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Sample records for steel corrosion protection

  1. Protection of Steel Constructions from Corrosive Destruction

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of the New Effective Sacrificial Anodes on the Basis of Secondary Aluminum for Protection of Steel Constructions of Hydropower Stations and Heat Stations of the Republic of Tajikistan from Corrosion Destruction

  2. AC corrosion on cathodically protected steel

    OpenAIRE

    Torstensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This report deals with the effect of alternating current on cathodically protected steel. AC corrosion has become relevant in the offshore industry due to the introduction of the direct electric heating system (DEH). The principle with DEH is to prevent wax solidification inside pipelines by heating them up with alternating current. This can give rise to AC corrosion.DC current densities, AC current densities and DC potential have been measured for steel samples under cathodic protection with...

  3. Guidelines for the Protection of Steel Piles : Corrosive Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of steel is a common phenomenon. In a marine environment, steel is corroded at an accelerated rate due to the atmospheric conditions. To combat this corrosion, steel piles are coated in order to protect them. As a major supplier of steel piles, Rautaruukki Oyj (Ruukki) commissioned this project in order to streamline their coating process. Currently Ruukki supplies a different coating system for almost every job; the aim of the project was to reduce the number of systems used to...

  4. Inorganic coatings on stainless steel for protection against crevice corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to create protection against crevice corrosion stainless steel test specimens of type 316 steel with various inorganic coatings applied on crevice surfaces were tested for 3-50 months at 25 and 30 degree C in natural seawater containing 0.2-1.5 ppm free chlorine. Various metallic coatings, Ni base alloys with Cr and Mo, Ni with W, pure Ag and pure Mo, as well as ceramic coatings - Cr2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3 - were studied. All the coatings tested, except pure Molybdenum applied by plasma spraying in a max 0.1 mm thick layer were found to promote crevice corrosion of the stainless steel. A significant reduction of the crevice corrosion susceptibility was obtained with Molybdenum. The result is considered promising enough to justify full scale tests in seawater on flange joints of pipes, valves or pumps. (author)

  5. Studies and research work on the reinforcement steel and concrete surface corrosion protection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Croitoru

    2013-01-01

    Methods for reinforcement steel corrosion protection and concrete surface protection are analyzed. Knowing the corrosion process mechanism reinforcement steel can be protected by different protection methods even in the presence of crevices larger than those anticipated by design. The selection of the corrosion protection method depends on the reduction level of the reinforcement steel corrosion which in its turn is determined by the atmospheric conditions. The selection of the accelerated co...

  6. Investigation of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete. II: Properties of Steel Surface Layers:

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Breugel, K., van; Lodhi, Z.F.; Ye, G

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface (using as-received low carbon construction steel) in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP).

  7. Bilayers Polypyrrole Coatings for Corrosion Protection of SAE 4140 Steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.L., Lehr; S.B., Saidman.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study polypyrrole (PPy) bilayers films were electrodeposited onto SAE 4140 steel. The inner layer was electropolymerized in the presence of molibdate and nitrate and the outer layer in a solution containing sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The electrosynthesis was done under p [...] otentiostatic conditions. The corrosion protection properties of the films were examined in sodium chloride solution by open circuit measurements, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bilayer coatings present an improved anticorrosive performance with respect to single PPy films.

  8. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  9. Corrosion Protection of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel in Mortar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita M., Figueira; Elsa V., Pereira; Carlos J.R., Silva; Maria M., Salta.

    2013-10-08

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the major causes of structure degradation, requiring expensive maintenance. The using of hot dip galvanized steel (HDGS) has been recognized as one effective measure to increase the service life of reinforced concrete structures in marine environmental. Howev [...] er, HDGS corrodes in contact with high alkaline environment of fresh concrete. Although this initial corrosion process allows the formation of a protecting layer barrier, the corrosion that occurs initially is harmful and chromate conversion layers are usually used to prevent it. Due to toxicity of Cr(VI), these kinds of pre-treatments have been forbidden and hybrid coatings have been proposed as alternatives [1-3]. To evaluate the performance of these coatings, beyond the laboratory characterization, in situ tests in real conditions should be performed. An electrochemical system to measure the macrocell current density (i gal) was designed to evaluate the degradation of HDGS coated samples with different organic-inorganic hybrid films, embedded in mortar during 70 days, using an automatic data acquisition system. This system revealed to be feasible and highly sensitive to coatings degradation. Also, allow distinguishing different hybrid coatings with different thicknesses.

  10. Physicochemical foundation of steel protection against sulfide corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essentially new notions on physical-chemical mechanism of hydrogen absorption and steel sulfide corrosion cracking are formulated. The quantitative evaluation of various factors impact (the nature of chemical process on the steel surface, temperature, hydrogen sulfide partial pressure in the working medium) on hydrogen content in the steel and consequently on its tendency to cracking is accomplished within the frames of these notions. 12 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  11. Corrosion and cathodic protection of carbon steel in the tidal zone: Products, mechanisms and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The corrosion product layer forming in the tidal zone is mainly made up of magnetite. • A thin film of magnetite is formed on the steel surface under cathodic protection. • Magnetite is formed during cathodic protection under the calcareous deposit. • Pre-existing corrosion product layers are almost not modified by cathodic protection. - Abstract: Carbon steel coupons were set in the tidal zone of a French seaport for 7 years with or without cathodic protection. The average corrosion rates decreased from 90 ?m yr?1 to 9 ?m yr?1 under cathodic protection. The corrosion product layers covering the unprotected coupons, characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were mainly made up of magnetite and Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, with magnetite being clearly predominant. The products of the residual corrosion process under cathodic protection, similar to those observed at open circuit potential, formed a thin layer on the steel surface under the calcareous deposit

  12. Protection of steel from carbon dioxide corrosion with volatile inhibitors. I. Liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that many known inhibitors of the steel atmospheric and hydrosulfide corrosion in the electrolytes, containing CO2, are inefficient. The new inhibitors IFKhAN-72 and IFKhAN-74 with high passivation capacity are efficient ones. The IFKhAN-72 inhibitor exceeds by its protective properties the best of the studied inhibitors of the amines-type- the amines A. Through delaying both electrode reactions suppresses the steel corrosion within the wide temperature range. It manifests thereby prolonged aftereffect and due to its high penetrating capacity it protects also the steel covered with the corrosion products

  13. Optimization of protective atmosphere for heat treatment of corrosion resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations are carried out for the optimization of protective atmospheres for thermal treatment of corrosion resistant steels - chromium chromium-nickel ones. Experiments are performed in the foil of different corrosion resistant alloys temperatre of thermal treatment is corresponding to the quenching temperature for these steels. Samples were held for 2-30 min. Corrosion resistance tests are conducted in 30% boiling nitric acid after thermal treatment. It is shown that at short-term hold (less than 2 min.) it is advisable to use nitrogen-containing atmospheres, while at long-term hold it is advisable to use the atmosphere of dry hydrogen as the protective one

  14. Corrosion protection of carbon steel by an epoxy resin containing organically modified clay

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, To Thi Xuan; Truc, Trinh Anh; Nam, Truong Hoai; Oanh, Vu Ke; Jorcin, Jean-Baptiste; Pébère, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    This study focusses on the use of montmorillonite clay (MMT) treated with an organic compound (aminotrimethylphosphonic acid (ATMP)) and dispersed in an epoxy resin to improve corrosion protection of carbon steel. X-ray diffraction was performed to verify that the individual silicate layers were separated and dispersed in the epoxy resin. Corrosion resistance of the coated steel was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEI...

