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Sample records for steel corrosion protection

  1. Protection of Steel Constructions from Corrosive Destruction

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of the New Effective Sacrificial Anodes on the Basis of Secondary Aluminum for Protection of Steel Constructions of Hydropower Stations and Heat Stations of the Republic of Tajikistan from Corrosion Destruction

  2. Cathodic corrosion protection of steel pipes; Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Rohrleitungsstaehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Markus [SGK Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schoeneich, Hanns-Georg [Open Grid Europe, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The cathodic corrosion protection has been proven excellently in the practical use for buried steel pipelines. This is evidenced statistically by a significantly less frequency of loss compared to non-cathodically protected pipelines. Based on thermodynamic considerations, the authors of the contribution under consideration describe the operation of the cathodic corrosion protection and regular adjustment of the electrochemical potential at the interface steel / soil in practical use. Subsequently, the corrosion scenarios are discussed that may occur when an incorrect setting of the potential results from an operation over several decades. This incorrect setting also can be caused by the failure of individual components of the corrosion protection.

  3. Guidelines for the Protection of Steel Piles : Corrosive Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of steel is a common phenomenon. In a marine environment, steel is corroded at an accelerated rate due to the atmospheric conditions. To combat this corrosion, steel piles are coated in order to protect them. As a major supplier of steel piles, Rautaruukki Oyj (Ruukki) commissioned this project in order to streamline their coating process. Currently Ruukki supplies a different coating system for almost every job; the aim of the project was to reduce the number of systems used to...

  4. Corrosion protection by sonoelectrodeposited organic films on zinc coated steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Et Taouil, Abdeslam; Mahmoud, Mahmoud Mourad; Lallemand, Fabrice; Lallemand, Séverine; Gigandet, Marie-Pierre; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    A variety of coatings based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole were deposited on zinc coated steel in presence or absence of ultrasound, and studied in terms of corrosion protection. Cr III and Cr VI commercial passivation were used as references. Depth profiling showed a homogeneous deposit for Cr III, while SEM imaging revealed good surface homogeneity for Cr VI layers. These chromium-based passivations ensured good protection against corrosion. Polypyrrole (PPy) was also electrochemically deposited on zinc coated steel with and without high frequency ultrasound irradiation in aqueous sodium tartrate-molybdate solution. Such PPy coatings act as a physical barrier against corrosive species. PPy electrosynthesized in silent conditions exhibits similar properties to Cr VI passivation with respect to corrosion protection. Ultrasound leads to more compact and more homogeneous surface structures for PPy, as well as to more homogeneous distribution of doping molybdate anions within the film. Far better corrosion protection is exhibited for such sonicated films. PMID:22516111

  5. Studies and research work on the reinforcement steel and concrete surface corrosion protection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Croitoru

    2013-01-01

    Methods for reinforcement steel corrosion protection and concrete surface protection are analyzed. Knowing the corrosion process mechanism reinforcement steel can be protected by different protection methods even in the presence of crevices larger than those anticipated by design. The selection of the corrosion protection method depends on the reduction level of the reinforcement steel corrosion which in its turn is determined by the atmospheric conditions. The selection of the accelerated co...

  6. Inorganic coatings on stainless steel for protection against crevice corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to create protection against crevice corrosion stainless steel test specimens of type 316 steel with various inorganic coatings applied on crevice surfaces were tested for 3-50 months at 25 and 30 degree C in natural seawater containing 0.2-1.5 ppm free chlorine. Various metallic coatings, Ni base alloys with Cr and Mo, Ni with W, pure Ag and pure Mo, as well as ceramic coatings - Cr2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3 - were studied. All the coatings tested, except pure Molybdenum applied by plasma spraying in a max 0.1 mm thick layer were found to promote crevice corrosion of the stainless steel. A significant reduction of the crevice corrosion susceptibility was obtained with Molybdenum. The result is considered promising enough to justify full scale tests in seawater on flange joints of pipes, valves or pumps. (author)

  7. Investigation of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete. II: Properties of Steel Surface Layers:

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, D.A.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Breugel, K. van; Lodhi, Z.F.; Ye, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface (using as-received low carbon construction steel) in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP).

  8. The corrosion and protection of less carbon containing steel in subsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The protection and corrosion resistance of steel in subsoil waters of Baku subway were investigated. Kinetic curves were drawn. The results obtained from the experiment coincide with calculated results. There have been revealed and proposed hudron and fuel oil mixture protecting steel from corrosion in subsoil waters (97.8%) for the internal surface of steel pipes

  9. Spectroscopic identification of protective and non-protective corrosion coatings on steel structures in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion research, and the need to fully understand the effects that environmental conditions have on the performance of structural steels, is one area in which Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a required analytical technique. This is in part due to the need to identify and quantify the nanophase iron oxides that form on and protect certain structural steels, and that are nearly transparent to most other spectroscopic techniques. In conjunction with X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman analyses, the iron oxides that form the rusts on steels corroded in different marine and other environments can be completely identified and mapped within the rust coating. The spectroscopic analyses can be used to determine the nature of the environment in which structural steels have been, and these act as a monitor of the corrosion itself. Moessbauer spectroscopy is playing an important role in a new corrosion program in the United States and Japan in which steel bridges, old and new, are being evaluated for corrosion problems that may reduce their serviceable lifetimes. Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to characterize the corrosion products that form the protective patina on weathering steel, as well those that form in adverse environments in which the oxide coating is not adherent or protective to the steel. Moessbauer spectroscopy has also become an important analytical technique for investigating the corrosion products that have formed on archaeological artifacts, and it is ed on archaeological artifacts, and it is providing guidance to aid in the removal of the oxides necessary for their conservation

  10. Bilayers Polypyrrole Coatings for Corrosion Protection of SAE 4140 Steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.L., Lehr; S.B., Saidman.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study polypyrrole (PPy) bilayers films were electrodeposited onto SAE 4140 steel. The inner layer was electropolymerized in the presence of molibdate and nitrate and the outer layer in a solution containing sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The electrosynthesis was done under p [...] otentiostatic conditions. The corrosion protection properties of the films were examined in sodium chloride solution by open circuit measurements, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bilayer coatings present an improved anticorrosive performance with respect to single PPy films.

  11. Preparation of ?-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane's Films to Protect Steel Against Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyá, Cecilia

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, chromates and phosphates were used as pretreatments for metals to protect them from corrosion during a temporary period. Nowadays, due to their toxicity, replacements are being study. The most studied compounds are based on silanes and, among them, glicidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane, aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane are the most important ones. The objective of this research work was to study the anticorrosive protection afforded by films of ?-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane deposited on SAE 1010 steel in order to select the optimum preparation conditions. The films were applied on sandblasted steel after 24 or 48 h of hydrolysis of the silane in a water/methanol solution (1.5/1, by volume) and cured for 10 min at 80 °C or for 1 h at 100 °C. In order to evaluate the characteristics of the films, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was done on the films and the coated surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The anticorrosive protection afforded by the films was studied by electrochemical tests employing polarization curves (Tafel mode) in 0.5 M NaCl solution and corrosion potential measurements in NaCl 0.05 M. The best results were obtained with silane hydrolyzed for 48 h cured at 80 °C for 10 min.

  12. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  13. Corrosion Protection of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel in Mortar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita M., Figueira; Elsa V., Pereira; Carlos J.R., Silva; Maria M., Salta.

    2013-10-08

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the major causes of structure degradation, requiring expensive maintenance. The using of hot dip galvanized steel (HDGS) has been recognized as one effective measure to increase the service life of reinforced concrete structures in marine environmental. Howev [...] er, HDGS corrodes in contact with high alkaline environment of fresh concrete. Although this initial corrosion process allows the formation of a protecting layer barrier, the corrosion that occurs initially is harmful and chromate conversion layers are usually used to prevent it. Due to toxicity of Cr(VI), these kinds of pre-treatments have been forbidden and hybrid coatings have been proposed as alternatives [1-3]. To evaluate the performance of these coatings, beyond the laboratory characterization, in situ tests in real conditions should be performed. An electrochemical system to measure the macrocell current density (i gal) was designed to evaluate the degradation of HDGS coated samples with different organic-inorganic hybrid films, embedded in mortar during 70 days, using an automatic data acquisition system. This system revealed to be feasible and highly sensitive to coatings degradation. Also, allow distinguishing different hybrid coatings with different thicknesses.

  14. Studies and research work on the reinforcement steel and concrete surface corrosion protection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Croitoru

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods for reinforcement steel corrosion protection and concrete surface protection are analyzed. Knowing the corrosion process mechanism reinforcement steel can be protected by different protection methods even in the presence of crevices larger than those anticipated by design. The selection of the corrosion protection method depends on the reduction level of the reinforcement steel corrosion which in its turn is determined by the atmospheric conditions. The selection of the accelerated corrosion test conditions was made revealing the mechanism of the processes that take place at the steel reinforcement surface under natural weathering conditions. Crevices ranging from 0.05mm to 1.00mm or larger were opened by bending reinforced concrete girders on special equipment and were maintained all over the period of the corrosion resistance study.

  15. Atmospheric corrosion of steel and galvanized steel construction in environments of coal power plants. Method of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the air corrosive agents, presented in the coal power plant environments, on the atmospheric corrosion of the metals was discussed. The corrosion rate of metals construction as well as intensity of harmful air components in the environments of power station were given. Moreover, in the paper the methods of the protection of the construction made with steel and galvanized steel, based on own investigations, were presented. (author)

  16. Synthesizing and Characterizing a Waterborne Polyaniline for Corrosion Protection of Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tongyan; Yu, Qifeng; Miao, Tao

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the idea of synthesizing and characterizing a new intrinsically conducting polyaniline that at the molecular level carries a hydrophilic component, making the polymer highly waterborne and thereby applicable to massive production for corrosion protection of steels. The waterborne polyaniline was mixed in a water-based epoxy and then coated on SAE 1008/1010 steel samples for evaluating its anti-corrosion capacity using a powerful surface-analysis tool, Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKPFM). The high resolution surface topography and corrosion potential of steel samples coated with the Polyaniline-based primer, as studied by SKPFM, show significantly lower corrosion activities than two control groups: uncoated steel samples and epoxy-only coated samples that were also subjected to SKPFM analyses under the same corrosive condition. The surface analysis results indicate that this new waterborne polyaniline is capable of protecting steels from corrosion when mixed in conventional water-based epoxies, opening the door to the development of an economical and long-life coating for corrosion protection of steel structures.

  17. Corrosion protection of carbon steel by an epoxy resin containing organically modified clay

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, To Thi Xuan; Truc, Trinh Anh; Nam, Truong Hoai; Oanh, Vu Ke; Jorcin, Jean-baptiste; Pe?be?re, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    This study focusses on the use of montmorillonite clay (MMT) treated with an organic compound (aminotrimethylphosphonic acid (ATMP)) and dispersed in an epoxy resin to improve corrosion protection of carbon steel. X-ray diffraction was performed to verify that the individual silicate layers were separated and dispersed in the epoxy resin. Corrosion resistance of the coated steel was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEI...

  18. Electrodeposition of zinc-doped silane films for corrosion protection of mild steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Metallic zinc is doped into organosilane films by one-step electrodeposition. ? The composite films exhibit the improved corrosion resistance of mild steels. ? Zinc-doping provides additional cathodic protection to the mild steels. - Abstract: Organosilane/zinc composite films are prepared by one-step electrodeposition onto cold-rolled steels for corrosion protection. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, bulk solution immersion and wet heat tests all show that the composite films have improved corrosion performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement suggests the successful encapsulation of metallic zinc. The embedding of metallic zinc results in negative shift in open-circuit potential of the film-covered electrodes. Such cathodic protection effect given by the metallic zinc provides the improved corrosion resistance of the composite films.

  19. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System for Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; MacDowell, Louis; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem for the Kennedy Space Center, government agencies, and the general public. Existing corrosion protection systems on the market are costly, complex, and time-consuming to install, require continuous maintenance and monitoring, and require specialized skills for installation. NASA's galvanic liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. Liquid-applied inorganic galvanic coating contains one ore more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium and may contain moisture attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. The coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete so that electrical current is established between metallic particles and surfaces of embedded steel rebar; and electric (ionic) current is responsible for providing the necessary cathodic protection for embedded rebar surfaces.

  20. Application of Self Assembled 6-aminohexanol layers for corrosion protection of 304 stainless steel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting of 6-aminohexanol onto a 304 stainless steel substrate was performed with the assistance of polydopamine self assembly. The surface structure of the films was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the establishment of organic films. The corrosion resistance properties were characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Enhanced corrosion resistance performance was mainly ascribed to the compact film structure and the blocking characteristics against electron transfer of the modified 304 stainless steel substrate. - Highlights: ? Organic layers for corrosion protection of 304 stainless steel (SS) surface. ? Bio-inspired self assembly of polydopamine/composite films. ? 6-aminohexanol membrane synthesized on polydopamine modified SS surface. ? An efficiency route for improving corrosion protection.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of selected corrosion inhibitors for protection of prestressing steels in PCPVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion protection provided prestressing steel by portland cement-based grout in the presence of sulfide, nitrate, and chloride ion environments was evaluated. Results were compared to those obtained from selected, commercially available petroleum-microcrystalline waxes (petrolatums) compounded with organic corrosion inhibitors. The investigation was conducted in two phases: (1) a review of literature to establish the mechanisms of prestressing steel corrosion, techniques available for protection of prestressing steel in hostile environments, and the performance of structures that have utilized either nongrouted- or grouted-tendon prestressing systems; and (2) a laboratory study to develop relative performance data for portland cement grout and selected commercial petroleum-based greases and waxes containing inhibitors. Conclusions derived from the investigation indicate that (1) sulfide, nitrate, and chloride salts must be excluded from prestressing materials; (2) prestressing materials must be continuously protected from inimical environments; (3) the effectiveness of the protection provided by both the organic- and cement-based corrosion inhibitors is reduced unless the steel is completely covered; and (4) both cement- and organic-based corrosion inhibitors completely protect prestressing materials when properly applied

  2. Spectroscopic study of the final protective corrosion product on weathering steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in understanding the structure and properties of final protective rust layer on weathering steel and its application for structural steels is shown based on the data obtained mainly by spectroscopic characterization. The main constituent of the weathering steel rust layer is changed with exposure period from ?- FeOOH (less than a few years) via, amorphous substance (several years), to ?-FeOOH goethite phase (decades). The corrosion rate of the weathering steel decreased with this phase transformation. The final protective rust layer possesses the structure of ?- (Fe1 - Xp Cr x)O OH, Cr substitute goethite; the crystal size decreases with its Cr-content. It is shown that the Cr content in the Cr-substituted goethite increases gradiently with reaching the rust/steel interface. This increase in the Cr content and resultant aggregation of fine crystals lead a densely packed Cr-substituted goethite rust layers which provides higher protective ability for atmospheric corrosives. It is found that the Cr-substituted goethite possesses the cation selective ability at the vicinity of the rust/steel interface where the Cr content can be estimated approximately 5-10 mass %. Thus, the final protective rust layer of the Cr-substituted goethite impedes the penetration of aggressive corrosive anions such as Cl- and SO42-, besides the physically prevention effect of its densely aggregated structure for corrosive penetration. It is found that Cr2 (SO4)3 is effective for obtaining the final protective rust layer in a short period. SO42 accelerates rust formation and Cr3- substitutes goethite crystal lattice point at the initial stage of corrosion; resultantly the rust layer formed suppresses dissolution of the steel even in the severe environment. (Author)

  3. Corrosion protection of pearlitic steel under stationary and transient conditions of nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behaviour of oxidized pearlitic steel (20 steel) in inhibitor solutions depending on temperature, activating ion additions, flow rate and oxidation method was studided. It is shown that for complete corrosion suppression of oxidized steel the concentrations of soluble nirtrid nitrites and hydrooxides, which are lower by several orders as compared with nonoxidized metal, are required. It is concluded that previous oxidation and subsequent keeping of the water-chemical regime with saltless water with the addition of these inhibitors can be taken as the basis in developing rust protection technology for NPP equipment made of pearlitic steel during transient regimes

  4. Protective and breakaway corrosion of mild steel in CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of mild and low alloy steels in high pressure carbon dioxide at temperatures in the range 653 to 773K is initially 'protective'. The oxidation rate decreases with increasing time according to an approximately parabolic rate law. However, after an incubation period there may be a transition to faster linear 'breakaway' kinetics. The microstructural changes which are an essential feature of the protective-breakaway transition have been studied in detail on laboratory samples and on speciments removed from Magnox reactors, and a model proposed for oxidation in high pressure gas. In the protective stage of growth a compact scale is first formed by outward diffusion of metal ions. This injects lattice vacancies into the substrate, some of which condense to give loss of scale-metal adhesion. In these regions the protective oxide develops microporosity and an inner layer nucleates and grows. Continuing protective oxidation produces a duplex structure, the inner layer growing in the volume made available by metal departing to form new outer oxide. Microporosity is maintained by a buildup of carbon monoxide at the scalemetal interface, which also regulates the growth of the inner layer. Breakaway oxidation is rapid inner layer growth which occurs when the carbon monoxide is destroyed locally by a catalysed carbon deposition reaction. (author)

  5. Electrochemical synthesis and characterisation of hybrid materials polypyrrole/dodecatungstophosphate as protective agents against steel corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastre Cano, Jose Antonio

    The losses caused by the effect of the corrosion are of the order of 2-3,5% of the GDP of the developed countries or developing only in direct costs, losses in structures or products. This figure doubles by the indirect costs, losses of productivity or demands for delays. Beside the possible losses of human lives, any intent leaded to the decrease of the corrosion in rusty metals is a commendable objective from the point of view of the protection of the environment. Building industry employing reinforced concrete is able to project some structural elements (pillars, wrought, beam, etc.) in principle free of corrosion, assuring during many years the useful life of the work in service. However, the reinforced concrete would be' a perfect solution if the indefinite permanency of the passive state of the steel could be guaranteed. Indeed, although the steel is protected against corrosion due to basic pH which provides the cement, the severe action of saline media or the effect of CO2 can diminish this protection conditions beginning the corrosion in steel elements. Type-p doped conducting polymers, as polypyrrole, are firm candidates to protect carbon steel providing galvanic protection by stabilising the passive layer of Fe oxides initially grown. Doping the polymeric matrix with polioxometalates, concretely phosphotungstate PW12O403-, is a very interesting hypothesis due to their oxidising effect, improving the anodic protection by the hybrid material electrosynthesised on carbon steel substrate. First in the present work, a new method was developed by cyclic voltammetry in LiClO4 + acetonitrile medium in order to diminish the unavoidable oxidation of carbon steel when the electrosyntesis of the hybrid material polypyrrole/PW12O403- is carrying out. The beginning potential of polypyrrole polymerisation is about 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), a positive potential where oxidation of Fe substrate is high, not allowing the electrodeposition of the hybrid material. On the other hand, this pretreatment should guarantee appropriate conditions in order to obtain a coating with high adhesion on carbon steel. Once studied the better parameters for the synthesis of the hybrid material by cyclic voltammetry, hybrid material is morphological, chemical and electrochemical characterised by the following techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray, X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403-. chemical structure presents Fe oxides and hydroxide within the polypyrrole polycationic matrix. Hybrid material polypyrrol/PW12O403- diminishes the corrosion of carbon steel in NaOH and Porland cement filtering solutions. These cement solutions simulate the pore fluid conditions existing in cured mortar or concrete elements. Fe ion concentration data were determinated in corrosion tests. Voltammetric response of polymeric coatings was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Finally, the protection provided by hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403, in oxidised and reduced state, was evaluated on carbon steel electrodes embedded in Portland cement mortars immersed in seawater and submitted to an accelerated carbonation process for 265 days. Polymeric material covered carbon steel electrodes in reduced state suffer a Fe gravimetric loss 15 times lower than the ones of bare electrodes against chlorides attack, due to the effect of physical barrier. Hybrid material covered electrodes in oxidised state after being submitted to a carbonation process suffer a Fe gravimetric loss 2.5 times lower than the ones of bare electrodes, due to galvanic protection provided by hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403- on carbon steel.

  6. Methods for protection of high-strength welded stainless steel from corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of protection from corrosion cracking under a bending stress of 100 kgf/mm2 in a salt mist and in a sulphur dioxide atmosphere, of welded joints of steel 08Kh15N5D2T with metallizing, galvanic and varnish coatings and lubricants, and of steel 1Kh15N4AM3 with sealing compounds has been investigated. Metallization of welded joints with aluminium and zinc efficiently increases corrosion resistance in a salt mist. Galvanic coatings of Cd, Zn, and Cr increase the time to cracking in a salt mist from 2-3 to 60-80 days. The protective properties of varnishes under the effect of a salt mist decrease in the following sequence: epoxy-polyamide enamel EP-140, acrylic enamel C-38, silicone enamels KO-834, KO-811, and KO-814. In an atmosphere containing SO2 0.15 vol.% at 100% relative humidity, the varnishes investigated, with the exception of the inhibited coating XC-596, show lower protective properties than in a salt mist. The high efficiency of protection from corrosion cracking in a salt mist of slots of steel 1Kh15N4AM3 when using organic sealing compounds U4-21 and U5-21, and also slushing lubricants and oils PVK, TsIATIM-201, K17, and AMS3 was established

  7. Polybenzoxazine/SiO2 nanocomposite coatings for corrosion protection of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Corrosion resistance of the coating was improved using SiO2 nanoparticles. •Morphology and wetting properties were studied upon electrochemical behavior. •Interfacial interactions were enhanced by the reaction between two phases. -- Abstract: A series of nanocomposite coatings (PBS) consisting of silane functional polybenzoxazine (PB-TMOS) and SiO2 nanoparticles were developed for corrosion protection of mild steel. The influence of silica content on corrosion resistance of PBS coatings was investigated by electrochemical measurements. The surface chemistry of nanoparticles and its effect on morphology of the PBS coating was also studied utilizing Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy, 29Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses. The results indicate that the presence of the covalent bond between nanoparticles and PB-TMOS, greatly improves the interfacial interactions at the polymer/filler interfaces resulting in a better corrosion performance

  8. Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings as Cd replacement for corrosion protection of high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings from an alkaline bath on a high strength steel. ? Complete characterisation of the coatings (corrosion, morphology and composition). ? Correlation of the electrodeposition conditions with the properties of the film. ? Similar corrosion resistance than Zn-Ni coatings deposited from acidic baths. ? Lower hydrogen content incorporated than for a post baked cadmium-coated steel. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni coatings performed in acidic baths are not suitable for high strength steels due to their high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. In this work, Zn-Ni coatings were deposited on a high strength steel (4340) upon stirring conditions from an alkaline bath. A complete characterisation of the coatings (corrosion, morphology and composition) has been accomplished, correlating the electrodeposition conditions with these features. The best protective properties of the grown coatings were achieved for the alloys with a single phase structure of ?-Ni5Zn21 and a denser morphology. Additionally, the hydrogen content incorporated is lower than even cadmium-coated 4340 steel which has undergone a postbaking dehydrogenation treatment.

  9. Cathodic corrosion protection for buried steel pipelines. New technical rules; Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz fuer erdverlegte Stahlrohrleitungen. Neue technische Regeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laier, Thomas [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Gaugler, Hans [Stadtwerke Muenchen (SWM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Two revised worksheets from the DVGW code, of fundamental importance in the use of cathodic corrosion protection of buried steel pipelines, have appeared recently. These are DVGW Worksheet GW 12, ''Planning and installation of cathodic corrosion protection (CCP) systems for buried storage tanks and steel pipelines'' and DVGW Worksheet G 412, ''Cathodic corrosion protection of buried gas transmission systems and gas transmission pipelines''. The following article examines the new and revised features of these publications. (orig.)

  10. Interaction of Benzimidazoles and Benzotriazole: Its Corrosion Protection Properties on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, K.; Mohan, Revathi; Joseph, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Synergistic hydrogen-bonded interaction of alkyl benzimidazoles and 1,2,3-benzotrizole and its corrosion protection properties on mild steel in hydrochloric acid at different temperatures have been studied using polarization, EIS, adsorption, surface studies, and computational methods. The extent of synergistic interaction increases with temperature. Quantum chemical approach is used to calculate some electronic properties of the molecules and to ascertain the synergistic interaction, inhibitive effect, and molecular structures. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies and the global chemical reactivity relate to some parameters, such as total energy, E HOMO, E LUMO, and gap energy (? E). 1,2,3-Benzotrizole interacts with benzimidazoles derivatives up to a bond length of approximately 1.99 Å. This interaction represents the formation of a hydrogen bond between the 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazoles. This synergistic interaction of 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazole derivatives offers extended inhibition efficiency toward mild steel in hydrochloric acid.

  11. Corrosion Protection of Stainless Steel by Polyaniline/Polypyrrole Composite Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Subathira, A.; Rm, Meyyappan

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of polyaniline/polypyrrole coatings on stainless steel was carried out by the constant potential technique. The surface properties and corrosion behavior of the coatings were studied by varying the time of deposition and the initial monomer concentration. The corrosion current and corrosion potential were measured by direct current polarization test. The changes in corrosion current and corrosion potential with the deposition timeand the initial monomer concentratio...

  12. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on Corrosion Protection of Acrylate Nanocomposite on Mild Steel Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Akhir, M. M.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Harun, M. K.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2015-05-01

    Acrylate:carbon nanotubes (A:CNTs) nanocomposite thin film was prepared by sol- gel technique. The corrosion coating protection of acrylate:carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite thin film has been coated on mild steel characterised by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) measurement and equivalent circuit model are employed to analyse coating impedance for corrosion protection. In this study, 3.5 w/v % sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was immersed the acrylate:carbon nanotubes nanocomposite thin film. As the results, the surface morphology were found that there formation of carbon nanotubes with good distribution on acrylate-based coating. From EIS measurement, A:CNTs nanocomposite thin film with 0.4 w/v % contain of CNTs was exhibited the highest coating impedance from Nyquist graph after immersed in sodium chloride solution and may provide the excellent corrosion protection. The Bode plots have shown the impedance is high at the beginning from the time at high frequency and slightly decreases with value of frequency become smaller.

  13. Corrosion protection performance of porous strontium hydroxyapatite coating on polypyrrole coated 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Ramya, S; Rajeswari, D; Kavitha, L

    2013-07-01

    Polypyrrole/strontium hydroxyapatite bilayer coatings were achieved on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by the electropolymerisation of pyrrole from sodium salicylate solution followed by the electrodeposition of porous strontium hydroxyapatite. The formation and the morphology of the bilayer coatings were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the coated 316L SS specimens was investigated in Ringer's solution by electrochemical techniques and the results were substantiated with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The passive film underneath the polypyrrole layer is effective in protecting 316L SS against corrosion in Ringer's solution. Moreover, we believe that the top porous strontium hydroxyapatite layer can provide potential bioactivity to the 316L SS. PMID:23475060

  14. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  15. Corrosion protection of low-carbon steel using exopolysaccharide coatings from Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. This research investigates the inhibition of corrosive behavior of SAE1010 steel by bacterial exopolysaccharides. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion inhibition of diffe...

  16. Corrosion Protection of Stainless Steel by Polyaniline/Polypyrrole Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Subathira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical deposition of polyaniline/polypyrrole coatings on stainless steel was carried out by the constant potential technique. The surface properties and corrosion behavior of the coatings were studied by varying the time of deposition and the initial monomer concentration. The corrosion current and corrosion potential were measured by direct current polarization test. The changes in corrosion current and corrosion potential with the deposition timeand the initial monomer concentration were thoroughly investigated. The surface energy of coated stainless steel was calculated by using dynamic contact angle analyzer.

  17. Thermodynamic aspects of the development of inhibitory methods of protecting steel from corrosion in salt water environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ??????????

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  The thermodynamics aspects of steel in water-salt solutions spontaneous corrosion and ways of purposeful creation of inhibition methods for its slow-down were considered. For the system Fe-H2O on the basis of diagram Pourbe analysis were determined definite ranges of potentials of metal and pH of the solutions for which corrosive destruction speed reduction were achieved. It is shown that the effective corrosion protection of steel can be achieved by means of measures which include application of inhibitors with simultaneous medium pH modification, as a result there takes place a transition of metal into a stable passivated state. Potentiostatic research of steel in water-salt solutions corrosion had confirmed efficiency of the method offered.

  18. On the protective effect of KhOSP-10 inhibitor during corrosion, hydrogenadsorption and corrosion cracking of a steel in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protective propeties of inhibitor KhOSP-10 in the time of corrosion and corrosive cracking of steel 40Kh are higher then those of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-I-V etc. Its ability to reduce steel hydrogenation is the same as in the case of KPI-1 inhibitor i.e. below that of KI-1. HCl additives enhance the efficiency of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-1-V etc. up to the protective ability of KhOSP-10. Kinetics of the electrode processes was estimated from polarization curves

  19. Corrosion protection of low-carbon steel using exopolysaccharide coatings from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstadt, Victoria L; Côté, Gregory L; Willett, J L

    2011-06-01

    Corrosion of metals is a serious and challenging problem faced worldwide by industry. Purified Leuconostoc mesenteroides exopolysaccharide (EPS) coatings, cast from aqueous solution, inhibited the corrosion of low-carbon steel as determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). There were two different corrosion behaviors exhibited when EPS films from different strains were cast onto the steel. One EPS coating reacted immediately with the steel substrate to form an iron (III) oxide layer ("rust") during the drying process while another did not. The samples that did not flash corrode had higher corrosion inhibition and formed an iron (II) passivation layer during EIS testing that persisted after the cells were disassembled. Corrosion inhibition was strain-specific as polysaccharides with similar structure did not have the same corrosion potential. PMID:21290167

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and corrosion protection properties of poly(N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole-co-methyl methacrylate) on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (MMBT) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been synthesised using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterized using FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the polymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion behaviors of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers have been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. These electrochemical properties were observed in 0.1 M HCl medium. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of MMBT and MMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations

  1. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion protection properties of poly(N-(acryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole-co-glycidyl methacrylate) coatings on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(acryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (AMBT) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was achieved by using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterised using FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the synthesized copolymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion performances of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers were investigated in 0.1 M HCl by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of AMBT and GMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations

  2. Protection of steel from corrosion and hydrogen absorption by organic inhibitors: experimental and quantum-chemical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloglazov G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The step-strip anodic dissolution technique was used to obtain concentration profiles of cathodic evolved H2 across the depth of Cr-Ni1810 steel under corrosion in water-salt media in the presence of SRB. The proposed approximation of the experimentally obtained distribution of hydrogen along the depth of steel by means of standard Gaussian function made it possible to establish the integral hydrogen content of the sub-layer (up to 80 ?m with high degree of accuracy. The efficiency of protective actions of the studied organic compounds against corrosion and hydrogen absorption by steel were compared with the data of quantum chemical computations performed for isolated molecules of the studied inhibitors with the help of the MNDO method. The results obtained point to a difference in the protective mechanisms of the studies inhibitors in case of anticorrosion action and hydrogen absorption by steel.

  3. Corrosion properties of steel protected by nanometre-thick oxide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 40–50 nm mixed alumina–tantala coatings were grown by atomic layer deposition. • Effects of substrate surface finish and oxide mix were analysed. • Nanolaminate stacks are better resistant to breakdown. • Localised corrosion occurs at pre-existing coating defects exposing substrate sites. • Substrate brushing and H2–Ar plasma pre-treatment hinder pit initiation. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of the corrosion properties of low alloy steel protected by 40–50 nm aluminium and tantalum mixed oxide coatings grown by atomic layer deposition is reported. Electrochemical and surface analysis was performed to address the effect of substrate surface finish and whether an oxide mixture or nanolaminate was used. There was no dissolution or breakdown for nanolaminate alumina/tantala stacks in acidic NaCl solution. Localised corrosion (pitting) took place when defects exposing the substrate pre-existed in the coating. Substrate pre-treatment by brushing and H2–Ar plasma was instrumental to block or slow down pit initiation by reducing the defect dimensions

  4. Corrosion Protection of Steel by Thin Coatings of Starch-oil Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior by jet-cooked starch-soybean oil composites on SAE 1010 steel. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate t...

  5. The corrosion protection of AISI(TM) 1010 steel by organic and inorganic zinc-rich primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated AISI 1010 steel in 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR), were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electromechanical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 1010 steel cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. The galvanic test results demonstrated a very high current between the steel cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (38.8 and 135.2 microns A/sq cm for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The results of corrosion rate determinations demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. EIS equivalent circuit parameters confirmed this conclusion. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application on solid rocket booster steel hardware.

  6. Chromate-free Hybrid Coating for Corrosion Protection of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets have been finally produced via organic-inorganic surface coating process on the zinc surface to enhance corrosion resistance and afford additional functional properties. Recently, POSCO has been developed a variety of chromate-free coated steels that are widely used in household, construction and automotive applications. New organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions as chromate alternatives are comprised of surface modified silicate with silane coupling agent and inorganic corrosion inhibitors as an aqueous formulation. In this paper we have prepared new type of hybrid coatings and evaluated quality performances such as corrosion resistance, spot weldability, thermal tolerance, and paint adhesion property etc. The electrogalvanized steels with these coating solutions exhibit good anti-corrosion property compared to those of chromate coated steels. Detailed components composition of coating solutions and experimental results suggest that strong binding between organic-inorganic hybrid coating layer and zinc surface plays a key role in the advanced quality performances

  7. Multilayer Al2O3/TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition coatings for the corrosion protection of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is used to deposit conformal nanometric layers onto different substrates. In this paper, characterization of different ALD layers has been carried out in order to evaluate the suitability of this deposition technolnique for the corrosion protection of stainless steel substrates. Al2O3, TiO2 and multilayer configurations, have been deposited on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel and have then been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers indentation and potentiodynamic polarizations (PP). AFM has been used to obtain a morphological characterization and to evaluate the thickness of the depositions. SEM has been used to investigate the presence of deposition defects. GDOES has been used to obtain a compositional profile. Vickers indentations were used in order to evaluate the resistance to delamination. PPs have been used in order to evaluate the corrosion protection. The results have showed that corrosion resistance can be effectively enhanced. Multilayer configuration proved to be more effective than single layers configurations. - Highlights: ? Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coatings with different thicknesses were tested. ? Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy gave in-depth composition profiles. ? Corrosion resistance was strongly enhanced by ALD. ? Coating to substrate adhesion was ioating to substrate adhesion was improved for thin and multilayer coatings. ? Multilayer ALD configurations proved to be more protective than single layers.

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of bilayer coatings of poly(N-methylaniline) and polypyrrole on mild steel and their corrosion protection performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The bilayers of poly(N-methylaniline) and polypyrrole-dodecylsulfate were synthesized. ? These films on mild steel were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, FTIR and FESEM. ? DS dopant allows permeation to cations and decreases the ingress of chloride ions. ? The PNMA/PPy-DS bilayer coating exhibited the best corrosion resistance in 0.5 M HCl. ? The protective properties of polymers was developed by preparing their bilayer coatings. - Abstract: Homopolymer and bilayer coatings of poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) and polypyrrole-dodecylsulfate (PPy-DS) have been electropolymerized on a mild steel (MS) surface by the potentiodynamic method in aqueous oxalic acid solutions. In order to include dodecylsulfate ion as dopant in the polypyrrole, sodium dodecylsulfate was also added to the polymerization solution of pyrrole. Characterization of coatings was carried out by the cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Corrosion behavior of the polymer coated MS electrodes was investigated in highly aggressive 0.5 M HCl solution by the Tafel test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Corrosion test revealed that among the protective coatings obtained, the PNMA/PPy-DS bilayer exhibited the best corrosion resistance at all immersion times.

  9. Protection of type 316 austenitic stainless steel from intergranular stress corrosion cracking by thermo-mechanical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermomechanical treatment that causes carbide stabilizing aging of cold worked material followed by recrystallization heating made standard stainless steels highly resistant to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in different test environments. After a typical thermal history of simulated welding, several IGSCC susceptibility tests were made. The results showed that the treatment was successful in type 316 steel in wide range of conditions, while type 304 was protected only to a small extent even by closely controlled treatment. Response of the materials to the sensitizing heating in terms of impurity segregation at grain boundaries was also examined by means of microchemical analysis. Advantage of method is that no special care is required in selecting heats of material, so that conventional type 316 is usable by improving the mechanical properties substantially through the treatment. In some optimized cases the mechanical property improvement was typically recognized by the yield strength by about 20% higher at room temperature, compared with the material mill annealed. (author)

  10. Incorporation of Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposite in an epoxy coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Gia Vu; Truc Trinh, Anh; To, Thi Xuan Hang; Duong Nguyen, Thuy; Trang Nguyen, Thu; Hoan Nguyen, Xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this study Fe3O4/CNTs composite with magnetic property was prepared by attaching magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by hydrothermal method. The obtained Fe3O4/CNTs composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe3O4/CNTs composite was then incorporated into an epoxy coating at concentration of 3 wt%. Corrosion protection of epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adhesion measurement. The impedance measurements show that Fe3O4/CNTs composite enhanced the corrosion protection of epoxy coating. The corrosion resistance of the carbon steel coated by epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was significantly higher than that of carbon steel coated by clear epoxy coating and epoxy coating containing CNTs. FE-SEM photographs of fracture surface of coatings showed good dispersion of Fe3O4/CNTs composite in the epoxy matrix.

  11. Multilayer graphene for long-term corrosion protection of stainless steel bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Motivated by similar investigations recently published (Pu et al., 2015), we report a comparative corrosion study of three sets of samples relevant as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: stainless steel, stainless steel with a nickel seed layer (Ni/SS) and stainless steel with Ni seed layer coated by a multi-layered graphene thin film (G/Ni/SS). The graphene film, synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), has a moderate amount of defects according to Raman spectroscopy. Short/medium-term corrosion test shows no significant advantage of using G/Ni/SS rather than Ni/SS, both samples exhibiting a similar trend, thus questioning the short-term positive effect of graphene coatings. However, partial immersion in boiling seawater for three weeks reveals a clear superiority of the graphene coating with respect to steel just protected by Ni. After the test, the graphene film is still intact with unchanged defect density. Our results show that even non-perfect multilayer graphene films can considerably increase the lifetime of future-generation bipolar plates for fuel cells.

  12. Preparation of crosslinked amphiphilic silver nanogel as thin film corrosion protective layer for steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ezzat, Abdelrahman O

    2014-01-01

    Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a new developed method via reaction of AgNO3 and oleic acid with the addition of a trace amount of Fe3+ ions. Emulsion polymerization at room temperature was employed to prepare a core-shell silver nanoparticle with controllable particle size. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) were used as a crosslinker, and as redox initiator system, respectively for crosslinking polymerization. The structure and morphology of the silver nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Monolayers of silver nanoparticle were self-assembled on the fresh active surface of the steel electrode and have been tested as a corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 M HCl solution. The results of polarization measurements showed that nanogel particles act as a mixed type inhibitor. PMID:25036152

  13. Preparation of Crosslinked Amphiphilic Silver Nanogel as Thin Film Corrosion Protective Layer for Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a new developed method via reaction of AgNO3 and oleic acid with the addition of a trace amount of Fe3+ ions. Emulsion polymerization at room temperature was employed to prepare a core-shell silver nanoparticle with controllable particle size. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS were used as a crosslinker, and as redox initiator system, respectively for crosslinking polymerization. The structure and morphology of the silver nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM. The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Monolayers of silver nanoparticle were self-assembled on the fresh active surface of the steel electrode and have been tested as a corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 M HCl solution. The results of polarization measurements showed that nanogel particles act as a mixed type inhibitor.

  14. In-Situ AFM and EIS Study of Waterborne Acrylic Latex Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Ecco, Luiz; Delmas, Gregory; Whitehouse, Nigel; Collins, Peter; Deflorian, Flavio; Pan, Jinshan

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion protection for carbon steel by three waterborne styrene-acrylic latex coatings with different glass transition temperature (Tg) and levels of hydrophobicity has been studied by in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.0 wt% NaCl solution. The AFM images reveal the micro-and nano-structure of and pinholes in the coatings as well as their changes during exposure in the solution, whereas the EIS spectra vs. time of exposur...

  15. Failure mechanism of thin Al2O3 coatings grown by atomic layer deposition for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined analysis by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of the corrosion protection provided to carbon steel by thin (50 nm) Al2O3 coatings grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and its failure mechanism is reported. In spite of excellent sealing properties, the results show an average dissolution rate of the alumina coating of ?7 nm h-1 in neutral 0.2 M NaCl and increasing porosity of the remaining layers with increasing immersion time. Alumina dissolution is triggered by the penetration of the solution via cracks/pinholes through the coating to the substrate surface where oxygen reduction takes place, raising the pH. At defective substrate surface sites of high aspect ratio and concentrated residual mechanical stress (along scratches) presumably exposing a higher steel surface fraction, localized dissolution of the coating is promoted by a more facile access of the solution to the substrate surface enhancing oxygen reduction. De-adhesion of the coating is also promoted in these sites by the ingress of the anodic dissolution trenching the steel surface. Localized corrosion of the alloy (i.e. pitting) is triggered prior to complete dissolution of the alumina film on the elsewhere still coated surface matrix.

  16. Inhibitors of steel corrosion in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper studies the effect of methyl ethers of 10-hydroxy-11-trimethyl-ammonium-iodide and 10-hydroxy-11-morpholine-iodide of undecane acid on corrosion and polarization of 3 Steel in 5 N solution of sulfuric acid. It is shown that with up to 0.5 g/l iodide concentration the rate of corrosion of 3 Steel essentially decreases and Z protection level constitutes 90.2-94.1 %

  17. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  18. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simescu, Florica; Idrissi, Hassane

    2008-12-01

    We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  19. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Simescu and Hassane Idrissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO46(OH2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  20. Surface Analysis of Carbon Steel Protected from Corrosion by a New Ternary Inhibitor Formulation Containing Phosphonated Glycine, Zn2+ and Citrate

    OpenAIRE

    Boyapati Venkata Appa Rao; Madala Venkateswara Rao; Sirugudu Srinivasa Rao; Bojja Sreedhar

    2013-01-01

    Studies on surface analysis of carbon steel protected from corrosion in low chloride and nearly neutral aqueous environment by a synergistic mixture containing N,N-bis(phosphonomethyl) glycine (BPMG), zinc ions and citrate ions are presented. The effect of addition of citrate to the binary system, BPMG-Zn2+, is quite significant and is well explored through various studies. The surface protective nature is maintained in the pH range 5 - 9. Potentiodynamic polarization studies inferred that th...

  1. Corrosion protection of type 304 stainless steel bipolar plates of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells by doped polyaniline coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China); Chen, J. [Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China); Zeng, C.L. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-04-02

    Polyaniline coating doped with dodecylbenzesulfonate anions is electrodeposited galvanostatically on type 304 stainless steel used as bipolar plates of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell from a basic solution of 0.3 M aniline monomer solution containing sodium dodecylbenzesulfonate as a supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical measurements in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and in 0.3 M HCl show that the polyaniline coating increases the free corrosion potential of the steel by more than 300 mV and 450 mV, respectively, with a corrosion rate more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the uncoated steel. Long-term exposure studies show that the coating is highly stable and inhibits the corrosion of the steel effectively. (author)

  2. Corrosion of steel in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tuutti, Kyo?sti

    1982-01-01

    The research work that is presented in this thesis aims at mapping out the various mechanisms which control the process of steel corrosion in concrete. The process of corrosion is illustrated with a schematic model where the service life is divided into a period of initiation and a period of propagation. The time up to the initiation of the corrosion process is determined by the flow of penetrating substances into the concrete cover and by the threshold concentration for corrosion to start. T...

  3. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  4. Evaluation of the protection behaviour of reinforcement steel against corrosion induced by chlorides in reinforced mortar specimens; Avaliacao do comportamento frente a corrosao pelo ataque de cloreto de argamassa armada apos varios tratamentos protetores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivelaro, Marcos

    2002-07-01

    In this work various treatments for protecting reinforcing steels against corrosion induced by chlorides have been evaluated. Additives to mortars and surface treatments given to reinforcing steels were evaluated as corrosion protection measures. In the preliminary tests the corrosion resistance of a CA 50 steel treated by immersion in nearly 50 different solutions, was determined. The solutions were prepared with tannins (from various sources) and/or benzotriazole, and during immersion, a surface film formed on the steel. The corrosion resistance of the coated steels was evaluated in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution with 5% (wt) NaCl. Preliminary tests were also carried out with mortars reinforced with uncoated steel to which tannin or lignin was added. Two organic coatings, a monocomponent and a bicomponent type, formulated specially for this investigation, with both tannin and benzotriazole, were also tested in the preliminary tests to select the coating with better corrosion protection property. The bicomponent type (epoxy coating) showed better performance than the monocomponent type coating, and the former was therefore chosen to investigate the corrosion performance on CA 50 steel inside mortar specimens. From the preliminary tests, two solutions with tannin from two sources, Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) and Brazilian tea (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill), to which benzotriazole and phosphoric acid were added, were chosen. Mortar specimens reinforced with CA50 steel treated by immersion in these two solutions were prepared. Also, epoxy coated CA50 steel was tested as reinforcement inside mortar specimens. Mortars reinforced with uncoated CA50 steel were also prepared and corrosion tested for comparison. The effect of tannin and lignin as separate additives to the mortar on the corrosion resistance of uncoated steel was also studied. The reinforced mortar specimens were tested with various cycles of immersion for 2 days in 3.5% (wt) NaCl followed by with air drying for 5 days. The corrosion tests used in this investigation were gravimetric and electrochemical tests. The results showed satisfactory corrosion performance for all kinds of protection measures. However, the performance depended on the type of protection used. The best performance was obtained with tannin containing epoxy coated steel, followed by the steel treated by immersion in tannin containing solutions and finally by the addition of tannin (Black Wattle) or lignin to the mortar. All the protection measures evaluated in this study are economically viable and environmentally friendly and can therefore be considered for protecting reinforcement steels against corrosion. (author)

  5. Layered double hydroxides as containers of inhibitors in organic coatings for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, To Thi Xuan; Truc, Trinh Anh; Duong, Nguyen Thuy; Pe?be?re, Nadine; Olivier, Marie-georges

    2012-01-01

    The present work focuses on the use of layered double hydroxides (LDH) as containers for corrosion inhibitors in an epoxy coating. 2-Benzothiazolylthio-succinic acid (BTSA), used as corrosion inhibitor, was intercalated by co-precipitation in magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides. The obtained LDH-BTSA was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. BTSA release from LDH-BTSA in NaCl solutions was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The ...

  6. Development of Nb2O5|Cu composite as AISI 1020 steel thermal spray coating for protection against corrosion by soil in buried structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Nb2O|Cu corrosion-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 steel substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two corrosively aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure protection. (author)

  7. Tantalum oxide nanocoatings prepared by atomic layer and filtered cathodic arc deposition for corrosion protection of steel: Comparative surface and electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? 50 nm Ta2O5 coatings grown by ALD at 160 °C and FCAD for protection of steel. ? Combined analysis by ToF-SIMS, XPS, polarization curves and EIS. ? Relation between chemical architecture and corrosion protection properties studied. ? Localized corrosion by pitting with absence of coating dissolution demonstrated. ? Origin and role of spurious interfacial oxide promoting coating breakdown emphasized. -- Abstract: A comparative study by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, i–E polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of the corrosion protection of low alloy steel by 50 nm thick tantalum oxide coatings prepared by low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (FCAD) is reported. The data evidence the presence of a spurious oxide layer mostly consisting of iron grown by transient thermal oxidation at the ALD film/substrate interface in the initial stages of deposition and its suppression by pre-treatment in the FCAD process. Carbonaceous contamination (organic and carbidic) resulting from incomplete removal of the organic precursor is the major cause of the poorer sealing properties of the ALD film. No coating dissolution is demonstrated in neutral or acid 0.2 M NaCl solutions. In acid solution localized corrosion by pitting proceeds faster with the ALD than with the FCAD coating. The roles of the pre-existing channel defects exposing the substrate surface and of the spurious interfacial oxide promoting coating breakdown and/or delamination are emphasized

  8. Corrosion protection of cold-rolled steel with alkyd paint coatings composited with submicron-structure types polypyrrole-modified nano-size alumina and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Alumina/carbon nanotube (CNT) supported polypyrrole (PPy) particles were prepared. ? Various paint compositions with alkyd binder were immersion tested. ? Alumina-supported PPy based coating provided steel protection in NaCl solution. ? Polyelectrolyte modified CNT embedded coating afforded long-term stable protection. ? sulphonated CNT loaded coating indicated firm corrosion resistance in HCL solution. ? Results are interpreted on the basis of nano and microstructure of the particles. - Abstract: This paper is focused on studying corrosion protection of cold-rolled steel with alkyd paint coatings comprising nano-size alumina and either polystyrene-sulphonate (PSS) modified or sulphonated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) supported polypyrrole (PPy). Single layer coatings (in thickness of 40 ± 5 ?m) comprising PPy deposited alumina and PSS modified MWCNT supported PPy afforded viable protection during the 1 M sodium chloride test. The coatings containing PSS modified and weakly sulphonated MWCNTs (at volume fractions of 9.9 × 10?4 and 2.5 × 10?4) with PPy volume fractions of 3.5 × 10?3 and 2.5 × 10?3 provided effective corrosion prevention during the 1 M sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution tests. While inhibitor particles were characterised by infrared spectroscopy, corrosion products formed at the paint–steel interface were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. spectroscopy. Apart from the electron microscopy observations, rheology study of three-dimensional structure of the inhibitor particles was performed in dispersions at similar compositions to those used for the paint formulations. Thus, protection mechanism relating to both types of immersion tests is discussed in terms of properties of the inhibitor particles and their microstructure in the coatings.

