aspect with the flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. In neutral pH water containing 2 ppb oxygen, the ECP and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density were increased with rotation of electrode. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> current density showed similar tendency with a wall shear stress on the surface of electrode due to the fluid flow. The wall shear stress might cause a decrease in the mass transfer boundary layer thickness resulting in increase in the rate of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction due to faster diffusion of the soluble <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product into the bulk solution. When the oxygen concentration exceeds a threshold concentration, the cathodic current previously supplied by the hydrogen evolution reaction is substituted by an equivalent reaction due to oxygen reduction. Thus, the ECP increases up to the range of hematite which has a very low solubility and electric conductivity. The hematite formation would lead to inhibit flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The effects of a magnetic field on the FAC behavior of a low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> were evaluated to develop a method to mitigate against feeder wall thinning. A magnet-attached rotating cylinder electrode and piping <span class="hlt">steel</span> covered with simulated oxide film were used in potentiodynamic test and erosion test to determine the magnetic effect on electrochemical and erosional aspect of the oxide layer, respectively. An Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction was active in the magnetic field because the local mass transfer rate was increased by the magnetohydrodynamic force generated by a coupling of the electric and magnetic field. However, the magnetic field effect decreased with increasing temperature and rotation velocity. Those might be come from the facts that the thickness of the diffusion layer decreased with rotating velocity and the diffusion constant increased with increasing temperatu</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43125296"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resistance of Cementitious Binders to Chloride Induced <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Embedded <span class="hlt">Steel</span> by Electrochemical and Microstructural Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high alkaline property in the concrete pore solution <span class="hlt">protects</span> the embedded <span class="hlt">steel</span> in concrete from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> due to aggressive ions attack. However, a continuous supply of those ions, in particular, chlorides altogether with a pH fall in electrochemical reaction on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface eventually depassivate the <span class="hlt">steel</span> to corrode. To mitigate chloride-induced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in concrete structures, finely grained mineral admixtures, for example, pulverized fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF) have been often advised to replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC) partially as binder. A consistent assessment of those partial replacements has been rarely performed with respect to the resistance of each binder to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, although the studies for each binder were extensively looked into in a way of measuring the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, influence of microstructure or chemistry of chlorides ions with cement hydrations. The paper studies the behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, chloride transport, pore structure and buffering capacity of those cementitious binders. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in mortars of OPC, 30% PFA, 60% GGBS and 10% SF respectively, with chloride in cast ranging from 0.0 to 3.0% by weight of binder was measured at 7, 28 and 150 days to determine the chloride threshold level and the rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> propagation, using the anodic polarization technique. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also applied to cement pastes of each binder at 7 and 28 days to ensure the development of pore structure. Finally, the release rate of bound chlorides (I.e. buffering capacity) was measured at 150 days. The chloride threshold level was determined assuming that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is beyond 1-2 mA/m3 at <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and the order of the level was OPC > 10% SF > 60% GGBS > 30% PFA. Mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that 10% SF paste produced the most dense pore structure, followed by 60% GGBS, 30% PFA and OPC pastes, respectively. It was found that OPC itself is beneficial in resisting to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> initiation, but use of pozzolanic materials as binders shows more resistance to chloride transport into concrete, thus delay the onset of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43000365"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of <span class="hlt">Steel</span> (SS-430) In Sodium Chloride Environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Sodium chloride environment is used to explore the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> 430 type. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior ws observed in four variation concentrations of sodium chloride solution, 0.4 M, 0.5 M, 0.6 M and 0.7 M. The experiments were carried out using a type of M-273 EG and G potenstiotate/galvanometer test instrument. The microstructure of post-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> samples were analyzed with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) atthaced to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument to detect the presence of any viable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by products. For further verification, X-Ray Diffraction method was also used to detect any possible emerging <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by products on the sample's surfaces. The results showed that <span class="hlt">steel</span>-430 suffers very little or almost no <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in natrium chloride environment, and that accourding to the show called Fontana's criteria, these materials turn out to have an excellent resistance toward sodium chloride <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The X-ray diffraction and EDS results indicate that the possible ensuing <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by products are chrome oxides and iron oxides. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/890201-7UUb0x/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vapor <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Response of Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Exposed to Simulated High Level Radioactive Waste</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A program to resolve the issues associated with potential vapor space <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and liquid/air interface <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the Type III high level waste tanks is in place. The objective of the program is to develop understanding of vapor space (VSC) and liquid/air interface (LAIC) <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to ensure a defensible technical basis to provide accurate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> evaluations with regard to vapor space and liquid/air interface <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The results of the FY05 experiments are presented here. The experiments are an extension of the previous research on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of tank <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to simple solutions to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> when exposed