  15. The application of thermal spraying for corrosion protection of large steel parts used in special buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aluminium spraying procedure is presented for obtaining high-quality long-life corrosion protection for large steel parts used in special buildings in nuclear power plant construction. The advantage of a stationary metal arc spraying installation in the prefabrication of the steel parts is described. At the erection site field welds have to be metal sprayed

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of selected corrosion inhibitors for protection of prestressing steels in PCPVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion protection provided prestressing steel by portland cement-based grout in the presence of sulfide, nitrate, and chloride ion environments was evaluated. Results were compared to those obtained from selected, commercially available petroleum-microcrystalline waxes (petrolatums) compounded with organic corrosion inhibitors. The investigation was conducted in two phases: (1) a review of literature to establish the mechanisms of prestressing steel corrosion, techniques available for protection of prestressing steel in hostile environments, and the performance of structures that have utilized either nongrouted- or grouted-tendon prestressing systems; and (2) a laboratory study to develop relative performance data for portland cement grout and selected commercial petroleum-based greases and waxes containing inhibitors. Conclusions derived from the investigation indicate that (1) sulfide, nitrate, and chloride salts must be excluded from prestressing materials; (2) prestressing materials must be continuously protected from inimical environments; (3) the effectiveness of the protection provided by both the organic- and cement-based corrosion inhibitors is reduced unless the steel is completely covered; and (4) both cement- and organic-based corrosion inhibitors completely protect prestressing materials when properly applied

  17. Protective and breakaway corrosion of mild steel in CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of mild and low alloy steels in high pressure carbon dioxide at temperatures in the range 653 to 773K is initially 'protective'. The oxidation rate decreases with increasing time according to an approximately parabolic rate law. However, after an incubation period there may be a transition to faster linear 'breakaway' kinetics. The microstructural changes which are an essential feature of the protective-breakaway transition have been studied in detail on laboratory samples and on speciments removed from Magnox reactors, and a model proposed for oxidation in high pressure gas. In the protective stage of growth a compact scale is first formed by outward diffusion of metal ions. This injects lattice vacancies into the substrate, some of which condense to give loss of scale-metal adhesion. In these regions the protective oxide develops microporosity and an inner layer nucleates and grows. Continuing protective oxidation produces a duplex structure, the inner layer growing in the volume made available by metal departing to form new outer oxide. Microporosity is maintained by a buildup of carbon monoxide at the scalemetal interface, which also regulates the growth of the inner layer. Breakaway oxidation is rapid inner layer growth which occurs when the carbon monoxide is destroyed locally by a catalysed carbon deposition reaction. (author)

  18. The Effect of Oil on Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Inhibition on Carbon Steel - Potential for Improved Corrosion Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Martin Smedstad

    2010-01-01

    The search for robust and cost efficient ways to prevent internal corrosion of carbon steel piping and equipment in oil and gas production and transportation has lead to the development of highly sophisticated CO2 corrosion inhibitor products. This thesis studies oil wetting and corrosion inhibitor performance on bare steel and steel with corrosion product deposits on the surface, in the presence of a refined, low aromatic hydrocarbon oil. Three surfactants were used in...

  19. Electrochemical synthesis and characterisation of hybrid materials polypyrrole/dodecatungstophosphate as protective agents against steel corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastre Cano, Jose Antonio

    The losses caused by the effect of the corrosion are of the order of 2-3,5% of the GDP of the developed countries or developing only in direct costs, losses in structures or products. This figure doubles by the indirect costs, losses of productivity or demands for delays. Beside the possible losses of human lives, any intent leaded to the decrease of the corrosion in rusty metals is a commendable objective from the point of view of the protection of the environment. Building industry employing reinforced concrete is able to project some structural elements (pillars, wrought, beam, etc.) in principle free of corrosion, assuring during many years the useful life of the work in service. However, the reinforced concrete would be' a perfect solution if the indefinite permanency of the passive state of the steel could be guaranteed. Indeed, although the steel is protected against corrosion due to basic pH which provides the cement, the severe action of saline media or the effect of CO2 can diminish this protection conditions beginning the corrosion in steel elements. Type-p doped conducting polymers, as polypyrrole, are firm candidates to protect carbon steel providing galvanic protection by stabilising the passive layer of Fe oxides initially grown. Doping the polymeric matrix with polioxometalates, concretely phosphotungstate PW12O403-, is a very interesting hypothesis due to their oxidising effect, improving the anodic protection by the hybrid material electrosynthesised on carbon steel substrate. First in the present work, a new method was developed by cyclic voltammetry in LiClO4 + acetonitrile medium in order to diminish the unavoidable oxidation of carbon steel when the electrosyntesis of the hybrid material polypyrrole/PW12O403- is carrying out. The beginning potential of polypyrrole polymerisation is about 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), a positive potential where oxidation of Fe substrate is high, not allowing the electrodeposition of the hybrid material. On the other hand, this pretreatment should guarantee appropriate conditions in order to obtain a coating with high adhesion on carbon steel. Once studied the better parameters for the synthesis of the hybrid material by cyclic voltammetry, hybrid material is morphological, chemical and electrochemical characterised by the following techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray, X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403-. chemical structure presents Fe oxides and hydroxide within the polypyrrole polycationic matrix. Hybrid material polypyrrol/PW12O403- diminishes the corrosion of carbon steel in NaOH and Porland cement filtering solutions. These cement solutions simulate the pore fluid conditions existing in cured mortar or concrete elements. Fe ion concentration data were determinated in corrosion tests. Voltammetric response of polymeric coatings was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Finally, the protection provided by hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403, in oxidised and reduced state, was evaluated on carbon steel electrodes embedded in Portland cement mortars immersed in seawater and submitted to an accelerated carbonation process for 265 days. Polymeric material covered carbon steel electrodes in reduced state suffer a Fe gravimetric loss 15 times lower than the ones of bare electrodes against chlorides attack, due to the effect of physical barrier. Hybrid material covered electrodes in oxidised state after being submitted to a carbonation process suffer a Fe gravimetric loss 2.5 times lower than the ones of bare electrodes, due to galvanic protection provided by hybrid material polypyrrole/PW 12O403- on carbon steel.

  20. Polybenzoxazine/SiO2 nanocomposite coatings for corrosion protection of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Corrosion resistance of the coating was improved using SiO2 nanoparticles. •Morphology and wetting properties were studied upon electrochemical behavior. •Interfacial interactions were enhanced by the reaction between two phases. -- Abstract: A series of nanocomposite coatings (PBS) consisting of silane functional polybenzoxazine (PB-TMOS) and SiO2 nanoparticles were developed for corrosion protection of mild steel. The influence of silica content on corrosion resistance of PBS coatings was investigated by electrochemical measurements. The surface chemistry of nanoparticles and its effect on morphology of the PBS coating was also studied utilizing Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy, 29Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses. The results indicate that the presence of the covalent bond between nanoparticles and PB-TMOS, greatly improves the interfacial interactions at the polymer/filler interfaces resulting in a better corrosion performance

  1. Indium oxide thin film as potential photoanodes for corrosion protection of stainless steel under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yu, Jianqiang, E-mail: jianqyu@qdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Sun, Kai; Zhu, Yukun [Key Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan [National Engineering Center of Marine Corrosion Protection, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: If the conduction band potential of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more negative than the corrosion potential of stainless steel, photo-induced electrons will be transferred from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the steel, thus shifting the potential of the steel into a corrosion immunity region and preventing the steel from the corrosion. - Highlights: • Indium oxide performed novel application under visible light. • Indium oxide by sol–gel method behaved better photoelectrochemical properties. • Electrons were transferred to stainless steel from indium oxide once light on. - Abstract: This paper reports the photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-film under visible-light. The films were fabricated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, synthesized by both sol–gel (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg) and solid-state (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss) processes. The photo-induced open circuit potential and the photo-to-current efficiency measurements suggested that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be a promising candidate material for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of metallic alloys under visible light. Moreover, the polarization curve experimental results indicated that In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film can mitigate the corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel to much more negative values with a higher photocurrent density than the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss film under visible-light illumination. All the results demonstrated that the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film provides a better photoelectrochemical cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel than In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss thin-film under visible-light illumination. The higher photoelectrochemical efficiency is possibly due to the uniform thin films produced with the smaller particle size of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg, which facilitates the transfer of the photo-induced electrons from bulk to the surface and suppresses the charge recombination of the electrons and holes.