  9. Marine corrosion of mild steel at Lumut, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ong Shiou; Potty, Narayanan Sambu; Liew, Mohd. Shahir

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion rate of structural steels in the adverse marine and offshore environments affects the economic interest of offshore structures since the loss of steel may have significant impact on structural safety and performance. With more emphasis to maintain existing structures in service for longer time and hence to defer replacement costs, there is increasing interest in predicting corrosion rate at a given location for a given period of exposure once the protection coating or cathodic protection is lost. The immersion depth, salinity, steel composition and water pollution will be taken into account. Various corrosion allowances are prescribed for structural members by different standards. There are no studies to determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for steel structures in marine environment in Malaysia. The objectives of the research are to determine the nature and rate of corrosion in mm/year for steel structures in marine environment. It also tries to identify whether the corrosion rate is affected by differences in the chemical composition of the steels, and microalgae. Two sets of corrosion coupons of Type 3 Steel consisting of mild steel were fabricated and immersed in seawater using steel frames. The corrosion rate of the coupon in mm/ per year is estimated based on the material weight loss with time in service. The results are compared with recommendations of the code.

  10. Surface Analysis of Carbon Steel Protected from Corrosion by a New Ternary Inhibitor Formulation Containing Phosphonated Glycine, Zn2+ and Citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyapati Venkata Appa Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on surface analysis of carbon steel protected from corrosion in low chloride and nearly neutral aqueous environment by a synergistic mixture containing N,N-bis(phosphonomethyl glycine (BPMG, zinc ions and citrate ions are presented. The effect of addition of citrate to the binary system, BPMG-Zn2+, is quite significant and is well explored through various studies. The surface protective nature is maintained in the pH range 5 - 9. Potentiodynamic polarization studies inferred that the ternary inhibitor is a mixed inhibitor. Impedance studies of the metal/solution interface indicated that the surface film is highly protective against the corrosion of carbon steel in the chosen environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS analysis of the surface film showed the presence of the elements namely iron, phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and zinc. Deconvolution spectra of these elements in the surface film inferred the presence of oxides/hydroxides of iron(III, Zn(OH2 and [Fe(III, Zn(II-BPMG-citrate] heteropolynuclear multiligand complex. This inference is further supported by the reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the surface film. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM is presented for both the corroded and protected metal surfaces. Based on all these results, a plausible mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed.

  11. Corrosion protection of steel in sulfuric acid using urotropin and additions with other inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that composite additives of inhibitors (I-1-A, I-1-B, BPV, and others) with urotropin + HCl are highly efficient in inhibiting sulfuric acid attack and hydrogenation of steel, their efficiency being highest at elevated temperatures (60, 90 deg C)

  12. Protection of Mild Steel Against Sulphides Corrosion In Petroleum Oil Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aggressive properties of the media encountered when drilling for oil derive from the fact that they contain an abundance of mineralized water, as well as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. Particularly vulnerable to corrosion and installation of old deposits, where highly mineralized water or sometimes even sea water, is pumped into the bed so as to increase the oil yield, and where acid treatment is also carried out, the injection of such water into the bed creates favourable conditions for the development of microbiological processes promoting the life activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria and contributing to the appearance of hydrogen sulphide in the system

  13. Volatile corrosion inhibitor film formation on carbon steel surface and its inhibition effect on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI), bis-piperidiniummethyl-urea (BPMU), was developed for temporary protection of carbon steel. Its vapor corrosion inhibition property was evaluated under simulated operational conditions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to study the inhibition effect of BPMU on the corrosion of carbon steel with a thin stimulated atmospheric corrosion water layers. Adsorption of BPMU on carbon steel surfaces was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that BPMU can form a protective film on the metal surface, which protects the metal against further corrosion. The structure of the protective film was suggested as one BPMU molecule chelated with one Fe atom to form a complex with two hexa-rings

  14. Steel corrosion in radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaborative study is being conducted by CNEA and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America) to investigate the effects of tank waste chemistry on radioactive waste storage tank corrosion. Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks that contain a combination of salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide. The USDOE, Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site, has identified a need to conduct a laboratory study to better understand the effects of radioactive waste chemistry on the corrosion of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The USDOE science need (RL-WT079-S Double-Shell Tanks Corrosion Chemistry) called for a multi year effort to identify waste chemistries and temperatures within the double-shell tank (DST) operating limits for corrosion control and operating temperature range that may not provide the expected corrosion protection and to evaluate future operations for the conditions outside the existing corrosion database. Assessment of corrosion damage using simulated (non-radioactive) waste is being made of the double-shell tank wall carbon steel alloy. Evaluation of the influence of exposure time, and electrolyte composition and/or concentration is being also conducted. (author)

  15. Sol-gel deposition of ZrO2 films in air and in oxygen-free atmospheres for chemical protection of 304 stainless steel : a comparative corrosion study

    OpenAIRE

    Aegerter, Michel A.; Lima-neto, P.; Perdomo, L. F.; Avaca, Luis A.

    1999-01-01

    ZrO2 coatings for corrosion protection were deposited on 304 stainless steel by sol-gel method using zirconium propoxide as precursor and densified in air and in oxygen-free (argon or nitrogen) atmospheres. XRD and IR data of the films were practically independent of the atmosphere used in the densification step showing that the ceramic oxide is properly formed from the precursor. The corrosion behavior of the stainless steel substrate was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves in the...

  16. Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel

    OpenAIRE

    Shramko, Alexander; Kozlowsky, Alfred; Belaja, Elena; Proidak, Yuriy; Pinchuk, Sofia; Gubenko, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of cor...

  17. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.

    La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.

  18. Corrosion fatigue of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion fatigue phenomena can be classified into two main groups according to the electrochemical state of the metal surface in the presence of electrolytes: the active and the passive state with an important sub-group of corrosion fatigue in the unstable passive state. The allowable stress for structures exposed to the conjoint action of corrosion and fatigue is influenced by many factors: kind of media, number of cycles, frequency, mean stress, size, notches, loading mode, alloy composition and mechanical strength. A critical literature review shows contradictory results if a classification by the electrochemical surface state is not applied. Case histories and counter measures illustrate the practical importance of corrosion fatigue in many branches of industry as well as the urgent need for a better knowledge about the mutual influence of the phenomena to get rules by which the engineer can appraise the risk of corrosion fatigue. (orig.)

  19. Machineries corrosion and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author.The phenomena of corrosion in acquiring increasing attention due to wear of friction parts in machines that will lead to loss of efficiency of these parts and decrease of the quality of the products in addition to the threat to industrial security beside massive power consumption used to operate these parts and machines. Some 30% of the national income in developed countries is wasted in replacement and maintenance of corroded parts in machines in spite of massive efforts to control this important economic issue. These parts will discuss the topic of corrosion in machines, types and causes, the methods to control and protection. There are lots of ways to confront and protect machines from corrosion of which: To depend on lubrication through injecting oil under definite pressure to reach friction parts, this can be managed more easily by supplying contact surfaces with holes for oil to reach the area of contact. Through selection of highly resistant metals for corrosion and highly resistant for high temperature solid and durable metals. To resort to know thermal treatment as to form hard surface layer to bear the applied load through nitrogen case hardening and carbonization or sulphurization. To depend on optimum design for friction parts as to lessen the friction factor, in using ball bearing instead of slide bearing in this field. To use surface membranes that adhere to the surface of solid body to protect this surface and to bear friction, in this way it wile and to bear friction, in this way it will erode and be replaced; thickness of this layer ranges between few microns and millimeters, like those layers produced through expulsive painting, chemical reaction, or through magnetic fields wrapping or wrapping using titanium azotic layer through employment for plasma current

  20. BWR steel containment corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report

  1. Corrosion inhibition performance of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole compounds for protection of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of some mercapto functional azole compounds on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution was studied by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization studies showed depression of cathodic and anodic polarization curves in the presence of mercapto functional azole compounds, indicating mixed type corrosion inhibition of the compounds. Double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance values were derived from EIS results. Changes in impedance parameters are indicative of adsorption of these compounds on the metal surface. Surface analysis SEM/EDX showing presence of sulfur on the surface confirmed the adsorption of the azole compounds on the mild steel surface as showed by electrochemical methods. Both compounds contain a pyridine-like nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom in their molecular structure, while they differ in only one heteroatom: oxygen in the oxazole ring and pyrrole-like nitrogen in the imidazole ring. The results of the electrochemical techniques revealed that changing the pyrrole like nitrogen atom to oxygen atom in the azole ring results in a decrease of corrosion inhibition performance in hydrochloric acid solution, which could be related to more negative charge on pyrrole-like nitrogen atom in comparison to oxygen atom as depicted by quantum chemical calculations.

  2. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  3. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  4. Corrosion protection of reusable surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sadiq; Bernardo, Mildred

    2002-01-01

    To understand the corrosion properties of surgical scissors, 416 stainless steel disks and custom electrodes were used as simulated surfaces under various conditions. These simulated surfaces were exposed to tap water and 400-ppm synthetic hard water as Ca2CO3 under different conditions. The samples were evaluated by various techniques for corrosion potential and the impact of environmental conditions on the integrity of the passive film. The electrodes were used to monitor the corrosion behavior by potentiodynamic polarization technique in water both in the presence and absence of a cleaning product. The surface topography of the 416 stainless steel disks was characterized by visual observations and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface chemistry of the passive film on the surface of the scissors was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggest that surgical instruments made from 416 stainless steel are not susceptible to uniform corrosion; however, they do undergo localized corrosion. The use of suitable cleaning products can offer protection against localized corrosion during the cleaning step. More importantly, the use of potentiodynamic polarization techniques allowed for a quick and convenient approach to evaluate the corrosion properties of surgical instruments under a variety of simulated-use environmental conditions. PMID:12369423

  5. Corrosion and strength properties of vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of corrosion and strength characteristics of domestic 15Kh2NMFA and 10GN2MFA steels to the properties of foreign vessel steel marks is conducted. It is shown that the domestic low-alloyed steel possess corrosion strength, corrosion thermal fatigue, cyclic crack resistance in high parameter water, which do not yield to the foreign steel properties and meet the basic requirements imposed on the nuclear power engineering structural materials

  6. Characterization of SiO2-TiO2 Hybrid Corrosion Protective Coatings on Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtay, Sebahattin

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel coatings were prepared and applied on a mild steel substrate using dip coating technique and subsequently heat treated at 200 and 300 °C to improve the corrosion resistance. The coating sols were synthesized using Glycidoxytrimethoxysilane and titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor materials. The corrosion resistances of the both coated and uncoated samples were evaluated by the Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in NaCl solution. The microstructure of coated specimens was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transformed infrared and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were used to identify the presence of various functional groups in the coating solutions. A comparison of the corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated mild steel was presented. i corr values of coated specimens heat treated at 200 °C were between 6.9 and 9.2 times smaller than those of uncoated specimen. In the case of coated specimens heat treated at 300 °C, i corr values were 4.4 and 5 times smaller than those of uncoated specimen. The coating film was noted to be smooth and between 7.2- and 7.5-µm thick. The measured electrochemical parameters indicated that the corrosion resistance was improved by the coating film. The elasticity of the coating can be improved by the presence of organic groups in the coating which reduces stress and crack formations during sintering. Ultimately, crack-free and elastic coating was obtained by heat treating of organic-inorganic coating at as low as 200 °C.

  7. Effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage of reinforced concrete structures is mainly caused by chloride or carbonation induced corrosion of steel. Cathodic protection is a very effective measure for corrosion control of steel in concrete, especially in chloride contaminated concrete. In this paper, effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement is presented. Cathodic polarization of reinforcements in concrete was done under different submerged conditions. Cyclic potentiodynamic tests were used to determine the effect of cathodic protection on the behavior of the steel. Pitting appeared on the non-protected steel, but was not observed on the cathodically protected steel. microscopic photographs show that a close film exists on the protected steel, while the non-protected steel's film is loose. Investigated results have proved the effect of cathodic protection in restoring or strengthening passive film on the steel reinforcement

  8. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS might be used for detection ofMIC. EN is a suitable technique to characterise the type of corrosion attack, but is unsuitable for corrosion rate estimation. The concentric electrodes galvanic probe arrangement initiates localised corrosion on the anode and seems applicable to evaluate the risk of MIC. Hydrogen permeation measurements are very useful to monitor hydrogen induced cracking accelerated by MIC.

  9. Electrodeposition of polyaniline–carbon nanotubes composite films and investigation on their role in corrosion protection of austenitic stainless steel by SNIFTIR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite films of polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by electrochemical co-deposition from solutions of the corresponding monomer containing two different kinds of CNTs. The first type was commercial (diameter = 110–170 nm, length = 5–9 ?m) and the second one was home-made (diameter = 30 nm, length = 5–20 ?m). The electrochemical behaviour of PANI–CNTs composite films was investigated with Cyclic Voltammetry and the surface morphology was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Subtractively Normalised Interfacial FT-IR procedure was used to investigate the presence of corrosion products when the films were deposited on stainless steel substrates and exposed to acid environment. The spectral investigations were utilised to understand the role of composite films in the corrosion protection and to discriminate the best performance CNTs.

  10. Synthesis and application of hybrid polymer composites based on silver nanoparticles as corrosion protection for line pipe steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ezzat, Abdurrahman O

    2014-01-01

    A facile method was developed to synthesize in high yield dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with small particle sizes of less than 10 nm. Silver nitrate was reduced to silver nanoparticles by p-chloroaniline in the presence of polyoxyethylene maleate 4-nonyl-2-propylene-phenol (NMA) as a stabilizer. The produced AgNPs were used to prepare hybrid polymer based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm), 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate (KPS) using a semi-batch solution polymerization method. The prepared AgNPs and hybrid polymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion inhibition activity of the AgNPs and hybrid polymer towards steel corrosion in the presence of hydrochloric acid has been investigated by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Polarization measurements indicate that the AgNPs and hybrid polymer acts as a mixed type-inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. The results of potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements clearly showed that the inhibition mechanism involves blocking of the steel surface by inhibitor molecules via adsorption. PMID:24840897

  11. Synthesis and Application of Hybrid Polymer Composites Based on Silver Nanoparticles as Corrosion Protection for Line Pipe Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to synthesize in high yield dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with small particle sizes of less than 10 nm. Silver nitrate was reduced to silver nanoparticles by p-chloroaniline in the presence of polyoxyethylene maleate 4-nonyl-2-propylene-phenol (NMA as a stabilizer. The produced AgNPs were used to prepare hybrid polymer based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and potassium persulfate (KPS using a semi-batch solution polymerization method. The prepared AgNPs and hybrid polymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The corrosion inhibition activity of the AgNPs and hybrid polymer towards steel corrosion in the presence of hydrochloric acid has been investigated by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. Polarization measurements indicate that the AgNPs and hybrid polymer acts as a mixed type-inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. The results of potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements clearly showed that the inhibition mechanism involves blocking of the steel surface by inhibitor molecules via adsorption.

  12. Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel Reinforcement in Concrete — a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Ghoreishiamiri, Seyedmojtaba; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the widely used construction materials for bridges, buildings, platforms and tunnels. Though reinforced concrete is capable of withstanding a large range of severe environments including marine, industrial and alpine conditions, there are still a large number of failures in concrete structures for many reasons. Either carbonation or chloride attack is the main culprit which is due to depassivation of reinforced steel and subsequently leads to rapid steel corrosion. Among many corrosion prevention measures, application of corrosion inhibitors play a vital role in metal protection. Numerous range of corrosion inhibitors were reported for concrete protection that were also used commercially in industries. This review summarizes the application of natural products as corrosion inhibitors for concrete protection and also scrutinizes various factors influencing its applicability.

  13. Monitoring Corrosion of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion. PMID:24558346

  14. Monitoring corrosion of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion. PMID:24558346

  15. Corrosion Characteristics Of Aluminum And Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion phenomena on metals and alloys often need serious treatment, because such phenomena affect to the lifetime of the materials . Even in certain cases, unsupervised and uncontrolled corrosion processes my result in an installation accident. This study investigates corrosion phenomena n metals, among others are conditions which affect corrosion and its kinds occurring on aluminum and stainless steel

  16. Method for corrosion protection at pipe junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieszelewicz, G.; Valentine, B.A.

    1990-09-18

    This invention relates to a method of producing rubber-ring steel jointed pipe junctions having high internal and external long-term corrosion protection, tight pipe end tolerances, and being capable of withstanding high operating pressures. According to one embodiment, the invention is directed towards and primarily described for producing steel pipe for use in underground pipelines. According to the invention, controlled heating is applied to a pipe body which is to be joined to an adjacent pipe. A protective layer or coating of material is applied to the ends of each pipe by a time/temperature function process. The pipe is then allowed to cool, the terminations of the protective layer or coating are bevelled, and the complementary ends of the pipes are mated together to form a sealed and corrosion resistant joint. 1 fig.

  17. PROTECCIÓN CONTRA LA CORROSIÓN POR SALES FUNDIDAS DE UN ACERO AL CARBONO POR ROCIADO TERMICO / (PROTECTION AGAINST THE HOT CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL BY THERMAL SPRAYING)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSE, MARULANDA; ANDRÉS, GARCÍA; JOSE, VITOLA.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la corrosión por sales fundidas mediante la técnica gravimétrica en un acero de bajo carbono rociado térmicamente con una aleación de acero inoxidable, en una mezcla de sal con 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, entre 700ºC - 850ºC. Los resultados de las pruebas gravimétricas mostraron una deficiente [...] protección de la capa rociada térmicamente y se presentó alta degradación en el recubrimiento protector, debido a que las temperaturas de exposición fueron mayores que las temperaturas de fusión de las sales. Se concluyó que la velocidad de corrosión aumenta con la temperatura y disminuye con el tiempo de exposición. Abstract in english The hot corrosion was evaluated by gravimetric techniques in a low carbon steel protected by thermal spraying with a stainless alloy, in a mixture of salt 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, between 700ºC - 850ºC.. The gravimetric tests showed a weak protection of the layer thermal spraying. The test results sho [...] wed a weak protection of the layer thermally sprayed and presented high degradation in the protective coatings because the exposure temperatures were higher than merging temperatures of the salts. It was concluded that the rate of corrosion increases with temperature and decreases with time of exposure.

  18. AC-Induced Corrosion of Underground Steel Pipelines. Faradaic Rectification under Cathodic Protection: I. Theoretical Approach with Negligible Electrolyte Resistance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Bernard, Tribollet; Hisasi, Takenouti; Michel, Meyer.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubulações subterrâneas protegidos por um revestimento grosso e por polarização catódica podem sofrer danos externos sérios por corrosão na presença de tensão de corrente alternada (AC) dispersa induzida por sistemas industriais de transporte elétrico de [...] alta tensão, como linhas de tensão ou ferrovias eletrizadas. A origem do aumento da corrosão vem da não-linearidade das características corrente-potencial da interface metal-solo. Neste trabalho, avaliaremos teoricamente o aumento da densidade de corrente de corrosão e o deslocamento de potencial induzido por um sinal AC de alta amplitude a modelos de sistemas sofrendo corrosão: curvas de polarização anódicas obedecendo uma lei exponencial em relação ao potencial, e processo catódico sob a cinética de ativação-difusão mista. A originalidade do presente trabalho se encontra no uso de um número relativamente pequeno de variáveis sem dimensão para descrever a retificação faradaica no deslocamento do potencial e no aumento da corrente de corrosão. Neste artigo, o efeito da resistência do eletrólito foi negligenciado. Abstract in english Underground pipelines protected with a thick coating and by cathodic polarisation may suffer a serious external corrosion damage in the presence of stray alternating current (AC) voltage induced by high voltage industrial electric transport system, such a [...] s power lines or electrified railroads. The origin of the corrosion enhancement comes from the nonlinearity of the currentpotential characteristics of the metal-soil interface. In this paper, we will theoretically evaluate the increase of the corrosion current density and the potential shift induced by a high amplitude AC signal to models of corroding systems: anodic polarisation curves obeying an exponential law with respect to the potential, and cathodic process under the mixed activation-diffusion kinetics. The originality of the present work lies in the use of a relatively small number of dimensionless variables to describe the faradaic rectification for the corrosion potential shift and the corrosion current enhancement. In this article, the effect of the electrolyte resistance was neglected.

  19. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    1998-01-01

    An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties of high-strength pipeline steel and the concentration of hydrogen present in the steel. B. Determine the degree hydrogen absorption by cathodically protected steel exposed in natural soil sediment, which include activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). C. Compare the above points with fracture mechanical considerations on the level of stress intensity actually present in pipelines during normal operational conditions. The results were used for a discussion - based on well established fracture mechanical relations - on which set of conditions (CP-level and operating pipeline pressure) could give crack propagation. This resulted in threshold curves that can be used for assessment of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking as a function of operating pressure and hydrogen content - having the flaw size as discrete parameter. The results are to be used mainly on a conceptual basis, but it was indicated that the requirements for crack propagation include an overprotective CP-condition, a severe sulphate-reducing environment, as well as a large flaw (8 mm or a leak in the present case). A 1 mm flaw (which may be the maximum realistic flaw size) is believed to be unable to provoke crack propagation in this steel.

  20. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, Part I – Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; MØller, Per

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the world reinforced concrete is the most widely used construction material for buildings and civil engineering structures. Most reinforced concrete structures have performed satisfactory over many decades, but there still is an unacceptable large number of structures that deteriorate prematurely. Reinforcement corrosion is identified to be the foremost cause of deterioration. Steel in concrete is normally protected by a passive layer due the high alkalinity of the concrete pore solution; corrosion is initiated by neutralization through atmospheric carbon dioxide and by ingress of depassivation ions, especially chloride ions. The background and consequences of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures caused by steel corrosion are summarized. Selected corrosion mechanisms postulated in the literature are briefly discussed and related to observations. The key factors controlling initiation and propagation of corrosion of steel in concrete are outlined.

  1. Protection of mild steel corrosion with Schiff bases in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new Schiff bases, viz., N,N'-ethylen-bis (salicylideneamino) [S1], N,N'-isopropenyl-bis (salicylideneamino) [S2], and N-acetylacetone imine, N'-(2-hydroxybenzophenone imine) ortho-phenyl en [S3] have been investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (Ei). The three Schiff bases function as good inhibitors reaching inhibition efficiencies of ?97-98% at 300 ppm concentration. The fraction of the metal surface covered by the inhibitor is found to increase with inhibitor concentration. Of the three Schiff bases, the S shows better efficiency than the other two Schiff bases. The adsorption of the inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic calculations indicate the adsorption to be physical in nature

  2. Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3?2 and NO?3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10?4?M 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration.

  3. Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3?2 and NO?3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10?4?M; 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration. (review)

  4. Liquid Coatings for Reducing Corrosion of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Louis G.; Curran, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Inorganic coating materials are being developed to slow or stop corrosion of reinforcing steel members inside concrete structures. It is much simpler and easier to use these coating materials than it is to use conventional corrosion-inhibiting systems based on impressed electric currents. Unlike impressed electrical corrosion-inhibiting systems, these coatings do not require continuous consumption of electrical power and maintenance of power-supply equipment. Whereas some conventional systems involve the use of expensive arc-spray equipment to apply the metallic zinc used as the sacrificial anode material, the developmental coatings can be applied by use of ordinary paint sprayers. A coating material of the type under development is formulated as a liquid containing blended metallic particles and/or moisture-attracting compounds. The liquid mixture is sprayed onto a concrete structure. Experiments have shown that even though such a coat resides on the exterior surface, it generates a protective galvanic current that flows to the interior reinforcing steel members. By effectively transferring the corrosion process from the steel reinforcement to the exterior coating, the protective current slows or stops corrosion of the embedded steel. Specific formulations have been found to meet depolarization criteria of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) for complete protection of steel reinforcing bars ("rebar") embedded in concrete.

  5. Borosilicate glass corrosion in the presence of steel corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982, the corrosion behavior of radioactive high level waste glass and of inactive glasses of the same composition has been studied in the framework of a Japanese-Swedish-Swiss (JSS) project. In addition to granite and backfilling material, the influence of steel corrosion products on glass corrosion has been investigated in experiments of up to one year at 900C with a sample surface area to leachant volume ratio of 10 m-1. Leachant and steel corrosion products were separated from each other by filtration and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ?-spectroscopy. The glass corrosion layers were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It could be shown, that glass corrosion is enhanced by steel corrosion products. The quantity of corroded glass seems to be dependent on the surface area and not on the total amount of steel corrosion products in the system, suggesting a mechanism controlled by silica sorption on the steel corrosion product. If lead oxide is added to the system, glass corrosion is almost totally suppressed. 9 references, 11 figures, 4 tables

  6. METHOD FOR ARRANGEMENT OF HIGH-STRENGTH CORROSION-RESISTANT FOR EFFICIENT PROTECTION OF STEEL PIPELINES OPERATED IN THE EXTREME NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Surovtsev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. At present, the problem of main pipeline protection from corrosion is extremelyimportant. Principal gas-transport routes have the biggest length in the North areas whereclimatic and geotechnical conditions are adverse. Scientists of Voronezh State University of Architectureand Civil Engineering have developed new material, rubber concrete. This material isbased on liquid oligodienes and has unique set of operational characteristics. The material can beefficiently used as insulation material for metal pipe in the conditions of the Extreme North.Results. The method for arrangement of protective coating of metal pipe is developed on the basisof rubber concrete. The method is patented. Laboratory device which allows one to perform structuresformation of rubber mastic on the surface of metal pipe is constructed. Physicomechanicalproperties of rubber concrete as insulation material for steel pipes are determined.Conclusions. The results of experiments allow us to draw a conclusion on the expediency of the useof rubber concrete as a protection coating material for steel pipes operated in the Extreme North.

  7. Novel Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibitory effects of new synthesized compound namely 5,5'- ((1Z,1'Z-(1,4-phenylenebis(methanylylidenebis(azanylylidenebis(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (PBB on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl was investigated at different temperatures using open circuit potential (OCP, potentiodynamic polarization (PDP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Results showed that PBB inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiencies increased with the concentration of inhibitor, but decreased proportionally with temperature. Changes in impedance parameters suggested the adsorption of PBB on the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films.

  8. Microbial corrosion inhibition of mild steel in salty water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor is increasingly being curtailed by recent corrosion restrictions. This paper represents the results of the study of new biocide, antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor named 8-hydroxy-N'-(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetyl)quinoline-5-sulfonohydrazide (HQS) was used to inhibit corrosion causing sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). The effects of the inhibitor on mild steel dissolution in salty water environment were studied through weight loss measurements, electrochemical and microorganism tests. The results obtained from this study show that, the new inhibitor can decrease corrosion and microbial growth under the conditions tested. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons shows lower corrosion rate compared to the unprotected once. Cyclic polarization test reveals that, the biocide minimizes the pitting area (hysteresis). The nature of protective film formed on mild steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed that, the corrosion inhibition by the HQS on the mild steel surface significantly improved in the presence of biocide

  9. Microbial corrosion inhibition of mild steel in salty water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, A.M. [Electrochemistry and Corrosion Lab., Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Soror, T.Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Dahan, H.A. [Electrochemistry and Corrosion Lab., Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: hosnieldahan@yahoo.com; Ghazy, E.A. [Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Eweas, A.F. [Medicinal Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The use of antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor is increasingly being curtailed by recent corrosion restrictions. This paper represents the results of the study of new biocide, antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor named 8-hydroxy-N'-(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetyl)quinoline-5-sulfonohydrazide (HQS) was used to inhibit corrosion causing sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). The effects of the inhibitor on mild steel dissolution in salty water environment were studied through weight loss measurements, electrochemical and microorganism tests. The results obtained from this study show that, the new inhibitor can decrease corrosion and microbial growth under the conditions tested. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons shows lower corrosion rate compared to the unprotected once. Cyclic polarization test reveals that, the biocide minimizes the pitting area (hysteresis). The nature of protective film formed on mild steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed that, the corrosion inhibition by the HQS on the mild steel surface significantly improved in the presence of biocide.

  10. Influence of corrosion on the light steel gauge framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vladimirovna Ananina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction technology based on the light steel gauge construction is a frame technology, allowing erecting houses in a short time. The essence of this technology is using panels of light steel galvanized perforated and non-perforated profile, which form the metal frame of the building. There are many characteristics of LSGF that have been explored for nowadays. One of the main such characteristics is corrosion resistance. Corrosion protection of light steel structures are extremely important. For the construction of steel structures, electrochemical corrosion has the main importance. Electrochemical corrosion processes take place in aqueous solutions. When the metal surface in contact with the electrolyte solution there is an interaction of the metal with charged particles of solution and the transition metal ions into the solution. It is known that stress corrosion cracking occurs under the action of tensile stresses, which cause dilation of cracks. Compressive stresses counteract cracking, causing the closure of cracks. Growth of carbon content in steel leads to growth of its resistance to stress corrosion including in environments of nitrides and hydroxides. Reducing the grain size of steel increases its resistance to cracking, which is associated with the increase of cracking of path and strength increase. In a high risk of corrosion, it is better to use solid, closed sections than lattice. Greater consumption of steel will pay off as a result of increasing physical strength of the structure. Currently, the most common method of corrosion protection is the application of coatings in a layer of paint. They concede superiority in terms of stability, plated and metal coatings, but more are available.

  11. Corrosion of plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behaviour of plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel grades AISI 304, 316 and 321 was studied at various temperatures. Certain plasma nitriding cycles included a post-oxidation treatment. The corrosion rates were measured using linear polarisation technique. Results showed that corrosion rate increased with the plasma nitriding temperature. Minimum deterioration occurred at 653K. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 10 refs

  12. Corrosion of Electrogalvanized Steel in 0.1 M NaCl Studied by SVET

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, A. C.; Simo?es, A. M.; Ferreira, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion of electrogalvanized steel exposed to 0.1 M NaCl was studied using the SVET. Situations of localized corrosion, cathodic protection and corrosion protection due to surface pre-treatment were analyzed, putting in evidence the possibilities of the technique.

  13. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin coatings for corrosion protection of steel: Surface and electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? 10-100 nm Alumina coatings grown by ALD at 160 oC for protection of steel. ? Al2O3 stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by growth precursors. ? Iron oxide and siloxane presence at the buried coating/steel interface. ? Exponential decay of coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with thickness increase. ? Coating thickness increase required to seal the defective first deposited 10 nm. - Abstract: ToF-SIMS, XPS, voltammetry and EIS investigation of the anti-corrosion properties of thin (10, 50 and 100 nm) alumina coatings grown by atomic layer deposition at 160 oC on steel is reported. Surface analysis shows a thickness-independent Al2O3 stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by the growth precursors. The buried coating/alloy interface has iron oxide formed in ambient air and/or resulting from the growth of spurious traces in the initial stages of deposition. Electrochemical analysis yields an exponential decay of the coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with increasing thickness, achieved by sealing of the more defective first deposited 10 nm.

  14. Corrosion-protective coatings from electrically conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen Gebert; Bryan, Coleman J.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Wrobleski, Debra A.

    1991-01-01

    In a joint effort between NASA Kennedy and LANL, electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed as corrosion protective coatings for metal surfaces. At NASA Kennedy, the launch environment consist of marine, severe solar, and intermittent high acid and/or elevated temperature conditions. Electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed which impart corrosion resistance to mild steel when exposed to saline and acidic environments. Such coatings also seem to promote corrosion resistance in areas of mild steel where scratches exist in the protective coating. Such coatings appear promising for many commercial applications.

  15. Intergranular corrosion of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion current pulses associated with the nucleation of microcracks and their movement across single grain boundary facets were detected for intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized type 304 stainless steel induced both by dilute thiosulphate solutions at ambient temperature and by high-purity oxygenated water at 289 degree C (BWR conditions). Estimates of crack-tip dissolution width and current density were derived. Cracks initiated as a consequence of non-uniform deformation around grain boundaries, and most stopped after penetration of at most a few grain-boundary facets. The idea of microstructural barriers to the propagation of short stress corrosion cracks was developed; such barriers became less important as the chemistry of the environment became more aggressive; a simple statistical model, based on a jump probability to cross a barrier, was developed for crack advance, and in part for the statistics of failure by IGSCC. At ambient temperature and at higher strain, fatal cracks initiated from a pre-existing microcrack. Strain-induced martensite formation resulted in decrease with increasing strain in both microcrack nucleation frequency and penetration. Under BWR conditions, strain-induced martensite formation did not occur and the fatal crack appeared slowly to advance out from one of the longer apparently arrested, microcracks. 36 refs., 32 figs

  16. The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Desmond C.

    2005-04-01

    The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, 40%, or infrequent drying cycles, (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface, (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

  17. The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, 40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposre conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina

  18. General corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short paper seeks to provide a summary of the main knowledge about the general corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water. In pure water or slightly alkaline deaerated water, steels develop a protective coating of magnetite in a double layer (Potter and Mann oxide) or a single layer (Bloom oxide). The morphology of the oxide layer and the kinetics of corrosion depend on the test parameters controlling the solubility of iron. The parameters exercising the greatest influence are partial hydrogen pressure and mass transfer: hydrogen favours the solubilization of the magnetite; the entrainment of the dissolved iron prevents a redeposition of magnetite on the surface of the steel. Cubic or parabolic in static conditions, the kinetics of corrosion tends to be linear in dynamic conditions. In dynamic operation, corrosion is at least one order of magnitude lower in water with a pH of 10 than in pure water with a pH of 7. The activation energy of corrosion is 130 kJ/mol (31 kcal/mol). This results in the doubling of corrosion at around 300 deg C for a temperature increase of 15 deg C. Present in small quantities (100-200 ppb), oxygen decreases general corrosion but increases the risk of pitting corrosion - even for a low chloride content - and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion-fatigue. The steel composition has probably an influence on the kinetics of corrosion in dynamic conditions; further work would be required to clarify the effect of some residual elements. (author). 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Internal corrosion of carbon steel piping in hot aquifers service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi?i? Miloš V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal corrosion of carbon steel pipelines is a major problem encountered in water service. In terms of prediction of the remaining lifetime for water pipelines based on the corrosion allowance, the three main approaches are corrosion modelling, corrosion inhibitor availability, and corrosion monitoring. In this study we used two theoretical corrosion models, CASSANDRA and NORSOK M-506 of quite different origin in order to predict uniform corrosivity of hot aquifers in eight different pipelines. Because of the varying calculation criteria for the different models, these can give very different corrosion rate predictions for the same data input. This is especially true under conditions where the formation of protective films may occur, such as at elevated temperatures. The evaluation of models was conducted by comparison using weight-loss coupons and three corrosion inhibitors were obtained from commercial suppliers. The tests were performed during the 60-day period. Even though inhibitors’ efficiencies of 98% had been achieved in laboratory testing, inhibitors’ availabilities of 85% have been used due to logistics problems and other issues. The results, given in mmpy, i.e. millimeter per year, are very consistent with NORSOK M-506 prediction. This is presumably because the model considers the effect of the formation of a passive iron carbonate film at temperatures above 80 °C and significant reduction in corrosion rate. Corrosion inhibitor A showed a better performance than inhibitors B and C in all cases but the target corrosion rates of less than 0.1 mmpy were achieved for all inhibitors. The chemical type of corrosion inhibitor A is based on quaternary amines mixed with methanol, isopropyl alcohol, xylene and ethylbenzene. Based on the obtained results the carbon steel lifetime of 30 years, provided proper inhibitors are present and 3mm corrosion allowance, can be achieved for hot aquifers service with presented water compositions.

  20. Development of novel protective high temperature coatings on heat exchanger steels and their corrosion resistance in simulated coal firing environment; Developpement de revetements pour les aciers d'echangeurs thermiques et amelioration de leur resistance a la corrosion en environnement simulant les fumees de combustion et de charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, V.

    2005-10-15

    Improving the efficiencies of thermal power plants requires an increase of the operating temperatures and thus of the corrosion resistance of heat exchanger materials. Therefore, the present study aimed at developing protective coatings using the pack cementation process. Two types of heat exchanger steels were investigated: a 17% Cr-13% Ni austenitic steel and three ferritic-martensitic steels with 9 (P91 and P92) and 12% Cr (HCM12A). The austenitic steel was successfully aluminized at 950 C. For the ferritic-martensitic steels, the pack cementation temperature was decreased down to 650 C, in order to maintain their initial microstructure. Two types of aluminides, made of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl, were developed. A mechanism of the coating formation at low temperature is proposed. Furthermore, combining the pack cementation with the conventional heat treatment of P91 allowed to take benefit of higher temperatures for the deposition of a two-step Cr+Al coating. The corrosion resistance of coated and uncoated steels is compared in simulated coal firing environment for durations up to 2000 h between 650 and 700 C. It is shown that the coatings offer a significant corrosion protection and, thus, an increase of the component lifetime. Finally, the performance of coated 9-12% Cr steels is no longer limited by corrosion but by interdiffusion between the coating and the substrate. (author)

  1. Corrosion of an austenite and ferrite stainless steel weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANIMIR N. GRGUR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar metal connections are prone to frequent failures. These failures are attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties across the weld, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two types of steels and the resulting creep at the interface. For the weld analyzed in this research, it was shown that corrosion measurements can be used for a proper evaluation of the quality of weld material and for the prediction of whether or not the material, after the applied welding process, can be in service without failures. It was found that the corrosion of the weld analyzed in this research resulted from the simultaneous activity of different types of corrosion. In this study, electrochemical techniques including polarization and metallographic analysis were used to analyze the corrosion of a weld material of ferrite and austenitic stainless steels. Based on surface, chemical and electrochemical analyses, it was concluded that corrosion occurrence was the result of the simultaneous activity of contact corrosion (ferrite and austenitic material conjuction, stress corrosion (originating from deformed ferrite structure and inter-granular corrosion (due to chromium carbide precipitation. The value of corrosion potential of –0.53 V shows that this weld, after the thermal treatment, is not able to repassivate a protective oxide film.

  2. Corrosion behavior of duplex polyaniline/epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenovi? Milica M.; Grgur Branimir N.; Ka?arevi?-Popovi? Zorica M.; Miškovi?-Stankovi? Vesna B.

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on mild steel and on mild steel with electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI) film were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The aim of the paper was to present new findings on the corrosion protection of mild steel by a duplex PANI/-epoxy coating in 3% NaCI solution and to determine the effect of thin PANI film on the protective properties of th...

  3. Corrosion protective property of various covering materials of steels in solid. Part 2. Evaluation after embedding in soil for 15 years; Dojo chu ni okeru ko hagane kakushu hifukuzai no taishokusei. 2. Maisetsu 15nengo no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, I.; Yuasa, M.; Takaoka, A.; Oyagi, N. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1997-04-15

    The authors carried out study to find the method for surface treatment of the steel to have higher corrosion resistant effect, used for protection wall while constructing cost effective and safe steel protection wall using many anchors. Therefore, various covering materials like no treatment, combination of rust, rust preventing agent and non tar epoxy paint, epoxy paint, aluminum flame spraying, hot dip galvanizing, combination of etching primer and non tar epoxy paint, and uni-chrome plating were applied to steel and these steels were embedded in the soil and their study was carried out. In this report, investigation after embedding in soil for 15 years was carried out by measuring natural electrode potential and tan{delta}, and visual observations. The corrosion resistant of steel plate specimen embedded for 15 years was better in the order of aluminum flame spraying, non tar epoxy paint>hot dip galvanizing>rust preventing agent+non tar epoxy paint>non treated. Further, it was understood that corrosion resistance of bolts and knots was better in the order non tar epoxy paint>rust preventing agent+non tar epoxy paint, uni-chrome plating>non treated. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel. Pt. I. Rural and urban atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results obtained in the MICAT project for mild steel specimens exposed for 1 to 4 years in 22 rural and urban atmospheres in the Ibero-American region. Test site characterization and chemical and morphological determination of the steel corrosion product layers (SCPLs) contributed to understanding the corrosion phenomena involved. It was observed how some climatological factors could affect steel corrosion rates and SCPL properties. Although the studied atmospheres were classified into different ISO groups, steel corrosion rates did not differ significantly between them. The only common characteristic of these atmospheres was an increase in SCPLs protectiveness with exposure time. (orig.)

  5. Effect of chlorides on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In PWR's steam generators, ''denting'' resulted from corrosion of support plate material, carbon steel is an important problem. The role of chlorides in corrosion acceleration of mild steel was studied. Corrosion tests were conducted at temperature from 1000C to 2800C in deaerated solutions of NaCl and MgCl2 which are main content of sea water. 1) Solution of MgCl2 was more corrosive than that of NaCl. The more increased in concentration of each chloride solution, the more corrosive in MgCl2 soln. but the less corrosive in NaCl soln. 2) The rate of corrosion in the mixed solution of NaCl and MgCl2 was governed by the concentration of MgCl2 soln. The corrosion behaviour in sea water was suggested to be not controlled by NaCl but by MgCl2. 3) Acidification of MgCl2 soln. could be evaluated by experiment at 1000C, the degree of acidification increased with increasing the concentration. However, the value of pH during corrosion was kept constant by the concentration of dissolved Fe2+ ions. 4) The corrosion acceleration by MgCl2 soln. was arised not only from acidification by the solution itself but from continuous supplementation of H+ ions with the hydrolysis of dissolved Fe2+ ions. This autocatalytic corrosion process not exhausting acid was characterized with the corrosion in closed system such as in crevice. In additclosed system such as in crevice. In addition to acidification of MgCl2 soln., the formation of non-protective magnetite film by Mg2+ ion was estimated to be a reason of accelerated corrosion. (author)

  6. Ferritic stainless steels: corrosion resistance + economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritic stainless steels provide corrosion resistance at lower cost. They include Type 409, Type 439, 18SR, 20-Mo (1.6 Mo), 18-2 (2 Mo), 26-1S, E-Brite 26-1, 29 Cr-4 Mo, and 29 Cr-4 Mo-2 Ni. Their corrosion and mechanical properties are examined. Resistance to stress-corrosion cracking is an advantage compared to austenitic types

  7. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed).

  8. Corrosion and protection of uranium alloy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrators made from either a U--3/4 percent Ti alloy or a U--3/4 percent Mo--3/4 percent Zr--3/4 percent Nb--1/2 percent Ti alloy (''Quad'') corrode mildly in moist air, significantly in moist nitrogen, and severely in salt fog. Adequate protection was provided in moist air and nitrogen by coating with electroplated nickel, electroplated nickel and zinc with a chromate finish, and galvanized zinc with a chromate finish. In salt fog, electroplated nickel offered only temporary protection whereas galvanized zinc and electroplated nickel-zinc provided long-lasting protection. The resistance of uncoated penetrators was affected variously by dissimilar metal couplings. Aluminum protected the Quad alloy and adversely affected the U--3/4 percent Ti alloy, whereas steel enhanced localized corrosion in both. (U.S.)

  9. Corrosion of carbon steel under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of carbon steel has been studied in the United Kingdom under granitic groundwater conditions, with pH between 5 and 10 and possibly substantial amounts of Cl-, SO42- and HCO3-/CO32-. Corrosion modes considered include uniform corrosion under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; passive corrosion; localized attack in the form of pitting or crevice corrosion; and environmentally assisted cracking - hydrogen embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking. Studies of these processes are being carried out in order to predict the metal thicknesses required to give container lifetimes of 500 to 1000 years. A simple uniform corrosion model predicts a corrosion rate of around 13.4 ?m/a at 20C, rising to 69 ?m/a at 50C and 208 ?m/a at 90C. A radiation dose of 105 rad/h and a G-value of 2.8 for the production of oxidizing species would account for an increase in corrosion rate of 7 ?m/a. This model overestimates slightly the results actually achieved for experimental samples exposed for two years, the difference being due to a protective film formed on the samples. These corrosion rates predict that the container must be 227 mm thick to withstand uniform corrosion; however, they predict very high levels of hydrogen production. Conditions will be favourable for localized or pitting corrosion for about 125 years, leading to a maximum penetration of 160 mm. Since the exposure environment cannot be predicted precisely, one cannot state that stress corrosion cracking is impossible. Thus the container must be stress relieved. Other corrosion mechanisms such as microbial corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement are not considered significant

  10. Express assessment of inhibition of local steel corrosion in hydrogen sulfide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For rapid determination of protective concentration (PC) of inhibitors in case of local corrosion (LC) of steels it is suggested that anode polarization at VE = 0.1 mVxs-1 should be used. Remoteness of LC potential (ELC) from corrosion potential (Ecor) serves a criterion for evaluation of protective action of the inhibitors in the course of LC. It is assumed that the inhibitor protects steel from LC if Ecor LC

  11. Intercrystalline corrosion fatigue in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of transcrystalline and intercrystalline fatigue cracking in failure analysis is shown. Characteristic differences between intercrystalline corrosion fatigue and intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking are pointed out. Time-dependent stress corrosion crack growth under sustained loads gives rise to strongly frequency-dependent corrosion fatigue crack growth under cyclic loads. Intercrystalline 'true' corrosion fatigue depends on the cyclic stress intensity range and on the environment. Intergranular cracks can definitely be due to fatigue. (orig.)

  12. Corrosion behaviour of solution nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of near net shape parts made from austenitic steel X2CrNiMo17-13-2 and austenitic-ferritic steels X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 (wrought) and G-X3CrNiMoCuN26-6-3-3 (cast) is interstitially enriched with nitrogen by the diffusion-based process ''solution nitriding''. In order to obtain good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, the solution nitriding parameters and the applied cooling time are selected so, that precipitates are avoided (X2CrNiMo17-13-2, X2CrNiMoN22-5-3). However, in case of a superimposed hydroabrasive load, the presence of nitrides in the case is found to be beneficial. The solution nitrided and the solution annealed conditions of the steels are compared with respect to their susceptibility to corrosion by means of electrochemical polarisation curves. The erosion corrosion behaviour of the materials is analysed in pilot scale flow-loop tests using particle loaded corrosive and particle loaded non-corrosive media. It is shown that ''solution nitriding'' leads to improved corrosion behaviour and/or improved erosion corrosion resistance, in particular in the case of the duplex steels. (orig.)

  13. Characteristics of Corrosion Product Layer Formed on Weathering Steel Exposed to the Tropical Climate of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Hong Lien

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The weathering steel (Corten B was exposed to out-door atmosphere of Hanoi (urban site and Donghoi (marine site. The results showed the protective ability of corrosion product layer formed on weathering steel in the initial stage. The SEM-EDX analysis detected the presence of chromium and copper in the inner layers of corrosion product formed on weathering steel. These elements improved corrosion resistance of corrosion product layers. In addition, the dense ?-FeOOH phase were appeared early in corrosion product which is detected by X-ray diffraction and Micro Raman investigations. The results of polarization and EIS measurements also demonstrated the protectiveness of the corrosion product of weathering steel.

  14. Corrosion behavior of wire-arc-sprayed stainless steel coating on mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z.; Sakoda, N.; Tajiri, T.

    2006-09-01

    The corrosion characteristics of a wire-are-sprayed stainless steel coating on mild steel have been investigated in regards to atomizing gases and sealing treatment. Salt spray test was performed. The corrosion behavior of the coating was observed under a microscope succesively through a cycling test of wetting and drying in a salt solution. The sealing-treated coating was found to rust faster compared with the non-sealing-treated coating; it protected the mild steel substrate against corrosion, but even it deteriorated the coating itself due to the interruption of the substrate as an anode. The air-atomized coating ruste more heavily than the nitrogen-atomized one. Four different phases were observed in the coating in regards to corrosion behavior; namely, chromium-based oxide, iron-based oxide, chromium-depleted metallic phase, and stainless steel matrix phase. It was found that the chromium-depleted metallic phase and the iron-based oxide are non-corrosion-resistant, whereas the chromium-based oxide and the stainless steel matrix phase are corrosion-resistant.