to complex high level waste simulants. The testing suggested that decanting and the consequent residual species on the tank wall is the predominant source of surface chemistry on the tank wall. The laboratory testing has shown that at the boundary conditions of the chemistry control program for solutions greater than 1M NaNO{sub 3}{sup -}. Minor and isolated pitting is possible within crevices in the vapor space of the tanks that contain stagnant dilute solution for an extended period of time, specifically when residues are left on the tank wall during decanting. Liquid/air interfacial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is possible in dilute stagnant solutions, particularly with high concentrations of chloride. The experimental results indicate that Tank 50 would be most susceptible to the potential for liquid/air interfacial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> or vapor space <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, with Tank 49 and 41 following, since these tanks are nearest to the chemistry control boundary conditions. The testing continues to show that the combination of well-inhibited solutions and mill-scale sufficiently <span class="hlt">protect</span> against pitting in the Type III tanks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiersma, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15005513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> of AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hot concentrated nitric acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments have been mounted in order to investigate a cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> scheme for AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hot concentrated nitric acid. Weight loss tests of the heat treated material were carried out in order to establish the effect of metallurgical factors on its behaviour in hot concentrated nitric acid. In order to study the characteristics of the cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> scheme, local action anodic kinetics of the as-received and the sensitized stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> were determined in the above <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium. Anodic polarization curves of the as-received and sensitized stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, produced in hot concentrated sulfuric acid, contributed to the better understanding of the parameters concerning this <span class="hlt">protection</span> scheme. It has been found that an as-received AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> can be <span class="hlt">protected</span> in hot concentrated nitric acid. In order to achieve successful <span class="hlt">protection</span> for the sensitized AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, depleted austenite phases have to be eliminated in this material by adequate solution heat treatment. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38012137"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by aerobic biofilm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion/corrosion</span> inhibition, electrochemical and biological experiments such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and biochemical analysis were made. The exposed surfaces were examined using scanning electron micrographs (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The scraped surface film was also examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggested that mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface contained iron oxide-phosphate layer covered with bacteria and exo polymeric substance (EPS)/iron-EPS complex for P. cichorii and iron oxides and iron phosphate for P. alcaligenes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32067779"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> testing of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium metal waste form</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposition of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms contain irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructure and some of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies being conducted on the waste form alloys. Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, immersion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and vapor hydration tests have been performed on various alloy compositions to evaluate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior and resistance to selective leaching of simulated fission products. The SS-Zr waste forms are successful at the immobilization and retention of fission products and show potential for acceptance as high-level nuclear waste forms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/11179-mM5dcx/webviewable/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> testing of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium metal waste form.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposition of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms contain irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructure and some of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies being conducted on the waste form alloys. Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, immersion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and vapor hydration tests have been performed on various alloy compositions to evaluate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior and resistance to selective leaching of simulated fission products. The SS-Zr waste forms are successful at the immobilization and retention of fission products and show potential for acceptance as high-level nuclear waste forms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abraham, D. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20015850"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> testing of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium metal waste forms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys have been developed as waste forms for the disposal of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms incorporate irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructures and some of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies being conducted on the waste form alloys. Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, immersion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and vapor hydration tests have been performed on various alloy compositions to evaluate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior and resistance to selective leaching of simulated fission products. The SS-Zr waste forms immobilize and retain fission products very effectively and show potential for acceptance as high-level nuclear waste forms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abraham, D.P.; Simpson, L.J.; Devries, M.J.; McDeavitt, S.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20856740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inhibitive behaviour on <span class="hlt">steel</span> of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahim, Afidah A. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)]. E-mail: afidah@usm.my; Rocca, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Steinmetz, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Kassim, M.J. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Adnan, R. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Sani Ibrahim, M. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38028898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inhibitive behaviour on <span class="hlt">steel</span> of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::ad998b8c9f7d8fcd3121bd3fb74eb1b3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical Properties and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Weldments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research involves studying the mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of ?low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>? (0.077wt% C) before and after welding using Arc, MIG and TIG welding. The mechanical properties include testing of microhardness, tensile strength, the results indicate that microhardness of TIG, MIG welding is more than arc welding, while tensile strength in arc welding more than TIG and MIG.The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low carbon weldments was performed by potentiostat at scan rate ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamed Mahdy; Abdulmajeed, Majid H.; Majed, Rana A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39039543"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of microwave-sintered austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study compares the electrochemical response of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (316L) and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)-reinforced 316L composites microwave-sintered in solid-state (1200 deg. C) and supersolidus (1400 deg. C) condition. Compared with conventional sintering (through radiative heating), microwave sintering results in better <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. This has been correlated with higher densification and microstructural attributes in the latter. The 316L-5YAG composites consolidated in microwave furnace at 1400 deg. Cyields the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27050383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water vapor effects on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Critical relative humidity for AISI 1020 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is 75-85% RH at 65 C. Aggressive electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> occurs above 85% RH, while dry oxidation occurs below 75% RH. The reddish-brown product is probably Fe2O3 or its hydrate; the black oxide layer, Fe3O4. The face surfaces had little or no <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, while the mill-machined edges were corroded with nonuniform reddish-brown areas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20005847"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> system design for <span class="hlt">steel</span> pilings of a wharf structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> pilings in sea and brackish water is mostly due to the establishment of localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cells and the effects of the tidal changes. The most frequently used <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems are coatings and/or cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span>. These <span class="hlt">protective</span> systems when properly designed, installed and operated are very effective in preventing <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> problems. The design of a cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> system, in order to be effective and reliable, must take into consideration all technical design criteria, the type of materials used, the geometric shape of the structure, environmental conditions, site restrictions, and any outside interferences. These design considerations, as well as the use of design data and an overall design methodology for a cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> system for pipe and sheet piling used in a wharf structure, are discussed in this paper.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nikolakakos, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38049256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the galvanized SS400 <span class="hlt">steel</span> in NaCl solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A typical CANDU plant generates about 5,000 spent fuel bundles annually, which are stored in a spent fuel pool. Because the storage capacity of a spent pool is 10 years of spent fuel bundles, the Silo type storage modules are used to store the extra fuel bundles. In a multi-unit site like Wolsong, the extra space needed for the Silo type storage modules are ever increasing with the operating years. Therefore a more space effective storage system is necessary to accommodate all the extra spent fuels from the four CANDU units at site. A new dry storage system, MACSTOR/KN-400 (M/KN- 400) that is based upon MACSTOR design concept was developed. M/KN-400 will be built at the seaside in Wolsong site and galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> will be used for storage cylinder material to <span class="hlt">protect</span> from the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Generally, galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span>, in which the Zn layer on the surface acts as a sacrificial anode, are known to have good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in the atmospheric or aqueous conditions. However, in the brine condition containing chloride ions or steam environment, the Zn layer can be damaged. Therefore, considering the seaside atmosphere in which the storage system are located, the integrity of the storage cylinder is likely to be affected by the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> caused by the salt included in the atmosphere. In this study, electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests were performed on the galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> to estimate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the storage cylinder</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-14392013000600035&lang=en"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> assessment by electrochemical impedance on metakaolin blended mortars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Since <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> in concrete is the cause of major economic losses, Portland cement has been traditionally replaced by cements blended with pozzalanic materials, most of which have been found to reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This paper shows the results of an experimental resear [...] ch aimed to investigate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcement in mortar using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this, concrete laboratory samples containing a 0.0055 m <span class="hlt">steel</span> bar and prepared with just ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and metakaolin at a replacement level of 20% were analyzed. In order to accelerate the <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process, all the samples were kept in a 3% NaCl solution and a constant anodic electrical potential was applied. Variations in the water to cementitious material ratio (0.5 and 0.6) and metakaolin proportion were analyzed, while the cementitious material to sand ratio was kept constant at 1:2.25 in all of the specimens. The results showed a reduction in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates when metakaolin was used as a blending admixture, especially at water to cementitious material ratio of 0.5.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Víctor, Triana; Juan, Lizarazo-Marriaga; Jhon Olaya, Flórez.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-07932011000400003&lang=en"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factorial design applied to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in english <span class="hlt">Steels</span> employed in offshore oil and gas production are subject to a very <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environment. Especially the new oilfields located in pre-salt layers imply the contact of <span class="hlt">steels</span> with high brine concentration, high temperature and presence of <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> gas such as CO2. Besides these facts, stainles [...] s <span class="hlt">steels</span> have to present higher mechanical properties obtained from an optimized heat treatment. In order to take into account these factors and their synergisms, on the present paper, we have chosen a factorial experimental design to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of superduplex <span class="hlt">steel</span> UNS S3275