  2. Comparative Study on Corrosion Protection of Reinforcing Steel by Using Amino Alcohol and Lithium Nitrite Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ability of lithium nitrite and amino alcohol inhibitors to provide corrosion protection to reinforcing steel was investigated. Two types of specimens—reinforcing steel and a reinforced concrete prism that were exposed to chloride ion levels resembling the chloride attack environment—were prepared. An autoclave accelerated corrosion test was then conducted. The variables tested included the chloride-ion concentration and molar ratios of anti-corrosion ingredients in a CaOH2-saturated aqueous solution that simulated a cement-pore solution. A concentration of 25% was used for the lithium nitrite inhibitor LiNO2, and an 80% solution of dimethyl ethanolamine ((CH32NCH2CH2OH, hereinafter DMEA was used for the amino alcohol inhibitor. The test results indicated that the lithium nitrite inhibitor displayed anti-corrosion properties at a molar ratio of inhibitor of ?0.6; the amino alcohol inhibitor also displayed anti-corrosion properties at molar ratios of inhibitor greater than approximately 0.3.

  3. Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel Using Poly aniline Composite with Inorganic Pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two inorganic pigments (TiO2 and SiO2) were used to prepare composites with poly aniline (PANI) by situ polymerization method. PANI and PANI composites with SiO2 and TiO2 were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the synthesized pigments (PANI , PANI-SiO2 and PANI-TiO2) was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Samples were then used as pigments through blending them with acrylic paint and applied on the surface of carbon steel panels. Corrosion was evaluated for coating of carbon steel panels through full immersion test up to standard ASTMG 31. Mass loss was calculated after they have been exposed in acidic media. A digital camera was also used for monitoring corrosion visually on the surface of carbon steel specimens. The results revealed that acrylic paint pigmented by PANI-SiO2 composite was more efficient in corrosion protection for carbon steel compared with the other synthesized pigments. (author)

  4. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eliziane Pires de, Souza; Edith, Ariza; Margarita, Ballester; Inez Valéria Pagotto, Yoshida; Luis Augusto, Rocha; Célia Marina de Alvarenga, Freire.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic [...] -inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization) were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  5. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  6. The study of the corrosion protection of the low-carbon steel using film-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports studies on the efficiency of the film-inhibitors that covered low-carbon steel placed in a humid medium, and also, the optimization of the working conditions to improve the resistance to corrosion. The analyzes were done in the Industrial Physical - Chemical Laboratories of INSA - Lyon by electrochemical stationary techniques. The experimental device was a potentiometer of type EGG PAR (Princeton Applied Research). It was connected with a computer and three potential electrodes introduced in a cell with NaCl 30 g/l solution to acquire the data and to process the information. The film-products used were organic hydrosoluble polymers with diphosphonic 'heads' that permit a very good absorption at the metallic surface. This research is used to protect the installations of low-carbon steel against the atmospheric and high temperature corrosion. (authors)

  7. Study on cerium-doped nano-TiO2 coatings for corrosion protection of 316?L stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Suning; Wang, Qian; CHEN, TAO; Zhou, Zhihua; Wang, Ying; Fu, Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Many methods have been reported on improving the photogenerated cathodic protection of nano-TiO2 coatings for metals. In this work, nano-TiO2 coatings doped with cerium nitrate have been developed by sol–gel method for corrosion protection of 316?L stainless steel. Surface morphology, structure, and properties of the prepared coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion p...

  8. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on Corrosion Protection of Acrylate Nanocomposite on Mild Steel Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Akhir, M. M.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Harun, M. K.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2015-05-01

    Acrylate:carbon nanotubes (A:CNTs) nanocomposite thin film was prepared by sol- gel technique. The corrosion coating protection of acrylate:carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite thin film has been coated on mild steel characterised by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) measurement and equivalent circuit model are employed to analyse coating impedance for corrosion protection. In this study, 3.5 w/v % sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was immersed the acrylate:carbon nanotubes nanocomposite thin film. As the results, the surface morphology were found that there formation of carbon nanotubes with good distribution on acrylate-based coating. From EIS measurement, A:CNTs nanocomposite thin film with 0.4 w/v % contain of CNTs was exhibited the highest coating impedance from Nyquist graph after immersed in sodium chloride solution and may provide the excellent corrosion protection. The Bode plots have shown the impedance is high at the beginning from the time at high frequency and slightly decreases with value of frequency become smaller.

  9. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  10. Corrosion protection of low-carbon steel using exopolysaccharide coatings from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstadt, Victoria L; Côté, Gregory L; Willett, J L

    2011-06-01

    Corrosion of metals is a serious and challenging problem faced worldwide by industry. Purified Leuconostoc mesenteroides exopolysaccharide (EPS) coatings, cast from aqueous solution, inhibited the corrosion of low-carbon steel as determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). There were two different corrosion behaviors exhibited when EPS films from different strains were cast onto the steel. One EPS coating reacted immediately with the steel substrate to form an iron (III) oxide layer ("rust") during the drying process while another did not. The samples that did not flash corrode had higher corrosion inhibition and formed an iron (II) passivation layer during EIS testing that persisted after the cells were disassembled. Corrosion inhibition was strain-specific as polysaccharides with similar structure did not have the same corrosion potential. PMID:21290167

  11. Corrosion properties of steel protected by nanometre-thick oxide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 40–50 nm mixed alumina–tantala coatings were grown by atomic layer deposition. • Effects of substrate surface finish and oxide mix were analysed. • Nanolaminate stacks are better resistant to breakdown. • Localised corrosion occurs at pre-existing coating defects exposing substrate sites. • Substrate brushing and H2–Ar plasma pre-treatment hinder pit initiation. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of the corrosion properties of low alloy steel protected by 40–50 nm aluminium and tantalum mixed oxide coatings grown by atomic layer deposition is reported. Electrochemical and surface analysis was performed to address the effect of substrate surface finish and whether an oxide mixture or nanolaminate was used. There was no dissolution or breakdown for nanolaminate alumina/tantala stacks in acidic NaCl solution. Localised corrosion (pitting) took place when defects exposing the substrate pre-existed in the coating. Substrate pre-treatment by brushing and H2–Ar plasma was instrumental to block or slow down pit initiation by reducing the defect dimensions

  12. The protective action of two vapour phase inhibitors on the corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastidas, J.M.; Feliu, S. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain)); Mora, E.M. (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales)

    1990-06-01

    The action of two vapour phase inhibitors (VPI), dicyclohexyl-ammonium nitrite (DICHAN) and dicyclohexylamine (DICHAMIN), on the atmospheric corrosion of mild steel at a relative humidity of 100% and under isothermal conditions (25deg C) has been studied. In order to obtain electrochemical data with thin adsorbed moisture layers a vapour phase inhibitor monitor (VPIM) was developed. A check of the data was done by three electrochemical techniques and by the image analysis technique. The tests carried out have revealed that the corrosion rate of mild steel decreases in the presence of DICHAN and DICHAMIN. With the VPIM and the electrochemical techniques used it is possible to understand the inhibition mechanism of these two vapour inhibitors on the atmospheric corrosion of steel. (orig.).

  13. Corrosion protection by anaerobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Wanner; Zehnder, A J

    2001-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria can protect mild (unalloyed) steel from corrosion. Mild steel coupons incubated with Rhodoccocus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 in an aerobic phosphate-buffered medium containing benzoate as carbon and energy source, underwent a surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer [Fe3(PO4)2]. Electrochemical potential (E) measurements allowed us to follow the buildup of the vivianite cover. The presence of sufficient metabolically active bacteria at the steel surface resulted in an E decrease to -510 mV, the potential of free iron, and a continuous release of ferrous iron. Part of the dissolved iron precipitated as vivianite in a compact layer of two to three microns in thickness. This layer prevented corrosion of mild steel for over two weeks, even in a highly corrosive medium. A concentration of 20 mM phosphate in the medium was found to be a prerequisite for the formation of the vivianite layer. PMID:11730124

  14. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Florica Simescu and Hassane Idrissi

    2008-01-01

    We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by ...