  15. Corrosion of two oxide-covered steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz-Tonhauser, Melissa

    Determining the corrosive response of pipeline steel under laboratory immersion conditions can be difficult when an adequate reproduction of feild conditions is required. The difficulty is multiplied when testing an oxide-covered surface. Corrosion standards do not adequately cover testing oxide-covered steels. Methodology is developed to test the corrosive response of oxide-covered steels, especially pre-immersion surface oxides such as millscale. The methodology focuses on open-circuit potential monitoring, polarization, mass loss and surface examination. Procedures are recommended for specimen preparation, equipment to handle hostile media, test sequencing, specimen cleaning, and preparation for post-immersion examination. Long standing belief's regarding the interaction of millscale in the corrosive response of a steel originating from pre-1950's steel immersed in sea water that have propagated are: the presence of millscale causes pitting and scatter in corrosive testing results or is negligible due to quick removal. Results from A36 and X70 steels in dearated high chloride ion containing environments indicate that an adjustment of historical industry perspectives of millscale is required. Millscale does not cause pitting. Pitting is material/environment dependent. A material/environment that is prone to pitting will, at least initially, experience a concentration of the corrosion at breaks in the millscale. The presence of millscale does not ensure pitting will occur. Scatter in the corrosion parameters determined from mass loss and polarizations are not related to the presence or absence of millscale but due to a combination of testing methodology and material/environment. Removal of millscale is material/environment dependent requiring very acidic conditions to negate the interaction in the materials corrosive response. The presence of millscale can be enhanced by oxide growth during immersion.

  16. Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

  17. Corrosion behavior of novel 3%Cr pipeline steel in CO2 Top-of-Line Corrosion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? CO2 Top-of-Line Corrosion environment in wet gas pipelines was simulated. ? Compared with X70, the resistance to CO2 TLC of novel 3%Cr pipeline steel is better. ? The effect of Cr enrichment in the corrosion scale on CO2 TLC is confirmed. -- Abstract: CO2 Top-of-Line Corrosion (TLC) of carbon steel pipelines is a serious problem for wet gas transportation. We have studied the corrosion behavior of novel 3%Cr (3Cr) pipeline steel and conventional carbon steel (X70) in the simulated CO2 TLC environment. The composition and morphology of the corrosion scale are characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The results indicate that 3Cr pipeline steel shows superior resistance to CO2 TLC, exhibiting uniform corrosion with duplex corrosion layer, while X70 suffers severe localized corrosion. It was suggested that the inner Cr enriched layer enhanced the protective ability of the scale to steel substrate and improved the resistance to localized corrosion in CO2 TLC environment.

  18. Corrosion of steel tendons used in prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corrosion behavior of a high strength steel (ASTM A416-74 grade 270), typical of those used as tensioning tendons in prestressed concrete pressure vessels, in several corrosive environments and to demonstrate the protection afforded by coating the steel with either of two commercial petroleum-base greases or Portland Cement grout. In addition, the few reported incidents of prestressing steel failures in concrete pressure vessels used for containment of nuclear reactors are reviewed. The susceptibility of the steel to stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement and its general corrosion rate were determined in several salt solutions. Wires coated with the greases and grout were soaked for long periods in the same solutions and changes in their mechanical properties were subsequently determined. All three coatings appeared to give essentially complete protection but small flaws in the grease coatings were detrimental; flaws or cracks less than 1 mm wide in the grout were without effect

  19. Treatment Prevents Corrosion in Steel and Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, to protect rebar from corrosion, NASA developed an electromigration technique that sends corrosion-inhibiting ions into rebar to prevent rust, corrosion, and separation from the surrounding concrete. Kennedy Space Center worked with Surtreat Holding LLC, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a company that had developed a chemical option to fight structural corrosion, combining Surtreat's TPS-II anti-corrosive solution and electromigration. Kennedy's materials scientists reviewed the applicability of the chemical treatment to the electromigration process and determined that it was an effective and environmentally friendly match. Ten years later, NASA is still using this approach to fight concrete corrosion, and it has also developed a new technology that will further advance these efforts-a liquid galvanic coating applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete to protect the embedded rebar from corrosion. Surtreat licensed this new coating technology and put it to use at the U.S. Army Naha Port, in Okinawa, Japan. The new coating prevents corrosion of steel in concrete in several applications, including highway and bridge infrastructures, piers and docks, concrete balconies and ceilings, parking garages, cooling towers, and pipelines. A natural compliment to the new coating, Surtreat's Total Performance System provides diagnostic testing and site analysis to identify the scope of problems for each project, manufactures and prescribes site-specific solutions, controls material application, and verifies performance through follow-up testing and analysis.

  20. Metallic corrosion of steels embedded in calcium aluminate cement mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a Andio?n, Luis; Garce?s Terradillos, Pedro; Cases Iborra, Francisco Javier; Garci?a Andreu, Ce?sar; Va?zquez Pico?, Jose? Luis

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, the corrosion levels of reinforcing steels embedded in Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC) mortars have been studied. Experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the following factors in steel corrosion: cover thickness, type of steel (carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS)), temperature at mixing and curing, influence of chloride concentration, nitrite ion as corrosion inhibitor and carbonation of mortar. The reinforcing steel bars do not become more corrod...

  1. Conducting polyaniline/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite paints on low carbon steel for corrosion protection: electrochemical investigations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deshpande, P. P.; Vathare, S. S.; Vagge, S. T.; Tomšík, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 67, ?. 8 (2013), s. 1072-1078. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : corrosion * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  2. Kinetics and structural studies of the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of a carbon steel was studied in different atmospheres at sites in the Republic of Panama. The weight loss (corrosion penetration) suffered by the carbon steel is related to time by a bilogarithmic law. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated the rust was composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4), maghemite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH) of intermediate particle size, lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and superparamagnetic particles. Magnetite formation is related to the alternating dry-wet cycles. Goethite is related to corrosion penetration by a saturation type of behavior, following a Langmuir type of relationship. Goethite in rust protects steel against further atmospheric corrosion

  3. Influence of temperature on corrosion rate and porosity of corrosion products of carbon steel in anoxic bentonite environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoulil, J., E-mail: jan.stoulil@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Ka?ok, J.; Kou?il, M. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Parschová, H. [Department of Power Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Novák, P. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The corrosion rate is not significantly dependent on temperature. •Corrosion products at higher temperatures have different color. •Corrosion products at higher temperatures are more compact. •The change in corrosion products nature is reversible. -- Abstract: The study focuses on the porosity of layers of corrosion products and its impact on corrosion rate of carbon steel in moist bentonite. Measurements were performed in an aggressive Czech type of bentonite – Rokle B75 at temperatures of 90 and 40 °C. Aggressiveness of B75 bentonite consists in low content of chlorides. Presence of chlorides in pore solution allows formation of more protective magnetite. The evaluation was made by electrochemical techniques (red/ox potential, open circuit potential, linear polarization resistance, impedance spectroscopy) and resistometric sensor measurements. The result imply that the higher the temperature the more compact is the layer of corrosion products that slightly decelerates corrosion rate compared to the state at 40 °C. The state of corrosion products at both temperatures is reversible.

  4. Materials corrosion and protection from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald F.

    Materials erode under environmental stresses such as high temperature, high pressure, and mechanical shock/stress, but erosion is often exacerbated by chemical corrosion. In this dissertation, periodic density functional theory (DFT) is employed to simulate interfacial adhesion, absorption kinetics, bulk diffusion, and other material phenomena (e.g., hydrogen-enhanced decohesion and shock-induced phase changes) with the intention of understanding corrosion and subsequent failure processes and guiding the design of new protective coatings. This work examines corrosion and/or protection of materials ( i.e., Fe, Ni, W) with important applications: structural steel, gun tubes, high-pressure oil recovery vessels, jet engine turbine blades, and fusion reactor walls. We use DFT to model the pressure-induced, bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in Fe, in which a new low energy pathway is predicted exhibiting nonadiabatic behavior coupling magnetic and structural changes. Protection of steel is addressed in two aspects: interfacial adhesion of protective coatings and assessment of corrosion resistance provided by a surface alloy. First, the current chrome-coated steel system is examined where extremely strong adhesion is predicted at the Cr/Fe interface originating in strong spin correlations. A ceramic coating, SiC, is considered as a possible replacement for Cr. Strong adhesion is predicted, especially for C-Fe interfacial bonds. To assess corrosion resistance, we model ingress of two common corrosive elements, H and C, into two Fe alloys, FeAl and Fe3Si. Adsorption and absorption thermodynamics and kinetics, as well as bulk dissolution and diffusion are calculated in order to determine whether these two alloys can inhibit uptake of H and C. Relative to pure Fe, dissolved H and C are less stable in the alloys, as the dissolution enthalpy is predicted to be more endothermic. Overall, the energy barriers and rate constants for adsorbed H/C diffusing into Fe3Si subsurface layers suggests that alloying Fe with Si can be an effective means to limit uptake of these elements into steel. Spallation of protective layers on jet engine turbine blades is a problem that arises during thermal cycling. An alternative thermal barrier coating system involving MoSi2 is considered and calculations predict strong adhesion at the MoSi2/Ni interface. The interfacial bonding structure reveals a mixture of metallic and covalent cross-interface bonds. The adhesion energy is similar across all three MoSi2 facets studied. Upon exposure to oxygen, this MoSi2 alloy will form a strongly adhered oxide scale, which in turn may strongly adhere the heat shield material (yttria-stabilized zirconia), thereby potentially extending the lifetime of the barrier coating. Lastly, the interaction of hydrogen isotopes (fusion fuel) with tungsten (a proposed fusion reactor wall material) is examined. Exothermic dissociative adsorption is predicted, along with endothermic absorption and dissolution. Surface-to-subsurface diffusion energy barriers for H incorporation into bulk W are large and the corresponding outward diffusion barriers are very small. In bulk W, deep energetic traps (trapping multiple H atoms) are predicted at vacancy defects. Thus, under high neutron fluxes that will produce vacancies in W, H are predicted to collect at these vacancies. In turn, locally high concentrations of H at such vacancies will enhance decohesion of bulk W, consistent with observed blistering under deuterium implantation. Limiting vacancy formation may be key to the survival of W as a fusion reactor wall material.

  5. Space Shuttle Corrosion Protection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The launch pad environment can be corrosive to metallic substrates and the Space Shuttles are exposed to this environment when preparing for launch. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the thermal protection system and aging protective coatings are performing to insure structural integrity. The assessment of this cost resources and time. The information is invaluable when minimizing risk to the safety of Astronauts and Vehicle. This paper will outline a strategic sampling plan and some operational improvements made by the Orbiter Structures team and Corrosion Control Review Board.

  6. Pitting corrosion protection of stainless steel by sputter deposited hafnia, alumina, and hafnia-alumina nanolaminate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, M. A.; Aita, C. R. [Materials Department and the Advanced Coatings Experimental Laboratory, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    316L stainless steel coated with sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films were subjected to direct current cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (DCP) in Hanks' balanced salt solution electrolyte. Postexposure morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with in situ energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SEM/EDS data show that bare steel and steel coated with single-layer HfO{sub 2} develop pits with perforated covers. These pits become autocatalytic, consistent with an observed positive DCP hysteresis. On the other hand, SEM/EDS data show that steel coated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films does not develop autocatalytic pits, consistent with an observed negative DCP hysteresis. However, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} splinters upon polarization whereas the HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate remains intact. The areas of worst damage in the nanolaminate correspond to pit cover rupture before autocatalysis, allowing pit and bulk electrolyte to mix and the newly exposed steel surface to repassivate. The films' diverse behavior is discussed in terms of a model for perforated pit growth that requires occlusion until an autocatalytic geometry is established. The authors conclude that the key property a film must have to arrest autocatalytic geometry development is the ability to rupture locally at an early stage of pit growth.

  7. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  8. Alternating Current Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Belland, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to investigate if the established theory concerning corrosion calculations and electrochemical behavior of carbon is valid when steel is exposed to AC in an electrolyte consisting of 3,5 wt% NaCl and distilled water. The experimental work was divided in two main parts. The first part concerned corrosion testing, including weight loss measurements in stagnant conditions in combination with linear polarization resistance experiments. AC-current densities investigated was 0-, 5...

  9. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Oluwadare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  10. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  11. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Song; Liangliang Wang; Andre Zibart; Christian Koch

    2012-01-01

    The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is...

  12. Corrosion behavior of molybdenum plasma-spray coatings on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma spraying is a versatile technique for applying protective coatings to engineering alloys. Plasma-sprayed coatings are often used for thermal oxidation, corrosion and wear protection of various substrates. Theses coatings are frequently exposed in corrosive environments even when their major purpose is not to provide corrosion protection. Plasma-sprayed coatings exhibit a degree of porosity because the molten droplets deposited by the plasma-spray process, cool very rapidly and cannot completely wet the substrate surface. This residual porosity affects the corrosion behavior of plasma-sprayed coatings because corrosive fluids can penetrate the coating and dissolve the substrate material. Furthermore, galvanic effects between the coating and the substrate must be taken into account. Among the several plasma-sprayed metallic coatings used today are the molybdenum coatings; these coatings have excellent wear resistance, particularly in erosion-cavitation wear, but are sensitive in air oxidation at temperatures exceeding 650 C. The main purpose of the present work was to examine the morphology, composition, and corrosion behavior of molybdenum plasma-sprayed coatings on mild steel specimens

  13. Lead/carbon steel galvanic corrosion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study aimed to select a carbon steel for its possible use as a liner for a high level radioactive waste canister, galvanic corrosion tests of lead/carbon steel galvanic couples in groundwater and in seawater were performed at 75 C. Lead behaved anodically due to a current polarity inversion phenomenon, and therefore corroded preferentially. This polarity inversion is temperature dependent. Under the same conditions, commercial lead showed higher corrosion rates in groundwater than high purity lead. No current polarity inversion was detected in galvanic tests performed either in bentonite suspensions in groundwater or in seawater. (orig.)

  14. Metronidazole: A Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Aqueous Environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Megalai; Y. P., Manjula; K.N., Manonmani; N., Kavitha; N., Baby.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE) of metronidazole (MZ)-Zn(II) system in controlling corrosion of mild steel in aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- ion has been evaluated by weight loss method. Weight loss study reveals that the formulation consisting of 140 ppm of MZ and 50 ppm of Zn(II) has 84% [...] inhibition efficiency in controlling corrosion of mild steel immersed in aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- ion. Polarization study reveals that this system as a mixed type of inhibitor controlling the cathodic and anodic reaction to an equal extent. AC impedance reveals that a protective film is formed on the metal surface. The FTIR spectra revealed that the protective film consists of Fe(II)-MZ complex.

  15. Corrosion of austenitic steel in leakage lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-temperature lithium, which is used as the neutron source in the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, reacts with oxygen, nitrogen, and moisture in the atmosphere. We estimated which lithium compounds might be stable under environmental conditions by using chemical equilibrium calculations, then performed austenitic stainless steel corrosion tests with the selected lithium compounds. The lithium compounds (reagents) and a steel specimen were heated to 1120 K in an Al2O3 Tammann crucible. After the test, the steel specimen was cleaned with alcohol and water and then weighed and metallurgically examined. We found that the steel was significantly corroded in Li3N, LiOH, and Li2O2 environments. Because Li2O2 is not stable according to the chemical equilibrium calculations, corrosion by Li3N and LiOH needs to be considered in high-temperature lithium applications

  16. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Thermodynamical Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; MØller, Per

    2004-01-01

    The present understanding of selected corrosion phenomena in reinforced concrete is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to chloride induced corrosion. There is a general acceptance of the basic corrosion mechanism for steel in concrete. However different anodic reactions governing the subsequent formation and composition of corrosion products have been proposed. Suggested reactions, except half-cell reactions, are verified or rejected based on their Gibbs free energy, while the electrode potential is calculated for half-cell reactions. Corrosion products postulated to form are related to observations. A thermodynamically possible reaction mechanism for the formation of green rust in the presence of chlorides is proposed. Initial verification of the suggested mechanism is given based on experimental data from the literature and own observations.

  17. Statistical approach to underground corrosion of carbon steel pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Seon Yeob; Jeon, J. Young; Kho, Young Tai [Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Field corrosion studies were performed on polyethylene (PE) coated carbon steel gas transmission pipeline buried in Korea. Chemical and biochemical analysis of the soil adjacent to coating defects of pipes were performed at both field and laboratory. Correlation between the maximum corrosion depth and environmental factors was evaluated by applying statistical methods. The factors controlling corrosion were considered by linear regression analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis. The corrosion site had a strongly positive correlation with chemical factors such as low pH and high levels of chloride, and anaerobic nature of soil that promoted the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), characterized by low level of soil resistivity and reduction-oxidation potential and finally on pipe-to-soil potential. it was proved that the statistical approach described results of field and laboratory works satisfactorily. Finally, the prediction equation for the maximum corrosion depth of carbon steel in soil environment is presented. It is important that the chemical, biochemical and cathodic protection (CP) effects should be considered together for the precise prediction of corrosion behavior in soil environments

  18. Corrosion and its protection in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nature, metals are usually found as relatively stable compounds (e.g., oxides, carbonates and silicates) which are converted into metal by a process of chemical reduction, for example, iron from iron oxide via a blast furnace, or aluminium from aluminium oxide in an electric furnace. Considerable amounts of energy have to be expanded to bring about these chemical reactions. Consequently most commonly used metals are reactive and the process of corrosion may be defined as the reversion of the metal to a more stable, oxidised state. In general, the greater the amount of energy used to produce the metal from its ore, the greater is the tendency for the metal to return to a more stable form by corrosion. Under normal circumstances gold, which is mined as the free metal, does not corrode, whereas aluminium and magnesium, which require large quantities of electrical energy for their manufacture, have a strong tendency to corrode. All metals are liable to corrode when the environment favours conversion of the metal to oxide by reaction with oxygen or a source of oxygen such as water, or into a metallic salt by reaction with salts or acids. The initial effects of such a reaction is usually to produce a thin layer of oxide or salt on the metal surface. In some cases the oxide or salt film results in a state of passivity preventing further corrosive action. For this to occur the film on the metal must be stable, adhere firmly to the metal and entirely cover the surface with metal and entirely cover the surface with a non-porous coating. These requirements are met if the metal oxide or salt film is insoluble in the fluid in contact with the metal and is self-repairing when damaged. If the film formed does not have these properties it will not protect the underlying metal and destructive corrosion may ensue. In moist air, aluminium and chromium readily form protective oxide coatings, whereas the oxide formed on low alloy steel surfaces is generally porous and does not prevent further corrosion. The reddish brown coatings of rust which form on steel may in fact accelerate the rate of attack. (author)

  19. Electrochemical study of corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in phosphoric medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnini, K.; Chtaini, A. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Bio Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Khouili, M.; Elbouadili, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Beni-Mellal (Morocco)

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion of metals represents a terrible waste of both natural resources and money, the failure of some stainless steel resulting from pitting corrosion is some times considered a technological problem, consequently, much effort has been expended in attempting to understand and overcome the corrosion therefore, many stainless steel/ environment combinations have been studied. The use of heterocyclic compounds as inhibitors is one of the most practical methods for protection against corrosion in acidic media. In continuation of our work on development of macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors we report in our study the corrosion inhibiting behaviour of organic compound Methoxy-2-Allyl-4 Phenol (MAP) containing coordinating and conjugation groups, at three forms (natural, polymerized and chemically treated) on the corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid. This study focused on the comparison for corrosion inhibition proprieties of these different applications using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and SEM. The specimen was evaluated to determine change in his corrosion potential and resistance polarization; These MAP products have exhibited corrosion inhibition by maintaining a high resistance polarization (low corrosion rate) in each application. These results reveal that this compound is efficient inhibitor in all forms; the most inhibition efficiency is obtained with polymerized form. To further evaluate the test data, the steel surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, SEM observations of surface treated concrete confirmed presence of inhibitor on the steel surfaces. (authors)

  20. Improvement Corrosion Resistance of Low Carbon Steel by Using Natural Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Abbas Abdulsada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steel, the most widely used engineering material, despite its relatively limited corrosion resistance used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear powered transportation, chemical processing , petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. The main objective of the present work involved the study of the inhibiting properties of natural product as Spearmint plant extract as a safety and an environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in (3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed when the immersion model in (3.5% NaCl solution that contains the inhibitor with concentration of (15% in volume, it's getting a decrease in lost weight , indicating a layer of adequate oxide on the surface of the steel, indicating that the amount of loss weight decrease with increasing concentration of inhibitor and this shows the damper on his ability to form a protective layer

  1. Effects of Microstructure on Corrosion of X70 Pipe Steel in an Alkaline Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.; Liang, P.; Liu, Z. Y.; Jia, G. F.; Cheng, Y. F.

    2009-03-01

    Corrosion of X70 steel with different heat treatments (quenching, air cooling, and furnace cooling) in an alkaline soil was investigated by weight-loss, surface characterization and electrochemical measurements. The cathodic/anodic reactions of X70 steel in alkaline soil are dominated by the oxygen reduction and formation of iron oxides that deposit on the steel surface. The protection of the oxide deposit is through a physical block effect. The deposit layer formed on as-received steel has a compact, complete structure and thus, provides an effective protection over the underneath steel. However, the deposit layers on the heat-treated steels are generally loose, porous and defective, and provide minor protectiveness. Corrosion of steel is affected by its microstructure. Generally, steels with heat treatments have a higher corrosion rate than the as-received steel. The presence of more pearlite enhances the corrosion rate of ferrite by a galvanic effect. When the steel contains bainite and martenite phases, the activity of the steel is further increased.

  2. Internal corrosion of carbon steel piping in hot aquifers service

    OpenAIRE

    Simi?i? Miloš V.; Govedarica Dragan D.

    2011-01-01

    Internal corrosion of carbon steel pipelines is a major problem encountered in water service. In terms of prediction of the remaining lifetime for water pipelines based on the corrosion allowance, the three main approaches are corrosion modelling, corrosion inhibitor availability, and corrosion monitoring. In this study we used two theoretical corrosion models, CASSANDRA and NORSOK M-506 of quite different origin in order to predict uniform corrosivity of hot aquifers in eight different...

  3. Reinforcement steel corrosion in passive state and by carbonation: Consideration of galvanic currents and interface steel - concrete defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis aims to study the durability of nuclear waste deep storage structures. The work carried out is essentially an experimental study, and focuses on the corrosion of steel in the passive state with aerated or non-aerated conditions on the one hand, and the corrosion of steel in carbonated concrete during the propagation phase on the other hand. Indeed, the pore solution of concrete in contact with the metal is alkaline (pH between 12 and 13). Under these conditions, steel reinforced concrete remains passive by forming a stable and protective oxide layer (corrosion of steel in the passive state). This passive layer limits the steel corrosion rate at very low values (negligible on a short life time) but not null. For the nuclear waste storage structures due to a very long life time (up to several hundred years), this low corrosion rate can become a risk. Therefore, it is necessary to study the evolution of the oxide layer growth over time. The objectives of the thesis are to study the influence of the steel-concrete interface quality on reinforcement corrosion in passive and active state, and the possible occurrence of galvanic corrosion currents between different reinforcement steel areas. (author)

  4. Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Behaviors of Low and Medium Carbon Steels in Agro-Fluid Media

    OpenAIRE

    Afolabi, Ayo Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to study critically the corrosion behaviour and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of low and medium carbon steels in cassava and cocoa extracts by weight loss measurement and constant extension to fracture method respectively. The results obtained showed that medium carbon steel is more susceptible to corrosion than low carbon steel in both media. SCC is also more in medium carbon steel than low carbon steel in the two media under study. These deductions are due ...

  5. The behaviour of praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate as an inhibitor for carbon dioxide corrosion and oxygen corrosion of steel in NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate (Pr(4OHCin)3) highly effective corrosion inhibitor. •Mechanism of inhibition different in CO2-saturated solutions compared to aerated system. •In natural aerated solutions a continuous protective film forms on the steel surface. •In CO2-saturated solutions inhibiting deposits form at active corrosion sites. -- Abstract: Praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate (Pr(4OHCin)3) was investigated as a novel corrosion inhibitor for steel in NaCl solutions, and found to be effective at inhibiting corrosion in both CO2-containing and naturally-aerated systems. Surface analysis results suggest that the corrosion inhibition ability of Pr(4OHCin)3 in the naturally-aerated corrosion system could be attributed to the formation of a continuous protective film. For the CO2-containing system, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of Pr(4OHCin)3 was predominantly because of formation of protective inhibiting deposits at the active electrochemical corrosion sites, in addition to a thinner surface film deposit

  6. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  7. Corrosion Behavior of Copper-Steel Particulate Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Al-haidary, J. T.; Emad Al-Hassani; Areef, Sheelan R.

    2011-01-01

    This work was conducted to study the corrosion behavior of the steel particle reinforced copper matrix composites, under different conditions; namely heat treatment, concentration of corrosion media, and different weight percent of steel particles.The density, corrosion rate, micro-structure, and Vickers micro-hardness, were investigated. The results showed that composites with limited steel particle contents can be used. The microstructure of the composites showed severe corrosion of the ste...

  8. Corrosion of steel in hot brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On an unalloyed steel, an oxide layer grows in aqueous solutions according to the parabolic time law. The corresponding velocity constant is independent of the chloride content of the solution. The velocity constant does not follow an Arrhenius line, but reaches a peak at a temperature of about 2500C. In the absence of chloride, the stationary corrosion rate in a neutral aqueous solution is always very low. An addition of a small quantity of chloride causes strong variations of the corrosion rate. This is to be explained by local corrosion. Holes covered by an oxide layer, however, grow towards depth only during a limited time. This effect leads to an increase in the average stationary corrosion rate particularly in concentrated chloride leaches. The design of a high-temperature apparatus for thermodynamic measurements on iron at temperatures of up to 2500C and pressures of up to 4 kbar is described. (orig./RB)

  9. Investigation of Carbon steel corrosion in water base drilling mud

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhil Sarhan Kadhim

    2011-01-01

    Carbon steel, the most widely used engineering material, accounts for approximately 85%, of the annual steel production worldwide. Despite its relatively limited corrosion resistance, carbon steel is used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants, transportation, chemical processing, petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. This paper Investigate Carbon steel corrosion in water. The corrosion ...

  10. Measurement of steel corrosion in concrete by impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Paul; Sumsion, Eric; Guthrie, Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian

    2010-10-01

    Steel corrosion is a major problem for aging bridge structures. The steel corrodes as chloride ions migrate to the buried steel. The properties of the corroded steel-concrete interface change due to the corrosion and can be measured by impedance spectroscopy. A new spectrometer was built to measure concrete slabs. A fitting function to the impedance spectra was used to determine relevant parameters correlated with corrosion. Data from the laboratory and the field demonstrate the utility of this technique.

  11. Corrosion of two kinds of cast steels containing chromium in hot concentrated alkaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Wei

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A typical hot concentrated alkaline corrosion environment exists in alumina metallurgical industry, so that steel materials with outstanding alkaline corrosion resistance are strongly demanded for its processing equipment. In this paper, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of martensitic cast steels containing chromium in static 303g/L NaOH alkaline solution at 85? was studied through polarization and potential-time curves, corrosion weight loss and corrosion morphology analysis. Experimental results showed that protection effect by passive film of cast steel containing Cr was temporary. The low carbon steel without Cr content also exhibited chemical passivity in the same solution. The corrosion mode of the tested Cr-containing cast steel was composed of active dissolving corrosion and caustic embrittlement cracking. Dissolving corrosion was the primary mechanism for the induced weight loss, while severe caustic embrittlement cracking was secondary. With the increase of chromium content in the cast steel, the tendency of the caustic embrittlement cracking decreased, while the active dissolving corrosion increased.

  12. On the inhibition of hydrogen sulfide corrosion of steel with Schiff Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of the Schiff bases(above 20 compounds) is synthesized. Their impact on the kinetics of electrochemical reactions and steel corrosion behaviour in the two-phase systems electrolyte - hydrocarbon containing H2S, is studied. It is shown, that azomethines, synthesized by the Schiff reaction from aldehydes and aliphatic amines, may serve as water-soluble inhibitors in these systems. The efficiency of steel corrosion protection against hydrogen sulfide corrosion through azomethines depends on their chemical structure and pH media. The effective water-soluble inhibitor of the hydrogen sulfide corrosion - IFKhAN-62 - is developed

  13. Corrosion of carbon steel in the stagnant cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the cooling water system treated with zinc-polyphosphate inhibitor, the relationship between inhibitor performance and corroded conditions of heat exchangers was studied. When cooling water system was kept in wet lay-up state, inhibitor concentration in the water jucket of heat exchangers decreased 15 ? 30 percent per week, and turbidity increased 30 ? 150 percent per week. These results show that corrosion rate of shell-plate in stagnant cooling water is more rapid than in flowing cooling water. Applied trouble discrimination method based on SiO2 ratio to the chemical composition of corrosion products, corrosion trouble was observed in shell-plates of heat exchangers. When cooling water system is kept in wet lay-up state, cooling water in the water jucket of heat exchangers is isolated for mouter system. In this perfectly closed system, zinc-polyphosphate inhibitor was not effective for protection of corrosion of carbon steel, and metal (carbon steel) dissolution occurred. However, in the perfectly closed system, since the dissolved oxygen content of the system was reduced with lapse of time, reduction process at cathodic region was stopped, so corrosion of metals seemed to be inhibited. (author)

  14. Corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in contact with bentonite under anaerobic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) consists of vitrified waste, overpack, buffer material and surrounding rock. In this system, overpack is required to prevent the contact of groundwater from vitrified waste for 1000 years. The main factor limiting this function is corrosion due to the contact with groundwater infiltrated to buffer material which is the mixture of bentonite and sand. Carbon steel is selected as one of the candidate materials for overpacks in Japan as a corrosion allowance metal. The deep underground environment for geological disposal of HLW is expected to be relatively oxidizing condition at the initial stage of repository, but it will be returned to reducing as the consumption of oxygen by the corrosion of overpack and the redox reactions with the minerals in buffer material. It is necessary to understand the corrosion behaviour of carbon steel under such anaerobic condition for the lifetime prediction of carbon steel overpack. In this study, immersion tests of carbon steel in buffer material were performed in nitrogen atmosphere in which oxygen gas concentration was controlled less than 1 ppm. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were measured by weight loss of the specimens and the corrosion products were analysed by SEM, XRD and EPMA. For investigating the influence of welding of overpack, welded samples by electron-beam welding (EBW) were used in some of the tests. Synthetic sea used in some of the tests. Synthetic sea water (SSW) and aqueous solutions containing bicarbonate ion and chloride ion were chosen as simulated groundwater. The results indicated that the corrosion form of carbon steel under anaerobic condition was uniform corrosion and no localised corrosion such as pitting, crevice corrosion was found within our experimental conditions. Ferrous carbonate such as FeCO3 or Fe2(OH)2CO3 was identified as crystalline corrosion products by XRD. Although the corrosion rate was affected by test solution and buffer material design, the corrosion products film formed on the surface at 353 K were tight and very small corrosion rates less than 1?m/y was obtained in any cases. While, the corrosion product at 323 K was not protective and larger corrosion rate of 2?m/y was estimated. There was no influence of steel type and welding on the corrosion rate of carbon steel up to 3 years of immersion period. The average corrosion depth of carbon steel overpack was calculated to be ? 2 mm by extrapolating the obtained corrosion rate of ? 2?m/y to 1000 years, and this estimation was well agreed with natural analogue data. (authors)

  15. Corrosion Properties for Hot-dip Aluminized Steel and 304 Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper dealt with the corrosion properties of hot-dip aluminized steel and 304 type stainless steel in various corrosion environments. Pitting and crevice corrosion rates of hot-dip aluminized steel were larger than those of 304 type stainless steel, but corrosion mode of the former was general corrosion and its mode of the latter was localized corrosion. By immersion test in 3.5% NaCl solution, also, corrosion rate of hot-dip aluminized steel was faster than that of 304 type stainless steel. In anodic polarization test, corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel was noble than that of hot-dip aluminized steel and showed better passivation behavior

  16. Development of ion-plated aluminide diffusion coatings for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection of a nickel-based superalloy and a stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Abdel Raouf

    This project was carried out at the University of Toronto and Cametoid Ltd of Whitby, Ontario. Ohno continuous casting; a novel net shape casting technique, was used to generate, Al-Y, Al-Ce, Al-La, and Al-Si-Y, in form of 1.6 to 1.7 mm diameter alloy wires. These alloy wires exhibited suitable properties for use as feed materials to an Ion Vapor Deposition facility. The deposition parameters were optimized to provide coatings with a compact and cohesive columnar structure with reduced porosity and diffusion barriers that were essential to ensure the success of the diffusion process in the subsequent stage. Solid-state diffusion heat treatment processes were developed in order to form the stable aluminide phases, AlNi and FeAl, on IN738 and S310 substrates, respectively. Experiments simulating the coating service conditions and environments encountered during the prospective aerospace and fuel cell applications were conducted to evaluate the performance of each aluminide coating developed during this study. Thermal cyclic oxidation and molten sulfate corrosion studies were performed on coated IN738 pins at 1050°C and 900°C, respectively, simulating the service environment of turbine engine blades and other hot section components. Molten carbonate corrosion behavior was investigated for coated S310 coupons that were immersed in, or covered with a thin film of molten carbonate, at 650°C, in air plus 30%CO2, to simulate the operating conditions of the cathode-side separator plates of molten carbonate fuel cells. The behavior of the reactive elements, yttrium, cerium, lanthanum, and silicon in enhancing the adhesion of the protective aluminum oxide scale was determined by weight variation experiments, structural examination and compositional analysis. The influence of the base material elements, nickel, chromium, and iron, on the formation of protective oxides was investigated. All coatings were found to provide significant improvement for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection. For protection of IN738, Al-La coatings provided the greatest protection during oxidative thermal cycling, whereas Al-Ce coatings were found to be the most effective for protection against corrosive molten sulfate environments in aerospace applications. For protection of S310 against the corrosive environments of molten carbonate fuel cells, the effectiveness of the aluminide coatings were in the sequence, from the most to the least effective, Al-La, Al-Ce, Al-Y, and Al-Si-Y Mechanisms for Lanthanum and cerium protective behavior in high temperature aluminide diffusion coatings were suggested from the results of this study combined with literature information.

  17. Galvanic corrosion between carbon steel 1018 and Alloy 600 in crevice with boric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work dealt with the evaluation of galvanic corrosion rate in a corrosion cell having annular gap of 0.5 mm between carbon steel 1018 and alloy 600 as a function of temperature and boron concentration. Temperature and boron concentration were ranged from 110 to 300 .deg. C and 2000?10000 ppm, respectively. After the operating temperature of the corrosion cell where the electrolyte was injected was attained at setting temperature, galvanic coupling was made and at the same time galvanic current was measured. The galvanic corrosion rate decreased with time, which was described by corrosion product such as protective film as well as boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel with time. From the galvanic current obtained as a function of temperature and boron concentration, it was found that the galvanic corrosion rate decreased with temperature while the corrosion rate increased with boron concentration. The experimental results obtained from galvanic corrosion measurement were explained by adhesive property of corrosion product such as protective film, boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel wall and dehydration of boric acid to be slightly soluble boric acid phase. Moreover the galvanic corrosion rate calculated using initial galvanic coupling current instead of steady state coupling current was remarked, which could give us relatively closer galvanic corrosion rate to real pressurized water reactor

  18. Pitting corrosion detection in stainless steels using ultrasounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive metallic systems are able to develop in a spontaneous way a protective layer on the metallic surface that offers excellent corrosion resistance since really in a physical barrier for the reaction with the environment. However, some factors can break locally this layer, promoting one of the most insidious attack, pitting corrosion, which produces local chemical conditions that favouring the corrosive process causing defects in the material, as externals and internals ones, with a random distribution on the metal surface. In this work, ultrasounds non destructive technique has been employed using as variable the maximum amplitude of the back wall echo in order to detect this type of attack. The material employed is an austenitic stainless steel AISI 304, wherein appear several defectology distributions as superficial such as depths simulating pits. (Author)

  19. METHOD FOR ARRANGEMENT OF HIGH-STRENGTH CORROSION-RESISTANT FOR EFFICIENT PROTECTION OF STEEL PIPELINES OPERATED IN THE EXTREME NORTH

    OpenAIRE

    Surovtsev, I. S.; Borisov, Yu M.; Matreninsky, S. I.; Sapelkin, R. I.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. At present, the problem of main pipeline protection from corrosion is extremelyimportant. Principal gas-transport routes have the biggest length in the North areas whereclimatic and geotechnical conditions are adverse. Scientists of Voronezh State University of Architectureand Civil Engineering have developed new material, rubber concrete. This material isbased on liquid oligodienes and has unique set of operational characteristics. The material can beefficiently used as in...

  20. Improvement of barrier properties of a hybrid sol-gel coating by incorporation of synthetic talc-like phyllosilicates for corrosion protection of a carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Joncoux-Chabrol, Karine; Bonino, Jean-Pierre; Gressier, Marie; Menu, Marie-Joëlle; Pébère, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Sol–gel coatings for corrosion protection of metals are a good alternative to toxic chromate treatments. The present work focussed on the incorporation of inorganic fillers in a sol–gel coating to improve the barrier properties of the film. Talc-like phyllosilicates obtained by hydrothermal synthesis at 160°C, 260°C and 350°C, called T160, T260 and T350 respectively, were selected as inorganic fillers. The synthetic materials showed talc lamellar structure but, in contrast with natural...

  1. Influence of alloying elements on the corrosion properties of shape memory stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The corrosion properties of three Fe–Mn–Si–Cr–Ni–(Co) shape-memory stainless steels (SMSSs) were compared with those of a type 304 (SS 304) austenitic stainless steel. ? A considerably high Si content (about 40 at%) is present in the anodic passive films formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. ? The high protectiveness of the anodic passive film formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution results from a protective film consisting of a (Fe, Cr)–mixed silicate. ? The SMSSs exhibited higher corrosion resistance than SS 304 in highly oxidizing environments. ? The SMSSs showed poor corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution compared to that of SS 304. - Abstract: The corrosion properties of three Fe–Mn–Si–Cr–Ni–(Co) shape memory stainless steels were studied based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, immersion and polarization tests. The test results were compared with those of a type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The XPS analyses indicated substantial Si content in the anodic passive films formed on shape memory stainless steels in sulfuric acid solution and that the high protectiveness of these films results from a protective film consisting of a (iron, chromium)–mixed silicate. The corrosion rate of the shape memory stainless steels in boiling nitric acid solution was lower than that of austenitic stainless steel. The high silicon content was found to play an importn important role in the corrosion behavior of these shape memory alloys in highly oxidizing environments. Due to their high manganese content, the shape memory stainless steels showed poor corrosion behavior in 3.5% sodium chloride solution when compared with austenitic stainless steel.

  2. Corrosion-resistant analogue of Hadfield steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of alloying austenitic steels with carbon + nitrogen is used for the development of a corrosion-resistant austenitic CrMn steel having an impact wear resistance close to that of the Hadfield steel. A higher stabilization of the austenitic phase by C + N, as compared to carbon or nitrogen alone, is substantiated by ab initio calculation of the electron structure, measurements of the concentration of free electrons and calculations of the phase equilibrium. Based on these results, the compositions (mass%) Cr18Mn18C0.34N0.61 and Cr18Mn18C0.49N0.58 were melted and tested along with Hadfield steel Mn12C1.2. Mechanical tests have shown that, as compared to the Hadfield steel, the experimental steels possess a higher strength, plasticity, hardness and the same resistance to impact wear. TEM studies of the surface layer after impact treatment revealed a mixture of the amorphous phase, nanocrystals and fine-twinned austenite. At the same time, using Moessbauer spectroscopy of conversion electrons, the ferromagnetic ordering was found in the surface layer of up to 10 ?m in depth, which is the sign of the strain-induced martensitic phase. The hypothesis of a transition from the low-spin to the high-spin state of the iron atoms within the thin twins in austenite was proposed in order to interpret the discrepancy between TEM and Moessbauer studies. Potentiodynamic measurements and immersion tests show that the CrMnCN steels possess a significantly higher pitting potensess a significantly higher pitting potential and resistance to general corrosion in comparison with Hadfield steel

  3. Comparison of the corrosion behavior of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels exposed to static liquid Pb Bi at 450 and 550 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Y.; Futakawa, M.; Saito, S.

    2005-08-01

    Static corrosion tests of various steels were conducted in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi eutectic at 450 °C and 550 °C for 3000 h to study the effects of temperature and alloying elements on corrosion behavior in liquid Pb-Bi. Corrosion depth decreases at 450 °C with increasing Cr content in steels regardless of ferritic/martensitic steels or austenitic steels. Appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr does not occur in the three austenitic steels at 450 °C. Corrosion depth of ferritic/martensitic steels also decreases at 550 °C with increasing Cr content in steels whereas corrosion depth of austenitic steels, JPCA and 316SS becomes larger due to ferritization caused by dissolution of Ni at 550 °C than that of ferritic/martensitic steels. An austenitic stainless steel containing about 5%Si exhibits fine corrosion resistance at 550 °C because the protective Si oxide film is formed and prevents dissolution of Ni and Cr.

  4. New DVGW worksheets for cathodic corrosion protection of buried steel pipelines; Neue DVGW-Arbeitsblaetter fuer den kathodischen Korrosionsschutz erdverlegter Stahlrohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaugler, Hans [Stadtwerke Muenchen (Germany); Laier, Thomas [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Cathodic corrosion protection is an important cost reduction factor in view of the increasing cost pressure resulting from the regulation of the German gas grids. The possibility of assessing the condition of pipelines from the surface enables the development of an optimized rehabilitation strategy for cathodically protected pipelines and grids. The instrumentation has been optimized during the past few years, as well as the method of measurement. The contribution outlines the possibilities of remote monitoring and maintenance. The technical progress necessitates the modification of existing technical rules, which is currently done for the DVGW worksheets GW 12 and G 412. (orig.)

  5. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

  7. Evaluation of Performance of Grout Materials in Protection of Prestressing Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumar, M.S. Karthikeyan and N. Palaniswamy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prestressing cables are widely used in huge constructions like buildings and bridges. Corrosion of prestressing steel is more dangerous than the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Stress corrosion is propagated due to corrosion initiation in prestressing steel under stressed condition. Corrosion resistance of the prestressing steel depends upon the grout material. In this investigation three types of grout materials namely cement grout with non-shrinking admixture, polyurethane foam and epoxy grout were assessed for its suitability within the prestressing cable duct. The performance of grout materials to protect against prestressing steel corrosion was evaluated by different electrochemical techniques such as OCP measurements, anodic polarisation test and impressed voltage technique. The mechanical property of the different grout materials were test at room and elevated temperature. Among the three grouts, epoxy based grout system showed better corrosion resistance properties.

  8. Electrochemical Studies of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Peroxide Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajay K.; Vipin Chaudhary; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects corrosion aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted on stainless steel 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild steel in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion ...

  9. Increasing of corrosion resistance of nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of C, Cr, Ni, V, Mo, Co, Al, Ti, Cu and Si on the corrosion resistance of the nitrided stainless steels has been studied alloying that ensures the post-nitriding corrosion resistance have been established. A lit-par-lit phase analysis of the nitrided 03Kh11N10M2T steel has been carried out; the reasons for the increased corrosion resistance of the low-carbon Cr-Ni steels following the nitriding are interpreted

  10. Electrochemical behavior and corrosion protection performance of bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl] tetrasulfide silane films modified with TiO2 sol on 304 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shougang; Cai, Yuchen; Zhuang, Chen; Yu, Meiyan; Song, Xianwang; Zhang, Yuping

    2015-03-01

    The corrosion protection ability of bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide/TiO2 composite films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in this paper. The electrochemical results show that the composite films modified with TiO2 sol exhibited superior corrosion protection performance compared to single bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide (BTESPT) silane films. The durability and reaction mechanism of BTESPT films and BTESPT/TiO2 composite films were further studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflection absorption Fourier infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the experimental results revealed the loading of TiO2 sol into the porous part of the silane network, which not only increases the compactness and durability of silane films but also improves the interfacial bonding force due to formation of Sisbnd Osbnd Ti bonds. After 15 days immersion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, the BTESPT/TiO2 composite films still had good corrosion resistance ability.

  11. Corrosion protection method by neutral treatment for boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion protection method by neutral treatment has been applied in Europe mainly for boilers and nuclear reactors instead of existing all volatile treatment. The cause of corrosion of steel and copper in water and the effect of neutral treatment, that is the effect of protection film of magnetite in steel and cuprous oxide in copper alloy, are explained with the characteristic figure of PH, electromotive force and chemical formula. The experience of applying this neutral treatment to the Wedel thermal power plant and the system flow sheet, the water treatment equipment, relating instrumentations and the water examination are described in detail. Hydrogen peroxide is injected in this neutral treatment. The comparison between the existing water treatment and the neutral treatment and their merits and demerits are explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Enhanced corrosion resistance properties of radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Gravimetric and electrochemical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold plasma nitriding treatment was performed to improve the corrosion resistance of C38 carbon steel. Nitriding process was conducted using a radiofrequency nitrogen plasma discharge for different times of treatment on non-heated substrates. The modification of the corrosion resistance characteristic of the C38 steel due to the treatment in acid medium (1 M HCl) were investigated by gravimetric and electrochemical tests such as potentiodynamic polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was shown that the plasma nitriding treatment improves the corrosion resistance. Indeed, in the gravimetric tests, nitrided samples showed lower weight loss and lower corrosion rate in comparison to untreated one. In the Tafel polarisation tests, the nitrided samples showed greatly reduced corrosion current densities, anodic dissolution and also retarded the hydrogen evolution reaction. Using EIS method, an adequate structural model of the interface was used and the values of the corresponding parameters were calculated and discussed. The results obtained from weight loss and electrochemical studies were in reasonable agreement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out to establish the mechanism of corrosion inhibition of nitrided C38 steel in 1 M HCl medium. The enhancement of the corrosion resistance is believed to be related to the iron nitride compound layer formed on the C38 steel surface during plasma nitriding, which protected the undeplasma nitriding, which protected the underlying metal from corrosive attack in the aggressive solutions

  13. Calculation of minimum cathodic protection potential of carbon steel in soil using cathodic polarization curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the simple method for calculating the minimal protective potential and corrosion rate of steel in soil using cathode curve and the value of free corrosion potential. The suggested electrochemical method for calculating corrosion rate at cathode polarization requires the minimal number of experimental data (cathode polarization curve and E cor value) and calculation procedure is very simple

  14. Corrosion inhibition in 2.0 M sulfuric acid solutions of high strength maraging steel by aminophenyl tetrazole as a corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M., E-mail: emsherif@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), Advanced Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, PO. Box 800, Al-Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); National Research Centre (NRC), Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-02-15

    The corrosion of high strength maraging steel after varied immersion times in concentrated solution, 2.0 M, of sulfuric acid has been investigated. The work was also extended to study the effect of 5-(3-aminophenyl)-tetrazole (APTA) on the inhibition of the steel corrosion. The study has been carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. EIS spectra showed that the corrosion and polarization resistances decrease with increasing the immersion time of the steel before measurement and increase in the presence of APTA and the increase of its concentration. Polarization data agreed with the EIS measurements and indicated that the increase of immersion time increases the corrosion of steel by increasing its corrosion current and corrosion rate and lowering its polarization resistance. On the other hand, the addition of APTA and the increase of its concentration minimized the corrosion of steel through decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate and increasing the polarization resistance at all exposure test periods. SEM and EDX investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the maraging steel in the 2.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the APTA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  15. Corrosion inhibition in 2.0 M sulfuric acid solutions of high strength maraging steel by aminophenyl tetrazole as a corrosion inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2014-02-01

    The corrosion of high strength maraging steel after varied immersion times in concentrated solution, 2.0 M, of sulfuric acid has been investigated. The work was also extended to study the effect of 5-(3-aminophenyl)-tetrazole (APTA) on the inhibition of the steel corrosion. The study has been carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. EIS spectra showed that the corrosion and polarization resistances decrease with increasing the immersion time of the steel before measurement and increase in the presence of APTA and the increase of its concentration. Polarization data agreed with the EIS measurements and indicated that the increase of immersion time increases the corrosion of steel by increasing its corrosion current and corrosion rate and lowering its polarization resistance. On the other hand, the addition of APTA and the increase of its concentration minimized the corrosion of steel through decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate and increasing the polarization resistance at all exposure test periods. SEM and EDX investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the maraging steel in the 2.0 M H2SO4 solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the APTA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  16. Corrosion inhibition in 2.0 M sulfuric acid solutions of high strength maraging steel by aminophenyl tetrazole as a corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of high strength maraging steel after varied immersion times in concentrated solution, 2.0 M, of sulfuric acid has been investigated. The work was also extended to study the effect of 5-(3-aminophenyl)-tetrazole (APTA) on the inhibition of the steel corrosion. The study has been carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. EIS spectra showed that the corrosion and polarization resistances decrease with increasing the immersion time of the steel before measurement and increase in the presence of APTA and the increase of its concentration. Polarization data agreed with the EIS measurements and indicated that the increase of immersion time increases the corrosion of steel by increasing its corrosion current and corrosion rate and lowering its polarization resistance. On the other hand, the addition of APTA and the increase of its concentration minimized the corrosion of steel through decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate and increasing the polarization resistance at all exposure test periods. SEM and EDX investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the maraging steel in the 2.0 M H2SO4 solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the APTA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  17. Nitrogen addition and localized corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen as an alloying element has been reported to improve the localized corrosion resistance, particularly pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steels in chloride containing aqueous environments. The authors highlight the corrosion behaviour of nitrogen-alloyed (up to 0.56 wt%) austenitic stainless steels and compared the studies carried out by several groups. The influence of various metallurgical variables including cold working, thermal ageing, grain size and surface treatment on the pitting corrosion behaviour of the nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless steels is addressed. The mechanism by which nitrogen enhanced the corrosion resistance is elucidated with the help of results obtained using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. The role of nitrogen on the formation of passive films and the semiconducting nature of passive film with nitrogen addition, are discussed to understand the corrosion resistance offered by the passive films with increasing nitrogen addition. The differences in the localized corrosion behaviour between various nitrogen alloyed stainless steels are highlighted. (author)

  18. Anti-Corrosive Effect of Tridax Procumbens – Zn2+ System Controlling the Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract Tridax Procumbens(TP in controlling the corrosion of carbon steel aqueous medium containing 60 ppm of chloride ions in absence and presence of Zn2+ has been studied by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 1 ml of Tridax Procumbens extract and 150 ppm of Zn2+ offers 96% inhibition efficiency. The synergistic effect exists between Tridax Procumbens and Zn2+ system. Polarization study shows that the Tridax Procumbens – Zn2+ system function as a cathodic inhibitor. AC impedance spectra reveal that a protective film formed on the surface. The Adsorption equilibrium exhibited better fit to Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich isotherm. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+ -Tridax Procumbens and Zn(OH2.

  19. Influence of burnishing on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of duplex steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ?abanowski

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the current study was to investigate the usability of burnishing-inducted surface enhancement method for improve the stress corrosion cracking resistance of duplex stainless steel.Design/methodology/approach: The surface layers upon round in cross section specimens were performed through burnishing treatment. Corrosion tests were performed with the use of Slow Strain Rate Test technique in inert (glycerin and aggressive (boiling 35% MgCl2 solution environments.Findings: It was shown that burnishing treatment increases corrosion resistance of the steel. Stress corrosion cracking resistance depends on the magnitude of cold work at surface layers. High level of cold work decreases corrosion resistance.Research limitations/implications: This study does not indicate the optimum stress level and stress distribution in surface layers for the best corrosion resistance. It is necessary to continue the research to determine burnishing parameters for demanded properties of duplex steel surface layers.Practical implications: The burnishing treatment can significantly improve stress corrosion resistance of specified parts of chemical installations working in the contact with aggressive media. Such parts as valve parts or propeller shafts can be successfully protected against corrosion attack.Originality/value: Burnishing surface enhancement for constructional parts made of duplex stainless steels exposed to corrosive environments has not been reported in literature. Application of this technology can increase life-time of chemical installation devices and improve their reliability.

  20. The effect of ion implantation on the resistance of 316L stainless steel to crevice corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an investigation of the influence of aluminium, titanium and scandium implantation on the electrochemical and chemical crevice corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel are presented and discussed. Ion implantation, in addition to improving markedly the protective quality of the passive film at the free corrosion potential, greatly increases the resistance of 316L stainless steel to crevice corrosion in both neutral NaCl and acidic FeCl3 solutions. A moderate decrease in pitting resistance is possibly due to coverage effect of implanted species on the surface molybdenum constituent. (Auth.)

  1. Experiencies of corrosion and corrosion protection in seawater-cooling systems in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the experience of the corrosion resistance of pumps, heat exchangers, valves, and pipings in different seawater-cooling system. For pumps and heat exchangers the experience has been so extensive that a clear picture of todays status can be given. Owing to more scanty data concerning valves and pipes the survey of the corrosion in these components is less well substantiated. The most common pumps in the cooling systems of power stations are vertically extended shaft pumps. To counteract corrosion on column and casing with organic surface coating and on stainless steel shafts and impellers under shutdown conditions, these should be provided with internal and external cathodic protection. The experience of tin and aluminium bronzes in impellers and shafts in such pumps has been so poor - erosion and cavitaion damage - that a change has usually been made to preferentially ferritic-austenitic Mo-alloyd stainless steels. The combination of stainless steel/Ni-Resist 2 D has been found unsatisfactory owing to the occurrence of galvanic corrosion on the latter material. For heat exchangers, titanium has proved to be far and away the best choice. In the optimal blanket solution for a titanium heat exchangers the tubes are seal-welded to tube sheets of explosion-bonded titanium clad steel. For retubing of old condensers a similar procedure with tubes of high-alloy stainless steel in tube sheets of stainless clad steel is of economic interest. The effect of chlorination of the cooling water, however, remains to be clarified before such a procedure can be unreservedly recommended. Pipings of rubber-lined carbon steel or with thick coatings of solvent-free opoxy resin have shown very good corrosion resistance. Tar-epoxy-resin-coated pipes, however, should usually be provided with internal cathodic protection. Cement-lined carbon steel pipes are used with varying results in the offshore industry. Recently, however, pipes of the high slloy stainless steel 254 SMO have also come into use for similar purposes. (Author)

  2. Investigation of corrosion behavior of Mg-steel laser-TIG hybrid lap joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Liming, E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liaoning Advanced Welding and Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xu Rongzheng [Key Laboratory of Liaoning Advanced Welding and Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Galvanic corrosion increases the corrosion rate of the Mg-steel joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe splashes lower the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of grain refinement on the corrosion behavior of the joint is slight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni or Cu interlayer could not improve the corrosion resistance of fusion zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The arc-sprayed coating could enhance the reliability of weld joint. - Abstract: The paper investigates the corrosion behavior of the lap joint of AZ31 magnesium alloy to Q235 steel with salt solution immersion testing and electrochemical testing. It is demonstrated that grain refinement resulting from the welding process has little effect on the corrosion behavior of the lap joint. However, the cathodic phases formed in the welding process and the galvanic corrosion between magnesium alloy and steel decrease the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Besides, neither Cu nor Ni, as filler material, could improve the corrosion resistance of the joint, but the arc-sprayed Al coating acting as a protective layer could.

  3. Investigation of corrosion behavior of Mg-steel laser-TIG hybrid lap joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Galvanic corrosion increases the corrosion rate of the Mg-steel joint. ? Fe splashes lower the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. ? The effect of grain refinement on the corrosion behavior of the joint is slight. ? Ni or Cu interlayer could not improve the corrosion resistance of fusion zone. ? The arc-sprayed coating could enhance the reliability of weld joint. - Abstract: The paper investigates the corrosion behavior of the lap joint of AZ31 magnesium alloy to Q235 steel with salt solution immersion testing and electrochemical testing. It is demonstrated that grain refinement resulting from the welding process has little effect on the corrosion behavior of the lap joint. However, the cathodic phases formed in the welding process and the galvanic corrosion between magnesium alloy and steel decrease the corrosion resistance of the joint greatly. Besides, neither Cu nor Ni, as filler material, could improve the corrosion resistance of the joint, but the arc-sprayed Al coating acting as a protective layer could.

  4. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-05-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  5. Means of protecting fuel rod cladding against corrosion by lead coolant and lead sublayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper dwells upon the results of the efforts to investigate into the corrosion of the commercial and the experimental steel in a lead and into the possibility to ensure protection against the corrosion effect. One considers the cases when a fuel element cladding is affected by a lead coolant and by a heat-transfer sublayer. On the basis of the thermodynamic calculations and of the experimental data one puts forward some ways to protect a cladding of the lead cooled reactor fuel element against the coolant corrosion effect via production of a new corrosion-resisting chrome steel and against the heat-transfer sublayer corrosion effect vial its doping with steel ingredients. The results of the efforts were used in the BREST-OD-300 reactor test fuel elements irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor

  6. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  7. New Sol-gel Formulations to Increase the Barrier Effect of a Protective Coating Against the Corrosion and Wear of Galvanized Steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Raquel, Kunst; Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio, Cardoso; Lilian Vanessa Rossa, Beltrami; Claúdia Trindade, Oliveira; Tiago Lemes, Menezes; Jane Zoppas, Ferreira; Célia de Fraga, Malfatti.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new pretreatment method that uses alkoxide precursors with a plasticizing agent; the purpose of this study is to improve the electrochemical and mechanical properties of a galvanized steel surface. Galvanized steel was covered with a hybrid film obtained from a sol that consist [...] ed of two alkoxide precursors, 3 - (trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), with nitrate cerium in a concentration of 0.01 M and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticizer. The hybrid coatings were obtained by dip-coating method with various concentrations of plasticizer (0, 20, 40 and 60 g.L-1). The hybrid films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry, contact angle measurements, a tribometer with the type-setting ball on the plate and electrochemical tests. The addition of the plasticizer into the hybrid films improves the corrosion resistance behavior compared to the sample without the plasticizer. The addition of 20 g.L-1 of plasticizer showed the best performance in the electrochemical tests. The mechanical behavior results indicated that higher PEG concentrations resulted in films with enhanced durability.

  8. Aminopyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors for corrosion of 1018 carbon steel in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of some aminopyrimidine derivatives on the corrosion of 1018 carbon steel in 0.05 M HNO3 solution was studied using weight loss and polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. The addition of KI to aminopyrimidine derivatives enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect. The inhibitors are adsorbed on the steel surface according to Temkin isotherm. Some thermodynamic functions were computed and discussed. It was found that the aminopyrimidine derivatives provide a good protection to steel against pitting corrosion in chloride containing solutions

  9. Materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature corrosion thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some protection solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - corrosion costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature corrosion: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other corrosion types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in cro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - protective coatings against corrosion and oxidation; 19 - high temperature corrosion in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers corrosion in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature corrosion in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature corrosion in new energies industry. (J.S.)

  10. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Potential Monitoring and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy during Corrosion Initiation and Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Mason, Thomas O.

    2005-01-01

    A reinforced mortar specimen that allows potential measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) immediately after preparation was designed and tested. The specimen consists of a mortar cylinder with a central rebar and a concentric arrangement of embedded Ru/Ir activated titanium wires. The wires can act as both reference and counter electrode during EIS and, thus, no external electrode is required. The defined geometry solves reproducibility problems involved with application of an external reference electrode for EIS. Changes of the electromotive force (EMF) between rebar and titanium wires can be monitored immediately after preparation. The wire arrangement also allows investigation of local changes in the bulk mortar by EIS or by measuring the potential development of the titanium wires versus an external standard electrode. The specimen design was evaluated in an investigation on the effect of the steel quality and the steel surface properties on initiation and propagation of chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. Besides untreated (as received) carbon rebars and stainless rebars, selected surface treatments and galvanization were investigated. The surface treatments included grit blasting, electrochemical and hydrochloric acid cleaning (HCl) as well as weathering. The results indicate that the investigated treatments of the carbon steel surface have no major effect on the initiation period, which was approximately 20 days under the actual conditions. The galvanized rebar appears to be protected throughout the experimental period to date (200 days), whereas active corrosion of the stainless steel appeared to be initiated after 100 days exposure.

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Nitrogen Ion Implanted Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of nitrogen ion implanted 440C stainless steel was studied as a practical application of ion implantation. 440C stainless steel was subjected to the same implantation condition which showed the significant improvement of corrosion resistance of a high purity iron. The composition and structure of implanted layer were examined. The corrosion tests of the samples were performed in deaerated 1N H2SO4 and 0.1M NaCl aqueous solution using a potentiodynamic polarization method. The corrosion mechanisms of nitrogen ion implanted 440C stainless steel were investigated

  12. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  13. Galvanic corrosion of carbon steel coupled to antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We study galvanic corrosion of carbon steel coupled to antimony. ? Aeration and temperature affect potentiodynamic behaviour of both materials. ? Ecorr of both materials decreases with rising temperature and absence of oxygen. ? Icorr of the galvanic couple increases with rising temperature and aeration. - Abstract: Galvanic corrosion of carbon steel coupled to antimony was studied in aerated and N2-purged electrolytes at ambient and 60 °C temperatures. Free corrosion potential of antimony and carbon steel shifts to more active values with increasing temperature and N2 purging of the electrolyte. Under all experimental conditions, antimony remains less electronegative than carbon steels. Aeration and temperature affect potentiodynamic behaviour of both materials. As a consequence, the corrosion current for the antimony–carbon steel couple increases with increasing temperature and with aeration. There was a good agreement between the corrosion currents obtained through the Evans’ experiment and super-imposed potentiodynamic scans.

  14. Enhanced corrosion resistance properties of radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Gravimetric and electrochemical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouanis, F.Z. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF-LSPES UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Traisnel, M. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF-LSPES UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jama, C. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF-LSPES UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: charafeddine.jama@ensc-lille.fr

    2009-03-01

    Cold plasma nitriding treatment was performed to improve the corrosion resistance of C38 carbon steel. Nitriding process was conducted using a radiofrequency nitrogen plasma discharge for different times of treatment on non-heated substrates. The modification of the corrosion resistance characteristic of the C38 steel due to the treatment in acid medium (1 M HCl) were investigated by gravimetric and electrochemical tests such as potentiodynamic polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was shown that the plasma nitriding treatment improves the corrosion resistance. Indeed, in the gravimetric tests, nitrided samples showed lower weight loss and lower corrosion rate in comparison to untreated one. In the Tafel polarisation tests, the nitrided samples showed greatly reduced corrosion current densities, anodic dissolution and also retarded the hydrogen evolution reaction. Using EIS method, an adequate structural model of the interface was used and the values of the corresponding parameters were calculated and discussed. The results obtained from weight loss and electrochemical studies were in reasonable agreement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out to establish the mechanism of corrosion inhibition of nitrided C38 steel in 1 M HCl medium. The enhancement of the corrosion resistance is believed to be related to the iron nitride compound layer formed on the C38 steel surface during plasma nitriding, which protected the underlying metal from corrosive attack in the aggressive solutions.

  15. Initial Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Pan, Chen; Wang, Zhenyao; Yu, Guocai

    2015-02-01

    The initial corrosion behavior of carbon steel subjected to Shenyang industrial atmosphere has been investigated by weight-loss measurement, scanning electron microscopy observation, x-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The experimental results reveal that the corrosion kinetics of the initial corrosion of carbon steel in industrial atmosphere follows empirical equation D = At n , and there is a corrosion rate transition from corrosion acceleration to deceleration; the corrosion products are composed of ?-FeOOH, ?-FeOOH, Fe3O4, as well as FeS which is related to the existence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rust layers. The effect of dust particles on the corrosion evolution of carbon steel has also been discussed.

  16. Inhibition properties of self-assembled corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline for mild steel corrosion in chloride solution saturated with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline effectively protects mild steel from CO2 corrosion. •Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to the investigate kinetics of corrosion inhibitor adsorption. •Adsorption of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) on corrosion of mild steel in chloride solutions saturated with CO2 was investigated by weight loss measurements (WL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption mechanism and kinetics of self-assembled (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) monolayers formation on gold were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance measurements (QCM). WL and AFM results demonstrated that TOFA/DETA imidazoline can effectively protect mild steel surface from corrosion. QCM measurements shown that the adsorption of TOFA/DETA imidazoline onto gold follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm and further investigation of the adsorption process will be carried out on a corroding metal surface

  17. Corrosion behavior of duplex polyaniline/epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenovi? Milica M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on mild steel and on mild steel with electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI film were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The aim of the paper was to present new findings on the corrosion protection of mild steel by a duplex PANI/-epoxy coating in 3% NaCI solution and to determine the effect of thin PANI film on the protective properties of the coating. PANI film was deposited electrochemically on mild steel from an aqueous solution of 0.5 mol dm"3 sodium benzoate and 0.1 mol dm"3 aniline at a constant current density of 1.5 mA cm"2. Non-pigmented epoxy coatings on mild steel and on mild steel with PANI film were obtained by cathodic electrode position at constant voltage and stirring conditions. The resin concentration in the electrode position bath was 10 wt.% solid dispersion in water at pH 5.7. The applied voltage was 250 V, the temperature 26°C and the deposition time 3 min. It was shown that thin PANI film could be used to modify the surface of mild steel prior to epoxy coating deposition, due to the increased corrosion protection of a duplex PANI/epoxy coating comparing to an epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl solution.

  18. A Study of Localized Corrosion in Supermartensitic Stainless Steel Weldments

    OpenAIRE

    Enerhaug, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with pitting corrosion in super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) weldments in slightly sour service. Thee main objective with the present thesis has been to find out why pitting corrosion occurs in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at ambient rather than at elevated temperatures and how the corrosion mechanism depends on the welding process. The thesis is divided into six parts. Part I gives a general introduction to martensitic stainless steels, focusing on the...

  19. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-300C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  20. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion by thiourea derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning implies the removing of the contamination from the component surfaces using: the mechanical action, the chemical and electrochemical cleaning solutions and other procedures. A decontamination process is applied using a solution containing 2M formic acid, 0.1M formaldehyde and some inhibitors. These inhibitors must maintain between the reasonable limits the rates of two concurrent processes: the dissolution of deposits and the attack on the base metal. In this aim, the following thiourea derivatives have been used as corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in the decontamination processes executed at relative high temperature (85-90 deg. C): thiourea, Nphenylthiourea and N, N'-diphenylthiourea. The concentrations used in the case of all inhibitors have been comprised between 3.10-4M and 3.10-3M. To evaluate their efficiency was used mainly the potentiodynamic method. Applying this method, their efficiency was determined by two methods: from Tafel slopes and from polarization resistance (Rp). In presence of these compounds high inhibition efficiency (I.E.) in the decommissioning solutions have been recorded, their efficiency varying with their concentrations and molecular weights. As result of our tests, we established the following rank in which decreases their efficiency: N, N'-diphenylthiourea >N-phenylthiourea> thiourea The protectiveness accorded by these corrosion inhibitors will permit simultaneous decontamination owill permit simultaneous decontamination of mild steel and stainless steels in same solution in identical conditions

  1. Importance of Surface Preparation for Corrosion Protection of Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Chandra Debnath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of science and technology of pretreatment process suitable for automotive finishing with cathodic electrodeposition primer is presented in details in this paper. Both the theoretical principles and practical aspects of tricationic phosphating process that are used in automotive industry are discussed in details. The characteristic features of phosphate coatings of both conventional high zinc phosphating formulations and modern tricationic phosphating formulations on steel surface are compared in details by SEM, EDX and XRD techniques. The corrosion protection of the phosphated and painted steel panels were evaluated by both salt spray test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The analysis of impedance data in terms of pore resistance (Rpo, coating capacitance (Cc and breakpoint frequency (fb as a function of salt spray exposure time provides a clear insight into the mechanism of superior corrosion resistance provided by the modern tricationic phosphating formulations compared with conventional high zinc phosphating formulations.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of stainless steels in flowing LBE at low and high oxygen concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, A. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, Camugnano, BO 40032 (Italy); Azzati, M. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, 102413 Beijing (China); Benamati, G. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, Camugnano, BO 40032 (Italy); Gessi, A. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, Camugnano (Bolivia) 40032 (Italy)]. E-mail: alessandro.gessi@brasimone.enea.it; Long, B. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: long.bin@brasimone.enea.it; Scaddozzo, G. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, 102413 Beijing (China)

    2004-11-01

    The corrosion behaviours of austenitic steel AISI 316L and martensitic steel T91 were investigated in flowing lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 400 deg. C. The tests were performed in the LECOR and CHEOPE III loops, which stood for the low oxygen concentration and high oxygen concentration in LBE, respectively. The results obtained shows that steels were affected by dissolution at the condition of low oxygen concentration (C{sub [O{sub 2}]} = 10{sup -8}-10{sup -10} wt%) and were oxidized at the condition of high oxygen concentration (C{sub [O{sub 2}]} = 10{sup -5}-10{sup -6} wt%). The oxide layers detected are able to protect the steels from dissolution in LBE. Under the test condition adopted, the austenitic steel behaved more resistant to corrosion induced by LBE than the martensitic steel.

  3. Corrosion Behavior of High-Strength Bainitic Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Layek, S.; Giribaskar, S.; Mondal, Kallol

    2015-04-01

    The present work discusses corrosion behavior of newly developed bainitic steels made by isothermal heat treatment of a new steel composition (0.71 pct C, 1.15 pct Mn, 0.20 pct Ni, 0.59 pct Cr, 0.40 pct Cu, 0.35 pct Si, 0.026 pct S, 0.027 pct P, and rest Fe (weight percent)). Corrosion behavior of the pearlitic steel made by normalization is also studied. Electrochemical polarization and salt fog tests are carried out in 0.6 M NaCl. Steel rusts after salt fog tests are analyzed. Modified composition, finer microstructures, and compact rust morphology attribute to better corrosion resistance of the bainitic steels. Corrosion mechanisms for the pearlitic and bainitic steels are discussed.

  4. Experiences of corrosion and corrosion protection in seawater systems in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the experience of the corrosion resistance of pumps, heat exchangers, valves and pipings in different seawater cooling systems in Scandinavia, including power reactor cooling systems in Finland and Sweden. For pumps and heat exchangers the experience has been so extensive that a clear picture of today's standing can be given. Owing to scanty data concerning valves and pipes, the survey of the corrosion in these components is less well supported. Vertically extended centrifugal pumps are the pumps in general use in power plant cooling systems. To counteract corrosion on pump riser and pump casing having an organic surface coating, and on stainless steel shafts and impellers, these components should be provided with internal and external cathodic protection. For tube and plate type heat exchangers, titanium has proved to be the best material choice. Rubber-enclosed carbon steel pipings, or pipings having a thick coating of epoxy plastic, have shown very strong corrosion resistance in power plant seawater cooling systems. Valves in seawater systems have primarily been affected by corrosion due to poorly executed or damaged organic coating on cast iron. Different seawater-resistant bronzes (red bronze, tin bronze and aluminium bronze) are therefore preferable as valve materials

  5. Corrosion resistance of Cu-Ni-stainless steel multilayers for EMI shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metallic coatings for ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding must have a low electric resistance for effective electromagnetic wave shielding as well as good corrosion resistance to guarantee reliability of the electronic devices. Normally, the metallic coating for EMI shielding consist of conductive layer, corrosion resistance layer and buffer layer. As the corrosion induced the delamination of coating layer, it could not function of EMI shielding. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of the stainless steel layer on the corrosion resistance was investigated. Several metals were deposited onto polycarbonate by RF magnetron sputtering. The structural characteristics of the film were investigated by means of X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties were examined by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS showed that 2205 stainless steel of upper layer had the better protective efficiency than 310S stainless steel

  6. A Novel Hydrazinecarbothioamide as a Potential Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohamad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 2-(1-methyl-4-((E-(2-methylbenzylideneamino-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-ylidene-hydrazineecarbothioamide (HCB was synthesized as a corrosion inhibitor from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine, thiosemicarbazide and 2-methylbenzaldehyde. The corrosion inhibitory effects of HCB on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The results showed that HCB inhibited mild steel corrosion in acidic solution and inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency was up to 96.5% at 5.0 mM. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested that HCB adsorbed on the surface of mild steel, leading to the formation of a protective film. The novel corrosion inhibitor synthesized in the present study was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral data.

  7. The Corrosion Behavior of Cold Sprayed Zinc Coatings on Mild Steel Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Naveen Manhar; Kiran, B.; Jyothirmayi, A.; Phani, P. Sudharshan; Sundararajan, G.

    2013-04-01

    Zinc and its alloy coatings have been used extensively for the cathodic protection of steel. Zinc coating corrodes in preference to the steel substrate due to its negative corrosion potential. Numerous studies have been conducted on the corrosion behavior of zinc and its alloy coatings deposited using several techniques viz., hot dip galvanizing, electrodeposition, metalizing or thermal spray etc. Cold spray is an emerging low temperature variant of thermal spray family which enables deposition of thick, dense, and pure coatings at a rapid rate with an added advantage of on-site coating of steel structures. In the present study, the corrosion characteristics of cold sprayed zinc coatings have been investigated for the first time. In addition, the influence of heat treatment of zinc coating at a temperature of 150 °C on its corrosion behavior has also been addressed.

  8. Influence of temperature on corrosion rate and porosity of corrosion products of carbon steel in anoxic bentonite environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoulil, J.; Ka?ok, J.; Kou?il, M.; Parschová, H.; Novák, P.

    2013-11-01

    The study focuses on the porosity of layers of corrosion products and its impact on corrosion rate of carbon steel in moist bentonite. Measurements were performed in an aggressive Czech type of bentonite - Rokle B75 at temperatures of 90 and 40 °C. Aggressiveness of B75 bentonite consists in low content of chlorides. Presence of chlorides in pore solution allows formation of more protective magnetite. The evaluation was made by electrochemical techniques (red/ox potential, open circuit potential, linear polarization resistance, impedance spectroscopy) and resistometric sensor measurements. The result imply that the higher the temperature the more compact is the layer of corrosion products that slightly decelerates corrosion rate compared to the state at 40 °C. The state of corrosion products at both temperatures is reversible.

  9. Further studies of the anaerobic corrosion of steel in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the horizontal emplacement concept (KBS-3H) for the disposal of radioactive waste, which is being developed in Sweden and Finland, copper canisters with cast iron inserts will be surrounded by bentonite buffer and mounted in perforated carbon steel support structures in boreholes within the bedrock. The groundwater will be reducing, leading to anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous material. It is important to understand both the effect of bentonite on the corrosion behaviour of the steel and the effect of the corrosion products on the performance of the bentonite. Previous work on the corrosion of steel in bentonite was extended to investigate a wider range of conditions, including the possible effects of alkaline plumes released from concrete support structures and the effect of chloride concentration and temperature on the corrosion rate of steel in bentonite. Corrosion rates were measured by collecting hydrogen produced by the anaerobic corrosion of iron. In addition, a range of analytical techniques was applied to study the composition and morphology of the corrosion products and the distribution and chemical state of the iron released into the bentonite. Comparison was also made between corrosion in compacted bentonite and artificial bentonite porewater. In the presence of bentonite, the corrosion product layer was relatively thin compared to fully aqueous conditions, probably because the ferrous ions released by corrosion exchanged with the bentonite interlayer n exchanged with the bentonite interlayer or attached to the surface of the bentonite grains, rather than forming a separate iron oxide phase. (author)

  10. Laser-controllable coatings for corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Skirtach, Andre G; Sviridov, Dmitry V; Shchukin, Dmitry G; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2009-07-28

    We introduce a novel and versatile approach to the corrosion protection by use of "smart" laser-controllable coating. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that one could terminate the corrosion process by very intensive healing after an appearance of corrosion centers using local laser irradiation. It is also shown that by applying a polyelectrolyte shell with noble metal particles over the mesoporous titania and silica via layer-by-layer assembly it is possible to fabricate micro- and nanoscaled reservoirs, which, being incorporated into the zirconia-organosilica matrix, are responsible for the ability of laser-driven release of the loaded materials (e.g., corrosion inhibitor). Furthermore, the resultant films are highly adhesive and could be easily deposited onto different metallic substrates. Laser-mediated remote release of incorporated corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole) from engineered mesoporous containers with silver nanoparticles in the container shell is observed in real time on single and multicontainer levels. PMID:19572749

  11. Sintered Cu Alloyed Stainless Steels and Their Corrosion Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun'an; He, Ying; He, Peng; Zhou, Bangxin

    2008-10-01

    Copper is an effective element to activate the sintering process of stainless steels and to enhance corrosion resistance of the sintered specimens. Ways of introducing Cu into stainless steel powders lead to different consequence in the microstructure and corrosion behavior of sintered Cu alloyed stainless steel. In the present work, two methods, mixing Cu with stainless steel powder and coating stainless steel powder with Cu by electroless plating, were introduced in order to investigate their influence on the sintered specimens. It was found that the sintered specimens from Cu-coated stainless steel powders (1-5 wt.%Cu) produce less porous surfaces with isolated pores than the specimens from mixed powders and the former have obviously high density and relatively even Cu distribution. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicate that Cu-electroless plating of 1-5 wt.%Cu improves the corrosion resistance of sintered stainless steel due to the lowering of passivation current density.

  12. On the corrosion resistance of 01Kh25 ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of non-ferrous metal ions on corrosion behaviour of 01Kh25 specific low carbon steel as compared to austenitic 12Kh18N10T and 06KhN28MDT steels in boiling solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and their mixture is studied. Compositions initating commercial ones are chosen the media. It is shown that trough corrosion resistance of 01Kh25 steel in 10% H2SO4 is two order below 06KhN28MDT austenitic steel in presence of Cu2+ ions as a result of the surface passivation corrosion resistance of ferritic steel is an order higher the austenitic ones. Ferrite steel resistance in the nitric acid and its mixture with sulfuric acid is five timesas much as in 12Kh18N10T austenitic steel

  13. Investigation for anti-stress corrosion cracking of SUS 304 stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anti-stress corrosion cracking method by current density of cathodic protection was studied for stress corrosion cracking of SUS 304 stainless steel weldments in the environment of various MgCl2 boiling solution (wt%). Main results obtained are as follows: 1) Under the conditions below the critical current density of cathodic protection for anti-stress corrosion cracking, the latent time of crack initiation of weld heat affected zone occurs more rapidly than that of base metal because of the phenomenon of sensitizing and softening caused by weld heat cycles. 2) Under the constant current density of cathodic protection, the anti-stress corrosion cracking of weld heat affected zone can be controlled by critical concentration of MgCl2 solution. 3) The critical current density of cathodic protection of weld heat affected zone increases in proportion to concentration of MgCl2 solution. (Author)

  14. Corrosion Inhibition Study of Mild Steel in Acidic Medium by Antibiotic Drugs: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Md. A. Aziz; Md. Z. H. Khan; Mst S. Khatun; Md. R. Hasan

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the inhibiting efficiency of antibiotic drugs (ciprofloxacin, cloxacillin, and amoxicillin) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 mol·L?1 HCl were studied at room temperature using mass loss measurement. The main reason is probably be due to the formation of protective coverage by the inhibitor as other authors reported previously. Adsorption characteristics of the inhibitor has also been studied using simple equation and it was found that drugs inhibits the corrosion of mild st...

  15. Investigation of Carbon steel corrosion in water base drilling mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Sarhan Kadhim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steel, the most widely used engineering material, accounts for approximately 85%, of the annual steel production worldwide. Despite its relatively limited corrosion resistance, carbon steel is used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants, transportation, chemical processing, petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. This paper Investigate Carbon steel corrosion in water. The corrosion rate in production and casing pipes in water base drilling mud (packer fluid, different salt concentration (100gm/L , 150 gm/L , 200gm/L have been used and different temperature (30co , 50 co , 70 co have been investigated. Weight loss and polarization methods were applied. The results indicate that the corrosion rates decrease with the increasing of salt concentration while the corrosion rates increase with increasing of temperature

  16. / Factorial design applied to corrosion of superduplex stainless steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.J., Mesquita; R.P., Nogueira; I.N., Bastos.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Steels employed in offshore oil and gas production are subject to a very corrosive environment. Especially the new oilfields located in pre-salt layers imply the contact of steels with high brine concentration, high temperature and presence of corrosive gas such as CO2. Besides these facts, stainles [...] s steels have to present higher mechanical properties obtained from an optimized heat treatment. In order to take into account these factors and their synergisms, on the present paper, we have chosen a factorial experimental design to study the corrosion behavior of superduplex steel UNS S32750 by electrochemical tests. The results of open circuit potential, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance were analyzed with statistical methods considering a confidence level of 95%. The factors that significantly affect the corrosion potential are the carbon dioxide and heat treatment; the corrosion current is sensitive to carbon dioxide, and the resistance of polarization is strongly affected by the CO2 content.

  17. Role of FeS in protective action of iron corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of hexanol on iron sulfide, sodium capronate and AB catamine was studied. Influence of FeS on the AB catamine protective action in the course of steel 10 corrosion in 1M solution of NaCl was considered. High adsorption specific capacity of FeS as regards surfactants was ascertained. Adsorption of the inhibitor by iron sulfide reduces its protective action during steel corrosion, although does not lead to its compolete loss, which indicates participation of colloid particles in the formation of protective film on metal

  18. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption of Anthocleista Djalonesis Leaf Extract on the Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Ogukwe, C. E.; Akalezi, C. O.; Chidiebere, M. A.; Oguzie, K. L.; Iheabunike, Z. O.; Oguziea, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Anthocleista djalonesis (AD) have been investigated as non toxic corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic environments (1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4, respectively). Corrosion rates were evaluated at 30 °C using the weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. AD extract was found to inhibit mild steel corrosion in both acidic media via adsorption of the extract organic matter on the metal/solution interface...

  19. Silica nanocontainers for active corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Frederico; Tedim, João; Lisenkov, Aleksey D.; Salak, Andrei N.; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Ferreira, Mário G. S.

    2012-02-01

    Novel self-healing protective coatings with nanocontainers of corrosion inhibitors open new opportunities for long-term anticorrosion protection of different metallic materials. In this paper a new type of functional nanoreservoir based on silica nanocapsules (SiNC) synthesized and loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in a one-stage process is reported for the first time. Unlike conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles, SiNC possess an empty core and shell with gradual mesoporosity, arising from the particular conditions of the synthetic route adopted, which confers significant loading capacity and allows prolonged and stimuli-triggered release of the inhibiting species. The kinetics of inhibitor release was studied at different pH values and concentrations of NaCl. The results show a clear dependence of the release profiles on corrosion relevant triggers such as pH and Cl- concentration. When SiNC loaded with MBT are dispersed in NaCl solution, there is a significant decrease of the corrosion activity on aluminium alloy 2024. More importantly, when SiNC-MBT is added to a conventional water-based coating formulation, the modified coating hampers corrosion activity at the metal interface, better than in the case of direct addition of corrosion inhibitor. Furthermore, self-healing is observed before and after artificially inflicting defects in the modified coatings. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in new generation of active protective coatings.

  20. Mild corrosion behavior on sulphurized steel surface during friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Dou; Xu, Bin-Shi; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhuang, Da-Ming; Zhang, Xian-Cheng; Wei, Shi-Cheng

    2005-12-01

    After treatment by low temperature ion sulphuration, the solid lubrication sulphuration layers (FeS films) were produced on the AISI 1045 and stainless steel. A mass of corrosion peeling pits occurred on the worn scars of 1045 steel sulphuration layer after wear test, whereas none of them on the stainless steel one. AFM was used to observe the morphology of sulphuration layer, SEM equipped EDS was utilized to analyze the morphologies and compositions of worn scars. XPS and XRD were employed to detect the valence states of sulphuration layer and its worn scars, as well as the phase structures. The results showed that during friction, under the frictional heat, the sulfate radical with mild corrosion was produced, so that the 1045 steel without any anti-corrosion was corroded in some certain, meanwhile the stainless steel was not corroded depending on its excellent corrosion resistance.

  1. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The morphology of the corrosion of steel in cement paste was studied in situ. • During galvanostatic corrosion, carbon steel reinforcement corroded homogeneously. • On ferritic stainless steel, deep corrosion pits formed and caused wider cracks. • The measured rate of steel loss correlated well with Faraday’s law of electrolysis. - Abstract: In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover

  2. Role of nanophase oxides in short-term atmospheric corrosion of structural steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Rama

    Systematic studies on the development of nanophase iron oxides in the corrosion products of carbon and weathering steel were performed to understand the role of nanophase oxides in short-term atmospheric corrosion. Similarities and/or differences between short-term and long-term atmospheric corrosion were established by studying carbon steel and weathering steel coupons exposed in mild marine environments for short-term and comparing it with previously established long-term data. Influence of substitutional elements, in particular chromium, in forming nanophase goethite was investigated. Crystallographic, magnetic and morphological properties of nanophase chromium substituted goethite have been characterized in order to understand the protective nature of chromium-substituted goethite in a naturally weathered steel surface. Spectroscopic investigation of the corrosion products of both carbon and weathering steel indicated that lepidocrocite and goethite were the predominant oxides to form following short-term exposures. The corrosion coatings were well layered for exposure times as early as 2 months. The layering was very similar to that observed on steel coupons exposed for more than 8 years. The outer layer was composed of lepidocrocite and occasionally goethite. The inner layer was mainly composed of nanophase goethite. The relative fraction of nanophase goethite was significantly higher in weathering steel compared to carbon steel at the end of six months of exposure. The data analysis also revealed that during the first two months of exposure weathering steel corrodes faster than carbon steel. However carbon steel corrodes more rapidly after 6 months of exposure. At the end of one year, the corrosion rate of carbon steel is higher than weathering steel. It is proposed that during the couple of months, nucleation of oxides is the dominant process in both carbon and weathering steel. At the end of six months, a considerable amount of nanophase goethite formed on carbon steel continues to grow into bigger crystals. On the other hand, in weathering steel the crystal growth of a significant fraction of initially formed nanophase goethite is inhibited. It is proposed that substitutional elements like chromium inhibit the crystal growth in weathering steel. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data for showed that with increasing chromium concentration, the crystallite size of synthetic goethite measured from X-ray diffraction and particle length of goethite measured from Mossbauer spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, became smaller. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Electrochemical Studies of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Peroxide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects corrosion aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted on stainless steel 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild steel in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion and attack around the weld area. Corrosion attack estimated from long term immersion tests is found in agreement, by and large, with that analyzed from electrochemical test. E-pH diagrams drawn for water-peroxide system have been used to understand the corrosivity of the peroxide media. An attempt has been made to suggest a suitable material of construction for handling the test media on the basis of degree of corrosion attack on them and their cost and the mechanical properties.

  4. Electrochemical study of the crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels: example of Cr-Mo ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of stainless steel depassivating pH enables the crevice corrosion resistance to be evaluated. It is concluded that: Mo is more efficient than Cr; the classification of the stainless steel types is not the same for pitting and crevice corrosion resistance; crevice corrosion resistance of Cr-Mo ferritic steels is similar to that of Cr-Ni-Mo austenitic steels

  5. Stress Corrosion Cracking of ferrito-pearlitic steel in aqueous environment containing dissolved CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Vancostenoble, Alix; Duret-Thual, C.; Bosch, Cédric; Delafosse, David

    2014-01-01

    A confined aqueous environment is defined by a very low water-volume to exposed steel-area ratio. In such media containing dissolved CO2, siderite is formed and acts as a protective film. An addition of applied stress and/or environmental fluctuation can disturb the balance between the steel and this protective film, causing the fracture of the latter and leading to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The material studied is a cold drawn and rolled high strength steel composed of ferrite and sph...

  6. Corrosion induced by cathodic hydrogen in 2205 duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work new results about the influence of cathodic hydrogen on passivity and corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel are described. The results were discussed by taking into account hydrogen charged samples and without hydrogen. The corrosion resistance to pitting was qualified with the polarization curves. The conclusion is that, hydrogen deteriorated the passive film stability and corrosion resistance to pitting of 2205 duplex stainless steel. The presence of hydrogen in passive films increases corrosion current density and decreases the potential of the film breakdown. It was also found that degree of susceptibility to hydrogen action was dependent on the hydrogen charging conditions.

  7. Corrosion induced by cathodic hydrogen in 2205 duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, J, E-mail: joanna.k.michalska@polsl.pl [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    In this work new results about the influence of cathodic hydrogen on passivity and corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel are described. The results were discussed by taking into account hydrogen charged samples and without hydrogen. The corrosion resistance to pitting was qualified with the polarization curves. The conclusion is that, hydrogen deteriorated the passive film stability and corrosion resistance to pitting of 2205 duplex stainless steel. The presence of hydrogen in passive films increases corrosion current density and decreases the potential of the film breakdown. It was also found that degree of susceptibility to hydrogen action was dependent on the hydrogen charging conditions.

  8. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel. Pt. II. Marine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results obtained in the MICAT project for mild steel specimens exposed for 1 to 4 years in 47 marine atmospheres in the Ibero-American region. All these atmospheres were characterized for climatology, pollution and corrosion rates according to ISO standards. Complementary morphological and chemical characterization of the steel corrosion product layers (SCPLs) formed in these atmospheres was carried out. The overall analysis of results contributes to understanding, in a systematic way, how atmospheric corrosivity categories can be correlated with corrosion mechanisms. Special aspects of the atmospheres, from pure to mixed marine, were considered. (orig.)

  9. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS surfaces; 2) inhibiting the cathodic reactions at the corrosion site of CS; 3) extending the coverage of cement over CS surfaces; and, 4) improving the adherence of the cement to CS surfaces. Thus, the CS’s corrosion rate of 176 milli inch/per year (mpy) for 1 wt% FA-foamed cement without AP was considerably reduced to 69 mpy by adding only 2 wt% AP. Addition of AP at 10 wt% further reduced this rate to less than 10 mpy.

  10. Corrosion product release from steel surface into NPP water coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation of the effects of various factors on release of steel corrosion products into a water coolant are presented. Samples with different chemical composition are tested under the conditions of a condensate feeding circuity of a NPP with the RBMK reactor and under a benchmark conditions. The test durations are 3200, 5000, 9000 h. The data obtained, confirmed that corrosion of carbon steels and the steel OKh18N10T in the water of a NPP condensate feeding circuit becomes slow. Simultaneously the rate of corrosion product release into the coolat decreases

  11. The effect of organic matter associated with the corrosion products on the corrosion of mild steel in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Wagh, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The corrosion of mild steel immersed at various depths (0-100 m) from three stations of the Arabian Sea was investigated. The corrosion of mild steel decreased with increasing immersion depth. Significant positive relationships were observed between...

  12. Corrosion behavior of plasma sprayed ceramic and metallic coatings on carbon steel in simulated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Plasma sprayed Ni60 coating can provide corrosion protect for the substrate. • Depositing ceramic coatings on metallic coating can improve the corrosion resistance. • The corrosion resistance of Al2O3 coating was better than that of ZrO2 coating. • The porosity had direct effect on the corrosion rate of the plasma sprayed coatings. • The top layer and the bond layer were treated as one coating in the EIS tests. - Abstract: Al2O3, ZrO2 and Ni60 coatings were produced on carbon steels by plasma spray. Ni60 was used as the bond coat in all the cases. The microstructure of these coatings was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior of the plasma spray coated samples as well as uncoated samples was evaluated by open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated seawater. The results showed that Ni60 coating protected carbon steels against the corrosion and plasma spraying ceramic powders on metallic coating improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings further. The corrosion resistance of the Al2O3 coating was superior to that of the ZrO2 coating due to the relatively few defects in Al2O3 coating

  13. Corrosion behaviour and galvanic coupling with steel of Al-based coating alternatives to electroplated cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of bare steel coupled to steel with an Al–Zn flake inorganic spin coating, an Al-based slurry sprayed coating, an arc sprayed Al coating and electroplated cadmium has been investigated. The sacrificial and galvanic behaviour of the coatings was studied in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution using open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical noise measurements. The coatings were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Experimental results showed that the Al-based slurry sprayed coating exhibited an open-circuit potential closer to the steel substrate than other coatings, as well as a low corrosion current density and a more positive corrosion potential. In terms of the galvanic suitability of the investigated coatings for the steel substrate, both the Al–Zn flake inorganic spin coating and the Al-based slurry sprayed coating show low galvanic current, in comparison with the arc sprayed Al coating and electroplated cadmium. This behaviour confirms their superior cathodic protection capability and galvanic compatibility over other coatings tested. Electrochemical noise measurements provide accurate information on the coatings' galvanic behaviour, which can be complimented by the data obtained from superposition of potentiodynamic corrosion scans of the coating and bare steel, provided that the corrosion potential difference between the two materials does not exceed 300 mV. - Highlights: • Al-based slurry coating has best galvanic compatibility with steel. • Mg, Cr, P in Al-based slurry coating reinforce its corrosion resistance. • Ennoblement of Al–Zn flake coating compromises its cathodic protection. • Poor corrosion behaviour of arc sprayed Al coating caused by rough morphology. • Electrochemical noise provides adequate estimates of galvanic behaviour

  14. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural purpose. Although such, so-called, combined reinforcement systems, are gaining impact within the construction industry, they are only marginally covered by existing guidelines for structural design and the literature concerning their mechanical and, in particular their durability aspects, is sparse. The aim of the work presented in this Ph.D. thesis was to quantify the influence of steel fibres on corrosion of traditionalreinforcement bars embedded in uncracked concrete as well as cracked concrete. Focus of the work was set on the impact of steel fibres on corrosion propagation in uncracked concrete and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas electrochemically active (depassivated/corroding) steel fibres are conducting. The impact of electrochemically active (depassivated/corroding) steel fibres on the electrical resistivity of SFRC was studied experimentally and analytically herein. Those studies showed that the addition of electrically conductive steel fibres may potentially reduce the electrical resistivity of concrete. Numerical studies of the correlation between the corrosion rate and the electrical resistivity of concrete were presented to study the impact of conductive steel fibres on the corrosion propagation phase of reinforcement bars. It was observed that under extreme conditions, viz. conductive (depassivated/corroding) steel fibres throughout the concrete volume, the reduction of the electrical resistivity caused by conductive fibres lead to a remarkable increase in the corrosion rate. However it is stressed that the case of corroding steel fibres throughout the concrete volume is somewhat hypothetical due to the very high corrosion-resistance of embedded steel fibres. Thus the investigated case refers to a worst-case scenario. Numerical and experimental studies on the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of load-induced cracks in concrete showed that the steel fibres restrained the crack width of a bending crack through the concrete cover, once the crack was formed. Moreover the numerical studies showed that the length of separation at the concrete/steel-bar interface (displacement discontinuity perpendicular to the reinforcement bar) was reduced for SFRC compared to plain concrete, whereas there was no clear impact on the slip at the concrete/steel-bar (displacement discontinuity parallel to the reinforcement bar) caused by the steel fibres. Additional experimental and numerical studies concerning corrosion of reinforcement embedded in cracked concrete (plain concrete and SFRC) showed that the time-to-corrosion-intiation was similar

  15. AFM study of steel corrosion in aqueous solutions in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Benito, B.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early corrosion stages are studied in carbon steel by means of a solution simulating that contained in concrete pores. Non-carbonated solution contains 5% NaCl. The atomic force microscopy (AFM technique is used to study material performance after different immersion times (up to 48 h. Obtained data are compared to electrochemical ones (corrosion potential and polarization resistance. Analysis of images and roughness evolution along time shows that steel initially tends to reach passivity, although the passive layer rapidly loses its protective character due to chloride attack.

    Este trabajo estudia los primeros estados de la corrosión de un acero al carbono en una disolución que simula la existente en los poros del hormigón, sin carbonatar, con un 5% de NaCl. Para ello, se ha empleado la técnica de microscopía de fuerza atómica (AFM, estudiando el comportamiento del material tras diferentes tiempos de inmersión, hasta 48 h, en la disolución. Estos datos se comparan con datos electroquímicos (potencial de corrosión y resistencia de polarización. El análisis de las imágenes y la evolución de la rugosidad con el tiempo muestran que el acero tiende inicialmente a pasivarse, pero la capa pasiva pierde rápidamente su carácter protector debido al ataque de los cloruros.

  16. A New Green Ionic Liquid-Based Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ezzat, Abdel Rahman O

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the use of new hydrophobic ionic liquid derivatives, namely octadecylammonium tosylate (ODA-TS) and oleylammonium tosylate (OA-TS) for corrosion protection of steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Their chemical structures were determined from NMR analyses. The surface activity characteristics of the prepared ODA-TS and OA-TS were evaluated from conductance, surface tension and contact angle measurements. The data indicate the presence of a double bond in the chemical structure of OA-TS modified its surface activity parameters. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis and contact angle measurements were utilized to investigate the corrosion protection performance of ODA-TS and OA-TS on steel in acidic solution. The OA-TS and ODA-TS compounds showed good protection performance in acidic chloride solution due to formation of an inhibitive film on the steel surface. PMID:26091073

  17. Investigation of Fecraly Coating on Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Agboola, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Steel has found wide application in hot rolling equipments in the steel industry and the oil rig structures in sea water. These equipments are frequently subjected to corrosive and temperature condition which causes severe damage to them, hence the need to develop steel suitable to withstand these conditions in terms of surface treatment. This research work investigates the effect of FeCrAlY coating on mild steel under high temperature and aggressive environment. Iron based coatings are used ...

  18. Well casing corrosion and cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliphant, S. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Well casing failures in Alberta were discussed. A study conducted between 1987-1988 and casing failure statistics from the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) were used to investigate the corrosion mechanisms that contribute to well casing corrosion and to examine the geographic regions and geologic zones prone to external casing corrosion. The study also examined cathodic protection methods for preventing external corrosion. Common corrosion mechanisms included dissimilar metal corrosion; dissimilar soils; differential aeration; bacteria; and stray current interference. Results of the study showed that wells with strings of mixed casing grades showed an increased tendency towards external corrosion, and that the majority of casing penetrations occurred in the top 1500 m of the casing. While the number of well casing failures per year is increasing, the average time to failure is approximately 30 years, as compared with an average time to failure of between 10 to 15 years in the 1970s. Improved drilling and completion practices have reduced the failure rate. 14 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs.