  15. Study of electrodeposited polypyrrole coatings for the corrosion protection of stainless steel bipolar plates for the PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.A. Lucio [CIE-UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Smit, Mascha A. [Unidad de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY), Calle 43 no. 130, col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, 97200 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-14

    Polypyrrole coatings were prepared on stainless steel SS304 in order to study the corrosion protection provided by the conductive polymer in a simulated PEM fuel cell environment. The polypyrrole was deposited by electrochemical polymerization with 0.04, 0.07 and 0.14gcm{sup -2} onto SS304 electrodes. Polarization curves, taken after immersion for 1, 3 or 24h in 0.1M sulphuric acid at either room temperature or 60{sup o}C were used as an accelerated test. For short immersion times, it was found that corrosion current densities (at free corrosion potentials), diminished up to 2 orders of magnitude for samples tested at room temperature and up to 4 orders of magnitude for samples tested at 60{sup o}C. Furthermore, at potentials in the range of the PEM fuel cell anode potential, corrosion rates also decreased up to several orders of magnitude. However, these protective properties were lost at longer times of immersion. The addition of DBSA to the polypyrrole coatings did lead to improved corrosion current densities at the free corrosion potential, however due to the loss of passivity of these samples, the corrosion rates in the potential range applicable to PEM fuel cells were either similar to or larger than bare metal. SEM was used to determine the morphology of the coatings and showed that the most homogeneous coating was obtained for 0.07gcm{sup -2} polypyrrole, without the incorporation of DBSA. (author)

  16. In-situ AFM and EIS study of a solventborne alkyd coating with nanoclay for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Li; Ecco, Luiz; Fedel, Michele; Ermini, Valentina; Delmas, Gregory; Pan, Jinshan

    2015-01-01

    A solventborne alkyd composite coating containing modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay was made on carbon steel, and its corrosion protection was investigated by in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated intercalation of the MMT sheets in the composite coating. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated improved thermal stability of the composite coating due to ...

  17. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion-resistant chromium-nickel steel containing cerium and vanadium additions is developed. It is aimed at producing welding structures operating at cryogenic temperatures. The above steel also contains C, Mo, Co, Ca, Y, Fe. Ce and V additions permit to increase the impact strength of joints at the temperature of -253 deg and resistance to the formation of welded cracks by way of grain size refinement of the initial coarse-grained structure and decreasing steel tendency to grain growth during welding heatings. A considerable economic effect from the introduction of the suggested steel is supposed

  18. Protection of type 316 austenitic stainless steel from intergranular stress corrosion cracking by thermo-mechanical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermomechanical treatment that causes carbide stabilizing aging of cold worked material followed by recrystallization heating made standard stainless steels highly resistant to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in different test environments. After a typical thermal history of simulated welding, several IGSCC susceptibility tests were made. The results showed that the treatment was successful in type 316 steel in wide range of conditions, while type 304 was protected only to a small extent even by closely controlled treatment. Response of the materials to the sensitizing heating in terms of impurity segregation at grain boundaries was also examined by means of microchemical analysis. Advantage of method is that no special care is required in selecting heats of material, so that conventional type 316 is usable by improving the mechanical properties substantially through the treatment. In some optimized cases the mechanical property improvement was typically recognized by the yield strength by about 20% higher at room temperature, compared with the material mill annealed. (author)

  19. Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating well protects steel rebar. • Coating performance is evaluated by impedance measurements up to 1 year. • Ultimate bond strength between the coated rebars and concrete is measured. • Self-compacting concrete shows better anticorrosive property compared to normal one. - Abstract: In this study, an epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite (epoxy/PANI–CSA) is employed to protect reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Bare, epoxy-coated and epoxy/PANI–CSA nanocomposite-coated steel rebars were embedded in normal and self-compacting concretes. To evaluate their corrosion behaviors, open circuit potential and impedance measurements were performed for the duration of 1 year. Ultimate bond strength of concrete with the reinforcement bars were measured in corroded and uncorroded conditions. It was found that epoxy/PANI–CSA coating provides good corrosion resistance and durable bond strength with concrete for steel rebars

  20. Incorporation of Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposite in an epoxy coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Gia Vu; Truc Trinh, Anh; To, Thi Xuan Hang; Duong Nguyen, Thuy; Trang Nguyen, Thu; Hoan Nguyen, Xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this study Fe3O4/CNTs composite with magnetic property was prepared by attaching magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by hydrothermal method. The obtained Fe3O4/CNTs composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe3O4/CNTs composite was then incorporated into an epoxy coating at concentration of 3 wt%. Corrosion protection of epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adhesion measurement. The impedance measurements show that Fe3O4/CNTs composite enhanced the corrosion protection of epoxy coating. The corrosion resistance of the carbon steel coated by epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was significantly higher than that of carbon steel coated by clear epoxy coating and epoxy coating containing CNTs. FE-SEM photographs of fracture surface of coatings showed good dispersion of Fe3O4/CNTs composite in the epoxy matrix.

  1. Incorporation of Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposite in an epoxy coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Fe3O4/CNTs composite with magnetic property was prepared by attaching magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by hydrothermal method. The obtained Fe3O4/CNTs composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe3O4/CNTs composite was then incorporated into an epoxy coating at concentration of 3 wt%. Corrosion protection of epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adhesion measurement. The impedance measurements show that Fe3O4/CNTs composite enhanced the corrosion protection of epoxy coating. The corrosion resistance of the carbon steel coated by epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was significantly higher than that of carbon steel coated by clear epoxy coating and epoxy coating containing CNTs. FE-SEM photographs of fracture surface of coatings showed good dispersion of Fe3O4/CNTs composite in the epoxy matrix. (paper)

  2. Preparation of Crosslinked Amphiphilic Silver Nanogel as Thin Film Corrosion Protective Layer for Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a new developed method via reaction of AgNO3 and oleic acid with the addition of a trace amount of Fe3+ ions. Emulsion polymerization at room temperature was employed to prepare a core-shell silver nanoparticle with controllable particle size. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS were used as a crosslinker, and as redox initiator system, respectively for crosslinking polymerization. The structure and morphology of the silver nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM. The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Monolayers of silver nanoparticle were self-assembled on the fresh active surface of the steel electrode and have been tested as a corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 M HCl solution. The results of polarization measurements showed that nanogel particles act as a mixed type inhibitor.

  3. Multilayer graphene for long-term corrosion protection of stainless steel bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Motivated by similar investigations recently published (Pu et al., 2015), we report a comparative corrosion study of three sets of samples relevant as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: stainless steel, stainless steel with a nickel seed layer (Ni/SS) and stainless steel with Ni seed layer coated by a multi-layered graphene thin film (G/Ni/SS). The graphene film, synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), has a moderate amount of defects according to Raman spectroscopy. Short/medium-term corrosion test shows no significant advantage of using G/Ni/SS rather than Ni/SS, both samples exhibiting a similar trend, thus questioning the short-term positive effect of graphene coatings. However, partial immersion in boiling seawater for three weeks reveals a clear superiority of the graphene coating with respect to steel just protected by Ni. After the test, the graphene film is still intact with unchanged defect density. Our results show that even non-perfect multilayer graphene films can considerably increase the lifetime of future-generation bipolar plates for fuel cells.

  4. In-Situ AFM and EIS Study of Waterborne Acrylic Latex Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Jing; Ecco, Luiz; Delmas, Gregory; Whitehouse, Nigel; Collins, Peter; Deflorian, Flavio; Pan, Jinshan

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion protection for carbon steel by three waterborne styrene-acrylic latex coatings with different glass transition temperature (Tg) and levels of hydrophobicity has been studied by in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.0 wt% NaCl solution. The AFM images reveal the micro-and nano-structure of and pinholes in the coatings as well as their changes during exposure in the solution, whereas the EIS spectra vs. time of exposur...