  19. Evaluation of corrosion protection of carbon black filled fusion-bonded epoxy coatings on mild steel during exposure to a quiescent 3% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon black (CB) was mixed with fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coatings to generate a series of formulations with 0.5-4% by weight of carbon black. The degradation of these FBE coatings on mild steel exposed to a quiescent 3% NaCl solution was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results showed that the electrochemical behaviour of coated systems changed dramatically when the CB concentration reached 3% by weight. This phenomenon was relevant to the formation of the percolation regime in the coating, at which a sharp drop in the electrical resistance of the coating was achieved by the generation of a continuous conducting network. A comparison of the protective properties of the FBE coatings filled with various CB loadings, along with the inspection of view underneath the coatings, indicated that the protective performance of the FBE coating was significantly improved when the CB loading exceeded the threshold concentration. This conclusion was confirmed by the results obtained from Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements

  20. Passivation and Corrosion Behavior of Modified Ferritic-Pearlitic Railway Axle Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Srivastav, Simant; Gajbhiye, N. S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of two newly developed ferritic-pearlitic railway axle steels (MS3 and MS6) and the standard Indian conventional axle steel has been studied in sodium borate buffer solution of pH 8.4 with and without the presence of NaCl. The polarization behavior of both the new axle steels shows close resemblance, whereas, different polarization behavior has been observed for the conventional axle steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have clearly reflected significantly improved passivation behavior for the newly developed steels compared to that of the conventional axle steel. NaCl salt fog exposure tests have also shown superior corrosion resistance of the newly developed axle steels as compared to the conventional axle steel. Higher surface roughness on the corroded conventional axle steel has also been observed compared to the smoother surface in case of the new axle steels. Higher corrosion resistance of the new axle steels has been attributed to their finer microstructure and strongly adherent protective rusts.

  1. Temperature and time effects on the acid corrosion of steel in the presence of acetylenic inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One studied the influence of temperature and time dependent polymer film formation speed on kinetics of iron electrode processes and on rate of soft steel corrosion. High inhibiting effect of propargyl alcohol (PA) and of propargylchloride (PC) on electrode processes and on corrosion of steel in hydrochloric acid and that of PC in sulfuric acid is shown to increase with time and temperature increase and to be resulted from formation of polymer phase film on a metal. Loss of protective effect of PA in sulfuric acid results from its cathode hydrogenation and desorption of hydrogenation products

  2. Corrosion and potentiostatic hydrogenation of carbon steels in carbonate and sulfide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behaviour and hydrogenation of two structural carbon steel at controlled potentials in the interval of -1.4 V-+0.4 V in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution (pH 9.4) on the free oxygen access, solution deaeration with argon and saturation with hydrogen sulfide (pH 8.5) are studied. It is established that in the deaerated solution on the potential cathode shift is realized the steel cathode protection where as in carbonate-sulfide solution is found increasing the corrosion rate. 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. Corrosion Protection under Thermal Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sigbjørnsen, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is an extensive and costly problem for the petrochemical and chemical industry. Both good coatings to mitigate the problem and test methods to ensure the quality of these coatings are needed. In this thesis, four coatings; standard epoxy coating, epoxy phenolic coating, titanium modified inorganic copolymer (TMIC) and thermally sprayed aluminium (TSA), were tested for their ability to mitigate the problem. To simulate the CUI conditions, several test methods m...

  4. 3D Numerical modelling of steel corrosion in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Formulation of processes in reinforced concrete relevant for corrosion of steel. ? 3D finite element formulation of the processes relevant for corrosion of steel. ? Implementation of the formulation into a 3D finite element code. ? 3D finite element study for RC beam in the splash zone. - Abstract: The paper deals with a 3D numerical model for transient analysis of processes after depassivation of reinforcement in concrete, which are relevant for calculation of corrosion rate. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the concrete quality, cracking and water saturation in concrete on the current density. The results show that the corrosion rate is higher in poor quality concrete than in good quality concrete. The model predicts that cracks do not influence corrosion rate for the case where the only influence of the crack is on the rate at which oxygen can reach the steel.

  5. Synthesis of the functional derivatives of thioglycolic acid and research of influence of structural factors on their protective properties at corrosion of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Results of influence of structural factors investigation on protective properties of some mono-and di-replaced functional derivatives with general formulas HS-CH2COOH and R'-S-CH2-COOR, synthesized on the basis of thioglycolic acids (TGA) have been considered. It is established, that in biphasic sour system 0.04% water solution CH3COOH-kerosene, all the investigated compounds-both mono and di-replaced, process inhibitor properties. Influence of the nature, structure and lengths of radicals on efficiency of obtained compounds is also established. It is revealed, that among the investigated connections, bi-replaced derivatives of TGA: cyclohexyl propoxycarbonylmethyl sulphide and deputy ether butoxycarbonyymethyl this iconic acids are the most effective inhibitors. As well it is revealed, that all the mono-replaced derivatives of TGA, expect the compound with formula HS-CH2-COOCH2-OH, in biphasic neutral system 3% water solution NaCI- kerosene stimulate corrosion process St-3.It is established, that above-stated di-replaced derivatives TGA also process inhibitor properties in neutral system, however efficiency of these compounds turned to be much less, than in sour system

  6. Bacterial corrosion in marine sediments: influence of cathodic protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to protect offshore structures from marine corrosion, cathodic protection is widely applied via sacrificial anodes (for example zinc or aluminium) or impressed current. In aerated seawater, steel is considered to be protected when a potential of -8050 mV/Cu.CuSO4 is achieved. In many cases, however this potential must be lowered, due to the activity of microorganisms and more specially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB are obligate anaerobes using sulphate as electron acceptor with resultant production of sulphide. Some of them are also able to use hydrogen as energy source, causing cathodic depolarization of steel surfaces. An experiment was performed to analyze the relation between SRB activity and use of different cathodic potentials applied to mild steel samples in marine sediments. Analytical techniques employed included lipid bio-markers and electrochemical methods. Results indicated an evolution of the bacterial community structure both on the steel and in the sediment, as a function of time and potential. The results also show that cathodically produced hydrogen promotes the growth of SRB (author)

  7. Corrosion Behavior of Mild Carbon Steel in Ethanolic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Shaily M.; Bhola, Rahul; Jain, Luke; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.

    2011-04-01

    Electrochemical evaluation of ASTM A36 steel was performed in ethanolic solutions containing small concentrations of water ranging from 0 to 10 vol.%. Electrochemical techniques such as open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization were utilized to analyze corrosion parameters. A fixed concentration of chloride, as per the ASTM specification for fuel grade ethanol, was added to increase the conductivity of the solutions. The effects of water and oxygen on the corrosion behavior of steel in these solutions have been discussed. Pitting corrosion of the steel specimens in these solutions was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pitting analysis. This investigation was performed to establish a baseline for the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of steel in ethanolic solutions.

  8. Corrosion resistance of high-manganese austenitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to compare the corrosion resistance of two new-developed high-manganese austenitic steels in 1N H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions.Design/methodology/approach: The steels used for the investigation were thermo-mechanically rolled and then solution heat-treated from a temperature of 850°C. Corrosion resistance of investigated steels was examined using the immersion test. The specimens were weighed and dipped in the prepared solutions for 100 h. After the test, the percentage weight loss was calculated. The metallographic investigations of corrosion damages included light and scanning electron microscope observations both in the polished and etched states.Findings: It was found that after the thermo-mechanical processing one steel is characterized by an austenitic structure with numerous annealing twins, whereas in the second steel ? and ?’ martensite plates in an austenitic matrix were observed. According to the results of the immersion tests it was found that the examined steels exhibit a comparable corrosion resistance. They show very poor corrosion resistance in H2SO4 solution and low corrosion resistance in NaCl medium. The weight loss in chloride solution is much lower, what is explained by different corrosion mechanisms. In both the solutions, the intensive general corrosion and corrosion pitting were observed. In acidic medium they are created in a way of hydrogen depolarization and in NaCl in the way of oxygen depolarization.Research limitations/implications: To investigate in more detail the corrosion behaviour of high-manganese austenitic steels, the investigations should include polarization tests and an analysis of corrosion products.Practical implications: The obtained results can be used to search for the appropriate way of improving the corrosion resistance of high-manganese steels with a single-phase austenitic structure as well as the austenite structure containing ? and ?’ martensite.Originality/value: The corrosion resistance of two types of advanced high-strength high-manganese austenitic steels with different initial structures was compared in acidic and chloride solutions.

  9. Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Abdel Hameed, R. S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Expired ranitidine was tested as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in this medium at 303 K. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30000899"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical methods for characterisation of thermal spray <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The use of thermal spray stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings for <span class="hlt">protection</span> of low alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> against different types of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is limited due to high porosity levels and oxide inclusions. In this paper electrochemical methods like <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential monitoring and cyclic voltammetry are reported to monitor the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of thermal spray coatings. The studied stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI 316 coatings are deposited by arc spraying, plasma spraying or high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The electrochemical tests are performed in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. It is found that none of the tested coatings had an electrochemical response equal to that of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloy AISI 316. The results indicate that the HVOF coating has the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of arc spray coatings can be improved by spraying in an inert argon atmosphere. The electrochemical response of the studied arc spray coatings is independent of substrate type (including the case of no substrate), indicating that the underlying alloy does not contribute to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process and only the coating itself is attacked. The HVOF coatings age rapidly in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. It is proposed that this is due to pore opening and pore widening. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41068645"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, ferritic and austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of four different <span class="hlt">steels</span>: mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> 1145, ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> 403 and austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (Eoc) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, 403 ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> and 304L austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of Eoc ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended essentially on the nature of the material. This effect was due to the capacity of G. sulfurreducens to create a direct cathodic reaction on <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces, extracting the electrons directly from material. The presence of bacterial cells modified the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> features of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> and ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span>, so that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attacks were gathered in determined zones of the surface. Local <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was significantly enhanced on ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Potential ennoblement was not sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> on austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>. In contrast G. sulfurreducens delayed the occurrence of pitting on 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> because of its capability to oxidize acetate at high potential values. The electrochemical behaviour of 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> was not affected by the concentration of soluble electron donor (acetate, 1-10 mM) or the amount of planktonic cells; it was directly linked to the biofilm coverage. After polarization pitting curves had been recorded, microscopic observations showed that pit, microscopic observations showed that pits propagated only in the surface zones where cell settlement was the densest. The study evidenced that Geobacter sulfurreducens can control the electrochemical behaviour of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in complex ways that can lead to severe <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. As Geobacteraceae are ubiquitous species in sediments and soils they should now be considered as possible crucial actors in the microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of buried equipment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042004000300004-prt"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Sour Gases and Some Anions on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>S.A., Salih; A.A., Mazhar; H., Mahanny.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of the presence of CO2 and H2S in the well water used in the petroleum plant on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been tested using impedance measurements. Carbon dioxide leads to decrease in the resistivity of the film developed on the metallic surface, while the effect of hydrogen sulfide i [...] s less pronounced. Scanning electron micrographs have shown that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products cover only small part of metallic surface in water containing CO2. Studies under polarization conditions will allow concluding that the dissolved gases in the well water reduce the ability of the film to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the metal against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The influence of the oxoanions and halide ions on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> has also been analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SRL....2150088G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Zirconium Treated Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> with and Without Organic Coating: a Comparative Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Ghanbari, Alireza; Attar, Mohammadreza Mohammadzade</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In this study, the anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of phosphated and zirconium treated mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (ZTMS) with and without organic coating was evaluated using AC and DC electrochemical techniques. The topography and morphology of the zirconium treated samples were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) respectively. The results revealed that the anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of the phosphate layer was superior to the zirconium conversion layer without an organic coating due to very low thickness and porous nature of the ZTMS. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of the organic coated substrates was substantially different. It was found that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> performance of the phosphate <span class="hlt">steel</span> and ZTMS with an organic coating is in the same order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22046025"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> under stress of AISI 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span> in thiocyanate solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> susceptibility under stress of AISI 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span> sensitized in a sodium thiocyanate solution has been studied and results were compared with those obtained with solutions of thiosulfate and tetrathionate. Sensitized <span class="hlt">steel</span> type 304 is highly susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> when under intergranular stress (IGSCC) in thiocyanate solutions but the aggressiveness of this anion is less than that of the other sulphur anions studied (thiosulfate and tetrathionate). This work has been partly carried out in the Chemistry Department. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::75615fd179ed244fb137237876175624"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitor for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in HCl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Al-amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Alobaidy, Abdul Hameed M.; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Pua Soh Hoon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibitory effects of new synthesized compound namely 5,5'- ((1Z,1'Z)-(1,4-phenylenebis(methanylylidene))bis(azanylylidene))bis(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol) (PBB) on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1.0 M HCl was investigated at different temperatures using open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that PBB inhibited mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiencies increased with t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042012000200003-prt"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical Studies of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in Peroxide Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Ajay K., Singh; Vipin, Chaudhary; A., Sharma.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corros [...] ion tests were conducted on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and attack around the weld area. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> attack estimated from long term immersion tests is found in agreement, by and large, with that analyzed from electrochemical test. E-pH diagrams drawn for water-peroxide system have been used to understand the <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of the peroxide media. An attempt has been made to suggest a suitable material of construction for handling the test media on the basis of degree of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack on them and their cost and the mechanical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1516-14392015000200292-scl"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and Wear Resistance of Carbon Films Obtained by Electrodeposition on Ferritic Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio, Cardoso; Tiago, Falcade; Sandra Raquel, Kunst; Célia Fraga, Malfatti.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In improving the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and hardness proprieties of ferritic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the use of <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings becomes an interesting alternative. In this study, a carbon layer was deposited on AISI 430 by electrodeposition using N,N-dimethylformamide with the addition of an organic dopant as the e [...] lectrolyte. The AISI 430 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was pretreated by anodization aiming to optimize the film anchoring. The obtained films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, by scanning electron microscopy and by optical interferometry. The microstructural characterization of the films was obtained by Raman Spectroscopy. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance was evaluated by open circuit potential and by potentiodynamic polarization. The friction test and the scratch test were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. The Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of an amorphous carbon film. The films improved the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. In addition, on the wear analysis the coating showed a good adhesion on the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25066037"><span id="translatedtitle">Hardfaced welded <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and wear stresses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As a rule, materials which resist even extremely high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and wear stresses, are very expensive and/or difficult to work. For this reason many efforts are made to avoid massive types of construction, if possible, and only to provide the stressed surface with a suitable <span class="hlt">protective</span> coating. An economically favourable alternative, which is particularly used for thick-walled components, is hardfacing welding. With this it is possible to use coated basic materials, eg: unalloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> as the sources of mechanical strength, and to coat the surface with different hardfacing welding processes according to the stresses on it. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22..483J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">Protection</span> Properties of 4-[(E)-[(2,4-Dihydroxy phenyl)methylidene] amino]-6-methyl-3-sulfanylidene-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-5-one [DMSTT] Toward Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Sulfuric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>John, Sam; Joseph, Abraham</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in aerated 0.5 N H2SO4 solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization studies (Tafel), linear polarization studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, adsorption studies, and surface morphological studies. The effect of inhibitor concentration on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, the effect of temperature, degree of surface coverage, adsorption kinetics, and surface morphology are investigated. The inhibition efficiency increased markedly with increase in the additive concentration and decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The presence of DMSTT decrease the double-layer capacitance and increase the charge transfer resistance. The value of activation energy ( E a) of metal <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, adsorption equilibrium constant ( K ads), and free energy of adsorption (? G ads) were calculated from the temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current. The adsorption of inhibitor molecule on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface follow Langmuir isotherm. DMSTT offers excellent inhibition properties and acts as a mixed-type inhibitor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......244A"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Composition and Microstructure on CO2 <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Akeer, Emad S.</p> <p></p> <p>The environmental conditions encountered in oil and gas wells and pipelines can cause severe localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The utility of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in oil and gas pipelines depends on formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layers. However, the microstructure and chemical composition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> are considered to be important variables that affect the ability of these layers to <span class="hlt">protect</span> <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The present study investigated the effect of alloying elements and metallurgy of five different pipeline <span class="hlt">steels</span>, with different chemical composition and microstructure, on CO2 <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in flowing conditions with focus on the iron carbonate layer formed and related <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> phenomena that could lead to localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The microstructure of tested <span class="hlt">steels</span> was examined using optical microscopy and etching. Preliminary experiments were conducted using a glass cell, which is a very well known and widely used apparatus. Then a comparison was done with the newly developed thin channel flow cell (TCFC) to validate whether the TCFC can be used instead of glass cell in this study, which required very high velocity and wall shear stresses. It was found that there are no significant effects of alloying elements and <span class="hlt">steel</span> microstructure on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate in experiments done at pH 4.0 at 25°C and 80°C. Further experiments were then conducted in the TCFC to study the effect of alloying elements and microstructure under conditions where a <span class="hlt">protective</span> FeCO3 4 <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer forms, using very high liquid flow rates. For each of the studied <span class="hlt">steels</span>, an FeCO3 <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer was formed within two days of exposure at low wall shear stress at 80°C, pH 6.6, and partial pressure of CO2 of 1.5 bar (1.5 bar pCO 2). For all tested <span class="hlt">steels</span>, the FeCO3 layer reduced the general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate to less than 1.0 mm/y. These "pre-formed" FeCO3 layers were then exposed to high liquid flow velocity and wall shear stress (535 Pa) for 3 days. This caused partial loss of the <span class="hlt">protective</span> FeCO 3 layer which was probably related to the local increase in shear stress and the changes in pressure caused by turbulence at the high flow rates. Although all <span class="hlt">steels</span> suffered from pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to different degrees, the FeCO3 layer formed on normalized <span class="hlt">steel</span> was more <span class="hlt">protective</span> than the one formed on quenched and tempered <span class="hlt">steel</span> (Q&T). This can be attributed to microstructure, because the pearlite structures present in the normalized <span class="hlt">steel</span> conferred superior FeCO3 adherence to the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. On the other hand, X65II <span class="hlt">steel</span>, which has metallurgical characteristics consistent with a normalized hot rolled material, suffered pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, which initiated even before increasing wall shear stress. This type of localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was related to inclusions and phase distributions within the ferrite/pearlite microstructure. In a separate series of experiments, the formation mechanisms of the FeCO3 <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer were challenged for each <span class="hlt">steel</span> at high wall shear stress (535Pa) and at 80°C, pH 6.6, and 1.5 bar pCO 2. It was observed that the FeCO3 <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layers did not form at this high wall shear stress, even under conditions that were supersaturated with respect to FeCO3. This was related to mass transfer behavior, where the fast movement of species from and toward the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface contributed to removal of 5 generated ferrous ions and prevented the formation of an FeCO3 layer. High local shear stresses may have also mechanically interfered with formation of any FeCO3 layer on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. At high wall shear stress, the general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of normalized <span class="hlt">steels</span> (X52, A106GRB) are higher than for Q&T <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This can be related to the amount of iron carbides in the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. There was no localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> observed at high wall shear stress since no FeCO3 formed on the <span class="hlt">steels</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503139"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour and biocorrosion of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> water distribution systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Delaunois, F; Tosar, F; Vitry, V</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> tubes are a popular mean for water distribution systems but suffer from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> despite their zinc or zinc alloy coatings. First, the quality of hot-dip galvanized (HDG) coatings was studied. Their microstructure, defects, and common types of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> were observed. It was shown that many manufactured tubes do not reach European standard (NBN EN 10240), which is the cause of several <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> problems. The average thickness of zinc layer was found at 41?m against 55?m prescribed by the European standard. However, lack of quality, together with the usual <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> types known for HDG <span class="hlt">steel</span> tubes was not sufficient to explain the high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate (reaching 20?m per year versus 10?m/y for common <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> types). Electrochemical tests were also performed to understand the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviours occurring in galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> tubes. Results have shown that the limiting step was oxygen diffusion, favouring the growth of anaerobic bacteria in <span class="hlt">steel</span> tubes. EDS analysis was carried out on corroded coatings and has shown the presence of sulphur inside deposits, suggesting the likely bacterial activity. Therefore biocorrosion effects have been investigated. Actually sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce sulphate contained in water to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), causing the formation of metal sulphides. Although microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is well-known in sea water, it is less investigated in supply water. Thus, an experimental water main was kept in operation for 6months. SRB were detected by BART tests in the test water main. PMID:24503139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6caafd456cb533c17fde5f4ac4b4df9f"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Sanjeev Kumar Verma; Sudhir Singh Bhadauria; Saleem Akhtar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and describes the different methods for eva...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19101532"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ? 20 and 4000C. The hydrolysis of Mg2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 250C, which, in turn, influences the <span class="hlt">protective</span> nature of the magnetite <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for the <span class="hlt">steels</span> were analyzed, and an analytical model for general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40030150"><span id="translatedtitle">An electroactive co-polymer as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solution containing various concentrations of a co-polymer formed between maleic anhydride and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VPMA) was investigated using weight-loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. The polymer acts as an effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium. The inhibition process is attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film of co-polymer on the metal surface which <span class="hlt">protects</span> the metal against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the metal surfaces confirmed the existence of an adsorbed film. The adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased with increase in temperature and acid concentration. The thermodynamic functions of the adsorption and dissolution processes were evaluated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApSS..254.5569A"><span id="translatedtitle">An electroactive co-polymer as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Achary, Ganesha; Naik, Y. Arthoba; Kumar, S. Vijay; Venkatesha, T. V.; Sherigara, B. S.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solution containing various concentrations of a co-polymer formed between maleic anhydride and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VPMA) was investigated using weight-loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. The polymer acts as an effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium. The inhibition process is attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film of co-polymer on the metal surface which <span class="hlt">protects</span> the metal against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the metal surfaces confirmed the existence of an adsorbed film. The adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased with increase in temperature and acid concentration. The thermodynamic functions of the adsorption and dissolution processes were evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22..787M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Rebars in Concrete Structures Under Chloride Ion Attack</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, Nedal; Boulfiza, Mohamed; Evitts, Richard</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of reinforced concrete is the most challenging durability problem that threatens reinforced concrete structures, especially structures that are subject to severe environmental conditions (i.e., highway bridges, marine structures, etc.). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> leads to cracking and spalling of the concrete cover and billions of dollars are spent every year on repairing such damaged structures. New types of reinforcements have been developed to avoid these high-cost repairs. Thus, it is important to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of these new types of reinforcements and compare them to the traditional carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcements. This study aimed at characterizing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of three competing reinforcing <span class="hlt">steels</span>; conventional carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, micro-composite <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MMFX-2) and 316LN stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, through experiments in carbonated and non-carbonated concrete exposed to chloride-laden environments. Synthetic pore water solutions have been used to simulate both cases of sound and carbonated concrete under chloride ions attack. A three-electrode <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cell is used for determining the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> characteristics and rates. Multiple electrochemical techniques were applied using a Gamry PC4™ potentiostat manufactured by Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). DC <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> measurements were applied on samples subjected to fixed chloride concentration in the solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46044142"><span id="translatedtitle">Fretting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> for lead alloys cooled ADS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fretting is a particular type of wear that is expected to occur in a molten lead alloy cooled ADS due to the flow induce vibrations and that mainly affects fuel claddings and heat exchanger tubes. A dedicated facility (i.e. FRETHME) was designed and realized to investigate for the first time fretting in liquid lead alloys at reactor relevant conditions. Several fretting tests, were performed on candidate <span class="hlt">steels</span> such as the f/m T91 <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the austenitic 15-15Ti <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Al surface alloyed T91 (GESA-T91). The experimental outcomes highlighted that the fretting damage increases with the increasing number of cycles/time and temperature. Fretting interacts with the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms occurring in liquid Pb alloys (fretting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>) and destabilizes the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> barriers, favoring e.g. dissolution attacks. Due to the favorable wear and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance properties of the surface alloyed layer, GESA-T91 <span class="hlt">steel</span> showed the best fretting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior up to 550 °C. On the contrary, due to the high Ni content, the 15-15Ti <span class="hlt">steel</span> is affected by dissolution enhanced fretting; while oxidation enhanced fretting characterizes T91 <span class="hlt">steel</span> at temperatures higher than 500 °C. In this respect, dedicated tests suggested that besides the use of aluminized <span class="hlt">steels</span>, possible countermeasures to mitigate the fretting impact are the use of pre-oxidized components and Ni-enriched liquid Pb</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43049721"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental and theoretical studies of thiazoles as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Graphical abstract: The inhibition effect of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 2-mercaptothiazoline on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1.0 M H2SO4 was studied using electrochemical techniques. The effects of the presence of extra NH2 group and N atom in 2A5MT on the ability to act as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors were investigated by theoretical calculations. Highlights: ? The inhibition effects of thiazoles on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1.0 M H2SO4 were studied. ? It was shown that both thiazole compounds act as excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. ? The high inhibition efficiency was attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. ? Langmuir adsorption isotherm exhibited the best fit to the experimental data. ? Quantum chemical calculations show there is a correlation between inhibitive property and molecular parameters. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (2A5MT) and 2-mercaptothiazoline (2MT) on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1.0 M H2SO4 were studied with potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. It was shown that both 2A5MT and 2MT act as good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. The high inhibition efficiencies were attributed to the simple blocking effect by adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. The effects of the prl surface. The effects of the presence of extra NH2 group and N atom in 2A5MT on the ability to act as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors were investigated by theoretical calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1614..152S"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior on 304L austenite stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sahri, M. I.; Othman, N. K.; Samsu, Z.; Daud, A. R.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In this work, 304L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples were exposed at 700 °C for 10hrs in different <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments; dry oxygen, molten salt, and molten salt + dry oxygen. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of samples was analyzed using weight change measurement technique, optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The existence phases of corroded sample were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was recorded in dry oxygen while the highest was in molten salt + dry oxygen environments with the value of 0.0062 mg/cm2 and -13.5225 mg/cm2 respectively. The surface morphology of sample in presence of salt mixture showed scale spallation. Oxide scales of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 were the main phases developed and detected by XRD technique. Cr2O3 was not developed in every sample as <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers but chromate-rich oxide was developed. The cross-section analysis found the oxide scales were in porous, thick and non-adherent that would not an effective barrier to prevent from further degradation of alloy. EDX analysis also showed the Cr-element was low compared to Fe-element at the oxide scale region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46014486"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior on 304L austenite stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this work, 304L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples were exposed at 700 °C for 10hrs in different <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments; dry oxygen, molten salt, and molten salt + dry oxygen. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of samples was analyzed using weight change measurement technique, optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The existence phases of corroded sample were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was recorded in dry oxygen while the highest was in molten salt + dry oxygen environments with the value of 0.0062 mg/cm2 and ?13.5225 mg/cm2 respectively. The surface morphology of sample in presence of salt mixture showed scale spallation. Oxide scales of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 were the main phases developed and detected by XRD technique. Cr2O3 was not developed in every sample as <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers but chromate-rich oxide was developed. The cross-section analysis found the oxide scales were in porous, thick and non-adherent that would not an effective barrier to prevent from further degradation of alloy. EDX analysis also showed the Cr-element was low compared to Fe-element at the oxide scale region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22308313"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior on 304L austenite stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sahri, M. I.; Othman, N. K.; Samsu, Z.; Daud, A. R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)</p> <p>2014-09-03</p> <p>In this work, 304L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples were exposed at 700 °C for 10hrs in different <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments; dry oxygen, molten salt, and molten salt + dry oxygen. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of samples was analyzed using weight change measurement technique, optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The existence phases of corroded sample were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was recorded in dry oxygen while the highest was in molten salt + dry oxygen environments with the value of 0.0062 mg/cm{sup 2} and ?13.5225 mg/cm{sup 2} respectively. The surface morphology of sample in presence of salt mixture showed scale spallation. Oxide scales of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were the main phases developed and detected by XRD technique. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was not developed in every sample as <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers but chromate-rich oxide was developed. The cross-section analysis found the oxide scales were in porous, thick and non-adherent that would not an effective barrier to prevent from further degradation of alloy. EDX analysis also showed the Cr-element was low compared to Fe-element at the oxide scale region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19093888"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products having the amakinite structure is less <span class="hlt">protective</span> than <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products having the spinel structure. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H2O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H2, would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation ratees), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38045038"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> and finishing of automobiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed <span class="hlt">steel</span> having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant and aesthetically pleasant also.resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of one primer coat and a double finish coat. The two finishing coats are applied one immediately after the other, and both are baked simultaneously. An alternate system is to apply a red iron oxide epoxy primer followed by a gray epoxy primer and to bake the two coats at 200 degree C for about 35 minutes. The dry film thickness is about is about 1.5 mils. This coating is wet sanded, washed, and dried then top-coated with a double (wet-on-wet) coat of alkyd-amino resin enamel. The enamel is baked at 120 degree C for about 35 minutes. The lacquer system consists of one prime coat followed by several coats of lacquer finish. Number of coats depending on the price range of the car. All the efforts are made to make the metal surface as smooth as possible and free from rough places due to spot wielding and filing. This means a minimum of sanding on the primer, thus saving in labour cost but also makes possible less pigment in the primer resulting in better hold-out of the finish. However, the primer must be hard enough to sand easily, because rubbery primers tare slow sanding and tend to show scratch marks from the sand paper. All metal surfaces are given a passivating treatment before application of the primer. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14775211"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-cycle fatigue of building <span class="hlt">steels</span> in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media containing chlorides with sulfates or fluorides on resistance to low-cycle deformation and fracture of building, low-alloyed 10KhSND and 16 G2AF <span class="hlt">steels</span> as well as their welded joints is investigated. It has been stated that the above media do not affect the <span class="hlt">steel</span> resistance to deformation or crack propagation under low-cycle loading while the durability decrease is caused by the propagation of a crack initiated by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage the magnitude of which depends on duration of metal contact with a <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41014484"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour in alkaline medium of zinc phosphate coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The present work evaluated the ability of zinc phosphate coating, obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment, to <span class="hlt">protect</span> mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar against the localized attack generated by chloride ions in alkaline medium. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was assessed by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and the morphology of the coated surfaces were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Cathodically phosphated mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar have been studied in alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating the concrete pore solution. For these conditions, the results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates the formation of calcium hydroxyzincate (Ca(Zn(OH)3)2.2H2O). After a long immersion time in alkaline solution with and without Cl-, the coating is dense and provides an effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance compared to mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> rebar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJMMM..19..717L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> by a sulfate-reducing bacteria biofilm in seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Li, Fu-shao; An, Mao-zhong; Duan, Dong-xia</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> due to a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm in seawater was studied. By atomic force microscopy, a layer of fish-scale-like biofilm was found to form as stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons were exposed to the culture media with SRB, and this biofilm grew more and more compact. As a result, coupons' surface under the biofilm turned irregular less slowly than that exposed to the sterilized culture media. Then, physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the coverage of the biofilm as well as the relative irregularity of coupons' surface was also recorded by EIS spectra. Finally, anodic cyclic polarization results further demonstrated the <span class="hlt">protective</span> property of the biofilm. Therefore, in estimation of SRB-implicated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, not only the detrimental SRB metabolites but also the <span class="hlt">protective</span> SRB biofilm as well should be taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042011000400004-prt"><span id="translatedtitle">/ Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>R.S., Abdel Hameed.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in this medium at 303 K. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000400004"><span id="translatedtitle">Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>R.S. Abdel Hameed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in this medium at 303 K. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1 indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44012538"><span id="translatedtitle">Poly(o-phenylenediamine) as an inhibitor of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in HCl solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The inhibition properties of the electro-prepared P(o-phenylenediamine), P(oPD), on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MS) in HCl solutions have been investigated under different experimental conditions using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The data obtained from the two techniques are comparable and showed that the presence of P(oPD) in the acid solutions suppresses the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of MS indicating that the polymer acts as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency (IE%) of the polymer enhances with increasing its concentration and decreases with an increase in temperature. The inhibition occurs through adsorption and formation of barrier film on the metal surface which separates the metal from direct contact with the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium and hence <span class="hlt">protects</span> the metal against the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Langmuir isotherm fits well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters for both dissolution and adsorption processes were determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.1961S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of IF <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Various Media and Its Comparison with Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Singh, G. P.; Moon, A. P.; Sengupta, S.; Deo, G.; Sangal, S.; Mondal, K.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The present work discusses <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of an interstitial-free (IF) <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.6 M NaCl, 1 M NaOH, and 1 M HCl solutions, and its comparison with mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MS). Dynamics polarization and AC Impedance Spectroscopy explain different polarization behaviors of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples. All the <span class="hlt">steels</span> were exposed to open atmosphere for 100 days, and to 0.6 M NaCl salt fog for 30 days. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy were used to characterize microstructure of the <span class="hlt">steels</span>, rust constituents, and morphologies. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> has close relation with the morphology and constituents of the rusts. It has been observed that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the IF and MS <span class="hlt">steels</span> is uniform in nature.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25034729"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated nuclear waste solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Processing of inhibited nuclear waste to forms for long-term storage will cause waste tank environments to have dynamic conditions. During processing compositional changes in the waste may produce a <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environment for the plain carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks. Large concentrations of nitrates which corrode <span class="hlt">steel</span> are contained in the waste. Nitrite and hydroxides are added to inhibit any <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Concentration changes of nitrate and nitrite were investigated to identify <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> regimes that may occur during processing. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> testing was performed with cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization resistance. Test samples were plain carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> which was similar to the material of construction of the waste tanks. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> morphology of test samples was investigated by visual evaluation and scanning electron microscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis was also performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism changed as a function of the nitrate concentration. As the nitrate concentration was increased the <span class="hlt">steel</span> transitioned from a passive state to general attack, and finally pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The nitrate anion appeared to destabilize the surface oxide. Nitrite countered the oxide breakdown, although the exact mechanism was not determined</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-23/pdf/2012-9665.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 24221 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Notice of Commission...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-23</p> <p>...<span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From Germany and...<span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from Korea and...<span class="hlt">corrosion</span>- resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from Germany and...conduct of these reviews and rules of general application,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-30/pdf/2012-13078.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 31877 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Scheduling of Full Five...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-30</p> <p>...<span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From Germany and...<span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from Korea and...<span class="hlt">corrosion</span>- resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from Germany and...conduct of these reviews and rules of general application,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-29/pdf/2013-07402.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 19210 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-29</p> <p>...<span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...<span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from...<span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from...Calculation for the Industrial Technology Innovation Promotion...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40049147"><span id="translatedtitle">Polyethyleneimine as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for ASTM 420 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in near-neutral saline media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for ASTM 420 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 3% aqueous NaCl solution was studied. The results of linear polarization and cyclic polarization measurements indicate high inhibiting effectiveness of the selected organics. Moreover, from cyclic polarization measurements it can be deduced that PEI acts as an inhibitor against pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Immersion tests in the presence of PEI showed remarkable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> against uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Film persistency immersion testing indicated that once the <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer is formed, it is very stable in a non-inhibited NaCl solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that PEI binding is mediated by electrostatic interactions between PEI and the substrate. A dense layer of PEI might be effective either in preventing diffusion of ionic species from the film or in preventing attack by chlorine from the salt water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21173796"><span id="translatedtitle">Polyethyleneimine as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for ASTM 420 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in near-neutral saline media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Finsgar, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Jamova c. 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fassbender, Stefan; Nicolini, Fabio [BASF SE, E-EMV/MM - J550, Metal Surface Treatment, Carl-Bosch Strasse 38, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Milosev, Ingrid [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Jamova c. 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ingrid.milosev@ijs.si</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for ASTM 420 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 3% aqueous NaCl solution was studied. The results of linear polarization and cyclic polarization measurements indicate high inhibiting effectiveness of the selected organics. Moreover, from cyclic polarization measurements it can be deduced that PEI acts as an inhibitor against pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Immersion tests in the presence of PEI showed remarkable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> against uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Film persistency immersion testing indicated that once the <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer is formed, it is very stable in a non-inhibited NaCl solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that PEI binding is mediated by electrostatic interactions between PEI and the substrate. A dense layer of PEI might be effective either in preventing diffusion of ionic species from the film or in preventing attack by chlorine from the salt water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::612beb9a4a15fa6bf7a18befb81aef95"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Grajcar, A.; S. Ko?odziej,; Krukiewicz, W.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The aim of the paper is to compare the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of two new-developed high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in 1N H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions.Design/methodology/approach: The <span class="hlt">steels</span> used for the investigation were thermo-mechanically rolled and then solution heat-treated from a temperature of 850°C. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of investigated <span class="hlt">steels</span> was examined using the immersion test. The specimens were weighed and dipped in the prepared solutions for 100 h. After the test, the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______119::9a94fd9791fdd92a107f17ecf6383901"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> fatigue of a superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weldment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Comer, Anthony John</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> have superior mechanical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties compared to austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> such as the grade 300 series. This is a result of a microstructure consisting of roughly equal percentages of austenite (y) and ferrite (a) and negligible inclusion content. As a result, super duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are increasingly being used in the offshore oil and gas industries. It is also envisaged that they will find application in the emergent renewable energy sec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JNuM..325..217K"><span id="translatedtitle">Excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of 18Cr-20Ni-5Si <span class="hlt">steel</span> in liquid Pb-Bi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Kurata, Y.; Futakawa, M.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties of three austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> with different Si contents were studied under oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi condition for 3000 h. The three austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> did not exhibit appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr at 450 °C. At 550 °C, the thick ferrite layer produced by dissolution of Ni and Cr was found in JPCA and 316SS with low Si contents while the <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide film composed of Si and O was formed on 18Cr-20Ni-5Si <span class="hlt">steel</span> and prevented dissolution of Ni and Cr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14741142"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of sodium phenylanthranilate as an inhibitor of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in neutral media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Effect of sodium phenylanthranilate (SPhN) on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and electrochemical behaviour of armco- and Kh18N10T <span class="hlt">steels</span> is studied in borate buffer solutions (pH=7.36) and in water. It is established that <span class="hlt">protective</span> effect on Kh18N10T <span class="hlt">steels</span> is higher, that is connected with the increased chromium content. Presence of F and CH3COO- ions in studied solutions does not cause the pitting of armco and Kh18N10T <span class="hlt">steels</span>. It is proposed to use SPhN as a practically safe inhibitor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839822"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance evaluation of pectin as ecofriendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for X60 pipeline <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acid medium: experimental and theoretical approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Umoren, Saviour A; Obot, Ime B; Madhankumar, A; Gasem, Zuhair M</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition effect of pectin (a biopolymer) for X60 pipeline <span class="hlt">steel</span> in HCl medium was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical, water contact angle measurements, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results obtained show that pectin acts as a good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for X60 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Inhibition efficiency increased with increase in pectin concentration and temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization results reveal that pectin could be classified as a mixed-type <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor with predominant control of the cathodic reaction. The effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition potential of pectin could be related to the adsorption of pectin molecules at the metal/solution interface which is found to accord with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and a <span class="hlt">protective</span> film formation. Quantum chemical calculations provided insights into the active sites and reactivity parameters governing pectin activity as a good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for X60 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. PMID:25839822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24037631"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> for silver reflectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This patent describes a method of <span class="hlt">protecting</span> a silver reflector from damage caused by contact with gaseous substances. It comprises: at least partially coating the reflector to a thickness of 15 Angstrom or less with a substance selected from a group containing aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, and praseodymium oxide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/22012568/"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite as AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal spray coating for <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by soil in buried structures; Desenvolvimento e uso do composito de Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersao termica sobre o aco AISI 1020 para protecao contra a corrosao pelo solo em estruturas enterradas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Regis Junior, Oscar [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica; Silva, Jose Maurilio da; Portella, Kleber Franke [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa em Engenharia Civil; Paredes, Ramon Sigifredo Cortes, E-mail: regis@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>An Nb{sub 2}O|Cu <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two <span class="hlt">corrosively</span> aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite for use in buried structure <span class="hlt">protection</span>. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-40422012000800005-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Desenvolvimento e uso do compósito de Nb2O5|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersão térmica sobre o aço AISI 1020 para proteção contra a corrosão pelo solo em estruturas enterradas / Development of Nb2O5|Cu composite as AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal spray coating for <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by soil in buried structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Oscar, Regis Junior; José Maurílio da, Silva; Kleber Franke, Portella; Ramon Sigifredo Cortes, Paredes.</p> <p>1517-15-01</p> <p>Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english An Nb2O|Cu <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two <span class="hlt">corrosively</span> aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatin [...] gs in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::329853707bff26f7a17210dc78a3cdd8"><span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Pipe <span class="hlt">Protection</span> Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Sami A. Ajeel</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Problem statement: The cost due to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> Damage have estimated to be 3-4% of their gross national product which significantly Countries problem around the world. Approach: In this study, a novel carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe <span class="hlt">protection</span> based on RBFNN was proposed. The RBFNN used to predict the minimum current density required in impressed current cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> to <span class="hlt">protect</span> low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe. Learning data was performed by using a 30 samples test with different concentration C%, temperature T,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ljs.academicdirect.org/A14/140_146.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Fecraly Coating on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behaviour of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Joseph B. AGBOOLA</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Steel</span> has found wide application in hot rolling equipments in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> industry and the oil rig structures in sea water. These equipments are frequently subjected to <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> and temperature condition which causes severe damage to them, hence the need to develop <span class="hlt">steel</span> suitable to withstand these conditions in terms of surface treatment. This research work investigates the effect of FeCrAlY coating on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> under high temperature and aggressive environment. Iron based coatings are used due to low cost among other properties such as good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance, ease of machining and high ductility when compared to hard metals.Thermal spraying of the specimens was carried out using high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> test was carried out on both coated and uncoated samples. All samples were subjected to the same high temperature treatment for oxidation test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22036868"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> defects of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the nuclear power plant secondary circuit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> media of the secondary circuit and auxiliary circuits are characterized. The role of the chemical components in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> effect of the media is evaluated. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of CrNi and CrNiMo <span class="hlt">steels</span> commonly used in the circuits is discussed with respect to the main alloy metals, i.e. Cr, Ni and Mo, as well as to some associate elements such as Mn, S, Ti and N. (E.J.). 2 figs., 17 refs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21072215"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of the annular water container of the Rheinsberg AKW1 reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The difficult accessible annular water container of the PWR, made from low-alloyed <span class="hlt">steel</span> 16 Mn 3, was <span class="hlt">protected</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by the combination consisting of a coating system (200 to 300 ?m thick sprayed aluminium layer + 4 layers of bituminous lacquer) and inhibition of the water used (deionized) by magnesium or potassium chromate. After twenty years of service no remarkable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack was found. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32044929"><span id="translatedtitle">Results of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests in flowing liquid Pb/Bi at 420-600 deg. C after 2000 h</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests were carried out on austenitic AISI 316L and 1.4970 <span class="hlt">steel</span> and on MANET <span class="hlt">steel</span> up to 2000 h of exposure to flowing (up to 2 m/s) Pb/Bi. The concentration of oxygen in the liquid alloy was controlled at 10-6 wt%. Specimens consisted of tube and rod sections in original state and after alloying of Al into the surface. After 2000 h of exposure at 420 and 550 deg. C the specimen surfaces were covered with an intact oxide layer which provided a good <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack of the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. At the same time <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack at 600 deg. C was severe at the original AISI 316L <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens. The alloyed specimens containing FeAl on the surface of the alloyed layer still maintained an intact oxide layer with good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> up to 600 deg. C. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18010081"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and denting of ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in aqueous chloride at 3000C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An investigation of aqueous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 0-23% Cr ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and binary alloys has been carried out in pure water, NiCl2 solutions, and mixtures of FeCl2 or CuCl2 with NiCl2 and seawater at 3000C. The main series of tests on Cr containing alloys was in a standard solution of 0.1 M NiCl2 for up to 1200 h. Low (1 - 2%) Cr alloys showed initially <span class="hlt">protective</span>, duplex oxide growth. Subsequently lamination of the inner spinel layer occurred, with the onset of linear <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates which were slower than those of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. For higher %Cr <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the standard solution, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates are approximately two orders of magnitude less than for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The oxides were duplex with an inner iron/chromium spinel layer of equal volume to the metal consumed, surmounted by an outer layer of solution deposited magnetite. Oxide morphologies and growth mechanisms are discussed and the implications for PWR steam generator <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> are analyzed. Recommendations are proposed for maximum seawater levels in steam generator bulk water to avoid long term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ijettjournal.org/volume-8/number-3/IJETT-V8P222.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficiency of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors on Cathodic <span class="hlt">Protection</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Tobinson Briggs</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available This study is on experiment being carried out to determine the efficiency of in inhibitors on catholically <span class="hlt">protected</span> medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea water in Bonny and Ogbokoro in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The experiment was conducted using the total immersion technique in a non-flowing media containing sea water inhibited with potassium dichromate, sodium nitrate, ECIO21A, sarvor CK 368, and Kurizets 636. In the course of this research work, Cathodically <span class="hlt">protected</span> and unprotected medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> were totally immersed in seawater containing the aforementioned inhibitors differently. Their weight loss, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, pH value and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials were determined at intervals of 72 hours, over 2016 hours the test lasted. The results obtained shows that inhibitor EC1021A has efficiency of 79.8%, other results are as follows: Kurizet S.636, 77%, savor CK368, 43%, potassium dichromate, 35% and sodium nitrate, 1.88%. It was concluded that EC1021A is the most efficient inhibitor, under a non-flow system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB..tmp...51M"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Acidified Feronia elephantum Leaf Extract on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Muthukrishnan, Pitchaipillai; Prakash, Periakaruppan; Ilayaraja, Murugan; Jeyaprabha, Balasubramanian; Shankar, Karikalan</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> is used as a structural material for pipes, tank, reaction vessels, etc. which are known to corrode invariably in contact with various solvents. From the view point of a nation's economy and financial implications of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> hazard, it is necessary to adopt appropriate means and ways to reduce the losses due to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The use of eco-friendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors are increasing day by day. Feronia elephantum leaf extract (FELE) has been tested as eco-friendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for A262 mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M HCl solutions using non-electrochemical (Gravimetric, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and electrochemical techniques (open circuit potential, potentiostatic polarization, and electrochemical impedance measurements). The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency is found to increase with increase in FELE concentration but decrease with temperature, which is suggestive of physical adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of FELE on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM results confirm the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer by FELE over mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45102628"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of long-term aging on electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> behavior of 17-4PH stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and electrochemical behavior of long-term aging on 17-4PH stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in different solutions has been measured by electrochemical methods. The solutions consisted of chlorine ion sulphuric acid and neutral. Electrochemical potential dynamic reactivation test. The polarization curves results demonstrate that the pitting potential of 17-4PH stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> shifted negatively and the <span class="hlt">protection</span> performance of the passive film decreased after aging treatment. The decline of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of aged specimens ,and with the age time prolonging <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors is decline the sulphuric acid can control the pit <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 17-4PH stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> because the vitriol (S) can hold back the Cl-, The anodic polarization curves illustrate that 17-4PH stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> can passive in 1% NaCl sulphuric acid, while in 1% NaCl neutral the passivity is deteriorated due to Cl- ion participate in electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, accelerate the localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, destroy passivation and induce pit <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The decline of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of aged specimens was due to the precipitation of the second phase along grain boundaries and the transformation of microstructure. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41014525"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental factors affecting the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> III. Measurement of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> currents of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in Ca(OH)2 solutions under natural <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Using a simple electrolytic cell, the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> is measured in Ca(OH)2 solutions in presence of chloride and sulfate as aggressive ions. Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current starts to flow after an induction period which depends on the concentration of both the aggressive and the passivating anions. The pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current densities reach steady-state values which depend also on the type and concentration of the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> and passivating anions. The <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> action of the aggressive species decreased in the order: SO42- > Cl-. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> is found to be governed by a single electron transfer reaction. Raising the temperature decreases the induction period associated with pit initiation and increases the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current associated with pit propagation. From Arrhenius plots, the activation energies for both pit initiation and pit propagation in presence of chloride and sulfate ions are calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14788306"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> system for nuclear power plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A cathodic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> system for a nuclear power plant which employs an ion tank adjacent the main fresh water feed pipe leading to the steam generator to treat water from the main feed pipe and then return the treated water to the main feed pipe to form a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protecting</span> alkaline layer on surfaces of the main feed pipe and the secondary side of the steam generator. The ion tank receives measured amounts of hydrazine to render the water therein substantially conductive and contains ionizable metal anodes which release free metal ions as electric current flows between the anodes and a cathode connection on an ion tank outlet pipe near the main feed water pipe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39048979"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between composition of passive layer and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of high Si-containing austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in nitric acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 18% Cr have a good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior in pure nitric acid. However, when oxidizing power of the solution increases, this kind of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> faces a severe intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Adding a sufficiently high concentration of silicon to the <span class="hlt">steel</span> avoids this type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>: in oxidizing solutions, those stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> exhibit generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> but their dissolution rate is higher than the one of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> without silicon. To find out the role of silicon on such effects, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of two different stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> with equivalent chromium content but with different silicon content (304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N) has been studied in concentrated nitric acid solutions. Correlations have been evidenced between the passive layer composition investigated by XPS analysis and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior characterized by electrochemical techniques. The presence of silicon in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> changes neither the oxidation state of chromium or iron, nor the ratio between iron and chromium in the passive layer. Silicon is present in the passive layer in an important content (35 at.%) and thus decreases the chromium content of the passive layer (80 and 50 at.% respectively for 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Uranus S1N after nitric passivation). Uranus S1N exhibits a less <span class="hlt">protective</span> passive layer and so its generalized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is higher than the one of 304L <span class="hlt">steel</span>. A selective deposition of platinoids highlights differences of polarization di highlights differences of polarization distribution on the surface between the grain boundaries and grain faces for theses <span class="hlt">steels</span>. For Uranus S1N, the similar electrochemical behavior of grain boundaries and faces might be connected with the homogeneous silicon distribution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36116847"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi eutectic at 450 deg C and 550 deg C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Static <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests of various austenitic and ferritic/martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> were conducted in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi eutectic at 450degC and 550degC for 3000h to study the effects of temperature and alloying elements on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior in liquid Pb-Bi. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> depth is defined as the sum of the thickness of the oxide film including internal oxidation, the grain boundary <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth and the thickness of the formed ferrite layer. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth decreases at 450degC with increasing Cr content in <span class="hlt">steels</span> regardless of ferritic/martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> or austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr does not occur in the three austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> at 450degC. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth of ferritic/martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> also decreases at 550degC with increasing Cr content in <span class="hlt">steels</span> whereas the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth of austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>, JPCA and type 316ss becomes larger due to ferritization caused by dissolution of Ni at 550degC than that of ferritic/martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>. An austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> containing about 5%Si exhibits fine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance at 550degC because the <span class="hlt">protective</span> Si oxide film is formed and prevents dissolution of Ni and Cr. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HTMP...33..489F"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Different Treatment on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Resistance of Sputtered Al Coating on Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Fu, Guangyan; Qi, Zeyan; Su, Yong; Liu, Qun; Guo, Xingxing</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Aluminum coating on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was prepared by magnetron sputtering method. The specimens were treated with pre-oxidation (PO) or vacuum diffusion annealing (VA). Hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the coatings beneath the deposits of Na2SO4 at 1050 °C was investigated. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> products were analyzed by XRD and SEM. Results show that the presence of coating could improve the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. FeAl phase appeared after VA at 600 °C, which enhanced cohesive force between the coating and the substrate, and reduced the oxidation and sulfidation rate. PO treatment can <span class="hlt">protect</span> the substrate more effectively than VA treatment for metastable Al2O3 formed during PO treatment can be translated to stable Al2O3 more quickly at high temperatures. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products of the two kinds of specimens with aluminum coating were both composed of Al2O3, a little amount of FeS and Fe2O3 after 24 h <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Al2O3 was formed mainly in the coatings, FeS was mainly distributed in the interface between coating and substrate of the specimens, and a small amount of FeS was distributed in the substrate. Al2O3 film remained intact after 24 h <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and kept its <span class="hlt">protective</span> effect on the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188842"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosivity</span> of paper mill effluent and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A K</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Present study relates to the <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of paper mill effluent and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS) as a construction material for the effluent treatment plant (ETP). Accordingly, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were performed on SS 304?L, 316?L and duplex 2205 in paper mill effluent and synthetic effluent. This paper presents electrochemical polarization measurements, performed for the first time to the best of the authors' information, to see the influence of chlorophenols on the <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of effluents. The <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of the effluent was observed to increase with the decrease in pH and increase in Cl(-) content while the addition of [Formula: see text] tends to inhibit <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Mill effluent was found to be more <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> as compared to synthetic effluent and has been attributed to the presence of various chlorophenols. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> performance of SS was observed to govern by the presence of Cr, Mo and N contents. PMID:25188842</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43042995"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni-W coatings electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>: Chemical composition, mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. ? New procedures for achieving deposits by current pulse techniques. ? Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define coating characteristics. ? Ni-W coatings <span class="hlt">protect</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions. - Abstract: Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings were electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from electrolyte solutions containing sodium tungstate, nickel sulfate and sodium citrate, using different current pulse programs. Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define chemical composition, grain size, thickness and hardness. According to the electrodeposition conditions the deposited coatings showed 15-30 at% W, the grain size ranged from 65 to 140 nm, and the hardness varied from 650 to 850 Hv. Tungsten carbide also present in the coating contributed to its hardness. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the Ni-W coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was tested by potentiodynamic polarization in a neutral medium containing sulphate ions. The Ni-W coating <span class="hlt">protected</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16046117"><span id="translatedtitle">Intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sensitivity in stabilized stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stabilized stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are used in ASEA-ATOM BWR's in a number of forged and casted components, viz. valve housings. Samples of <span class="hlt">steels</span> that are Ti-stabilized have been analyzed for carbon, and then CERT-tested for intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (IGSCC). The <span class="hlt">steels</span> tested are Sandvik 8R30 and VEW A700. The medium was water with 8 ppm O2 and at 286 degreeC, and a feed conductivity of less than 0.1?Scm-1. The tests show that the zone near welds in these stabilized <span class="hlt">steels</span> which in strongly oxidizing acids are sensitive to knife line attack, are also in BWR systems sensitive to IGSCC. This type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> can be inhibited by minimizing the carbon content of the <span class="hlt">steels</span>. (Aa)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38088417"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks in liquid nuclear wastes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this work is to understand how solution chemistry would impact on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of waste storage <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks at the Hanford Site. Future tank waste operations are expected to process wastes that are more dilute with respect to some current <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibiting waste constituents. Assessment of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage and of the influence of exposure time and electrolyte composition, using simulated (non-radioactive) wastes, of the double-shell tank wall carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloys is being conducted in a statistically designed long-term immersion experiment. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates at different times of immersion were determined using both weight-loss determinations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility was assessed using short-term cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results presented in this paper correspond to electrochemical and weight-loss measurements of the immersed coupons during the first year of immersion from a two year immersion plan. A good correlation was obtained between electrochemical measurements, weight-loss determinations and visual observations. Very low general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates (-1) were estimated using EIS measurements, indicating that general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> in contact with liquid wastes would no be a cause of tank failure even for these out-of-chemistry limit wastes. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22233866"><span id="translatedtitle">Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> detection in stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> using ultrasounds; Deteccion de la <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> por picadura en aceros inoxidables empleando ultrasonidos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, C.; Biezma, M. V.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Passive metallic systems are able to develop in a spontaneous way a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on the metallic surface that offers excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance since really in a physical barrier for the reaction with the environment. However, some factors can break locally this layer, promoting one of the most insidious attack, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, which produces local chemical conditions that favouring the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> process causing defects in the material, as externals and internals ones, with a random distribution on the metal surface. In this work, ultrasounds non destructive technique has been employed using as variable the maximum amplitude of the back wall echo in order to detect this type of attack. The material employed is an austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI 304, wherein appear several defectology distributions as superficial such as depths simulating pits. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRSNIO-EN&redirectUrl=http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/2994"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://drs.nio.org/drs/advanced-search">Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)</a></p> <p>PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> showed higher rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in seawater containing oil and lower <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______571::bff9c41904c2211a32cba1c96894dce1"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and Cathodic <span class="hlt">Protection</span> in Reinforced Concrete. I: Application of Electrochemical Techniques:</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Koleva, D.A.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Breugel, K. van; Lodhi, Z.F.; Van Westing, E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The electrochemical behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcement in conditions of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> was studied, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and compared to reference (noncorroding) conditions. Polarization resistance (PR) method and potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) were employed as well, in addition to ac 2 pin electrical resistance monitoring, thus deriving a comparison of the involved parameters, mainly polarization resistance and bulk electrical properties, obt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45043721"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> piping in nuclear power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (FAC) is a process whereby the normally <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide layer on carbon or low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> dissolved into a stream of flowing water resulting in increasing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. Major influencing factors that affect the FAC are flow velocity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and <span class="hlt">steel</span> composition. The experimental study described in this paper was focused on evaluating the FAC behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> according to environment conditions. Feasibility tests for the mitigation method against the FAC were also carried out with controlling the water chemistry and with applying the magnetic field. A high temperature rotating cylinder electrode (HTRCE) and a water chemistry control system was developed to perform the electrochemical test in high temperature water environments. The main design concept of HTRCE is to assure stable operation of working electrode in a severe environment, to insulate electrode housing except working electrode surface against external fluid, and to extract <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> parameter from the rotating cylinder to outside of the autoclave safely. The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (ECP) and current density were measured as a function of temperature and rotating speed using polarization monitoring. ECP values dropped at a rate of -1.51 mV/.deg. C above 150 .deg. C, which may be come from the formation of magnetite on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. With increasing rotation of the RCE, the ECP shifted upward in all temperature ranges. This shift may be attributed to the diffusion enhancement of the oxidizing agents in the rapidly flowing of fluid. From the velocity exponent of the cathodic half-cell current density on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, it was evident that a mass transfer process first dominated the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction at 150 .deg. C, and then an activation process partly controlled the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics with increasing temperature. From the results of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> experiment at high temperature water, HTRCE has been proved as an effective device to evaluate the velocity sensitivity of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction in high temperature water. An electrochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of fluid flow and dissolved oxygen on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and to correlate electrochemical aspect with the flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. In neutral pH water containing 2 ppb oxygen, the ECP and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density were increased with rotation of electrode. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> current density showed similar tendency with a wall shear stress on the surface of electrode due to the fluid flow. The wall shear stress might cause a decrease in the mass transfer boundary layer thickness resulting in increase in the rate of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction due to faster diffusion of the soluble <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product into the bulk solution. When the oxygen concentration exceeds a threshold concentration, the cathodic current previously supplied by the hydrogen evolution reaction is substituted by an equivalent reaction due to oxygen reduction. Thus, the ECP increases up to the range of hematite which has a very low solubility and electric conductivity. The hematite formation would lead to inhibit flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The effects of a magnetic field on the FAC behavior of a low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> were evaluated to develop a method to mitigate against feeder wall thinning. A magnet-attached rotating cylinder electrode and piping <span class="hlt">steel</span> covered with simulated oxide film were used in potentiodynamic test and erosion test to determine the magnetic effect on electrochemical and erosional aspect of the oxide layer, respectively. An Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction was active in the magnetic field because the local mass transfer rate was increased by the magnetohydrodynamic force generated by a coupling of the electric and magnetic field. However, the magnetic field effect decreased with increasing temperature and rotation velocity. Those might be come from the facts that the thickness of the diffusion layer decreased with rotating velocity and the diffusion constant increased with increasing temperatu</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://jurnal.unsyiah.ac.id/AIJST/article/view/1234/1122"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition Study of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Acidic Medium by Antibiotic Drugs: A Comparative Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Md. A. Aziz</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available A comparison of the inhibiting efficiency of antibiotic drugs (ciprofloxacin, cloxacillin, and amoxicillin on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 mol·L?1 HCl were studied at room temperature using mass loss measurement. The main reason is probably be due to the formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> coverage by the inhibitor as other authors reported previously. Adsorption characteristics of the inhibitor has also been studied using simple equation and it was found that drugs inhibits the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by being adsorbed on the surface of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by a physical adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of drugs on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface was found to be spontaneous and obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. It was observed that the test drug has a promising inhibitory action in acid medium against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Moreover it was revealed that an inhibition efficiency of 80.1 % can be achieved with 3×10-3M ciprofloxacin drug treatment on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46027981"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental studies of 2-pyridinecarbonitrile as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hydrochloric acid solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> effect of inhibitor was studied in 0.1 mol L?1 HCl on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. • The inhibitor efficiency increases with increase in the concentration of inhibitor. • SEM micrographs showed that the inhibitor has a good <span class="hlt">protective</span> film on the metal surface. - Abstract: The effect of 2-Pyridinecarbonitrile (2-PCN) was studied on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MS) <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 0.1 mol L?1 HCl by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The surface morphologies of the MS were investigated in the inhibitor-free and in the presence of 10 mmol L?1 2-PCN containing <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media, at 120 h exposure period by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanism of adsorption was determined from the potential of zero charge (Epzc). 2-PCN adsorption on the MS surface obeyed the isotherm of Langmuir and the thermodynamic parameters Kads; ?Gads° were also calculated and discussed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39012077"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of zinc-magnesium coated <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A significant body of work exists in the literature concerning the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of zinc-magnesium coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> (ZMG), describing its enhanced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance when compared to conventional zinc-coated <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This paper begins with a review of the literature and identifies key themes in the reported mechanisms for the attractive properties of this material. This is followed by an experimental programme where ZMG was subjected to an automotive laboratory <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test using acidified NaCl solution. A 3-fold increase in time to red rust compared to conventional zinc coatings was measured. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products detected on ZMG included simonkolleite (Zn5Cl2(OH)8 . H2O), possibly modified by magnesium uptake, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and a hydroxy carbonate species. It is proposed that the oxygen reduction activity at the (zinc) cathodes is reduced by precipitation of alkali-resistant Mg(OH)2, which is gradually converted to more soluble hydroxy carbonates by uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This lowers the surface pH sufficiently to allow thermodynamically for general precipitation of insoluble simonkolleite over the corroding surface thereby retarding the overall <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reactions, leaving only small traces of magnesium <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products behtraces of magnesium <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products behind. Such a mechanism is consistent with the experimental findings reported in the literature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43125296"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistance of Cementitious Binders to Chloride Induced <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Embedded <span class="hlt">Steel</span> by Electrochemical and Microstructural Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The high alkaline property in the concrete pore solution <span class="hlt">protects</span> the embedded <span class="hlt">steel</span> in concrete from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> due to aggressive ions attack. However, a continuous supply of those ions, in particular, chlorides altogether with a pH fall in electrochemical reaction on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface eventually depassivate the <span class="hlt">steel</span> to corrode. To mitigate chloride-induced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in concrete structures, finely grained mineral admixtures, for example, pulverized fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF) have been often advised to replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC) partially as binder. A consistent assessment of those partial replacements has been rarely performed with respect to the resistance of each binder to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, although the studies for each binder were extensively looked into in a way of measuring the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, influence of microstructure or chemistry of chlorides ions with cement hydrations. The paper studies the behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, chloride transport, pore structure and buffering capacity of those cementitious binders. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in mortars of OPC, 30% PFA, 60% GGBS and 10% SF respectively, with chloride in cast ranging from 0.0 to 3.0% by weight of binder was measured at 7, 28 and 150 days to determine the chloride threshold level and the rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> propagation, using the anodic polarization technique. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also applied to cement pastes of each binder at 7 aied to cement pastes of each binder at 7 and 28 days to ensure the development of pore structure. Finally, the release rate of bound chlorides (I.e. buffering capacity) was measured at 150 days. The chloride threshold level was determined assuming that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is beyond 1-2 mA/m3 at <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and the order of the level was OPC > 10% SF > 60% GGBS > 30% PFA. Mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that 10% SF paste produced the most dense pore structure, followed by 60% GGBS, 30% PFA and OPC pastes, respectively. It was found that OPC itself is beneficial in resisting to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> initiation, but use of pozzolanic materials as binders shows more resistance to chloride transport into concrete, thus delay the onset of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29039510"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">protection</span> of the metal by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in power plant 'Negotono' (Macedonia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the problem of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the equipment in the thermal power plant 'Negotiono' is analysed. Also, the experiences of involving the contemporary method for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> by using the inhibitor as a surface active matter are presented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38012137"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by aerobic biofilm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion/corrosion</span> inhibition, electrochemical and biological experiments such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and biochemical analysis were made. The exposed surfaces were examined using scanning electron micrographs (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The scraped surface film was also examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggested that mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface contained iron oxide-phosphate layer covered with bacteria and exo polymeric substance (EPS)/iron-EPS complex for P. cichorii and iron oxides and iron phosphate for P. alcaligenes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32067779"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> testing of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium metal waste form</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposition of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms contain irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructure and some of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies being conducted on the waste form alloys. Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, immersion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and vapor hydration tests have been performed on various alloy compositions to evaluate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior and resistance to selective leaching of simulated fission products. The SS-Zr waste forms are successful at the immobilization and retention of fission products and show potential for acceptance as high-level nuclear waste forms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33033649"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of various marine conditions on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of AISI C1118 <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the present work, a comparative study has been carried out, of the behaviour of marine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> conditions of a plain carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI C1118, subjected to carburizing and nitriding thermochemical treatments. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products were investigated. No differences in the marine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of the studied <span class="hlt">steels</span> have been found. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24061751"><span id="translatedtitle">The Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in 1 N HCl by Imidazole Derivatives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Patel, Niketan S; Jauhari, Smita; Mehta, Girishkumar N</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The inhibition effect of imidazole derivatives 4-methyl-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acid (MPBI) and 1,4'-Dimethyl-2'-propyl-1H,3'H-2,5'-dibenzimidazole (DPBI) against mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1 N HCl solutions were evaluated using conventional weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The weight loss results showed that both are excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors, electrochemical polarizations data revealed the mixed mode of inhibition and the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have shown that the change in the impedance parameters, charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance, with the change in concentration of the inhibitor is due to the adsorption of the molecule leading to the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on the surface of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The inhibition action of these compounds was, assumed to occur via adsorption on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface through the active centres contained of the molecule. PMID:24061751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38028898"><span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The inhibitive behaviour on <span class="hlt">steel</span> of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20856740"><span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Rahim, Afidah A. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)]. E-mail: afidah@usm.my; Rocca, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Steinmetz, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Kassim, M.J. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Adnan, R. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Sani Ibrahim, M. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)</p> <p>2007-02-15</p> <p>The inhibitive behaviour on <span class="hlt">steel</span> of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37115505"><span id="translatedtitle">Bio-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in synthetic and natural sea water of modified stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> by poison elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In seawater, bacteria can modify the behaviour of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> towards <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. It can be then considered to control this type of degradation by a better adjustment of the chemical composition of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> used. In this work, has been studied the influence of the addition of 'poisons' elements for bacteria on the bio-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of an austenitic 316L <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The added elements were copper, tin and arsenic. After a bibliographic study and a description of the metallographic, electrochemical and surface analyses methods used, the results obtained in the considered media are given: synthetical seawater, natural, or sterilized and then inoculated. The specific role of each addition elements has then been revealed as well as the alteration of the <span class="hlt">protecting</span> films and of the induced bio-film, and the behaviour differences in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (O.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35026046"><span id="translatedtitle">On the inhibition of the carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> by the carboxylic acids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">protection</span> effect of the aliphatic carboxylic acids relative to the <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the liquid and vapor phases of the carbonic media is studied. It is shown, that the efficiency of the carboxylate-type inhibitors increases with the growth of their hydrophoby and their high adsorption ability makes it possible to decay both cathode and anode processes on the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The lauric acid is the most effective inhibitor of the carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> among the studied carboxylic acids. In spite of the presence of the relatively long alkyl (C11H23) in its molecule it is sufficiently volatile. The caprylic acid in the concentration of 3.7 mmol/l inhibits the <span class="hlt">steel</span> solution within the temperature range of 30 up to 100 Deg C and increases the effective energy of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process activation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0717-97072015000100004-chl"><span id="translatedtitle">STUDY OF <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF NOVEL SEMICARBAZONES ON MILD <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>RATHIKA, GOVINDASAMY; SWETHA, AYAPPAN.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> using acids by three different novel Semicarbazones as inhibitors have been studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The inhibition efficiency, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, the nature of anchor [...] ing sites and the adsorption characteristics have been determined from the results. It was found that the newly synthesized compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors with high inhibition efficiency. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitors concentration but decreases with increasing the temperature. Addition of halide ion enhances the inhibition efficiency. The adsorption of the inhibitors on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning Electron Spectroscopy is used to examine the surface morphology of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples both in the presence and absence of inhibitors at optimum conditions. Scanning Electron Microscope reveals the formation of a smooth, dense <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer in the presence of inhibitor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39039543"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of microwave-sintered austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study compares the electrochemical response of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (316L) and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)-reinforced 316L composites microwave-sintered in solid-state (1200 deg. C) and supersolidus (1400 deg. C) condition. Compared with conventional sintering (through radiative heating), microwave sintering results in better <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. This has been correlated with higher densification and microstructural attributes in the latter. The 316L-5YAG composites consolidated in microwave furnace at 1400 deg. Cyields the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22284178"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of acoustic emission to monitor the effect of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Nahali, Haifa [Laboratoire MATEIS CNRS UMR5511 (Equipe CorrIS), INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Univ. de Tunis El Manar, Belvedere (Tunisia). Unite de Recherche ' ' Mecanique-Energetique' ' ; Dhouibi, Leila [Univ. de Tunis El Manar, Belvedere (Tunisia). Unite de Recherche ' ' Mecanique-Energetique' ' ; Idrissi, Hassane [Laboratoire MATEIS CNRS UMR5511 (Equipe CorrIS), INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>One of the most important causes of reinforced concrete structures deterioration is the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the reinforcement <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depends on the presence of aggressive agents such as chlorides in the surrounding medium. Numerous <span class="hlt">protection</span> techniques have been employed to mitigate this <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Among them, the use of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors has been considered as one of the most effective solutions. In the present work, the influence of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steels</span> embedded in mortar, and immersed in sodium chloride solution, was investigated by acoustic emission technique. The monitoring of specimens shows that the phosphate based inhibitor addition in the mortar increase the threshold of chloride concentrations, causing the breakdown of <span class="hlt">steel</span> passivation layer. Thus, the acoustic signatures of concrete fracture and of structure degradation during the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of these specimens have been highlighted. Similarly, the mechanism of phosphate action in terms of preventing <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in mortar specimens was analysed by characterization methods (SEM, XRD) of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>-mortar interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45105586"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of acoustic emission to monitor the effect of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One of the most important causes of reinforced concrete structures deterioration is the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the reinforcement <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depends on the presence of aggressive agents such as chlorides in the surrounding medium. Numerous <span class="hlt">protection</span> techniques have been employed to mitigate this <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Among them, the use of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors has been considered as one of the most effective solutions. In the present work, the influence of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steels</span> embedded in mortar, and immersed in sodium chloride solution, was investigated by acoustic emission technique. The monitoring of specimens shows that the phosphate based inhibitor addition in the mortar increase the threshold of chloride concentrations, causing the breakdown of <span class="hlt">steel</span> passivation layer. Thus, the acoustic signatures of concrete fracture and of structure degradation during the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of these specimens have been highlighted. Similarly, the mechanism of phosphate action in terms of preventing <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in mortar specimens was analysed by characterization methods (SEM, XRD) of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>-mortar interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1516-14392013000600035-scl"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> assessment by electrochemical impedance on metakaolin blended mortars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Víctor, Triana; Juan, Lizarazo-Marriaga; Jhon Olaya, Flórez.</p> <p>1457-14-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Since <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> in concrete is the cause of major economic losses, Portland cement has been traditionally replaced by cements blended with pozzalanic materials, most of which have been found to reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This paper shows the results of an experimental resear [...] ch aimed to investigate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcement in mortar using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this, concrete laboratory samples containing a 0.0055 m <span class="hlt">steel</span> bar and prepared with just ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and metakaolin at a replacement level of 20% were analyzed. In order to accelerate the <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process, all the samples were kept in a 3% NaCl solution and a constant anodic electrical potential was applied. Variations in the water to cementitious material ratio (0.5 and 0.6) and metakaolin proportion were analyzed, while the cementitious material to sand ratio was kept constant at 1:2.25 in all of the specimens. The results showed a reduction in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates when metakaolin was used as a blending admixture, especially at water to cementitious material ratio of 0.5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST...24..629P"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitigating Localized <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Using Thermally Sprayed Aluminum (TSA) Coatings on Welded 25% Cr Superduplex Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Paul, S.; Lu, Q.; Harvey, M. D. F.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA) coating has been increasingly used for the <span class="hlt">protection</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> offshore structures, topside equipment, and flowlines/pipelines exposed to both marine atmospheres and seawater immersion conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of TSA coatings in preventing localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, such as pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 25% Cr superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SDSS) in subsea applications, has been investigated. Welded 25% Cr SDSS (coated and uncoated) with and without defects, and surfaces coated with epoxy paint were also examined. Pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests, on welded 25% Cr SDSS specimens with and without TSA/epoxy coatings, were conducted in recirculated, aerated, and synthetic seawater at 90 °C for 90 days. The tests were carried out at both the free <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials and an applied cathodic potential of -1100 mV saturated calomel electrode. The acidity (pH) of the test solution was monitored daily and adjusted to between pH 7.5 and 8.1, using dilute HCl solution or dilute NaOH, depending on the pH of the solution measured during the test. The test results demonstrated that TSA prevented pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 25% Cr SDSS in artificial seawater at 90 °C, even when 10-mm-diameter coating defect exposing the underlying <span class="hlt">steel</span> was present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26011181"><span id="translatedtitle">Case histories of microbiologically influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weldments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microbiologically influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (MIC) is initiated or accelerated by microorganisms and is currently recognized as a serious problem affecting the construction and operation of many industrial facilities, including nuclear power plants. The purpose of this paper is to review how biofouling and MIC can occur and discuss current mechanistic theories. A case history of MIC attack in power plants is examined with emphasis on the role of welding and heat treatment variables using laboratory electrochemical analyses. Although MIC can occur on a variety of alloys, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> failures of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are often associated with weldments. MIC occurs as the result of a consortium of microorganisms colonizing on the metal surface and their variety (fungi, bacteria, algae, mold, and slimes) enables them to form support systems for cross feeding to enhance survival. The metabolic processes influence <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of materials by destroying <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings, producing a localized acid environment, creating <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> deposits, or altering anodic and cathodic reactions. On stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, biofilms destroy the passive oxide film on the surface of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> and subject them to localized forms of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Many of the MIC failures in industry result in pitting to austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weldments. Pitting primarily occurs in the weld metal, heat affected zones, and adjacent to the weld in the base metal. Depending on the conditions of the concl. Depending on the conditions of the concentration cell created by the biofilm, either phase of the two-phase duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, austenite or delta ferrite, may be selectively attacked. Theories have been proposed about the mechanism of MIC on austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> and and a general understanding is that some function associated with the biofilm formation directly affects the electrochemical process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0012-73532009000400022-col"><span id="translatedtitle">PROTECCIÓN CONTRA LA CORROSIÓN EN SALES FUNDIDAS DE UN ACERO HOT ROLLED, EN EL RANGO DE TEMPERATURAS DE 400 ºC-600 ºC, RECUBIERTO POR ROCIADO TÉRMICO CON ACERO INOXIDABLE 312 / <span class="hlt">PROTECTION</span> AGAINST THE HOT <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> OF <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> HOT ROLLED, BETWEEN TEMPERATURES OF 400ºC - 600ºC, COATED BY THERMAL SPRAY, WITH STAINLESS <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> 312</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>JOSE LUDDEY, MARULANDA; JOSE LUIS, TRISTANCHO; ADRIANA, CAÑAS.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Se evaluó la corrosión por sales fundidas mediante la técnica gravimétrica en un acero de bajo carbono tipo hot rolled, rociado térmicamente con una aleación de acero inoxidable tipo 312, con el equipo Rototec, en una mezcla de sal 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, entre 400ºC - 600ºC, durante tiempos de 1-7-2 [...] 2 horas. Los resultados mostraron una moderada protección de la capa rociada térmicamente y se presentó alta degradación en el recubrimiento a 600ºC. Se concluyó que la velocidad de corrosión aumenta con la temperatura y disminuye con el tiempo de exposición. Abstract in english The hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was evaluated by gravimetric techniques in a hot rolled <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protected</span> by thermal spraying with a 312 stainless alloy, with the equipment Rototec, in a mixture of salt 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, amoung 400ºC - 600ºC, during times of 1-7-22 hours. The test results showed a moderate pro [...] tection of the layer thermally sprayed and presented high degradation in the <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings to 600ºC. It was concluded that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate increases with temperature and decreases with exposure time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38068198"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of a carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated liquid nuclear wastes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This work is part of a collaboration agreement between CNEA (National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina) and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America), entitled 'Tank <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Chemistry Cooperation', to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> A537 class 1 in different simulated non-radioactive wastes in order to establish the safety concentration limits of the tank waste chemistry at Hanford site (Richland-US). Liquid high level nuclear wastes are stored in tanks made of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> A537 (ASTM nomenclature) that were designed for a service life of 20 to 50 years. A thickness reduction of some tank walls, due to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> processes, was detected at Hanford site, beyond the existing predicted values. Two year long-term immersion tests were started using non radioactive simulated liquid nuclear waste solutions at 40 C degrees. This work extends throughout the first year of immersion. The simulated solutions consist basically in combinations of the 10 most <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> significant chemical components: 5 main components (NaNO3, NaCl, NaF, NaNO2 and NaOH) at three concentration levels and 5 secondary components at two concentration levels. Measurements of the general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate with time were performed for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons, both immersed in the solutions and in the vapor phases, using weight loss and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy techniques. Optic and scanning electron microscopy examination, analysis of U-bon microscopy examination, analysis of U-bend samples and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential measurements, were also done. Localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility (pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>) was assessed in isolated short-term tests by means of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The effect of the simulated waste composition on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of A537 <span class="hlt">steel</span> was studied based on statistical analyses. The Surface Response Model could be successfully applied to the statistical analysis of the A537 <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the studied solutions. General <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was not significant for A537 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the concentration range of the solutions studied (pH 10-13) at 40 C degrees. The highest calculated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate for immersed samples, using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques, was 25 ?m/yr, while the highest calculated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate for vapor phase coupons, using weight-loss measurements, was 51 ?m/yr. On the contrary, it was found that A537 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was highly susceptible to localized attack, due to pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, in the solutions and at the temperature studied. The highest penetration rates produced by pitting attack, measured by optical microscopy examination after 11 month immersion, were 0.3 mm/yr and 0.4 mm/yr for the immersed and the vapor phase coupons respectively. The highest penetration rate produced by crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> on the immersed coupons, measured by optical microscopy examination after 11 month immersion, was 1,1 mm/yr. Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking signs were not observed after 11 month immersion on the U-bend coupons. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43049678"><span id="translatedtitle">Sodium phthalamates as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? N-Alkyl-sodium phthalamates as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for industry in acidic medium. ? Compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. ? Efficiencies were proportional to aliphatic chain length and inhibitor concentration. ? Iron complexes and chelates with phthalamates contributed to carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. - Abstract: Three compounds of N-alkyl-sodium phthalamates were synthesized and tested as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid. Tests showed that inhibitor efficiencies were related to aliphatic chain length and dependent on concentration. N-1-n-tetradecyl-sodium phthalamate displayed moderate efficiency against uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, 42-86% at 25 deg. C and 25-60% at 40 oC. Tests indicated that compounds behave as mixed type inhibitors where molecular adsorption on <span class="hlt">steel</span> followed Langmuir isotherm, whereas thermodynamic suggested that a physisorption process occurred. XPS analysis confirmed film formation on surface, where Fe+2 complexes and Fe+2 chelates with phthalamates prevented <span class="hlt">steel</span> from further <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39048978"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> mechanisms of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in nitric media used in reprocessing plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> type 304L, 316L and 310Nb are largely used as structural materials for equipments handling nitric acid media in reprocessing plants. In almost all nitric media, these materials, <span class="hlt">protected</span> by a chromium(III) oxide rich layer, remain in their passive state. However, in some particular nitric media, their <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential may be shifted towards their transpassive domain. In this domain, they can suffer intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, even though they are not sensitized owing to their very low carbon content. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> depends greatly on the cathodic reaction involved in the oxido-reduction process between the elements Fe, Cr, Ni of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the oxidizing species of the medium. Three cases of an increase in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential can be found in reprocessing media: pure nitric acid-water solutions, in which the cathodic reaction is the reduction reaction of HNO3; nitric acid media containing oxidizing species, in which the cathodic reaction is the reaction of reduction of the oxidizing species into the reduced one; nitric media containing metallic elements electrochemically more noble than the <span class="hlt">steels</span>, causing galvanic coupling. In each case, the mechanism and the relevant situations we experimentally studied are described</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45017573"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies of cold spray Ni-50Cr coating on boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the current investigation Ni-50Cr powder was deposited on two boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> SA-213-T22 and SA 516 (Grade 70) by cold spray process. The hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of coated as well as bare boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> was evaluated in an aggressive environment of Na2SO4-60% V2O5 under cyclic conditions at an elevated temperature of 900 oC. The kinetics of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was approximated by the weight change measurements made after each cycle for a total period of 50 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 1 h heating in a tube furnace followed by 20 min cooling in ambient air. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) techniques were used to analyse the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products. Both the uncoated boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> suffered intensive spallation in the form of removal of their oxide scales, which may be attributed to the formation of unprotective Fe2O3 dominated oxide scales. The Ni-50Cr coated <span class="hlt">steels</span> showed lesser weight gains and the oxide scales remained intact till the end of the experiment. The phases revealed in the oxide scales of the coated specimens were mainly oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels which are reported to be <span class="hlt">protective</span> against the hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14798510"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of carbon content and tempering structures on the electrochemical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties of carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effect of carbon content, hardening structures and internal stresses occuring in the result of carbonic <span class="hlt">steel</span> heat treatment on their electrochemical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties is investigated. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is shown to be increased in 6% H2SO4 and 3% NaCl with the increase of carbon content and in respect to internal stresses arising in the result of heat treatment, in transition from perlite, to sorbite, troostite- and martensite. The inhibitor <span class="hlt">protection</span> is most effective in the case of perlite-ferrite structure; the effectiveness of the inhibitor <span class="hlt">protection</span> decreases in transition to highly resistant structures. The electrochemical properties of <span class="hlt">steels</span> also depend on carbon content and hardening structures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19..761B"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on the Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> by Rauvolfia serpentina in Acid Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Bothi Raja, P.; Sethuraman, M. G.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Alkaloid extract of Rauvolfia serpentina was tested as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl and H2SO4 using weight loss method at three different temperatures, viz., 303, 313, and 323 K, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. It is evident from the results of this study that R. serpentina effectively inhibits the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in both the acids through adsorption process following Tempkin adsorption isotherm. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and temperature. Free energy of adsorption calculated from the temperature studies also revealed the chemisorption. The mixed mode of action exhibited by the inhibitor was confirmed by the polarization studies while SEM analysis substantiated the formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer over the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14786317"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products of <span class="hlt">steels</span> formed in cracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> crack of <span class="hlt">steels</span> 08Kh18N10T, 08Kh21N6M2T and 08Kh14MF has been studied. The investigations are carried out in aqueous solution containing 10% NaCl and 1 g/l oxygen at 300 deg C. The samples have been held under static strain. Determination of chemical composition of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products in cracks has been made using the method of X-ray spectral microanalysis. The results obtained permit to make a supposition on intermittent character of crack growth under conditions of chloride <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> crack</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35045068"><span id="translatedtitle">AFM evaluation for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of ion irradiated stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Development and research about analytical method for the study of irradiation assisted stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was conducted. Specimens were irradiated by Ni3+ ions at 573 to 673K up to dose level of 35 dpa with synergetic implantation of He ions. The specimens were etched in H2SO4 solution at a constant potential, and then corroded positions were evaluated by atomic force microscope (AFM) and electron backscatter diffraction pattern (EBSP) technique. The developed method could quantitatively evaluate irradiation effects on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior. He implantation reduced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42084347"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in water contaminated biodiesel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Biodiesel has been widely used as an additive to traditional fuel supplies, but the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of metals used in biodiesel infrastructure is becoming an increasing concern. In this study, the influence of water contamination and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in biodiesel, were characterized using the wire beam electrode (WBE) technique. In situ local current distributions among the electrodes showed a distinct <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> pattern, with the anodes formed in the area that was exposed to water, and the cathodes formed along the water-biodiesel interface. The anodic current distribution showed a positive correlation with the biodiesel concentration gradient in water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43023397"><span id="translatedtitle">Biopolymer <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span>: Electrochemical/Moessbauer Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Metallic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is the destructive attack of a metal by its environment. Organic inhibitors, amongst others, adsorb directly onto the surface of the metal and can thus inhibit <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Chitosan, tri-methyl chitosan and dodecyl amine hydrochloride were studied with a view to assessing their potential use as adsorption inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acid chloride and sulphate solutions. The inhibition efficiency was studied successfully by potentiostatic polarisation (Tafel plots), Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS and transmission) and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> experiments in static acidified electrolytes. Inhibition efficiencies ranged from 20 to 93%. The chemical compositions of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products were determined by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy, which identified iron hydroxides as the main <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products forming in the presence of the inhibitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21418692"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructure and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of pulsed plasma-nitrided AISI H13 tool <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Basso, Rodrigo L.O. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Pastore, Heloise O. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13084-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Schmidt, Vanessa [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Baumvol, Israel J.R. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abarca, Silvia A.C.; Souza, Fernando S. de; Spinelli, Almir [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Figueroa, Carlos A. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Giacomelli, Cristiano, E-mail: cgiacomelli@pq.cnpq.b [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil)</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>The effect of pulsed plasma nitriding temperature and time on the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of AISI H13 tool <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.9% NaCl solutions was investigated by cyclic polarization. The pitting potential (E{sub pit}) was found to be dependent on the composition, microstructure and morphology of the surface layers, whose properties were determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The best <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> was observed for samples nitrided at 480 {sup o}C and 520 {sup o}C. Under such experimental conditions the E{sub pit}-values shifted up to 1.25 V in the positive direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTST...21.1195A"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Arc Sprayed Aluminum Coating on Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Abedi Esfahani, Erfan; Salimijazi, Hamidreza; Golozar, Mohamad A.; Mostaghimi, Javad; Pershin, Larry</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In the current study, aluminum coating was deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by arc spraying. A well-adhered coating with low level of porosity was successfully obtained. To evaluate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of the coating, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution were carried out. The as-coated samples were also subjected to a 1500-h salt spray assay. Polarization tests indicated that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density of the aluminum coating is more than that of bulk aluminum. This could be due to the penetration of the electrolyte through open pores, resulted in the acceleration of aluminum <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. EIS measurements showed that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of the coating is improved during a long time immersion and exposure to saline mist. This could be due to plugging of pores by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products which hinder further penetration of the electrolyte through the coating. The results obtained indicated that twin wire arc sprayed aluminum coatings can reliably <span class="hlt">protect</span> <span class="hlt">steel</span> structures against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in chloride-containing aqueous solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::498f1fab0305aaaa8abadfb5c2a69553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> potential of 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulfuric acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>BORE JEGDIC; Drazic, Dragutin M.; Popic, Jovan P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The potentiodynamic study of the electrochemical behavior of austenitic 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in deaerated aqueous sulfuric acid of pH 1 revealed that the <span class="hlt">steel</span> achieved a stable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential of ca. – 0.350 V (SCE) independent of whether the electrode had previously been cathodically “activated” or anodically passivated. It was also shown that the experimentally observed anodic peak was not the usually obtained anodic passivation peak, as is the case with a number of metal, but an ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::d419b9154ad1527f2ef54c044b459b9a"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> welds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>J. ?abanowski</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of welding on microstructure, mechanical properties, and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> butt welded joints.Design/methodology/approach: Duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L <span class="hlt">steels</span> were used. Butt joints of plates 15 mm in thickness were performed with the use of submerged arc welding (SAW) method. The heat input was in the range of 1.15 – 3.2 kJ/mm. Various plates’ edge prepara...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31044843"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> by hot sodium melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Considerable research has been performed by AEA Technology on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> by hot sodium melts containing sodium hydroxide and sodium oxide. This research has principally been in support of understanding the effects of sodium-water reactions on the internals of fast reactor steam generators. The results however have relevance to sodium fires. It has been determined that the rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> by melts of pure NaOH can be significantly increased by the addition of Na2O. In the case of a sodium-water reaction jet created by a leak of steam into sodium, the composition of the jet varies from 100% sodium through to 100% steam, with a full range of concentrations of NaOH and Na2O, depending on axial and radial position. The temperature in the jet also varies with position, ranging from bulk sodium temperature on one boundary to expanded steam temperature on the other boundary, with internal temperatures ranging up to 1300 deg. C, depending on the local pre-reaction mole ratio of steam to sodium. In the case of sodium-water reaction jets, it has been possible to develop a model which predicts the composition of the reaction jet and then, using the data generated on the <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of sodium melts, predict the rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of a <span class="hlt">steel</span> target in the path of the jet. In the case of a spray sodium fire, the sodium will initially contain a concentration of NaOH and the combustion process will generate Na2O. If there is sufficient humidity, conversion of some of the Na2O to NaOH will also occur. There is therefore the potential for aggressive mixtures of NaOH and Na2O to exist on the surface of the sodium droplets. It is therefore possible that the rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the path of the spray may be higher than expected on the basis of assuming that only Na and Na2O were present. In the case of a pool sodium fire, potentially <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> mixtures of NaOH and Na2O may be formed at some locations on the surface. This could lead to significant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of any <span class="hlt">steel</span> structures penetrating the surface, or <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces forming the boundary of the pool. In this paper, the data on the <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of sodium melts containing NaOH and Na2O, as a function of temperature, concentration of each species and velocity of the melt, will be presented for ferritic and austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and the possible relevance of these data for sodium fires will be discussed. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36105084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the Tournemire clay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> are possible materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers for long term geological disposal in argillaceous environments. Experimental studies of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of such materials has been conducted in various conditions. Concerning the numerous laboratory experiments, these conditions (water and clay mixture or compacted clay) mainly concern the bentonite clay that would be used for the engineered barrier. On the opposite, only few in-situ experiments has been conducted directly in the local clay of the repository site (such as Boom clay, etc.). In order to better estimate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in natural clay site conditions, an experimental study has been conducted jointly by EDF and IRSN in the argillaceous French site of Tournemire. In this study, A42 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens have been exposed in 3 different zones of the Tournemire clay formation. The first type of environmental conditions concerns a zone where the clay has not been affected by the excavation (EDZ) of the main tunnel neither by the main fracture zone of the clay formation. The second and third ones are located in the EDZ of the tunnel. In the second zone, an additional aerated water flows from the tunnel, whereas it does not in the third place. Some carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens have been extracted after several years of exposure to these conditions. The average <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate has been measured by the weight loss technique and the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth has been evaluated under an optical microscope. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> products have also been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. Results are then discussed regarding the surrounding environmental conditions. Calculations of the oxygen transport from the tunnel through the clay and of the clay re-saturation can explain, in a first approach, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the different tested zones. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38086685"><span id="translatedtitle">A liquid aluminum <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance surface on <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The process of hot dipping pure aluminum on a <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate followed by oxidation was studied to form a surface layer of aluminum oxide resistant to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of aluminum melt. The thickness of the pure aluminum layer on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate is reduced with the increase in temperature and time in initial aluminizing, and the thickness of the aluminum layer does not increase with time at given temperature when identical temperature and complete wetting occur between liquid aluminum and the substrate surface. The thickness of the Fe-Al intermetallic layer on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> base is increased with increasing bath temperature and time. Based on the experimental data and the mathematics model developed by the study, a maximum exists in the thickness of the Fe-Al intermetallic at certain dipping temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis reveals that the top portion of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate is composed of a thin layer of ?-Al2O3, followed by a thinner layer of FeAl3, and then a much thicker one of Fe2Al5 on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> base side. In addition, there is a carbon enrichment zone in diffusion front. The aluminum oxide surface formed on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate is in perfect condition after <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test in liquid aluminum at 750 deg. C for 240 h, showing extremely good resistance to aluminum melt <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34038775"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical properties of oxides formed by anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In Sweden, it is proposed that spent nuclear fuel should be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters for disposal in a geologic repository. The canisters would consist of a thick ferrous inner container and a copper overpack. If mechanical failure of the copper overpack occurred, allowing water to enter, there would be a build up of ferrous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product, which could induce stresses in the outer copper canister. This paper describes an apparatus, the 'stress cell', which was designed to measure the expansion caused by the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> under compressive loads. The apparatus consisted of a stack of <span class="hlt">steel</span> and copper discs, which were immersed in simulated anoxic groundwater. A system of levers amplified the change in height of the stack, and the displacement was measured using sensitive transducers. Three cells were set up; two contained alternate mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> and copper discs, and the third, a control cell, consisted of alternate stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> and copper discs. A slight contraction of the control cell was observed but no expansion was measured in the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> - copper cells. In parallel, coupons of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> and cast iron were corroded in anoxic, artificial groundwater at 50 deg C and 80 deg C for several months. The coupons were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the mechanical properties and the structure of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product films, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify the chemical composition of theo identify the chemical composition of the film. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1517-70762015000200523-scl"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior and Microstructure of Borided Tool <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Muzaffer, Erdogan; Ibrahim, Gunes.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In the present study, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviors of borides formed on cold work tool <span class="hlt">steel</span> have been investigated in a 4% M HCl acid solution. Boriding was performed in a solid medium consisting of Ekabor-II powders at 850 and 950°C for 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and the h [...] ardness tester. XRD analysis of boride layers on the surface of the samples revealed the existence of FeB, Fe2B, CrB, Cr2B and MoB compounds. Depending on the chemical composition of substrates and boriding time, the boride layer thickness on the surface of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> ranged from 13.14 ?m and 120.82 ?m. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the samples ranged from 1806 to 2342 HV0,05, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated the samples was 428 HV0,05. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> was higher compared with that of the unborided <span class="hlt">steels</span>. The borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> increased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistances of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> 8-17- fold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14768957"><span id="translatedtitle">Alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics and oxide morphologies in acid chloride environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The denting of PWR primary water tubes as a result of <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> attack of the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> support plates has led to extensive research into the mechanism of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and a search for palliatives to ease the problem. In the current design of steam generators the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> drilled hole tube support plate has been replaced by one of quatrefoil or trifoil shape made of ferritic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (12%Cr) to ensure that the plates are less vulnerable to attack in the event of adverse boiler water chemistry. The oxide volume is again approximately twice that of the metal consumed but the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism is different from that of the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in that a duplex oxide is formed consisting of an inner chromium rich (FeCr)3O4 layer surmounted by an outer Fe3O4 layer of similar thickness. This study was initiated to investigate the mechanisms of oxide growth and the transition between <span class="hlt">protective</span> and rapid linear oxidation in order to validate the use of chromium <span class="hlt">steels</span> for resistance to acid chloride attack and to establish a confidence margin in terms of chromium content and environment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.journalamme.org/papers_vol20/1449S.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking susceptibility of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> welded joints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>J. ?abanowski</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the current study is to reveal the influence of welding conditions on structure and stresscorrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> butt welded joints.Design/methodology/approach: Butt joints between duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L <span class="hlt">steels</span> were performedwith the use of submerged arc welding (SAW method. The plates 15 mm in thickness were welded with heatinput in the range of 1.15 – 3.2 kJ/mm using duplex <span class="hlt">steel</span> filler metal. Microstructure examinations and corrosiontests were carried out. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT were performed in inert (glycerin and aggressive (boiling35% MgCl2 solution environments.Findings: It was shown that place of the lowest resistance to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking is heat affected zone atduplex <span class="hlt">steel</span> side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon was connected with undesirable structure of that zoneconsisted of great amount of coarse ferrite grains and acicular austenite precipitates. High welding inputs do notdeteriorate stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of welds.Research limitations/implications: High welding heat inputs should enhance the precipitation process ofintermetallic phases in the HAZ. It is necessary to continue the research to determine the relationship betweenwelding parameters, obtained structures, and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> welded joints.Practical implications: Application of more productive joining process for dissimilar welds like submerged arcwelding instead of currently employed gas metal arc welding (GMAW method will be profitable in terms ofreduction the welding costs.Originality/value: The stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> welded joints wasdetermined. The zone of the weaker resistance to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking was pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000300004"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition and Adsorption of Anthocleista Djalonesis Leaf Extract on the Acid <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>C.E. Ogukwe</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Anthocleista djalonesis (AD have been investigated as non toxic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acidic environments (1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4, respectively. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates were evaluated at 30 °C using the weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. AD extract was found to inhibit mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in both acidic media via adsorption of the extract organic matter on the metal/solution interface. Polarization data indicate that the extract functioned via a mixed inhibition mechanism, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of the extract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042012000300004-prt"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition and Adsorption of Anthocleista Djalonesis Leaf Extract on the Acid <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>C.E., Ogukwe; C.O., Akalezi; M. A., Chidiebere; K.L., Oguzie; Z.O., Iheabunike; E.E., Oguziea.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Anthocleista djalonesis (AD) have been investigated as non toxic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acidic environments (1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4, respectively). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates were evaluated at 30 °C using the weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy [...] and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. AD extract was found to inhibit mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in both acidic media via adsorption of the extract organic matter on the metal/solution interface. Polarization data indicate that the extract functioned via a mixed inhibition mechanism, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of the extract.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15005513"><span id="translatedtitle">Cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> of AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hot concentrated nitric acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Experiments have been mounted in order to investigate a cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> scheme for AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hot concentrated nitric acid. Weight loss tests of the heat treated material were carried out in order to establish the effect of metallurgical factors on its behaviour in hot concentrated nitric acid. In order to study the characteristics of the cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> scheme, local action anodic kinetics of the as-received and the sensitized stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> were determined in the above <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium. Anodic polarization curves of the as-received and sensitized stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, produced in hot concentrated sulfuric acid, contributed to the better understanding of the parameters concerning this <span class="hlt">protection</span> scheme. It has been found that an as-received AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> can be <span class="hlt">protected</span> in hot concentrated nitric acid. In order to achieve successful <span class="hlt">protection</span> for the sensitized AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, depleted austenite phases have to be eliminated in this material by adequate solution heat treatment. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1318::2f170feccb456b442f4cdc07e0603221"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of different hot rolled <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Perez, F. J.; Martinez, L; Hierro, M. P.; Gomez, C.; Portela, A. L.; G.N. Pucci; Duday, D.; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Greday, Y.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The oxidation-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of hot rolled alloys was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of the non-oxidised alloys was first determined in order to have a reference behaviour. Then, each alloy was oxidised for 1 and 3 days at 650 degrees C in air and its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour was also determined. For all the alloys, Fe2O3 was formed at the scale-gas interface. However, the Fe2O3 crystallographic structures varied as a function of the alloy composit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::bdbc7495bc5a31856e0ca63fd462a6cb"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Resistance of Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> by Using Natural <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Shaymaa Abbas Abdulsada; Khadim F. Al-Sultani</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the most widely used engineering material, despite its relatively limited <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear powered transportation, chemical processing , petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. The main objective of the present work involved the study of the inhibiting properties of natural product as Spearmint plant extract as a safety and an environmentally friendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/aped/article/view/4037"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficiency Criterion of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>K. Habib</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available A criterion of the efficiency evaluation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors of metallic samples in aqueous solutions was proposed for the first time.The criterion was derived based on calculating the limit of ratio value of the resistivity of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> sample in inhibited seawater (?ins to the resistivity of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> sample in blank seawater (?s. In other words, the criterion; lim (?ins/?s =1 will determine the efficiency of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor in the seawater when ?ins becomes equal (decreases to ?s  as a function of time of the exposure of the sample to the inhibited seawater. This criterion is not only can be used to determine the efficiency of different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors, but also, the criterion can be used to determine the efficiency of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors with a wide range of concentrations in different aqueous solutions. In addition, the criterion can be applied under diverse test conditions with a predetermined period of inhibitor’s dosages.  Key Words: Efficiency of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors; Resistivity; Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>; Seawater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042011000300001-prt"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Chemically Deposited Single and Bi-layered Conducting Polymer Coatings on Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>M, Mobin; Nelofar, Tanveer.</p> <p>2011-07-19</p> <p>Full Text Available The emeraldine base (EB) was synthesized by chemically oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride aqueous medium. The polymer was chemically deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens using tetra methyl urea (TMU) as solvent through solvent evaporation method. The coat [...] ing of polypyrrole (PPy) on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was deposited by chemical polymerization. A bi-layered polymer coating comprising of inner coat of PPy with top coat of EB (PPy/EB) was also deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> following identical procedure. The deposited EB, PPy and PPy/EB coatings were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The anticorrosive properties of single and bi-layered coatings was investigated in major <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments such as 0.1 M HCl, 5% NaCl solution, artificial seawater, distilled water, tap water and open atmosphere by conducting various <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests which include: immersion test, open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and atmospheric exposure test. The results of immersion tests showed that the PPy/EB coating gave best <span class="hlt">protection</span> in all media under investigation, the <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency being in the range of 72 to 79% after 30 days of immersion. The result of OCP measurements showed significant positive shift in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential for single as well as bi-layered coatings in all <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium under investigation; the bi-layered coating showing more positive <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. The potentiodynamic polarization studies also confirmed lower <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates for PPy/EB coating than the single polymer coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000300001"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Chemically Deposited Single and Bi-layered Conducting Polymer Coatings on Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>M Mobin</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The emeraldine base (EB was synthesized by chemically oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride aqueous medium. The polymer was chemically deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens using tetra methyl urea (TMU as solvent through solvent evaporation method. The coating of polypyrrole (PPy on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was deposited by chemical polymerization. A bi-layered polymer coating comprising of inner coat of PPy with top coat of EB (PPy/EB was also deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> following identical procedure. The deposited EB, PPy and PPy/EB coatings were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The anticorrosive properties of single and bi-layered coatings was investigated in major <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments such as 0.1 M HCl, 5% NaCl solution, artificial seawater, distilled water, tap water and open atmosphere by conducting various <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests which include: immersion test, open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and atmospheric exposure test. The results of immersion tests showed that the PPy/EB coating gave best <span class="hlt">protection</span> in all media under investigation, the <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency being in the range of 72 to 79% after 30 days of immersion. The result of OCP measurements showed significant positive shift in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential for single as well as bi-layered coatings in all <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium under investigation; the bi-layered coating showing more positive <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. The potentiodynamic polarization studies also confirmed lower <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates for PPy/EB coating than the single polymer coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13648272"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunization of type 316 and 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> to intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking by thermochanical treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermomechanical treatment associated with carbide stabilizing aging of cold worked material followed by recrystallization heating gave plain standard stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> substantial resistance to the intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and cracking in various test environments. IGSCC susceptibility tests on the so treated materials after giving a typical thermal history of simulated welding showed that the treatment worked satisfactorily in type 316 <span class="hlt">steel</span> over wide range of conditions, while type 304 could be <span class="hlt">protected</span> to only a limited extent with very closely controlled treatments. The response of the materials to the sensitizing heating in terms of impurity segregation at grainboundaries was also examined by means of microchemical analysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24032233"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of preliminary carburization on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of diffusion-chromized low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermodiffusion method of anticorrosive chromium carbide coating of a wide range of mechanical engineering articles from low-carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> by preliminary saturation of their surface with carbon was developed. The following technological sequence of atnicorrosive <span class="hlt">protection</span> of low-carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> can be recommended: cementation at the temperature of 1100-1150 deg for 2 h; diffusional chrome-plating at the temperature of 1150 deg for 4 H; chemical passivation in potassium bichromate aqueous solution. The technology suggested ensures high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of diffusion-chromized coatings under conditions of humid air atmosphere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42089889"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>, Al containing <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> barriers and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">steels</span> foreseen as structural materials in liquid lead alloy cooled nuclear systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A key problem in development of heavy liquid metal cooled nuclear energy and transmutation reactors is the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of structural and fuel. Above 500 oC <span class="hlt">steels</span> have to be <span class="hlt">protected</span> by stable, thin oxide scales. A well understood measure is alloying of stable oxide formers into the surface. Two methods, alloying an Al layer into the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface using pulsed electron beams (GESA - gepulste Elektronenstrahlanlage) and coating the surface with an Al-alloy with subsequent GESA treatment are applied. In the range of 4-10 wt% Al on the surface a stable thin alumina scale is formed by Al diffusion to the surface and selective oxidation. The alumina scale grows only very slowly and prevents migration of oxygen into the <span class="hlt">steel</span> as well as migration of <span class="hlt">steel</span> components onto the surface. A number of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> experiments showed the good <span class="hlt">protective</span> behaviour of Al scales in LBE with 10-6 wt% oxygen up to 650 oC and for exposure times up to 10,000 h. Furthermore the influence of parameters like stresses in the cladding wall, creep behaviour, different flow velocities of the LBE and changing temperatures and oxygen concentrations in LBE is discussed. This paper will provide an overview on the activities concerning Pb-PbBi <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> performed at the Institute of Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) at the KIT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CZAPUBDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0243178"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of phosphated <span class="hlt">steels</span> with plasma sprayed ceramic coatings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Brožek, Vlastimil; Mastný, L.; Pokorný, P.</p> <p></p> <p>Zagreb : Croatian Metallurgical Society (CMS), 2014 - (Mamuzi?, I.). s. 401 ISBN N. [International Symposium of Croatian Metallurgical Society SHMD 2014/11./. 22.06.2014-26.06.2014, Šibenik] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : <span class="hlt">steel</span> phosphating * phosphate coatings * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance * bond strength of coatings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CZAPUBDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0245788"><span id="translatedtitle">Crude Oil <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline <span class="hlt">Steel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 137, ?. 5 (2015), 051401. ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue * crude oil * pipeline <span class="hlt">steel</span> * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2013 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36109887"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of aluminum alloy and stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The samples of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> 12Cr18Ni10Ti and aluminum-magnesium alloy residing since 1990 year in the distilled water of IVG.1 reactor primary circuit, are investigated. The quantity and quality factors of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance for samples of reactor process channels design materials are defined. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21049923"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of impurities on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of CO2 transmission pipeline <span class="hlt">steel</span> in supercritical CO2-water environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Choi, Yoon-Seok; Nesic, Srdjan; Young, David</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> property of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was evaluated using an autoclave under CO(2)-saturated water phase and water-saturated CO(2) phase with impurities (O(2) and SO(2)) at 80 bar CO(2) and 50 °C to simulate the condition of CO(2) transmission pipeline in the carbon capture and storage (CCS) applications. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in CO(2)-saturated water was very high and it increased with adding O(2) in the system due to the inhibition effect of O(2) on the formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> FeCO(3). It is noteworthy that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> took place in the water-saturated CO(2) phase under supercritical condition when no free water is present. The addition of O(2) increased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in water-saturated CO(2) phase. The addition of 0.8 bar SO(2) (1%) in the gas phase dramatically increased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from 0.38 to 5.6 mm/y. This then increased to more than 7 mm/y with addition of both O(2) and SO(2). SO(2) can promote the formation of iron sulfite hydrate (FeSO(3)·3H(2)O) on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface which is less <span class="hlt">protective</span> than iron carbonate (FeCO(3)), and it is further oxidized to become FeSO(4) and FeOOH when O(2) is present with SO(2) in the CO(2)-rich phase. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of 13Cr <span class="hlt">steel</span> were very low compared with carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in CO(2)-saturated water environments with O(2), whereas it was as high as carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in a water-saturated CO(2) phase with O(2) and SO(2). PMID:21049923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24063270"><span id="translatedtitle">The anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in concrete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report describes the work of a two year programme investigating the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> embedded in a range of candidate repository cements and concretes at laboratory temperatures. The factors investigated in the study were the rate of the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction, the effect of hydrogen overpressure on the reaction rate and the form of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product. Both electrochemical and sample weight loss <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate measurements were used. The cements and concretes used were prepared both with and without small additions of chloride (2% by weight of mix water). The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is low, < 1 ?m/year, the effect of hydrogen overpressure is not significant over the range of pressures investigated, 1-100 atmospheres, and that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product is dependent on the cement used to cast the samples. Magnetite was identified in the case of blast furnace slag replacement cements but for pulverised fuel ash and ordinary Portland cements no <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product was evident either from X-ray diffraction or laser Raman measurements. Further work is presently underway to investigate the effects of elevated temperatures and chloride levels on the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction and the rate of hydrogen gas production. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45067403"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • There are no works related to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of drums containing radioactive waste. • Chloride induces high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate and after 1 year it drops abruptly. • Decrease in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is due to the lack of water to sustain the process. • Cementated ion-exchange resins do not pose risks of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> drums. -- Abstract: Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in <span class="hlt">steel</span> drums that may undergo internal <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility of <span class="hlt">steel</span> drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> drums</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.journalamme.org/papers_vol19_1/1445.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance properties of sintered duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>L.A. Dobrza?ski</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper was to examine the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> using electrochemical methods in 1M NaCl solution. The influence of powder mixes preparation and cooling cycle after sintering on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties was evaluated.Design/methodology/approach: In presented study duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic, martensitic base powders by controlled addition of alloying elements, such as Cr, Ni, Mo and Cu. In the studies behind the preparation of mixes, Schaeffler’s diagram was taken into consideration. Prepared mixes have been compacted at 800 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace with argon backfilling at 1260°C for 1 h. After sintering two different cooling cycles were applied: rapid cooling with an average cooling rate of 245 °C/min and slow cooling of 5 °C/min in argon atmosphere. Produced duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> have been studied by scanning and optical microscopy and EDS chemical analysis of microstructure components. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> properties have been studied through electrochemical methods in 1M NaCl water solutionFindings: According to achieved results, it was affirmed that applied sintering method as well as powder mixes preparation allows for manufacturing the sintered duplex <span class="hlt">steels</span> with good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties which depends on austenite/ferrite ratio in the microstructure and elements partitioning between phases. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of sintered stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> is strictly connected with the density and the pore morphology present in the microstructure too. The highest resistance to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1M NaCl solution was achieved for composition with approximate balance of ferrite and austenite in the microstructure.Research limitations/implications: According to the powders characteristic, the applied fast cooling rate seems to be a good compromise for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties and microstructures, nevertheless further tests should be carried out in order to examine different cooling rates.Originality/value: The use of elemental powders added to a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> base showed its potentialities, in terms of fair compressibility and final sintered density. In addition a good microstructural homogeneity and first of all <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance was achieved, also working with cycles possible for industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45066719"><span id="translatedtitle">Chloride induced localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in simulated concrete pore solution: effect of a phosphate-based inhibitor on the behavior of 304L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> compared to carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, the acoustic emission technique coupled with electrochemical measurements was used to determine, in simulated concrete pore solution (Ca(OH)2), the critical value [Cl-] / [OH-], which prevents the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> initiation of AISI 304L austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, and to compare this critical value with that of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the same medium with and without inhibitor Na3PO4. The results show that for the austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the critical threshold of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> initiation is around 5, while for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> without inhibitor in Ca(OH)2 solution, it has a low value of about 0.6. However, the presence of the inhibitor Na3PO4 in this solution leads to the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> phosphate layer on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, increasing the critical ratio [Cl-] / [OH-] from 0.6 to 15. Under these conditions, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is improved and, thanks to the blocking of pitting sites by the Na3PO4 inhibitor, it becomes much more resistant to localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> than AISI 304L austenitic <span class="hlt">steel</span>. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32067781"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium alloy waste forms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposal of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The baseline waste form for spent fuels from the EBR-II reactor is a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-15 wt.% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article briefly reviews the microstructure of various SS-Zr waste form alloys and presents results of immersion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests performed on these alloys. The electrochemical tests show that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of SS-Zr alloys is comparable to those of other alloys being considered for the Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The immersion tests demonstrate that the SS-Zr alloys are resistant to selective leaching of fission product elements and, hence, suitable as candidates for high-level nuclear waste forms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40063783"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of ?-FeOOH on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed in tropic marine environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed in Wanning area, which located in the south part of China with tropic marine environment characters, was studied at different exposure periods (up to 2 years). To investigate the effect of ?-FeOOH on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in high chloride ion environment, rust layer was analyzed by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and the rusted <span class="hlt">steel</span> was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. The weight loss test indicated that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> sharply increased during 6 months' exposure and gradually reduced after longer exposure. The results of rust analysis revealed that the underlying <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was dependent on the inherent properties of the rust layers formed under different conditions such as composition and structure. Among all the iron oxide, ?-FeOOH exerted significant influence. The presence of a monolayer of the rust as well as ?-FeOOH accelerated the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process during the initial exposure stage. EIS data implied that ?-FeOOH in the inner layer was gradually consumed and transformed to ?-Fe2O3 in the wet-dry cycle, which was beneficial to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the substrate and reduced the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45040615"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of adsorption and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hydrochloric acid solution by 5-(4-Dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Graphical abstract: The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M HCl solution by 5-(4-Dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine was studied using electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The studied organic compound has high inhibitory efficiency against mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 0.5 M HCl solution. -- Highlights: •The inhibitory effect of DABRh on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was studied in 0.5 M HCl. •The DABRh acts by reducing the rates of both anodic and cathodic reactions. •The inhibitor film is very stable at low anodic and cathodic overpotentials. •Langmuir adsorption isotherm exhibited the best fit to the experimental data. •The adsorption of DABRh is the mixed type of chemical and physical. -- Abstract: The adsorption and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M HCl solution by 5-(4-Dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine (DABRh) were investigated by electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. It was found that DABRh has high inhibitory efficiency against the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in HCl solution. This compound is classified as the mixed type <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor with predominant control of cathodic reaction. The high inhibitory efficiency of DABRh was related with the adsorption of DABRh molecules at the meal/solution interface and a <span class="hlt">protective</span> film formation. The surface inhibitor film was found to be very stable at low anodic and cathodic overpotentials</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39021780"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> of buried pipes: study, simulation and application of solar energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> is intensively used on <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipes in petroleum and gas industries. It is a technique used to prevent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> which transforms the whole pipe into a cathode of a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cell. Two types of cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems are usually used: 1) the galvanic <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems which use galvanic anodes, also called sacrificial anodes being electrochemically more electronegative than the structure to be <span class="hlt">protected</span> and 2) the imposed current systems, which through a current generator will deliver a direct current from the anode to the structure to be <span class="hlt">protected</span>. The aim of this work is to design a cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> system of a pipe by imposed current with auxiliary electric solar energy. (O.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110008435&hterms=corrosion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcorrosion"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">Protection</span> of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Calle, L. M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings for the atmospheric <span class="hlt">protection</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. NASA's KSC Beachside <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most <span class="hlt">corrosive</span>, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> control, have led researchers at NASA's <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in <span class="hlt">protecting</span> launch infrastructure and hardware from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1271::b35da86b939fb6c73d5ed9492675618a"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of heat treatment on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of high speed <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Alves, V. A.; Brett, C. M. A.; Cavaleiro, A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of M2 high speed <span class="hlt">steel</span>, as-received as well as heat-treated under different conditions, has been studied in 0.1 M KCl aqueous solution by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential measurements, Tafel curves and electrochemical impedance. Heat treatment leads to an increase of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of high speed <span class="hlt">steel</span>; the higher the tempering temperature after quenching, the higher the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning ele...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22..316B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Water on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Mild Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in E10 blend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Bhola, Shaily M.; Bhola, Rahul; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The effect of phase separation in E10 blend upon water addition on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of mild carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was investigated using electrochemical and morphological techniques. Increase in water addition resulted in increase in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics of <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to water-ethanol phase. Both uniform and localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> were observed on areas of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface in this phase, with the extent of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> being the greatest near the interface of the two separating phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9c59d6c721df78cbeadf147715898eb8"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of A36 Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Dong Chen; Max Yen; Paul Lin; Steve Groff; Richard Lampo; Michael McInerney; Jeffrey Ryan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0) decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24005286"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous lithium hydroxide under a hydrogen blanket</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 3 and 5 mol/L aqueous solutions of lithium hydroxide at 95 degrees C under a hydrogen atmosphere was investigated in immersion tests lasting ten days. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates were determined by wight loss, and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products were characterized by bulk chemical analysis, by light and electron microscopy, and by powder X-ray diffraction. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> was uniform and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates were moderately high (0.42 mm/y in 3 mol/L and 0.56 mm/y in 5 mol/L). The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products consisted of a mixture of well-formed, octahedral crystals, and poorly crystallized masses and spherules that formed by precipitation from solution. These products formed a scale on the metal surface that continually sloughed off and afforded only minor <span class="hlt">protection</span>. Both phases were identified as lithium-iron oxides, each possessing a disordered, non-stoichiometric structure. The predominant phase was a magnetic spinel LiFe508 and the minor phase was LiFe02. A <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism is outlined. (2 figs., 5 tabs., 20 refs.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27034366"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> properties of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings made by different methods of thermal spraying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> ability of thermally sprayed stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings in aggressive environments is considerably limited as compared to bulk materials of the same composition. The two main reasons for the decrease in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance are the porosity in the coatings and the oxidation of elements, particularly chromium, during spraying process. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance and structure of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings, ANVAL 254 SMO, made by different methods of thermal spraying were evaluated in this work. The coatings were produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), atmospheric plasma spraying using gas shielding around the plasma (APS/S), low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), detonation gun spraying (DGS) and high velocity oxyfuel spraying (HVOF). Electrochemical methods were used for determining the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> ability of coatings in 3.5% NaCl-solution and in sulfur acid solution (pH 3 and 1). The structure and composition of coatings were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysator (SEM/EDS). The porosity of the coatings was determined by water impregnation method, optical microscopy and mercury porosimeter. The results showed that the best coating quality can be achieved by LPPS- and HVOF-coatings. Oxidation and porosity restrict the use of APS-coatings in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments. The oxidation can be avoided by using argon gas shield around the plasma flame during spraying. Due to porosity all studieuring spraying. Due to porosity all studied coatings suffered crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in chloride solution. Despite high Mo-alloying the best coatings reached only the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI 316</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37089067"><span id="translatedtitle">Rhenium Uptake as Analogue 96Tc by <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Static batch experiments were used to examine the sorption of dissolved perrhenate [Re(VII)], as a surrogate for pertechnetate [Tc(VII)], on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products of A-516 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons contacted with synthetic groundwater or dilute water. After 109 days of contact time, the concentration of dissolved Re(VII) in the synthetic groundwater matrix decreased by approximately 26%; the dilute water matrix experienced a 99% decrease in dissolved Re(VII) over the same time period. Bulk x-ray diffraction (XRD) results for the corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons showed that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products consisted primarily of maghemite, lepidocrocite, and goethite. Analyses of the coupons by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) indicated that Re was present with the morphologically complex assemblages of Fe oxide/hydroxide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products for samples spiked with the highest dissolved Re(VII) concentration (1.0 mmol/L) used for these experiments. Analyses of corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons contacted with solutions containing 1.0 mmol/L Re(VII) by synchrotron-based methods confirmed the presence of Re sorbed with the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons. Analyses showed that the Re sorbed on these corroded coupons was in the +7 oxidation state, suggesting that the Re(VII) uptake mechanism did not involve reduction of Re to a lower oxidation state, such as +4. The results of our studies using Re(VII) as an analogue for 99Tc(VII) suggest that 99Tc(VII) would also be sorbed with <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products and that the inventory of 99Tc(VII) released from breached waste packages would be lower than what is now conservatively estimated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16045060"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in sour gas environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' <span class="hlt">steels</span>, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and on certain specialty <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11197502"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of a welded stainless-<span class="hlt">steel</span> orthopedic implant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Reclaru, L; Lerf, R; Eschler, P Y; Meyer, J M</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of combinations of materials used in an orthopedic implant: the spherical part (forged or forged and annealed) constituting the head, the weld (tungsten inert gas (TIG) or electron beam (EB) techniques), and the cylindrical part (annealed) constituting the shaft of a femoral prosthesis - has been investigated. Open-circuit potentials, potentiodynamic curves, Tafel slope, mixed potential theory and susceptibility to intergranular attack are electrochemical and chemical procedures selected for this work. Electrochemical measurements using a microelectrode have been made in the following zones: spherical part, cylindrical part, weld, and weld/sphere, and weld/shaft interfaces. To detect intergranular attack, the Strauss test has been used. At the interfaces, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> currents, measured (Icorr) and predicted (Icouple) are low, in the order of the pico- to nanoampere. The electrochemical behavior of the electron beam (EB) weld is better than that of the tungsten inert gas (TIG). Welds at interfaces can behave either anodically or cathodically. It is better if welds, which are sensitive parts of the femoral prosthesis, behave cathodically. In this way, the risk of starting localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (pitting, crevice or intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>) from a galvanic couple, remains low. From this point of view, the sample with the EB weld offers the best behavior. All the other samples containing a TIG type of weld exhibit a less favorable behavior. The mechanical treatments (forged, and forged and annealed) of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> sphere did not show any difference in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior. No intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> has been observed at the weld/<span class="hlt">steel</span> interface for unsensitized samples. With sensitized samples, however, a TIG sample has exhibited some localized intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> at a distance of 500 microm along the weld/stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (sphere) interface. PMID:11197502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18012854"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary investigations on the <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of PUSPATI's tap water toward different types of <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of tap water toward three types of <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been investigated. It was found that galvanised <span class="hlt">steels</span> and stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> do not experience any significant weight loss after being immersed in tap water for 15 to 30 days. Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, on the other hand, was found to lose 0.34% of its weight after an immersion of 15 days and 0.46% of its weight after 30 days immersion. Water analysis indicates that during the immersion, significant amounts of Fe3+ ions were transferred from the metal surface into the solution. Results of the hardness measurement also suggest that CaCo3 scales which are loosely adhered to the surface of the metal have been formed. However, such layers are of no <span class="hlt">protective</span> value and were removed during the cleaning of the specimen. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e7ba9b760d0d4c8e4ee1d028daf648cb"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of two kinds of cast <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing chromium in hot concentrated alkaline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Li, Wei; LIU Jun-quan; TU Xiao-hui3</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A typical hot concentrated alkaline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environment exists in alumina metallurgical industry, so that <span class="hlt">steel</span> materials with outstanding alkaline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance are strongly demanded for its processing equipment. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of two kinds of martensitic cast <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing chromium in static 303g/L NaOH alkaline solution at 85? was studied through polarization and potential-time curves, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> weight loss and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> morphology analysis. Experime...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40102613"><span id="translatedtitle">Properties, microstructure and resistance to metal <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> from pure runoff of supermartensitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Supermartensitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> (AISM) are characterized by their very low carbon content, providing good tenacity and weldability. They also contain Ni as a stabilizing agent of the austenite and Mo to improve <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. The weldability of these materials is fundamentally important for their applications, mainly in the gas and oil industries. The presence of CO2, H2S, water with a high solids content and condensed water in the production of hydrocarbons together with the large amounts of Cl in these aqueous phases make localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> one of the mechanisms for the degradation of these <span class="hlt">steels</span> while in service. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> gases used in the semiautomatic welding process with heavy or tubular wires (GMAW, FCAW) affect the chemical composition of the deposits, particularly the contents of C, O and N, generating variations in their properties. The mechanical properties of these <span class="hlt">steels</span> are usually optimized after a post-welding heat treatment (PWHT), which may also significantly affect the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the welding deposits. This work studied the influence of the welding procedure (<span class="hlt">protective</span> gas and PWHT) on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance from pitting of the unalloyed AISM metal. Two test pieces of unalloyed metal were welded according to ANSI/AWS A5.22-95 with a GMAW process using a 1.2 mm diameter tubular wire with metal filling that deposits a supermartensitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The effect of the gas <span class="hlt">protection</span> was evaluated, welt of the gas <span class="hlt">protection</span> was evaluated, welding one of the test pieces with Ar- 5%He and the other with Ar-18%CO2. The effect of the PWHT was analyzed, for which samples were extracted from each welded test piece, which were thermally treated at 650oC for 15 minutes, producing as-welded (AW) samples and with PWHT. The chemical composition for both welding conditions was determined. Microstructural characterization was carried out for the four conditions , using optic and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and the Vickers microhardness was determined. Behavior to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> from pitting was analyzed in aqueous solutions deaerated for different concentrations of NaCl (0.1; 1 and 2.7 M). Based on the electrodynamic polarization curves obtained the pitting potential for each case was determined, and a statistical analysis was prepared with the results, The <span class="hlt">protective</span> gas used and the PWHT carried out did not greatly influence the behavior of the deposits to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> from pitting. With reference to the influence of the surroundings, heavy dependence occurred with the concentration of CI-, and a logarithmic variation of the pitting potential with the concentration of chlorides was found-+</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18055494"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in clay and sea sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A serie of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test have been conducted putting in contact mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples with clay and two types of sea sediments. The test have been performed at 30, 50 and 900C up to a maximum duration time of 220 days. As the tests were performed in a closed system, most of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> arrived in anoxic conditions. After an initial stabilization period <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> weight losses increase linearly with time. The long term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate in presence of carbonaceous sediments is significantly higher than that obtained in clay or clay rich sediments. An analysis of the ion diffused in the porous media has shown that all the iron which is corroded in the anoxic condition is released in a soluble form. 11 refs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20165389-k6jwYs/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen Diffusion and H{sub 2}S <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Haugstveit, Bjarte Erlend</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The electrochemical permeation technique introduced by Devanathan and Stachurski has been used to measure the effective diffusivity of hydrogen in <span class="hlt">steel</span> in a H{sub 2}S-saturated aqueous environment. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) method has been used to measure the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The effective diffusion coefficient of hydrogen has been found to be in the range of 1*10-12 to 7*10-11, depending on the environmental conditions. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> film was identified as mackinawite, and it affected the permeation process of hydrogen. The results supported the assumption that the diffusion process can be described by a three layer model and indicated that the model could be reduced to a two layer model in the cases of iron and <span class="hlt">steel</span>. A model aimed to describe the reaction pathway of hydrogen through the surface film and into the <span class="hlt">steel</span> is proposed. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> film influenced the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, and it was least <span class="hlt">protective</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> at pH 6.5. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates were in the range of 0.2-1 mm/year. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was increased significantly at pH 3.5, but the effect of the surface film was stronger and overshadowed the pH effect at the higher pH values. Increased flow velocity also lead to increased <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, but this effect was less significant compared to the effect of pH and the surface film. DEG decreased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The uncertainty in the diffusion measurements was mainly due to the assumption of a constant sub-surface concentration of atomic hydrogen, which was not fulfilled. A method less dependent on constant surface conditions would probably yield better estimates of the effective diffusivity. The uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> measurements was mainly due to the uncertainty in the value of the Stern-Geary constant. The qualitative assumptions based on the results in this thesis are assumed to be valid. A test section designed for this thesis was tested and was found successful in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate measurements, but proved to be inadequate for hydrogen diffusion measurements. Other solutions of the diffusion equation and/or other boundary conditions could be considered as an alternative. This could give better estimates of the effective diffusivity and reveal more of the effects of the surface film on the diffusion of hydrogen. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::960e786e072e74f00bbcae18f14bfa07"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behaviour of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> 304 Electroplated with Zinc Followed by Blue Passivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Sherine, H. B.; Rajakumari, C. C.; Rajendran, S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of three stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> materials, namely, stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS), stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> electroplated with zinc (SS-Zn) and stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> electroplated with zinc followed by blue passivation (BP), has been evaluated in an aqueous solution containing 3.5% NaCl. A potentiodynamic polarization study and AC impedance spectra have been used to investigate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of these metals. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of these materials in 3.5% NaCl increased in the followin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.archivesmse.org/vol28_1/2814.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> welds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>J. ?abanowski</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of welding on microstructure, mechanical properties, and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> butt welded joints.Design/methodology/approach: Duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L <span class="hlt">steels</span> were used. Butt joints of plates 15 mm in thickness were performed with the use of submerged arc welding (SAW method. The heat input was in the range of 1.15 – 3.2 kJ/mm. Various plates’ edge preparations were applied. Microstructure examinations were carried out. Mechanical properties were evaluated in tensile tests, bending tests and Charpy-V toughness tests. Susceptibility to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking was determined with the use of slow strain rate tests (SSRT performed in inert (glycerin and aggressive (boiling 35% MgCl2 solution environments.Findings: All tested joints showed acceptable mechanical properties. Metallographic examinations did not indicate the excessive ferrite contents in heat affected zones (HAZ of the welds. It was shown that area of the lowest resistance to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking is heat affected zone at duplex <span class="hlt">steel</span> side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon is connected with undesirable structure of that zone consisted of greater amounts of coarse ferrite grains and acicular austenite precipitates. High heat inputs do not deteriorate mechanical properties as well as stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of welds.Practical implications: All tested joints showed acceptable mechanical properties. Metallographic examinations did not indicate the excessive ferrite contents in heat affected zones (HAZ of the welds. It was shown that area of the lowest resistance to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking is heat affected zone at duplex <span class="hlt">steel</span> side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon is connected with undesirable structure of that zone consisted of greater amounts of coarse ferrite grains and acicular austenite precipitates. High heat inputs do not deteriorate mechanical properties as well as stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of welds.Originality/value: Mechanical properties and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> welded joints was determined. The zone of the weaker resistance to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking was pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-22/pdf/2010-6258.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 13490 - Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Notice of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-22</p> <p>...<span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Notice of Final Results of the Fifteenth Administrative...carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-21/pdf/2011-6566.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 15291 - Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-21</p> <p>...<span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of Final Results of the Sixteenth Administrative...carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21489734"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Fuente, D. de la; Diaz, I.; Simancas, J.; Chico, B. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, M., E-mail: morcillo@cenim.csic.e [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>Research highlights: {yields} Atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate stabilises after the first 4-6 years of exposure. {yields} Great compaction of the rust layers in rural and urban atmospheres. {yields} <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> (in rural and urban) deviates from common behaviour of bilogarithmic law. {yields} Typical structures of lepidocrocite, goethite and akaganeite are identified. {yields} Formation of hematite (industrial atmosphere) and ferrihydrite (marine atmosphere). - Abstract: A great deal of information is available on the atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the short, mid and even long term, but studies of the structure and morphology of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layers are less abundant and generally deal with those formed in just a few years. The present study assesses the structure and morphology of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layers formed on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> after 13 years of exposure in five Spanish atmospheres of different types: rural, urban, industrial and marine (mild and severe). The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layers have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Long-term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is seen to be more severe in the industrial and marine atmospheres, and less so in the rural and urban atmospheres. In all cases the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is seen to decrease with exposure time, stabilising after the first 4-6 years of exposure. The most relevant aspects to be noted are (a) the great compaction of the rust layers formed in the rural and urban atmospheres, (b) the formation of hematite and ferrihydrite phases (not commonly found) in the industrial and marine atmospheres, respectively and (c) identification of the typical morphological structures of lepidocrocite (sandy crystals and flowery plates), goethite (cotton balls structures) and akaganeite (cotton balls structures and cigar-shaped crystals).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42080921"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research highlights: ? Atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate stabilises after the first 4-6 years of exposure. ? Great compaction of the rust layers in rural and urban atmospheres. ? <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> (in rural and urban) deviates from common behaviour of bilogarithmic law. ? Typical structures of lepidocrocite, goethite and akaganeite are identified. ? Formation of hematite (industrial atmosphere) and ferrihydrite (marine atmosphere). - Abstract: A great deal of information is available on the atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the short, mid and even long term, but studies of the structure and morphology of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layers are less abundant and generally deal with those formed in just a few years. The present study assesses the structure and morphology of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layers formed on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> after 13 years of exposure in five Spanish atmospheres of different types: rural, urban, industrial and marine (mild and severe). The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layers have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Long-term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is seen to be more severe in the industrial and marine atmospheres, and less so in the rural and urban atmospheres. In all cases the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is seen to decrease with exposure time, stabilising after the first 4-6 years of exposure. The most relevant aspects to be noted are (a) the great compaction of the rust layers formed in the rural and urban atmospheres, (b) the ford urban atmospheres, (b) the formation of hematite and ferrihydrite phases (not commonly found) in the industrial and marine atmospheres, respectively and (c) identification of the typical morphological structures of lepidocrocite (sandy crystals and flowery plates), goethite (cotton balls structures) and akaganeite (cotton balls structures and cigar-shaped crystals).