  5. Nanocomposite films for corrosion protection

    OpenAIRE

    Sababi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes technical and scientific aspects of new types of composite films/coatings for corrosion protection of carbon steel, composite films with nanometer thickness consisting of mussel adhesive protein (Mefp?1) and ceria nanoparticles, and polymeric composite coatings with micrometre thickness consisting of conducting polymer and ceria nanoparticles in a UV?curing polyester acrylate (PEA) resin. The influence of microstructure on corrosion behaviour was studied for a Fe?Cr?V?N ...

  6. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza; Edith Ariza; Margarita Ballester; Inez Valéria Pagotto Yoshida; Luis Augusto Rocha; Célia Marina de Alvarenga Freire

    2006-01-01

    The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been appli...

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, M. E. P.; Ariza, E.; M. Ballester; I. V. P. Yoshida; L. A. ROCHA; Freire, C. M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of hybrids materials by the sol-gel process has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permit the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals and abrasion resistant coatings. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and silanol-terminated polidymet...

  8. Failure mechanism of thin Al2O3 coatings grown by atomic layer deposition for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined analysis by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of the corrosion protection provided to carbon steel by thin (50 nm) Al2O3 coatings grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and its failure mechanism is reported. In spite of excellent sealing properties, the results show an average dissolution rate of the alumina coating of ?7 nm h-1 in neutral 0.2 M NaCl and increasing porosity of the remaining layers with increasing immersion time. Alumina dissolution is triggered by the penetration of the solution via cracks/pinholes through the coating to the substrate surface where oxygen reduction takes place, raising the pH. At defective substrate surface sites of high aspect ratio and concentrated residual mechanical stress (along scratches) presumably exposing a higher steel surface fraction, localized dissolution of the coating is promoted by a more facile access of the solution to the substrate surface enhancing oxygen reduction. De-adhesion of the coating is also promoted in these sites by the ingress of the anodic dissolution trenching the steel surface. Localized corrosion of the alloy (i.e. pitting) is triggered prior to complete dissolution of the alumina film on the elsewhere still coated surface matrix.

  9. Corrosion protection of 316 L stainless steel by a TiO2 nanoparticle coating prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A uniform and TiO2 nanoparticle coating on steels has been prepared using sol-gel method and hydrothermal post-treatments. The morphology and structure of the coatings were analysed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The anticorrosion performances of the coatings in dark and under ultraviolet illumination have been evaluated by using electrochemical techniques. The influences of coating thickness, pH and NaCl concentration on corrosion protection have been examined as well. The results indicate that the TiO2 nanoparticle coatings on steels exhibit an excellent corrosion resistance due to a ceramic protective barrier on metal surface in dark, and a photo-generated cathodic protection current under UV illumination. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements provide an explanation to the increased resistance of nano TiO2 particles coated 316 L stainless steel against corrosion

  10. Long term corrosion on T91 and AISI1 316L steel in flowing lead alloy and corrosion protection barrier development: Experiments and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenburger, A.; Schroer, C.; Jianu, A.; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Steiner, H.; Müller, G.; Fazio, C.; Gessi, A.; Babayan, S.; Kobzova, A.; Martinelli, L.; Ginestar, K.; Balbaud-Célerier, F.; Martín-Muñoz, F. J.; Soler Crespo, L.

    2011-08-01

    Considering the status of knowledge on corrosion and corrosion protection and especially the need for long term compatibility data of structural materials in HLM a set of experiments to generate reliable long term data was defined and performed. The long term corrosion behaviour of the two structural materials foreseen in ADS, 316L and T91, was investigated in the design relevant temperature field, i.e. from 300 to 550 °C. The operational window of the two steels in this temperature range was identified and all oxidation data were used to develop and validate the models of oxide scale growth in PbBi. A mechanistic model capable to predict the oxidation rate applying some experimentally fitted parameters has been developed. This model assumes parabolic oxidation and might be used for design and safety relevant investigations in future. Studies on corrosion barrier development allowed to define the required Al content for the formation of thin alumina scales in LBE. These results as well as future steps and required improvements are discussed. Variation of experimental conditions clearly showed that specific care has to be taken with respect to local flow conditions and oxygen concentrations.

  11. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Simescu and Hassane Idrissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO46(OH2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  12. Adsorption rate and protective effect of tributyl(cyclohexyl)ammonium chloride inhibitor on the acidic corrosion of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerramov, A.M.; Aliyev, I.A.; Khalilova, F.I. [Faculty of Chemistry, Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Rzayev, Z.M.O. [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    The inhibition of corrosion of a steel surface by an inhibitor, tributyl(cyclohexyl)ammonium chloride (TBCA), was investigated by gravimetric and electrochemical polarization measurements in various aqueous solutions of HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acids. It is known that the most extensive corrosive destruction proceeds during the initial stage of contact between the metallic surface and the aggressive surroundings. The change from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to HCl considerably decreases the time for formation of an adsorption layer. The high adsorption of the surface-active cationic TBCA on the steel electrode surface can be explained by the specific adsorption of Cl{sup -} anions increasing the negative charge on the electrode surface. It was observed that the value of the polarizing current can be increased from time to time by addition of more TBCA inhibitor. This fact can be explained by the low stability of the film-forming layer on the steel. A similar decrease of the protective effect was also observed in HCl solution. The inhibitor provides at least a slowing of the corrosion process ({tau}=21 min). It was found that an increase in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration from 1.0 to 0.2 N did not change the protective action of the inhibitor and had rather high values ({theta}=283 ma/h, {psi}=84%, and {tau}=14 min at [I]=3.5 x 10{sup -4} mol/L). It was shown that the attraction constant has a negative value (A=-1.5 and K{sub a}=22.3) for the inhibitor, which relates to a high value for the adsorption ability of TBCA in HCl solution and therefore with the intermolecular repulsive force between adsorption molecules having similar charges. The protective action of TBCA increases with an increase in temperature, which is correlated with the chemical nature of its adsorption on the steel surface. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Corrosion of steel in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tuutti, Kyösti

    1982-01-01

    The research work that is presented in this thesis aims at mapping out the various mechanisms which control the process of steel corrosion in concrete. The process of corrosion is illustrated with a schematic model where the service life is divided into a period of initiation and a period of propagation. The time up to the initiation of the corrosion process is determined by the flow of penetrating substances into the concrete cover and by the threshold concentration for corrosion to start. T...

  14. New sol-gel formulations to increase the barrier effect of a protective coating against the corrosion of steels

    OpenAIRE

    Certhoux, Elise; Ansart, Florence; Turq, Viviane; Bonino, Jean-Pierre; Sobrino, Jean-Michel; Garcia, Julien; Reby, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Films were deposited onto AISI 430 stainless steel substrates by dip-coating technique. The aim is to reach the AISI 304L stainless steel anti-corrosion properties by a coated AISI 430 stainless steel system. Sol formulation is done from the starting precursors tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MAP). After the hydrolysis of these precursors, sol-gel reactions occur before the addition (or not) of a controlled quantity of cerium nitrate. The addition of...

  15. Electrodeposition of polyaniline, poly(2-iodoaniline), and poly(aniline- co-2-iodoaniline) on steel surfaces and corrosion protection of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereket, Gözen; Hür, Evrim; ?ahin, Yücel

    2005-12-01

    Polyaniline (PANi), poly(2-iodoaniline) (PIANi), and poly(aniline- co-2-iodoaniline) ( co-PIANi) were synthesized using cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile solution containing tetrabuthylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) and perchloric acid (HClO 4) on 304-stainless steel electrodes. Adherent and black polymer films were obtained on the electrodes. The structure and properties of these polymer films were characterized by FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical method. The corrosion performance of PANi, PIANi, and co-PIANi coated electrodes were investigated in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions by potentiodynamic polarization technique, open circuit potential-time curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS. It was found that the PANi film could provide much better protection than PIANi, and co-PIANi and PANi films have barrier property as well as acting as passivator. On the other hand PIANi and co-PIANi films are acting as barrier coatings which were related with the prevention of cathodic reaction taking place at metalelectrolyte interface. EIS measurement shows that every coating gives protection efficiency of greater than 75% after 48 h of immersion time in corrosive test solution.