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......238H"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> and failure through model polymers in thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hanna, Joshua Smith</p> <p></p> <p>When developing a model polymeric system to facilitate in the detection of molecular and microscopic events that preface macroscopic <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> failure; a better understanding of how polymers can indicate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was accomplished. Initially, the thought that molecular chain scission as a necessity for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to occur had to be tested. Through the utilization of high molecular weight thermoplastic (HMWTP) model polymers, it was found that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> did not correlate to the quantity of weak bonds within an epoxy-amine polymer matrix. Therefore more sensitive methods of detecting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> had to be developed since changes within the polymer matrix did not provide thorough data for pre-failure events. Incorporating small molecules that indicate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> events into organic polymer coatings, however, did provide sufficient data into when <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrates were about to fail. It was determined that these molecules, whether colorimetric or fluorescent, were able to capture events at the metal-polymer interface that would directly lead to rust formation. To further the understanding of predicting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, fluorescent molecules were attached to polymer covalently and were able to quantify <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> events at the highest confidence that no small molecules were moving and providing false results. The development of this <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> characterization technique should provide plentiful insight into how polymers and metals fail in a real-time nondestructive manner that is realistic to real-world testing protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517028"><span id="translatedtitle">A shape-recovery polymer coating for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of metallic surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Lutz, Alexander; van den Berg, Otto; Van Damme, Jonas; Verheyen, Karen; Bauters, Erwin; De Graeve, Iris; Du Prez, Filip E; Terryn, Herman</p> <p>2015-01-14</p> <p>Self-healing polymer coatings are a type of smart material aimed for advanced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of metals. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of two new UV-cure self-healing coatings based on acrylated polycaprolactone polyurethanes. On a macroscopic scale, the cured films all show outstanding mechanical properties, combining relatively high Young's modulus of up to 270 MPa with a strain at break above 350%. After thermal activation the strained films recover up to 97% of their original length. Optical and electron microscopy reveals the self-healing properties of these coatings on hot dip galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> with scratches and microindentations. The temperature-induced closing of such defects restores the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> and barrier properties of the coating as shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique. Therefore, such coatings are a complementary option for encapsulation-based autonomous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems. PMID:25517028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..318...15T"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> properties of electrochemically deposited nano-sized Zn-Ni alloy coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Tozar, A.; Karahan, ?. H.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Zn-Ni alloy coatings were fabricated galvanostatically by applying varied current densities from 10 to 30 mA cm-2. Surface morphology of the coatings was examined with SEM. Crystal structure of the coatings was studied with X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Compositions of the coatings were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> properties studied using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements (Tafel), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Deposited alloy coatings were compact and nano-sized. Crystallite sizes of the coatings were varying from 26 nm to 36 nm. Nickel content of the samples were increased by increasing current densities and varied from 6.7 to 18.9 wt.%. Best <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> performance was seen on the sample obtained at 30 mA cm-2. Our results are considerably encouraging for <span class="hlt">protection</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by obtained Zn-Ni alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33012956"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> studies of a chromium <span class="hlt">steel</span> in imitated seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A series of in-door experiments was performed to get some insight into the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of a commercial alloy Fe-12% Cr (3CR12) exposed to imitated seawater. Applying different analytical methods, the main <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process was found to be the formation of flakes on the surface which, peel off after they have reached a certain size. Some Cr is dissolved in the solution, its relative concentration with respect to Fe is higher than in the bulk material. The flakes consist mainly of mixed oxihydroxides of the type FeOOH containing some Cr and Mg. The oxidic layer on the interface is very thin, behaves essentially stationary with a slight growth of about 0.05 nm/day. It consists of Cr oxide with some inclusions of Fe and Mg and is not of a chromite type. Immediately below this oxidic layer, the metallic substrate exhibits a thin layer depleted in Cr and behaving like ?-Fe (bcc). As compared with stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, potentiostatic current vs. time records at anodic potentials below the pitting potential indicate a very different stability of the surface films for 3CR12. The kinetics of the passive layer formation on 3CR12 was found to follow a parabolic law initially and to change later (after 10...100 seconds in deaerated solution and even earlier in aerated solution) to a linear law. After some time, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and/or cracks due to internal stresses play the dominant role. Cr does not form a <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxidic layer. The surface morphology of samples exposed at surface morphology of samples exposed at -200 mV for 20 and 80 minutes has been studied by scanning electron microscopy and scanning Auger microprobe. The results reflect the competing formation of oxidic layers and pitting, the participation of Cr in the dissolution process. It is also suggested that Mg, which is a component of the solution was incorporated into the rust and some Mg was also found on the metallic surface. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37067586"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms in glass coating on the <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The aim of this research was evaluation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms in vitreous coatings on <span class="hlt">steel</span>. In general, glasses are among of the most durable materials against chemical gents, water and acids. Glass and glass coatings have found extensive applications in chemical industries, mostly as containers for <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> fluids, liner for chemical reactors as well as electrical insulators and stabilizing of radioactive waste disposals. For better understanding of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms of glass coating, two enamels, Cobalt Enamel and Free Cobalt Enamel were examined. Chemical durability and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms of the samples were investigated using weight loss I technique and Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectance . Microstructure of the bubbles and their influence on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the coatings were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy . The results showed that chemical resistance of Free Cobalt Enamel was higher than Cobalt Enamel . The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism of Cobalt Enamel was mainly based on glass network dissolution in acid while in Free Cobalt Enamel, ion exchanging between the alkaline ions from glass and hydronium ions was responsible for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25008662"><span id="translatedtitle">The anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in concrete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report describes the work of a two year programme investigating the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> embedded in a range of candidate repository cements and concretes at laboratory ambient temperatures. The factors investigated in the study were the rate of the anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction, the effect of hydrogen overpressure on the reaction rate and the form of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product. Both electrochemical and sample weight loss <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate measurements were used. The cements and concretes used were prepared both with and without small additions of chloride (2% by weight of mix water). The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is low, <1 ?m/year, the effect of hydrogen overpressure is not significant over the range of pressures investigated, 1-100 atmospheres, and that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product is dependent on the cement used to cast the samples. Magnetite was identified in the case of blast furnace slag replacement cements but for pulverised fuel ash and ordinary Portland cements no <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product was evident either from X-ray diffraction or laser Raman measurements. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22028094"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> in G.S. [Girldler sulphide] plants: Pt. 7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In order to <span class="hlt">protect</span> carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> towers and piping of a GS experimental heavy water plant against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide, a method, elsewhere published, was developed. Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide forms iron sulphide scales. In oxygen free solutions, evolution of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> follows the sequence mackinawite ? cubic ferrous sulphide ? troilite ? pyrrotite ? pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite and pyrite are the most <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa for a period of 14 days). During a plant shutdown procedures, the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protected</span> with those scales is exposed to water and highly humid air; under such conditions oxidation is unavoidable. Later, treatment in plant conditions does not regenerate scales because the composition of regenerated scales involves more soluble iron sulphides such as mackinawite and troilite. Therefore, it is not recommendable to expose the <span class="hlt">protective</span> scales to atmospherical conditions. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......198A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Evaluation and Durability Estimation of Aluminized <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Drainage Pipes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Akhoondan, Mersedeh</p> <p></p> <p>Aluminized <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipes are expected to have a long service life, e.g. 75 years. Spiral ribbed aluminized pipes (SRAP) have been widely specified and used by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for drainage of runoff water. Confidence in the long term durability of SRAP has been challenged by recent unexpected early <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> failures in various Florida locations. SRAP premature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> incidents have occurred in two modalities. Mode A has taken place in near-neutral soil environments and has often been associated with either gross manufacturing defects (i.e. helical cuts) or <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> concentration at or near the ribs. Mode B took place in pipes in contact with limestone backfill and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage was in the form of perforations, not preferentially located at the ribs, and not necessarily associated with other deficiencies. These failures motivated this research. The objectives of this work are to establish to what extent the Mode A <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> incidents can be ascribed to manufacturing defects, that can be rectified by appropriate quality control, as opposed to an intrinsic vulnerability to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of regularly produced SRAP due to ordinary forming strains and to determine the mechanism responsible for Mode B <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> including the role that limestone backfill played in that deterioration. To achieve those objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted to replicate the conditions for Mode A and Mode B. Overall, the findings of this and previous work suggest that much of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage observed in the Mode A incidents were promoted more by manufacturing deficiencies and less by any possible inherent susceptibility of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> at the ribs of SRAP that was produced following appropriate quality control. Experiments to explore the causes of Mode B <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> showed that high pH values, sufficient to cause dissolution of the passive film on aluminum, can develop under exposure of limestone to flowing natural water. The findings substantiate, for the first time, an important vulnerability of aluminized <span class="hlt">steel</span> in limestone soils and provide an explanation for the rapid onset deterioration observed at the field under Mode B. The findings also provide strong evidence in support of service guidelines to disallow the use of limestone bedding for aluminized <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipe, including SRAP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800007882&hterms=hardening&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dhardening"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking evaluation of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The resistance of the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> PH13-8Mo, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking was investigated. Round tensile and c-ring type specimens taken from several heats of the three alloys were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, to salt spray, and to a seacoast environment. The results indicate that 15-5PH is highly resistant to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking in conditions H1000 and H1050 and is moderately resistant in condition H900. The stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of PH13-8Mo and 17-4PH stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in conditions H1000 and H1050 was sensitive to mill heats and ranged from low to high among the several heats included in the tests. Based on a comparison with data from seacoast environmental tests, it is apparent that alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water is not a suitable medium for accelerated stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> testing of these pH stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......243B"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in caustic solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Ananya</p> <p></p> <p>Duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these <span class="hlt">steels</span> in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC susceptibility. Annealed and water quenched specimens were found to be immune to SCC in caustic environment. Aging treatment at 800°C gave rise to sigma and chi precipitates in the DSS. However, these sigma and chi precipitates, known to initiate cracking in DSS in chloride environment did not cause any cracking of DSS in caustic solutions. Aging of DSS at 475°C had resulted in '475°C embrittlement' and caused cracks to initiate in the ferrite phase. This was in contrast to the cracks initiating in the austenite phase in the as-received DSS. Alloy composition and microstructure of DSS as well as solution composition (dissolved ionic species) was also found to affect the electrochemical behavior and passivation of DSS which in turn plays a major role in stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> crack initiation and propagation. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates and SCC susceptibility of DSS was found to increase with addition of sulfide to caustic solutions. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> films on DSS, characterized using XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated that the metal sulfide compounds were formed along with oxides at the metal surface in the presence of sulfide containing caustic environments. These metal sulfide containing passive films are unstable and hence breaks down under mechanical straining, leading to SCC initiations. The overall results from this study helped in understanding the mechanism of SCC in caustic solutions. Favorable slip systems in the austenite phase of DSS favors slip-induced local film damage thereby initiating a stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> crack. Repeated film repassivation and breaking, followed by crack tip dissolution results in crack propagation in the austenite phase of DSS alloys. Result from this study will have a significant impact in terms of identifying the alloy compositions, fabrication processes, microstructures, and environmental conditions that may be avoided to mitigate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of DSS in caustic solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30053944"><span id="translatedtitle">Moessbauer spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> due to microbiologically influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> products of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to four different cultures of sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) grown in a synthetic medium have been studied by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS). Cultures of SRB studied are two hydrogenase positive strains, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (DD) and Desulfovibrio vulgaris (DV) and two hydrogenase negative strains Desulfotomaculum orientis (DO) and Desulfotomaculum nigrificans (DN). The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products generated on the coupons as well as in the broth were studied. In all the cases, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products removed from coupons showed the presence of green rust 2 (GR2), ferrous sulfides, ?-FeOOH and superparamagnetic (SPM) ?-FeOOH in different proportions. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products from the broth showed a symmetrical central doublet, which indicates the presence of ?-FeOOH and SPM ?-FeOOH along with ferrous sulfides. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products from coupons suspended in sewage water also showed the presence of GR 2 and ferrous sulfides together with oxyhydroxides. FTIR spectrum supports the presence of these phases in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products. The formation of GR 2 on coupons seems to be the first step for the SRB induced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate has been found in the order of DO > DN > DV > DD. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=69984"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical Properties and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Weldments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Mohamed Mahdy</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available This research involves studying the mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of ?low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>? (0.077wt% C before and after welding using Arc, MIG and TIG welding. The mechanical properties include testing of microhardness, tensile strength, the results indicate that microhardness of TIG, MIG welding is more than arc welding, while tensile strength in arc welding more than TIG and MIG.The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low carbon weldments was performed by potentiostat at scan rate 3mV.sec-1 in 3.5% NaCl to show the polarization resistance and calculate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate from data of linear polarization by ?Tafel extrapolation method?. The results indicate that the TIG welding increase the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density and anodic Tafel slop, while decrease the polarization resistance compared with unwelded low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Cyclic polarization were measured to show resistance of specimens to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and to calculate the forward and reveres potentials. The results show shifting the forward, reverse and pitting potentials toward active direction for weldments samples compared with unwelded sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042006000400002-prt"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> in synthetic wastewater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>R., Sandoval-Jabalera; E., Arias-del Campo; J.G., Chacón-Nava; J.M., Malo-Tamayo; A., Martínez-Villafañe.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> exposed to synthetic wastewater has been studied using linear polarization resistance (LPR), cyclic potentiodynamic curves (CPC), electrochemical noise (EN), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The conditions were: biochemical o [...] xygen demand (BOD) of 776 ppm, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1293 ppm, pH = 8 and the cell temperature was 24 °C. From the CPC and EN results, no localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was found for the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. However, the reverse was true for the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The EIS results showed that different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism occurred for the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> compared with the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This shows that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism strongly depends on the type of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Overall, the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span> exhibited the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, followed by the 410 alloy. The highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance was achieved by the 800 alloy. In addition, SEM analyses were carried out to explain the experimental findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400002"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> in synthetic wastewater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>R. Sandoval-Jabalera</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> exposed to synthetic wastewater has been studied using linear polarization resistance (LPR, cyclic potentiodynamic curves (CPC, electrochemical noise (EN, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS tests. The conditions were: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD of 776 ppm, a chemical oxygen demand (COD of 1293 ppm, pH = 8 and the cell temperature was 24 °C. From the CPC and EN results, no localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was found for the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. However, the reverse was true for the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The EIS results showed that different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism occurred for the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> compared with the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This shows that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism strongly depends on the type of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Overall, the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span> exhibited the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, followed by the 410 alloy. The highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance was achieved by the 800 alloy. In addition, SEM analyses were carried out to explain the experimental findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.tj-es.com/index.php/tjes/article/view/72"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Heat Treatments on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Resistance of Medium -Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> using Sulfuric Spring Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ikhlas Basheer</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is one of the important problems that may be occur to the parts of machinery and equipment after manufactured and when used as a result of exposure to <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media. Plain-carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is considered as one of the most common minerals used in industrial applications. Some of heat treatments can have direct effect on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> by building up galvanic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cells between its microscopic phases. Therefore, to adopt one of kinds of the plain-carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the most commonly used in industry to be study subject, that is medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and took samples of this <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been treated thermally in three methods which the normalising, annealing, and hardening .The <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media used in the research is Sulfuric Spring, it contains many chemical compounds to show its influence on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The weight loss method is used to determine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate and to compare between the results obtained, show that the greatest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the annealed <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the hardened <span class="hlt">steel</span> is the lowest while the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>  resistance of the normalised <span class="hlt">steel</span> is in-between them.         Calcium carbonate was formed on the metal surface which acts as an isolating layer which decrease <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate with time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=www.electrochemsci.org/papers/1020080.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and Inhibition of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in neutral medium by 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>S. A. M. Refaey, F. Taha and A. M. Abd El-Malak</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (316L SS in NaCl solution by using potentiondynamic, EDX and scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques was determined. The addition effect of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI on the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 316L SS in NaCl solutions were investigated at different temperatures (25, 40, 50 and 60 °C. The results indicate that the increase of MBI concentration leads to shift the pitting potential to more positive potential, i.e. pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition behavior of MBI argued to the adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, which can impede the aggressive anions to reach the base 316L SS surface. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increases with increasing MBI concentration but decreased with the increasing of the temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3093..152K"><span id="translatedtitle">Peculiarities of <span class="hlt">steel</span> and alloy electrochemical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior after laser processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Kuzmenko, Tat'yana G.; Kosyrev, Feliks K.; Rodin, Anatoly V.; Sayapin, V. P.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Different types of laser processing can significantly increase the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of constructive materials, secure higher levels of metal properties in comparison with standard <span class="hlt">protection</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and can be successfully used for industrial application. The research carried out in TRINITI during the last 10 years allowed us to create a data base about <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior in different chemical media of various metals, alloys and <span class="hlt">steels</span> after welding, melting, surface alloying, etc. on technological continuous-wave carbon-dioxide-laser with average power up to 5 kilowatt. The investigated materials were subdivided into two groups: (1) without changes of phases composition after laser processing (pure metals, stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>); and (2) exposed to structural and phase changes under laser-matter interaction (carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> with different carbon content). It has allowed us to investigate the peculiarities of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process mechanism depending on matter surface structure and phase composition both on laser irradiation regimes. Our research was based on the high sensitive electrochemical analysis combined with other <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and physical methods. The essential principles of electrochemical analysis are next. There are two main processes on metal under the interaction with electrolyte solution: anodic reaction -- which means the metal oxidation or transition of metal kations into solution; cathodic reaction -- the reoxidation of the ions or molecular of the solution. They are characterizing by the values of current densities and the rates of these reactions are dependent upon the potential arising on the metal-solution frontier. The electrochemical reactions kinetic investigations gives a unique possibility for the research of metal structure and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior even in the case of small thickness of laser processed layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::cbcdf01d5974ae6225c4e4ea7c0523bd"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyrazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Herrag, L.; Chetouani, A.; Elkadiri, S.; Hammouti, B.; Aouniti, A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The effect of 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl)-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (P1) and 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl)-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (P2) was evaluated as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in molar hydrochloric using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarisation. The results obtained reveal that those compounds reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibiting action increases with the concentration of pyrazole compo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::c805e0a72cb1fb2133a0d7139018c09e"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of plastically deformed high-Mn austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Grajcar, A.; Krukiewicz, W.; Ko?odziej, S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The aim of the work was the comparison of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution of two high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> of the 0.05C-25Mn-Al-Si-Nb-Ti type in a plastically deformed state.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were carried out on specimens obtained from a thermo-mechanically rolled sheet and then plastically deformed through bending and immersed in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> solutions (1N H2SO4) for 100 hours. The mass decrement was calculated by the gravimetr...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35089842"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical surface treatments for improving localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mechanical surface treatments such as shot-peening or laser shock-peening generate metallurgical and mechanical modifications of surface layers, which may modify the localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of some materials. It was shown that a 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> exhibits after mechanical treatment a better pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in neutral chloride solutions, without occurrence of any chemical modification of the surface. Compressive residual stresses and surface work-hardening generated by surface treatments seem to be responsible for this mechano-electrochemical effect. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1050993/"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in thiocyanate-containing solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen</p> <p>2012-09-19</p> <p>It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the <span class="hlt">steel</span> were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide (visible as a black <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and <span class="hlt">steels</span> were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and that selecting <span class="hlt">steels</span> with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::65af33f627f4287e543a8b6a2216d836"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the Inhibitive Effect of Pyrazolo [3, 4-b] Pyridine on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in 1 M HCl Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>El Mhammedi, Moulay Abderrahim; Chtaini, Abdelilah</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study to investigate the effect of pyrazolo [3-4-b] pyridine on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1.0M hydrochloric acid (HCl) by using the following methods: the weight loss method, the potentiodynamic polarization methods, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.It was found that the adsorption of inhibitor could prevent <span class="hlt">steel</span> from weight loss and the adsorption accorded with the Langmuir adsorption, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> could be explained by the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP..tmp..175A"><span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Zinc Acetylacetonate and Benzothiazole in Epoxy Coating on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Amoozadeh, S. M.; Mahdavian, M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition effect of zinc acetylacetonate (ZAA) and benzothiazole (BTH) mixture was evaluated for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 3.5% NaCl solution. To this end, ZAA:BTH mixtures ranged from 6:1 to 1:6 mol ratios were examined by weight loss and open circuit potential to obtain optimal mole ratio. The optimal mixture of ZAA:BTH at 1:5 mol ratio showed a significant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition efficiency proved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization studies. The addition of the optimal mixture of ZAA:BTH to epoxy coating showed a considerable increase of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> evaluated by salt spray exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35026032"><span id="translatedtitle">On the inhibition effect of volatile nitroge-containing bases on the hydrogen sulfide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One investigated into possibility to use various nitrous bases both separately and in composition with additions capable to improve their efficiency within hydrocarbon-water-steam and gas phase system as a volatile inhibitors of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (VIC). It is shown that high basicity of volatile organic compounds, amino alcohols, for example, does not provide high <span class="hlt">protective</span> features against hydrogen sulfide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in steam and gas phase. The water soluble volatile Schiff's bases may serve as efficient inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> both in aqueous and in steam and gas phase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20671829-8C3FUp/"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue resistance of <span class="hlt">steel</span> grades for automotive suspension springs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Mougin, J. [Ascometal CREAS, BP70045, F-57301 Hagondange Cedex (France); Mostacchi, A. [Ascometal Developpement, BP17, F-38570 Le Cheylas (France); Hersart, Y. [Allevard Rejna Autosuspensions CRDT, 201 Rue de Sin-le-Noble, BP629, F-59506 Douai Cedex (France)</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>In order to reduce the total weight of vehicles for ecological and economical reasons, the car makers use down-sizing for several components of the cars. Concerning helical suspension springs, the size of the bar diameter and the number of spring coils are decreased, leading to an increase of the stress level applied on the spring. In this respect, <span class="hlt">steels</span> with high mechanical properties are required, to achieve a good fatigue resistance of the springs. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance is also important for this application. Indeed, during service, the <span class="hlt">protective</span> coating applied on the springs can be scratched by gravels, and bare underlying metal can be put in contact with the atmosphere, including humidity, drops of rain but also de-icing salts. Generally speaking, an increase of mechanical properties decreases the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue resistance of the <span class="hlt">steels</span>. In this respect, a compromise needs to be found, that is why the study of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue resistance is very important. In order to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue resistance of spring <span class="hlt">steels</span>, an original device and test procedure have been set up. Torsional fatigue on specimens is used to simulate the stress applied on each spring coil. The stress levels are chosen to be representative of the actual inservice loads. The specimens are shot-peened and coated in a same way as the actual springs. Scratching of the painting is performed, giving rise to small areas of bare metal. Three types of tests are performed: fatigue in air (taken as the reference level), fatigue on specimens which have been corroded previously (test similar to the spring-makers practice) and coupled <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue. The mechanisms involved in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue have been studied. For all the specimens, crack initiated on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> pits. For the specimens corroded prior fatigue testing, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> pits can be quite severe. In this case, these pits act as a surface defect which increases locally the stress concentration and accelerates the crack initiation. A correlation has been obtained between the pits total area and the life duration of the specimens. For coupled <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue tests, the pits are less severe, but it seems that the propagation stage is important. It might be assisted by hydrogen produced by the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction and diffusing into the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The results obtained show that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is very damaging for the <span class="hlt">steel</span>, whatever it is done before or during the fatigue testing. The ratio of life duration between fatigue in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> medium and fatigue in air allow to estimate the relative contribution of mechanics and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in endurance. These ratio obtained with this methodology are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained by spring-makers by testing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue resistance of actual springs. The device set up here on specimens can represent in a satisfying manner the results obtained on springs. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?DOI=10.4236/jsemat.2012.23022"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on a Novel Composite Eco-Friendly <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and Scale Inhibitor for <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Surface in Simulated Cooling Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Wen Qin</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The use of organophosphorus inhibitor is diminishing because of its toxic effects on aquatic and other life. In this study, a composite eco-friendly phosphate-free <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and scale inhibitor HS has been developed using hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride (HPMA, sodium gluconate, Zn<sup>2+</sup> synergist and sulfamic acid. And the formula ratio of each component is 9:5:4:2. The performance of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and scale inhibitor was evaluated by weight loss experiment and the static scale inhibition test, respectively. The results indicated that HS had positive <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and scale inhibition effect at a dosage of 40 mg.L<sup>–1</sup> or higher. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that HS inhibits the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> based on controlling the anodic reaction. And the surface morphology of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was studied by scan-ning electronic microscope (SEM. The inhibition effects were due to the formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44009613"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbially influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (I) <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The microbially influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens) was investigated using surface analysis (atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA)) and electrochemical techniques (the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves ). AFM images corroborated the results from the EIS models which show biofilm attachment and subsequent detachment over time. The SEM images revealed the occurrence of micro-pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> underneath the biofilms on the metal surface after the biofilm removal. The presence of carbon, oxygen, phosphor and sulfur obtained from EDXA proved the formation of biofilm. The electrochemical results showed that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of SS was accelerated in the presence of V. natriegens based on the decrease in the resistance of the charge transfer resistance (Rct) obtained from EIS and the increase in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current densities obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/7/8/5746"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of A36 Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Dong Chen</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0 decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Meanwhile, the sensor’s normalized capacitance (C/C0 increased continuously from 1.0 to 1.46. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the iron rust on A36 had crystals of lepidocrocite and magnetite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15066599"><span id="translatedtitle">Specification for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel <span class="hlt">steel</span> covered welding electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This specification prescribes requirements for covered <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes. These electrodes normally are used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy <span class="hlt">steels</span> designated as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> or heat-resisting chromium-nickel <span class="hlt">steels</span> in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44107199"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> control of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in phosphoric acid by purpald – Weight loss, electrochemical and XPS studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? AHMT is good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 2 M H3PO4. ? Tafel polarization study indicates that AHMT is mixed-type of inhibitor. ? Weight loss, polarization and EIS methods are in reasonable agreement. ? AHMT adsorption is well described by Langmuir isotherm. ? XPS analysis was used to establish the nature of AHMT adsorption on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. - Abstract: The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition properties of purpald (4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AHMT)) on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in phosphoric acid (2 M H3PO4) solution has been examined and characterized by weight loss, Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The experimental results reveal that the compound has a good inhibiting effect on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 2 M H3PO4 solution. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but the temperature has hardly effect on the inhibition efficiency of AHMT. The adsorption of AHMT is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic data and XPS analysis clearly show that the adsorption mechanism of AHMT on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface in 2 M H3PO4 solution is mainly electrostatic-adsorption. Potentiodynamic polarization studies have shown that AHMT acts as a mixed-type of inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS studies were analyzed to model inhibitionere analyzed to model inhibition process through appropriate equivalent circuit model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.shd.org.yu/HtDocs/SHD/Vol71/No5/JSCS_V71_No5-10.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> potential of 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulfuric acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>BORE JEGDIC</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The potentiodynamic study of the electrochemical behavior of austenitic 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in deaerated aqueous sulfuric acid of pH 1 revealed that the <span class="hlt">steel</span> achieved a stable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential of ca. – 0.350 V (SCE independent of whether the electrode had previously been cathodically “activated” or anodically passivated. It was also shown that the experimentally observed anodic peak was not the usually obtained anodic passivation peak, as is the case with a number of metal, but an artifact due to the anodic oxidation of hydrogen absorbed during the previously employed cathodic polarization and hydrogen evolution, intended to activate the initially passive surface, or even hydrogen absorbed on the open circuit potential. It was shown that this potential establishes and electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential of the Wagner–Traud type due to the evolution of cathodic hydrogen on a passivated <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface and anodic metal dissolution through the passive layer. It was impossible to activate 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulfuric acid of pH 1 by cathodic polarization, and the usually observed anodic peak obtained under these conditions should not be considered as an active metal dissolution process and a passivation anodic peak, but rather as an artifact due to the electrochemical oxidation of the in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> absorbed hydrogen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21430035"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipes in soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sjoegren, L.; Camitz, G. [Swerea KIMAB AB, Box 55970, SE-102 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Peultier, J.; Jacques, S.; Baudu, V.; Barrau, F.; Chareyre, B. [Industeel and ArcelorMittal R and D, 56 rue Clemenceau, BP19, FR-71201 le Creusot, Cedex (France); Bergquist, A. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, P.O. Box 74, SE-774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Pourbaix, A.; Carpentiers, P. [Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study, Avenue des Petits-Champs 4A, BE 1410 Waterloo (Belgium)</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>To be able to give safe recommendations concerning the choice of suitable stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> grades for pipelines to be buried in various soil environments, a large research programme, including field exposures of test specimens buried in soil in Sweden and in France, has been performed. Resistance against external <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of austenitic, super austenitic, lean duplex, duplex and super duplex <span class="hlt">steel</span> grades in soil has been investigated by laboratory tests and field exposures. The grades included have been screened according to their critical pitting-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> temperature and according to their time-to-re-passivation after the passive layer has been destroyed locally by scratching. The field exposures programme, being the core of the investigation, uses large specimens: 2 m pipes and plates, of different grades. The exposure has been performed to reveal effects of aeration cells, deposits or confined areas, welds and burial depth. Additionally, investigations of the tendency of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> to corrode under the influence of alternating current (AC) have been performed, both in the laboratory and in the field. Recommendations for use of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> under different soil conditions are given based on experimental results and on operating experiences of existing stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipelines in soil. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1033::576e3445885a53524575b001c99d1296"><span id="translatedtitle">High strength stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> 14301 for prestressed concrete structures <span class="hlt">protection</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Alonso Alonso, Maria Cruz; Sanchez Moreno, Mercedes; Mazario, E.; Recio, F. J.; Mahmoud, H.; Hingorani, R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>High Strength Stainless <span class="hlt">Steels</span> (HSSS) are being developed with the aim to improve <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of prestressed concrete structures in aggressive environments. In the present paper focus is given to mechanical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of a HSSS type 14301. The ability of passivation in alkaline media and the risk of local <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (pitting) in presence of chlorides, has been determined. Besides, the response of the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> submitted to mechanical strains similar to those ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::97b2111053becf1b129fd8f1812edfd0"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI; JAMIU KOLAWOLE ODUSOTE; RAHEEM ABOLORE YAHYA</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. As the extract conc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41067273"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">protection</span> of spent Al-clad research reactor fuel during extended wet storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A variety of spent research reactor fuel elements with different fuel meats, geometries and 235U enrichments are presently stored under water in basins throughout the world. More than 90% of these fuels are clad in aluminum (Al) or its alloy and are susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. This paper presents an overview of the influence of Al alloy composition, galvanic effects (Al alloy/stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>), crevice effects, water parameters and synergism between these parameters as well as settled solids on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of typical Al alloys used as fuel element cladding. Pitting is the main form of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and is affected by water conductivity, chloride ion content, formation of galvanic couples with rack supports and settled solid particles. The extent to which these parameters influence Al <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> varies. This paper also presents potential conversion coatings to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the spent fuel cladding. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::60013011dbef49300c42591c686c9cc4"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic characterisation of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solutions by artemisia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Bouklah, M.; Hammouti, B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The effect of natural occurring extract of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 in the temperature range 298 - 353 K is studied by weight loss method, electrochemical polarisation and linear polarisation Rp measurements. Results obtained reveal that extract reduces the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of artemisia content at 10 g/L to reach 95% and 99% at 298 and 353 K, respectively. Results obtained by gravimetric and electrochemical polaris...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::25670626b64a2be9ded4fa72a784c7a2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Using Brij-30</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Dubey, A. K.; Singh, G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in one normal sulphuric acid solution by Brij-30 has been studied in relation to the concentration of the inhibitor as well as the temperature using electrochemical polarization (galvanostatic and potentiostatic) techniques. The results were supplemented with scanning electron microscopy and infra-red spectroscopy. All the methods employed are in reasonable agreement. There is no particular relationship of inhibition with concentration and temperatures. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::d394b2d380002a25ef80acda1425be4a"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> by extract of Buddleia perfoliata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>ROY LOPES-SESENES; JOSE GONZALO GONZALEZ-RODRIGUEZ; GLORIA FRANCISCA DOMINGUEZ-PATIÑO; ALBERTO MARTINEZ-VILLAFAÑE</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Buddleia perfoliata leaves extract has been investigated as a carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor in 0.5 M sulfuric acid by using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and weight-loss tests at different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) and temperatures, namely 25, 40 and 60 °C. Results showthat inhibition efficiency increases as the inhibitor concentration increases, decreases with temperature, and reaches a maximum value after 12 h of exposure, decreasin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::ab5f1abfe06c3fcd7e136db86dd0f789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of an austenite and ferrite stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weld</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic?-ognjanovic?, Vladana N.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dissimilar metal connections are prone to frequent failures. These failures are attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties across the weld, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two types of <span class="hlt">steels</span> and the resulting creep at the interface. For the weld analyzed in this research, it was shown that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> measurements can be used for a proper evaluation of the quality of weld material and for the prediction of whether or not the material, after the applied welding proce...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::558ecb854d07a6ed967bd1c618c682d7"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Benzothiazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Parameswari, K.; Chitra, S.; Selvaraj, A.; Brindha, S.; Menaga, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The influence of benzothiazole derivatives on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M H2SO4 was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and AC-impedance techniques. The synergistic effect by the addition of halide ions had been studied. The experimental results showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreases with increasing temperature; potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that benzothiazole derivatives acted as catho...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45022882"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Cracking Behavior of STS 304 <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Weldments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>When STS 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span> was welded by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process, the effects of welding conditions on the ferrite contents of weld metals were studied and the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking susceptibility of these weld metals were investigated using constant extension rate testing technique in boiling 42% MgCl2 solution. The ferrite content did not change with welding heat input, but was reduced by increasing Ni eq./Cr eq. of weld metals, nitrogen content and holding time of post weld heat treatment. Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance was the highest when ferrite number was 1.5, and then decreased with increase in ferrite number to 4.2. In case the amount of ferrite was controlled by nitrogen content, stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking susceptibility did not show any significant change</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21514589"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in pipeline <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 <span class="hlt">steel</span> under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27032373"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternatives to reduce <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> storage drums</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> affects on drum storage life, and (e) <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to <span class="hlt">steel</span> storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042013000300001-prt"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Sea Water by Sodium Gluconate-Zn2+ System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>S., Rajendran; K., Anuradha; K., Kavipriya; A., Krishnaveni; J., Jeyasundari; V., Sribharathy.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of sodium gluconate (SG)-Zn2+ system in controlling <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea water has been evaluated by weight-loss method. The formulation consisting of 250 ppm of SG and 75 ppm of Zn2+ has 98% IE. Influence of duration of immersion on the IE of SG-Zn2+ has been e [...] valuated. The mechanistic aspects of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition have been investigated by polarization study and AC impedance spectra. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> film has been analysed by FTIR and luminescence spectra. The surface morphology and the roughness of the metal surface have been analysed by atomic force microscopy. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> film consists of Fe2+-SG complex and Zn(OH)2. It is found to be UV-fluorescent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=37572"><span id="translatedtitle">DERIVATION OF A DAMAGE FUNCTION FOR GALVANIZED <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> STRUCTURES: <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A damage function for predicting the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> structures by wet and dry deposition has been developed from thermodynamics and kinetics of atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> chemistry. he function mathematically expresses the competing reactions for the build up and dissol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.grpjournal.org/download/Corrosion%20of%20Stainless%20Steels%20of%20Cryogenic%20Hydrocarbon%20Flare%20Tips%20Burners.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steels</span> of Cryogenic Hydrocarbon Flare Tips Burners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>H. U. Nwosu</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Analysis of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI Type 304 Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> (SS used in flare tips (burners of natural gas (NG extraction facilities is considered to determine the resistance of this grade of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> to the aggressive <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> actions of the environment. It was observed that the grade of SS yielded quite early to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attacks which gave effects to scaling, flaking, pitting, material thinning and flare distortions in the burners contrary to expectations. This necessitated replacements with costs and thus there was need to analyse the causes and find solutions to the problem in such a way that a longer service time could be obtained with minimal shut downs. The solution was found in the grades of SS with balanced higher quantities of nickel, chromium, molybdenum and SS type with partial nitrogen substitution for nickel which helps in stabilization of the austenite structure. There was need to balance the contents of the alloying elements to ensure the desired microstructure is preserved. Further study is required in the area of “weld decay” caused by intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the weld HAZ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26062603"><span id="translatedtitle">Crevice <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of 304 L Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Chloride Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of 304 L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sodium chloride solution at 25 and 80 degree C. Two types of specimens were used in this investigation. Cylindrical type specimens were used for the determination of passive currents and critical crevice solution (CCS) characteristics which are the pH and the chloride ion concentration. The other type, a metal to non metal assembly, is used for the evaluation of the crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility. The potentiodynamic results showed that the critical pH of the crevice solution for 304 L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (as defined by old field (1) and sutton) lies between 2.1 and 2.5 in I M NaCl. on the other hand, the critical PH of the crevice solution as defined by crolet (2) is about 2.5 in 1 M NaCl. increasing the chloride ion concentration resulted in increasing the pH of the crevice solution. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans conducted in 1 M NaCl at 25 degree C and 80 degree C showed that 304 L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> sulfur from sever crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the test solution with the increase in severity of the attack with temperature. The cyclic polarization scans were further supplemented by Sem investigation. 10 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120000552&hterms=STEEL+STAINLESS+316L&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSTEEL%2BSTAINLESS%2B316L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Performance of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steels</span> in a Simulated Launch Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Calle, Luz Marina; Vinje, Rubiela D.; MacDowell, Louis</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>At the Kennedy Space Center, NASA relies on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS) tubing to supply the gases and fluids required to launch the Space Shuttle. 300 series SS tubing has been used for decades but the highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environment at the launch pad has proven to be detrimental to these alloys. An upgrade with higher alloy content materials has become necessary in order to provide a safer and long lasting launch facility. In the effort to find the most suitable material to replace the existing AISI 304L SS ([iNS S30403) and AISI 316L SS (UNS S31603) shuttle tubing, a study involving atmospheric exposure at the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test site near the launch pads and electrochemical measurements is being conducted. This paper presents the results of an investigation in which stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> of the 300 series, 304L, 316L, and AISI 317L SS (UNS S31703) as well as highly alloyed stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> 254-SMO (UNS S32154), AL-6XN (N08367) and AL29-4C ([iNS S44735) were evaluated using direct current (DC) electrochemical techniques under conditions designed to simulate those found at the Space Shuttle Launch pad. The electrochemical results were compared to the atmospheric exposure data and evaluated for their ability to predict the long-term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of the alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24108578"><span id="translatedtitle">Redox-responsive self-healing for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Vimalanandan, Ashokanand; Lv, Li-Ping; Tran, The Hai; Landfester, Katharina; Crespy, Daniel; Rohwerder, Michael</p> <p>2013-12-23</p> <p>Raspberry-shaped redox-responsive capsules for storing <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors are introduced, targeted to solve the drawbacks of conducting-polymer-based coating systems for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. These capsules synthesized via the miniemulsion technique have a remarkable release property upon reduction (onset of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>) and cease release upon reoxidation (passivation of the defect). The self-healing capability is demonstrated by application of these capsules as part of a composite coating on zinc. PMID:24108578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39117581"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> performance of polypyrrole coating by tungstate ion dopants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polypyrrole (PPy) and polypyrrole-tungstate (PPy-W) coatings were electrodeposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MS) electrodes by cyclic voltammetry technique. Aqueous oxalic acid solution was used as supporting electrolyte for these processes. For the electrodeposition of PPy-W, tungstate anion was added to the supporting electrolyte. The surface morphologies of the two types of coated-samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and line-scan EDX analysis. Furthermore, open circuit potential monitoring, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were performed for comparing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> performances. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> studies indicate that dopants can improve <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> properties by taking part in: (i) the passivation process occurred prior to electrodeposition process, (ii) the electro synthesis process and incorporation into polymer chain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=1014219"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Cracking Behavior of Cast Stainless <span class="hlt">Steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Teysseyre, Sebastien [University of Michigan; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Was, Gary [University of Michigan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Casting of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> offers the possibility of directly producing large and/or relatively complex structures, such as the first wall shield modules or the diverter cassette for the ITER fusion reactor. Casting offers major cost savings when compared to fabrication via welding of quarter modules machined from large forgings. However, the strength properties of such cast components are typically considered inferior to those of conventionally forged and annealed components. To improve and validate cast stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> as a substitute for wrought stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, a development and testing program was initiated, utilizing nitrogen and manganese additions to promote improved performance. This paper focuses on the response of the first set of developmental alloys to neutron-irradiation and susceptibility to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking. These cast materials may also have applications for different components in light water reactors. Results showed that all <span class="hlt">steels</span> exhibited irradiation-induced hardening and a corresponding drop in ductility, as expected, although there is still considerable ductility in the irradiated samples. The cast <span class="hlt">steels</span> all exhibited reduced hardening in comparison to a wrought reference <span class="hlt">steels</span>, which may be related to a larger grain size. Higher nitrogen contents did not negatively influence irradiation performance. Regarding stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking susceptibility, the large difference in grain size limits the comparison between wrought and cast materials, and inclusions in a reference and archive cast alloy tests complicate analysis of these samples. Results suggest that the irradiated archive heat was more susceptible to cracking than the modified alloys, which may be related to the more complex microstructure. Further, the results suggest that the modified cast <span class="hlt">steel</span> is at least as SCC resistant as wrought 316LN. The beneficial effect of nitrogen on the mechanical properties of the alloys remains after irradiation and is not detrimental to SCC resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::91d47d9c9f3aef6dc4a0eadbd06fabe9"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibitive action of hydroquinone - Zn2+ system in controlling the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in well water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Jamal Abdul Nasser, A.; Benita Sherine,; Rajendran, S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The inhibition efficiencies of inhibitor systems constituting various combinations of hydroquinone and zinc ions in controlling <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> immersed in well water have been evaluated by weight loss method. 100 ppm of zinc has 50% inhibition efficiency (Immersion period =7 days). When 150 ppm of hydroquinone is added, the IE increases to 97%. The nature of the <span class="hlt">protective</span> film formed on the metal surface has been analyzed by FTIR spectra, SEM and AFM analysis. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> film ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042012000100005-prt"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> by some Phenyltetrazole Substituted Compounds in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Y., Elkacimi; M., Achnin; Y., Aouine; M. Ebn, Touhami; A., Alami; R., Touir; M., Sfaira; D., Chebabe; A., Elachqar; B., Hammouti.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Phenyltetrazole substituted compounds, namely 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (PT), 5-(4chlorophenyl)- 1H-tetrazole (Cl-PT), 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole (MO-PT) and 5-p-tolyl-1H-tetrazole (M-PT) were synthesized to study their inhibition behavior on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl by weight loss measurement, poten [...] tiodynamic polarization studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It has been observed that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate decreases and inhibition efficiency increases with increasing in phenyltetrazole substituted concentration and dependence on molecular structure. Polarization data indicate that these compounds act as very good cathodic inhibitors of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl. The result showed that the inhibition efficiency decreased with temperature and increased with immersion time. EIS has the same trend of inhibitive effect as that of the polarization data, which indicates the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface by molecules adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000100005"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> by some Phenyltetrazole Substituted Compounds in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Y. Elkacimi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Phenyltetrazole substituted compounds, namely 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (PT, 5-(4chlorophenyl- 1H-tetrazole (Cl-PT, 5-(4-methoxyphenyl-1H-tetrazole (MO-PT and 5-p-tolyl-1H-tetrazole (M-PT were synthesized to study their inhibition behavior on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. It has been observed that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate decreases and inhibition efficiency increases with increasing in phenyltetrazole substituted concentration and dependence on molecular structure. Polarization data indicate that these compounds act as very good cathodic inhibitors of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl. The result showed that the inhibition efficiency decreased with temperature and increased with immersion time. EIS has the same trend of inhibitive effect as that of the polarization data, which indicates the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface by molecules adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21026898"><span id="translatedtitle">Time dependence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in <span class="hlt">steels</span> for use in lead-alloy cooled reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Machut, McLean [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: mtmachut@wisc.edu; Sridharan, Kumar [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Li Ning [Materials Physics and Application Division, AFCI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Ukai, Shigeharu [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hokaido University (Japan); Allen, Todd [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)</p> <p>2007-09-15</p> <p>Stability of the <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide layer is critical for the long-term performance of cladding and structural components in lead-alloy cooled nuclear systems. Measurements have shown that removal of the outer magnetite layer is a significant effect at higher temperatures in flowing lead-bismuth. Developing a predictive capability for oxide thickness and material removal is therefore needed. A model for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in liquid lead-alloys has been employed to assist in materials development for application in the Generation IV Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Data from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in Los Alamos National Laboratory's DELTA Loop is used to benchmark the model and to obtain predictions of long-term material's <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance. The model is based on modifications of Wagner's diffusion based oxidation theory and Tedmon's equation for high-temperature oxidation with scale removal. Theoretically and experimentally obtained values for parabolic oxide growth rate, mass transfer <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, and long-term material thinning rates are presented and compared to the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::d332a3539947f448be143b2e59da5674"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of nitrate ion on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated cooling water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Siragul Karim; Mustafa, C. M.; Md. Assaduzzaman; Mayeedul Islam</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by sodium nitrite in simulated cooling water (SCW) containing chloride ion was investigated. Electrochemical techniques such as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (Ecorr) measurement and potentiodynamic sweep experiments were used. The experimental parameters were concentration of the inhibitor, pH of the aqueous media and soaking time. Nitrite inhibited mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in near neutral and alkaline (pH 6 and above) SCW and accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in acidic media (pH 4 a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::dbc667bad0d9cdc61891f623e94100be"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> by Calcium Gluconate in Simulated Cooling Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Karim, Siragul; Mustafa, Chand Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Md; Islam, Mayeedul</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by calcium gluconate in simulated cooling water, SCW containing chloride ion was investigated. Electrochemical techniques such as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (Ecorr.) measurement and potentiodynamic sweep experiments were used. The experimental parameters were concentration of the inhibitor, pH of the aqueous media and soaking time. Ca-gluconate inhibits mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in near neutral and alkaline (at pH 6 and above) SCW and accelerates <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in acidic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::4df5bdff9667a8b4daaa434887bb181f"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of the welded <span class="hlt">steel</span> sheets used in automotive industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>D. Katundi; A. Tosun-Bayraktar; E. Bayraktar; D. Toueix</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: of this paper is to characterise the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> sheets (Hot dip galvanizing of <span class="hlt">steel</span> sheets) used in automotive industry. In fact, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of automotive components by road salt is a widely known problem. The different parts under the car body and the interior surface of body panels suffer easily from the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> products deposited on roads and used mainly to melt snow. A comparison in a chemical investigation of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate for base metals (without w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________70::1df70d351d48494f573f33a4e5c36c17"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage on the initiation of fatigue cracks in high strength stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Rezig, E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This research project investigates the influence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> flaws on the initiation of fatigue cracks in high strength stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and more particularly in 15-5 precipitation hardening high strength stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Susceptibility of 15-5PH to localised <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was examined and pit-like <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> flaws produced by pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> were introduced in fatigue specimens in order to measure the influence of these surface flaws on fatigue crack initiation. Fro...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45076812"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of chemical compositions on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated deep groundwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this study, effects of anions, HCO3- SO42- and Cl- on the electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated deep groundwater is investigated through potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results reveal that HCO3- ions help the low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> to maintain the passive state, SO42- ions promote general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and Cl- ions break its passive film resulting in localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. When all three anions are in one solution, they have interactive effects on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::449d47215a952c4de31a551112edbad0"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Analysis of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in CO2 Loaded Amine Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Abdelbaki Benamor; Mohammed Jaber Al-Marri</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical model simulating the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous amine-CO2 environment was developed and used to analyze the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> phenomena in CO2 loaded amine solutions. A mechanistic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> model is applied to identify the most important agents responsible for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The model incorporates an equilibrium model based on an activity coefficient approach according to Debye-Huckel theory and mixed potential theory to simulate the concent...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::d9b4ed9725f29b010cd5ee78899f58ac"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition of AISI/SAE <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in a Marine Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Effect of Sodium nitrite as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea water wasinvestigated, using the conventional weight loss method. Differentpercentages of sodium nitrite were used from 0% to 10% in sea water.Samples of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> were exposed to these <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media and the weightloss was calculated at intervals of 120 hours, 168 hours, 208 hours, 256 hours,304 hours and 352 hours. It was observed that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate increases withtime of exposure to the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium (inhibited or ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1014488"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface modification to improve fireside <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of Fe-Cr ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL); Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL); Rink, David L. (Mokena, IL)</p> <p>2010-03-16</p> <p>An article of manufacture and a method for providing an Fe--Cr ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> article of manufacture having a surface layer modification for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. Fe--Cr ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span> can be modified to enhance their <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance to liquid coal ash and other chemical environments, which have chlorides or sulfates containing active species. The <span class="hlt">steel</span> is modified to form an aluminide/silicide passivating layer to reduce such <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8302938"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of sulfur additions on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In each class of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, there is a special type containing sulfur additions in order to improve machining. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of these <span class="hlt">steels</span> is lower than that of the similar types without sulfur. It is shown that the decrease of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance is due to the local contamination of the environmental medium by H2S. The aqueous solution and not the metal is therefore responsible for the unfavorable effect of sulfur on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46027978"><span id="translatedtitle">High temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> in hydrochloric atmosphere under oil shale ashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • High temperature gaseous hydrochloric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> analysis of different boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span>. • Influence on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the presence of oil shale ashes and cyclic removing. • Empiric kinetic coherence equation and diagram for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth versus time. • Additional oxidation tests of all materials investigated. • Qualitative analysis of the present <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms. - Abstract: High temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in power plants is a main breakdown criterion in boiler applications. This study is focused on the high-temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of several boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> used in Estonian power plants, which were experimentally tested in gaseous hydrochloric environment combined with Estonian oil shale ashes in a high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test up to 600 °C. Scanning electron microscopy supported by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to reveal different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms. Results indicate a strong dependence of the boiler <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to the present anions in the oil shale ash and their removal in the boiler</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0872-19042006000400006-prt"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic characterisation of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solutions by artemisia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>M., Bouklah; B., Hammouti.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of natural occurring extract of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 in the temperature range 298 - 353 K is studied by weight loss method, electrochemical polarisation and linear polarisation Rp measurements. Results obtained reveal that extract reduces the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. [...] The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of artemisia content at 10 g/L to reach 95% and 99% at 298 and 353 K, respectively. Results obtained by gravimetric and electrochemical polarisation are in good agreement. Polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of the natural artemisia does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction and acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with temperature. The adsorption of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400006"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic characterisation of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solutions by artemisia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>M. Bouklah</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of natural occurring extract of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 in the temperature range 298 - 353 K is studied by weight loss method, electrochemical polarisation and linear polarisation Rp measurements. Results obtained reveal that extract reduces the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of artemisia content at 10 g/L to reach 95% and 99% at 298 and 353 K, respectively. Results obtained by gravimetric and electrochemical polarisation are in good agreement. Polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of the natural artemisia does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction and acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with temperature. The adsorption of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27075564"><span id="translatedtitle">Binding of nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> valve stems caused by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product build-up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> governor valve stems are used in safety-related reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) and auxiliary feedwater (AFW) pumps at Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors, respectively. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of the governor valve stems in the packing assembly area has been noted in at least seventeen nuclear power plants. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> product build-up between the valve stem and packing assembly has resulted in binding of the valve stem in at least nine of these plants. Nitriding is known to degrade the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of, stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This is due to the formation of chromium nitrides in the diffusion layer of the hardened case which leave the surrounding matrix depleted in chromium. The rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is substantially affected by the presence or absence of a continuous, adherent compound layer. The compound layer is less susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> than the diffusion layer and acts to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the underlying diffusion layer from being exposed to moisture. At Calvert Cliffs, the original nitrided stem had a continuous, adherent compound layer and a hardened case of approximately 60 microns in depth. This stem performed acceptably for years. In contrast, the replacement nitrided stems did not have a continuous, adherent compound layer and had a hardened case of approximately 10 microns in depth. These stems performed acceptably for three or four months. This difference in performance is attributed primarily to the absence of an adhereuted primarily to the absence of an adherent, continuous compound layer in the recently-supplied nitrided stems. Since nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> valve stems will corrode in the presence of moisture (although at substantially different rates), the replacement valve stems will be fabricated from Inconel 718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25014068"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Protective</span> action mechanism of mixed inhibitor of acid iron <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mechanism of <span class="hlt">protective</span> action of binary mixtures of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors as a concentration function and the nature of their components are considered. An interconnection of experimental and specific coefficients of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> braking activity is discussed with regard to intermolecular interaction of the mixture components in the adsorption layer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40092275"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of 316L Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Immersed in Molten LiCl-KCl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> immersed in molten salt has been studied through investigating its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior characteristics with Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate with weight-loss method and its structures and element content after <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results show that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is evidently influenced by the oxygen content. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> course mainly occurs in the roughness of the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the weld edge is similar to that of the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is fast when the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> immersed in molten salt, but the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> can form passive film, with the passive film coming into being, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate slow down. When the passive film exists, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is 0.0012?/h in molten LiCl-KCl at 673 K. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31003428"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> prevention by nitrite in carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to dilute salt solutions. 1998 annual progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>'The overall goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in preventing the breakdown of <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide(s) on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the onset of pitting. Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to dilute alkaline salt solutions can be induced by nitrate, sulfate, and chloride ions and is prevented by sufficient concentration of nitrite. A significant example of this material/electrolyte system is the storage and processing of DOE''s high-level radioactive liquid waste in carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks. Added nitrite in the waste has a considerable downstream impact on the immobilization of the waste in a stable glass form. Waste tank integrity and glass production efficiency may benefit from the fundamental understanding of nitrite''s role in preventing pitting. This report summarizes progress after approximately six months of effort in this three-year EMSP project. Initial experimental and theoretical work has focused on the electrochemical behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simplified non-radioactive solutions that simulate complex dilute radioactive waste solutions. These solutions contain <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-inducing species such as nitrate and chloride and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-inhibiting nitrite at moderately alkaline pHs. The electrochemical behavior of interest here is that of the open-circuit potential of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimen at equilibrium in the experimental electrolyte and the measures of the <span class="hlt">steel''s</span> passivity and passivity breakdown.'</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19075816"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of unalloyed <span class="hlt">steel</span> in Portland cement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The production of hydrogen can cause problems in a repository for low and intermediate level waste. Since the production of gas is mainly due to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of unalloyed <span class="hlt">steel</span>, it is important to have as reliable data as possible for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate in anaerobic cement. A review of the literature shows that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current densities are in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 ?A/cm2 (corresponding to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates between 0.1 and 1.2 ?m/a). This implies hydrogen production rates between 0.022 and 0.22 mol/(m2a). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates of the abovementioned order of magnitude are technically irrelevant, so that there is little interest in determining them accurately. Furthermore, their determination entails problems of measurement technique. In the present situation it would therefore appear risky to accept the lower value as proven. Experiments are proposed to reduce the present uncertainty. (author) 35 refs., 10 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RuMet2014..793N"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and mechanical properties of the three-layer material based on a vanadium alloy and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Nikulin, S. A.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Nechaikina, T. A.; Rogachev, S. O.; Zavodchikov, S. Yu.; Khatkevich, V. M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The quality of three-layer pipes has been studied; they are manufactured by hot pressing of a three-layer assembly of tubular billets followed by forging and cold rolling. The operating core is made from a V-4Ti-4Cr alloy. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> claddings are made from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steels</span> of two grades, 08Kh17T and 20Kh13. The results of investigation into the structure and microhardness of the junction zone of <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the vanadium alloy, which includes a contact zone and a transition diffusion layer, are reported. The 08Kh17T <span class="hlt">steel</span> is shown to be a preferred cladding material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40016968"><span id="translatedtitle">The difference between synergistic erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in SiC suspension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The synergistic erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> characteristics of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> were studied by using rotating disk apparatus and immersing in 0.05 wt.% SiC suspension, respectively. The difference between cavitation erosion and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), positron annihilation lifetime spectra (PALS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the propagation of cracks in pit area induced by cavitation erosion did not appear in the course of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The PALS results showed that the size and number of vacancy cluster induced by cavitation erosion was much larger than that induced by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage. The results of core level band spectra indicated that there were chemical shifts in the case of cavitation erosion and no chemical shifts except 40 min <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in immersion process. The results of valence band spectra implied that the oxidation of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> induced by cavitation erosion was more than that induced by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24021977"><span id="translatedtitle">Irradiation assisted stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effect of irradiation on stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (SCC) was investigated on solution-treated type 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, type 304L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> with various silicon and phosphorus contents and JPCA, irradiated to 5.3 x 1024 n/m2 (E > 1 MeV) at 573 K. The irradiation induced intergranular SCC in all the alloys except for JPCA under slow strain rate tensile tests in 571 K water containing 32 ppm oxygen. With increasing phosphorus and silicon contents, IGSCC susceptibility decreased after irradiation. These elements affect SCC after irradiation although they are not main contributions to irradiation-assisted SCC. JPCA had better SCC resistance than the other <span class="hlt">steels</span> under the present irradiation condition. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTA...45.3981B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Steel</span> Microstructure Effect on Mechanical Properties and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of High Strength Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo; Li, Ximing; Castaneda, Homero</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Different thermomechanical treatments were applied to a high strength low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> with a novel chemical composition. As a result, three different microstructures were produced with dissimilar mechanical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties. Subsequently, a tempering heat treatment was applied to redistribute the phases in the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Microstructure A with 56 pct martensite and 32 pct bainite presented high strength but medium ductility; microstructure C with 95 pct ferrite and 3 pct martensite/austenite resulted in low strength and high ductility, and finally microstructure B with 98 pct bainite and 2 pct martensite/austenite resulted in high strength and ductility. Alternatively the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior obtained by polarization curves was characterized in 0.1 M H2SO4, 3 M H2SO4, 3.5 wt pct NaCl, and NS4 solutions resulting in similar magnitudes, while the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior acquired by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy had slightly differences in 3 M H2SO4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45052267"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of nickel alloys and stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in polluted or confined PWR environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document addresses the issue of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of materials used in PWR nuclear reactors, notably in steam generators which have been particularly affected by this kind of degradation due to a progressive accumulation of impurities. The authors first present the different materials used in secondary circuit and in auxiliary circuits of PWRs: carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> and low alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span>, nickel alloys, stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and other materials. They discuss the degradation of steam generator tubes by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>: <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environments, types of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (wastage, pitting, intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking), and influence of the environment and of the microstructure. They also propose a brief overview of modelling efforts in the case of the 600 alloy, and indicates measures to mitigate the tube degradation by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (water treatment, better design of steam generators and secondary circuit, improvement of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance). The next part addresses the degradation by stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in polluted environments in PWRs reactors: return on experience, stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking in media contaminated by impurities (intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of sensitized or work hardened <span class="hlt">steels</span>, transgranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by chloride ions, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by diluted sulphate + chloride, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in concentrated boric acid solutions)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..328..491Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Slippery liquid-infused porous surface based on perfluorinated lubricant/iron tetradecanoate: Preparation and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Yang, Shengsheng; Qiu, Ri; Song, Hongqing; Wang, Peng; Shi, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yanfang</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and fouling have been two major enemies for materials immersed in seawater. Fluid including gas and liquid as coating for marine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> has attracted much attention, since it can also exert antifouling capability in seawater environment. Combining gas and solid phases, superhydrophobic surface is promising to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the underlying metal from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. However, the intrinsically short sustainability in underwater environment has hindered its practical application, so that its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> ability is only temporary. Originated from liquid and solid phases, slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) has spurred wide interest due to its prominent performance in different fields. However, the exploration of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency from SLIPS remains rare. In this research, SLIPS is constructed onto <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface via a facile two-step protocol. First, based on a dissolution-deposition strategy, iron tetradecanoate is formed by an electrochemical route. After that, fluid lubricant is infused onto the deposit, whose rough surface acts as the reservoir to entrap the fluid to form a static liquid coating. Compared to the bare and hydrophobic deposit covering low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the SLIPS composed perfluorinated lubricant and iron tetradecanoate endows good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........17M"><span id="translatedtitle">Embedded reference electrodes for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential monitoring, electrochemical characterization, and controlled-potential cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Merten, Bobbi Jo Elizabeth</p> <p></p> <p>A thin wire Ag/AgCl reference electrode was prepared using 50 mum Ag wire in dilute FeCl3. The wire was embedded beneath the polyurethane topcoat of two sacrificial coating systems to monitor their <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. This is the first report of a reference electrode embedded between organic coating layers to monitor substrate health. The embedded reference electrode (ERE) successfully monitored the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential of Mg primer on AA 2024-T3 for 800 days of constant immersion in dilute Harrison's solution. Zn primer on <span class="hlt">steel</span> had low accuracy in comparison. This is in part due to short circuiting by Zn oxidation products, which are much more conductive than Mg <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products. Data interpretation was improved through statistical analysis. On average, ERE <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials are 0.1 to 0.2 V and 0.2 to 0.3 V more positive than a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in solution for AA 2024-T3 and <span class="hlt">steel</span> coating systems, respectively. Further research may confirm that ERE obtains <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential information not possible by an exterior, conventional reference electrode. The ERE is stable under polarization. AA 2024-T3 was polarized to -0.95 V vs ERE to emulate controlled potential cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> (CPCP) applications. Polarizations of -0.75 V vs ERE are recommended for future experiments to minimize cathodic delamination. The ERE was utilized to analyze coating mixtures of lithium carbonate, magnesium nitrate, and Mg metal on AA2024-T3. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> potential, low frequency impedance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and noise resistance by electrochemical noise method (ENM) were reported. Coating performance ranking is consistent with standard electrochemical characterization and visual analyses. The results suggest anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance superior to a standard Mg primer following 1600 hours of B117 salt spray. Both lithium carbonate and magnesium nitrate are necessary to achieve <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. Unique <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings for aluminum could be designed through continued mixture optimization. The Ag wire ERE has been utilized for the characterization and ranking of experimental coatings on metal substrates. Structural health monitoring and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential feedback of cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems are additional uses. There is some indication that CPCP may be applied by ERE to control the substrate polarization for an organic coating system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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