  16. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  17. Layered double hydroxides as containers of inhibitors in organic coatings for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, To Thi Xuan; Truc, Trinh Anh; Duong, Nguyen Thuy; Pébère, Nadine; Olivier, Marie-Georges

    2012-01-01

    The present work focuses on the use of layered double hydroxides (LDH) as containers for corrosion inhibitors in an epoxy coating. 2-Benzothiazolylthio-succinic acid (BTSA), used as corrosion inhibitor, was intercalated by co-precipitation in magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides. The obtained LDH-BTSA was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. BTSA release from LDH-BTSA in NaCl solutions was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The ...

  18. Corrosion fatigue of steel in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of this research programme was to clarify to what extent the traditional alkaline protection is sufficient also under cyclic actions in chloride environments or under which conditions more protection efforts (coating, cathodic protection) would be required. As a measure of the efficiency of the protection the fatigue strength of the prestressing steel under simultaneous action of different corrosive environments has been investigated. Corrosion fatigue tests on 3 series of 3-point-loaded beams post-tensioned with a 7-wire monostrand tendon according to German standard specifications have been performed. The corrosive environment was produced for the beams of the first two series by wetting their surface with salt water in regular intervals. For the third series of beams chloride has been added to the concrete and the grouting mortar and the beams have been wetted with water at proper intervals. Constant amplitude load cycles have been applied. (orig./MM)

  19. Marine corrosion of mild steel at Lumut, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ong Shiou; Potty, Narayanan Sambu; Liew, Mohd. Shahir

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion rate of structural steels in the adverse marine and offshore environments affects the economic interest of offshore structures since the loss of steel may have significant impact on structural safety and performance. With more emphasis to maintain existing structures in service for longer time and hence to defer replacement costs, there is increasing interest in predicting corrosion rate at a given location for a given period of exposure once the protection coating or cathodic protection is lost. The immersion depth, salinity, steel composition and water pollution will be taken into account. Various corrosion allowances are prescribed for structural members by different standards. There are no studies to determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for steel structures in marine environment in Malaysia. The objectives of the research are to determine the nature and rate of corrosion in mm/year for steel structures in marine environment. It also tries to identify whether the corrosion rate is affected by differences in the chemical composition of the steels, and microalgae. Two sets of corrosion coupons of Type 3 Steel consisting of mild steel were fabricated and immersed in seawater using steel frames. The corrosion rate of the coupon in mm/ per year is estimated based on the material weight loss with time in service. The results are compared with recommendations of the code.

  20. Evaluation of the protection behaviour of reinforcement steel against corrosion induced by chlorides in reinforced mortar specimens; Avaliacao do comportamento frente a corrosao pelo ataque de cloreto de argamassa armada apos varios tratamentos protetores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivelaro, Marcos

    2002-07-01

    In this work various treatments for protecting reinforcing steels against corrosion induced by chlorides have been evaluated. Additives to mortars and surface treatments given to reinforcing steels were evaluated as corrosion protection measures. In the preliminary tests the corrosion resistance of a CA 50 steel treated by immersion in nearly 50 different solutions, was determined. The solutions were prepared with tannins (from various sources) and/or benzotriazole, and during immersion, a surface film formed on the steel. The corrosion resistance of the coated steels was evaluated in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution with 5% (wt) NaCl. Preliminary tests were also carried out with mortars reinforced with uncoated steel to which tannin or lignin was added. Two organic coatings, a monocomponent and a bicomponent type, formulated specially for this investigation, with both tannin and benzotriazole, were also tested in the preliminary tests to select the coating with better corrosion protection property. The bicomponent type (epoxy coating) showed better performance than the monocomponent type coating, and the former was therefore chosen to investigate the corrosion performance on CA 50 steel inside mortar specimens. From the preliminary tests, two solutions with tannin from two sources, Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) and Brazilian tea (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill), to which benzotriazole and phosphoric acid were added, were chosen. Mortar specimens reinforced with CA50 steel treated by immersion in these two solutions were prepared. Also, epoxy coated CA50 steel was tested as reinforcement inside mortar specimens. Mortars reinforced with uncoated CA50 steel were also prepared and corrosion tested for comparison. The effect of tannin and lignin as separate additives to the mortar on the corrosion resistance of uncoated steel was also studied. The reinforced mortar specimens were tested with various cycles of immersion for 2 days in 3.5% (wt) NaCl followed by with air drying for 5 days. The corrosion tests used in this investigation were gravimetric and electrochemical tests. The results showed satisfactory corrosion performance for all kinds of protection measures. However, the performance depended on the type of protection used. The best performance was obtained with tannin containing epoxy coated steel, followed by the steel treated by immersion in tannin containing solutions and finally by the addition of tannin (Black Wattle) or lignin to the mortar. All the protection measures evaluated in this study are economically viable and environmentally friendly and can therefore be considered for protecting reinforcement steels against corrosion. (author)

  1. Tantalum oxide nanocoatings prepared by atomic layer and filtered cathodic arc deposition for corrosion protection of steel: Comparative surface and electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? 50 nm Ta2O5 coatings grown by ALD at 160 °C and FCAD for protection of steel. ? Combined analysis by ToF-SIMS, XPS, polarization curves and EIS. ? Relation between chemical architecture and corrosion protection properties studied. ? Localized corrosion by pitting with absence of coating dissolution demonstrated. ? Origin and role of spurious interfacial oxide promoting coating breakdown emphasized. -- Abstract: A comparative study by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, i–E polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of the corrosion protection of low alloy steel by 50 nm thick tantalum oxide coatings prepared by low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (FCAD) is reported. The data evidence the presence of a spurious oxide layer mostly consisting of iron grown by transient thermal oxidation at the ALD film/substrate interface in the initial stages of deposition and its suppression by pre-treatment in the FCAD process. Carbonaceous contamination (organic and carbidic) resulting from incomplete removal of the organic precursor is the major cause of the poorer sealing properties of the ALD film. No coating dissolution is demonstrated in neutral or acid 0.2 M NaCl solutions. In acid solution localized corrosion by pitting proceeds faster with the ALD than with the FCAD coating. The roles of the pre-existing channel defects exposing the substrate surface and of the spurious interfacial oxide promoting coating breakdown and/or delamination are emphasized

  2. LongerLife products increase the sustainability. Is corrosion protection ecologically useful for steel components?; LongerLife-Produkte erhoehen die Nachhaltigkeit. Ist Korrosionsschutz von Stahlbauteilen oekologisch sinnvoll?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogall, Armin Dietmar [Fachhochschule Dortmund (Germany). Fachbereich Architektur

    2011-07-01

    The installation of hot-dip galvanized construction units means sustainable acting. Since corrosion protection by hot-dip galvanizing can be particularly named sustainable due to its longevity, its environmental careful production, its recycling ability and life extension of steel components. Particularly the reduction of the maintenance cycles and utilization costs accompanying with a slightly higher initial investment makes the hot-dip galvanizing a sustainable system. Steel components which are treated with galvanization and colour coating, have a maintenance-free life span of more than 80 years.

  3. Corrosion fatigue of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion fatigue phenomena can be classified into two main groups according to the electrochemical state of the metal surface in the presence of electrolytes: the active and the passive state with an important sub-group of corrosion fatigue in the unstable passive state. The allowable stress for structures exposed to the conjoint action of corrosion and fatigue is influenced by many factors: kind of media, number of cycles, frequency, mean stress, size, notches, loading mode, alloy composition and mechanical strength. A critical literature review shows contradictory results if a classification by the electrochemical surface state is not applied. Case histories and counter measures illustrate the practical importance of corrosion fatigue in many branches of industry as well as the urgent need for a better knowledge about the mutual influence of the phenomena to get rules by which the engineer can appraise the risk of corrosion fatigue. (orig.)

  4. Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander SHRAMKO; Alfred KOZLOWSKY; Elena BELAJA; Yuriy PROIDAK; Pinchuk, Sofia; Gubenko, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of corrosi...

  5. Steel corrosion in radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaborative study is being conducted by CNEA and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America) to investigate the effects of tank waste chemistry on radioactive waste storage tank corrosion. Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks that contain a combination of salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide. The USDOE, Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site, has identified a need to conduct a laboratory study to better understand the effects of radioactive waste chemistry on the corrosion of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The USDOE science need (RL-WT079-S Double-Shell Tanks Corrosion Chemistry) called for a multi year effort to identify waste chemistries and temperatures within the double-shell tank (DST) operating limits for corrosion control and operating temperature range that may not provide the expected corrosion protection and to evaluate future operations for the conditions outside the existing corrosion database. Assessment of corrosion damage using simulated (non-radioactive) waste is being made of the double-shell tank wall carbon steel alloy. Evaluation of the influence of exposure time, and electrolyte composition and/or concentration is being also conducted. (author)

  6. Cathodic protection to control microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the cathodic protection performance in environments with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) effects is very fragmented and often contradictory. Not enough is known about the microbial effects on cathodic protection effectiveness, criteria, calcareous deposits, corrosion rates and possible hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and some stainless steel condenser tubes. This paper presents a review of cathodic protection systems, describes several examples of cathodic protection in environments with MIC effects and provides preliminary conclusions about cathodic protection design parameters, criteria and effectiveness in MIC environments. 30 refs

  7. Volatile corrosion inhibitor film formation on carbon steel surface and its inhibition effect on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI), bis-piperidiniummethyl-urea (BPMU), was developed for temporary protection of carbon steel. Its vapor corrosion inhibition property was evaluated under simulated operational conditions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to study the inhibition effect of BPMU on the corrosion of carbon steel with a thin stimulated atmospheric corrosion water layers. Adsorption of BPMU on carbon steel surfaces was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that BPMU can form a protective film on the metal surface, which protects the metal against further corrosion. The structure of the protective film was suggested as one BPMU molecule chelated with one Fe atom to form a complex with two hexa-rings

  8. Volatile corrosion inhibitor film formation on carbon steel surface and its inhibition effect on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-quan; An, Zhong-xun; Pan, Qing-yi; Gao, Li-xin; Zhou, Guo-ding

    2006-11-01

    A novel volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI), bis-piperidiniummethyl-urea (BPMU), was developed for temporary protection of carbon steel. Its vapor corrosion inhibition property was evaluated under simulated operational conditions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to study the inhibition effect of BPMU on the corrosion of carbon steel with a thin stimulated atmospheric corrosion water layers. Adsorption of BPMU on carbon steel surfaces was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that BPMU can form a protective film on the metal surface, which protects the metal against further corrosion. The structure of the protective film was suggested as one BPMU molecule chelated with one Fe atom to form a complex with two hexa-rings.

  9. Electrochemical and analytical study of some organic inhibitors used for carbon steel corrosion protection in water cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is the main cooling fluid in most industrial applications due to its wide existence in nature and its high specific heat capacity and its thermal conductivity. If pure water was used in cooling systems no problems will occur. However, due to the presence of suspended matter and dissolved solids and gases in water three main problems are encountered in industrial cooling systems; corrosion, scale, and growth of microorganisms which all badly affect the heat transfer efficiency of such system. This study is concerned with utilizing organic inhibitors to control corrosion of mild steel. Three inhibitors were used; 1-hydroxyethylene-1,1- diphosphonic acid (HEDP) as an example of phosphonates, sodium octanoate (C7H15-COONa)as an examples of carboxylates, and 2- phosphono-butane -1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTC) as an example of a compound having two effective groups: carboxylate and phosphonate (PBTC). City water available at site was used in the present study as a large number of cooling systems utilize water available at site together with mechanical and chemical treatment methods to control corrosion among the two other problems. Two experimental techniques were utilized, potentiodynamic polarization technique and gravimetric technique. The gravimetric technique included a flow loop to simulate the flowing condition of a cooling circuit and a one-day immersion test. Carbon steel specimens, polished to 120 and 600 grit size were used to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the corrosion inhibition efficiency.

  10. Development of low-temperature galvanizing and its application for corrosion protection of high-strength steels; Entwicklung einer niedrigschmelzenden Legierung und deren Applikation zum Korrosionsschutz hochfester Staehle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielage, B.; Lampke, T.; Steinhaeuser, S. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz (Germany). Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik; Strobel, C. [Fachhochschule Ingolstadt (Germany); Merklinger, V.

    2008-12-15

    Apart from reliability and quality, vehicle safety and cost efficiency are the decisive criteria for automobile manufacturers. Corrosion protection plays a decisive role because it increases the service life. The ultra-high-strength steels are materials which exhibit high lightweight potential as well as a very good energy absorption capacity because of their mechanical properties. In connection with the possibility of hot forming, they are predestined for the fabrication of complicated, load-compatible shapes in the crash-relevant frame and body construction. The application of these steel qualities has been carried out in structural parts which are protected from corrosion by a hot-dip coat of FeAl7 - the so-called Usibor. However, at the moment there is no ready-for-production solution for later corrosion protection of already hot-formed parts. Therefore, a corrosion protection system on the basis of conventional low-temperature galvanizing processes has been developed and utilized. First, the softening behavior of the highly-resistant 22MnB5 substrate was analyzed. Afterwards, a galvanizing system was developed and applied. The corrosion protection coatings were characterized with regard to their structure and corrosion protection potential. As a result, a significant improvement of the corrosion behaviour has occurred. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Neben Zuverlaessigkeit und Qualitaet sind vor allem Fahrzeugsicherheit und Wirtschaftlichkeit entscheidende Kriterien fuer den Automobilhersteller. Der Korrosionsschutz spielt dabei eine herausragende Rolle, da hierdurch die Lebens- und Gebrauchsdauer erhoeht wird. Mit der Bereitstellung hoechstfester Stahlqualitaeten stehen Werkstoffe zur Verfuegung, die auf Grund ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften ein hohes Leichtbaupotenzial sowie ein sehr gutes Energieabsorptionsvermoegen aufweisen. In Verbindung mit der Moeglichkeit der Warmformgebung sind sie damit praedestiniert fuer die Herstellung komplizierter, beanspruchungsgerechter Formen im crashrelevanten Karosseriebereich. Der Einsatz dieser Stahlqualitaeten erfolgt bislang in Strukturbauteilen, die mit einem Schmelztauchueberzug aus FeAl7, sog. Usibor, vor Korrosion geschuetzt sind. Jedoch besteht zurzeit keine serienreife Loesung fuer den nachtraeglichen Korrosionsschutz von bereits warmumgeformten Bauteilen. Deshalb wurde ein Korrosionsschutzsystem auf Basis des herkoemmlichen Schmelztauchverzinkungsprozesses entwickelt und appliziert. Zunaechst wurde das Entfestigungsverhalten des hoechstfesten Substrats 22MnB5 analysiert. Anschliessend wurde ein Legierungssystem entwickelt und appliziert. Die so entstandenen Korrosionsschutzschichten wurden hinsichtlich ihrer Struktur und des Korrosionsschutzpotenzials charakterisiert. Im Ergebnis tritt eine deutliche Verbesserung des Korrosionsverhaltens ein. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  12. Sol-gel deposition of ZrO2 films in air and in oxygen-free atmospheres for chemical protection of 304 stainless steel : a comparative corrosion study

    OpenAIRE

    Aegerter, Michel A.; P. De Lima-Neto; Perdomo, L. F.; Avaca, Luis A.

    1999-01-01

    ZrO2 coatings for corrosion protection were deposited on 304 stainless steel by sol-gel method using zirconium propoxide as precursor and densified in air and in oxygen-free (argon or nitrogen) atmospheres. XRD and IR data of the films were practically independent of the atmosphere used in the densification step showing that the ceramic oxide is properly formed from the precursor. The corrosion behavior of the stainless steel substrate was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves in the...

  13. Corrosion inhibition performance of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole compounds for protection of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of some mercapto functional azole compounds on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution was studied by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization studies showed depression of cathodic and anodic polarization curves in the presence of mercapto functional azole compounds, indicating mixed type corrosion inhibition of the compounds. Double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance values were derived from EIS results. Changes in impedance parameters are indicative of adsorption of these compounds on the metal surface. Surface analysis SEM/EDX showing presence of sulfur on the surface confirmed the adsorption of the azole compounds on the mild steel surface as showed by electrochemical methods. Both compounds contain a pyridine-like nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom in their molecular structure, while they differ in only one heteroatom: oxygen in the oxazole ring and pyrrole-like nitrogen in the imidazole ring. The results of the electrochemical techniques revealed that changing the pyrrole like nitrogen atom to oxygen atom in the azole ring results in a decrease of corrosion inhibition performance in hydrochloric acid solution, which could be related to more negative charge on pyrrole-like nitrogen atom in comparison to oxygen atom as depicted by quantum chemical calculations.

  14. Corrosion inhibition performance of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole compounds for protection of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavian, M., E-mail: mahdavian@aut.ac.i [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashhari, S. [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-01

    The effect of some mercapto functional azole compounds on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution was studied by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization studies showed depression of cathodic and anodic polarization curves in the presence of mercapto functional azole compounds, indicating mixed type corrosion inhibition of the compounds. Double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance values were derived from EIS results. Changes in impedance parameters are indicative of adsorption of these compounds on the metal surface. Surface analysis SEM/EDX showing presence of sulfur on the surface confirmed the adsorption of the azole compounds on the mild steel surface as showed by electrochemical methods. Both compounds contain a pyridine-like nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom in their molecular structure, while they differ in only one heteroatom: oxygen in the oxazole ring and pyrrole-like nitrogen in the imidazole ring. The results of the electrochemical techniques revealed that changing the pyrrole like nitrogen atom to oxygen atom in the azole ring results in a decrease of corrosion inhibition performance in hydrochloric acid solution, which could be related to more negative charge on pyrrole-like nitrogen atom in comparison to oxygen atom as depicted by quantum chemical calculations.

  15. The Corrosion Protection of Metals by Ion Vapor Deposited Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  16. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  17. Characterization of SiO2-TiO2 Hybrid Corrosion Protective Coatings on Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtay, Sebahattin

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel coatings were prepared and applied on a mild steel substrate using dip coating technique and subsequently heat treated at 200 and 300 °C to improve the corrosion resistance. The coating sols were synthesized using Glycidoxytrimethoxysilane and titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor materials. The corrosion resistances of the both coated and uncoated samples were evaluated by the Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in NaCl solution. The microstructure of coated specimens was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transformed infrared and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were used to identify the presence of various functional groups in the coating solutions. A comparison of the corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated mild steel was presented. i corr values of coated specimens heat treated at 200 °C were between 6.9 and 9.2 times smaller than those of uncoated specimen. In the case of coated specimens heat treated at 300 °C, i corr values were 4.4 and 5 times smaller than those of uncoated specimen. The coating film was noted to be smooth and between 7.2- and 7.5-µm thick. The measured electrochemical parameters indicated that the corrosion resistance was improved by the coating film. The elasticity of the coating can be improved by the presence of organic groups in the coating which reduces stress and crack formations during sintering. Ultimately, crack-free and elastic coating was obtained by heat treating of organic-inorganic coating at as low as 200 °C.

  18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF CARBON STEEL COATED WITH AN EPOXY BASED POWDER COATING CONTAINING MONTMORILONITE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH SILANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tibola Bertuoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the MMT-Na+ clay was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (?-APS and incorporated in a commercial formulation epoxy-based powder coating in a proportion of 8 wt% and applied on 1008 carbon steel panels by electrostatic spray. Adhesion, flexibility, impact and corrosion performance in salt spray chamber tests were performed to evaluate the coatings. The presence of clay did not affect the mechanical properties of the film, however greater subcutaneous migration was assessed after the completion of salt spray testing, which can compromise the use of paints obtained as primers.

  19. Corrosion Characteristics Of Aluminum And Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion phenomena on metals and alloys often need serious treatment, because such phenomena affect to the lifetime of the materials . Even in certain cases, unsupervised and uncontrolled corrosion processes my result in an installation accident. This study investigates corrosion phenomena n metals, among others are conditions which affect corrosion and its kinds occurring on aluminum and stainless steel

  20. Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by electropolymerized conducting polymer coating in 0.5 M NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Dhanabal; G Amirthaganesan; J Ravichandran

    2011-06-01

    Conducting polymers of polyaniline (PANi) and poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) were electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetric technique on low nickel stainless steel (LN SS) in H2SO4 solution containing aniline and $o$-phenylenediamine monomers. The coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible and scanning electron microscopic techniques and the results are discussed. The corrosion protective properties of PANi and PoPD coatings on LN SS in 0.5 M NaCl were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) techniques. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic results indicate that the PoPD coating inhibits the corrosion of LN SS in 0.5 M NaCl solution more effectively than PANi.

  1. Electrodeposition of polyaniline–carbon nanotubes composite films and investigation on their role in corrosion protection of austenitic stainless steel by SNIFTIR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite films of polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by electrochemical co-deposition from solutions of the corresponding monomer containing two different kinds of CNTs. The first type was commercial (diameter = 110–170 nm, length = 5–9 ?m) and the second one was home-made (diameter = 30 nm, length = 5–20 ?m). The electrochemical behaviour of PANI–CNTs composite films was investigated with Cyclic Voltammetry and the surface morphology was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Subtractively Normalised Interfacial FT-IR procedure was used to investigate the presence of corrosion products when the films were deposited on stainless steel substrates and exposed to acid environment. The spectral investigations were utilised to understand the role of composite films in the corrosion protection and to discriminate the best performance CNTs.

  2. Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel Reinforcement in Concrete — a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Ghoreishiamiri, Seyedmojtaba; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the widely used construction materials for bridges, buildings, platforms and tunnels. Though reinforced concrete is capable of withstanding a large range of severe environments including marine, industrial and alpine conditions, there are still a large number of failures in concrete structures for many reasons. Either carbonation or chloride attack is the main culprit which is due to depassivation of reinforced steel and subsequently leads to rapid steel corrosion. Among many corrosion prevention measures, application of corrosion inhibitors play a vital role in metal protection. Numerous range of corrosion inhibitors were reported for concrete protection that were also used commercially in industries. This review summarizes the application of natural products as corrosion inhibitors for concrete protection and also scrutinizes various factors influencing its applicability.

  3. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed

  4. Characteristics of Corrosion Product Layer Formed on Weathering Steel Exposed to the Tropical Climate of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thi Hong Lien; Hoang Lam Hong

    2013-01-01

    The weathering steel (Corten B) was exposed to out-door atmosphere of Hanoi (urban site) and Donghoi (marine site). The results showed the protective ability of corrosion product layer formed on weathering steel in the initial stage. The SEM-EDX analysis detected the presence of chromium and copper in the inner layers of corrosion product formed on weathering steel. These elements improved corrosion resistance of corrosion product layers. In addition, the dense ?-FeOOH phase were appeared ea...

  5. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, Part I – Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; MØller, Per

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the world reinforced concrete is the most widely used construction material for buildings and civil engineering structures. Most reinforced concrete structures have performed satisfactory over many decades, but there still is an unacceptable large number of structures that deteriorate prematurely. Reinforcement corrosion is identified to be the foremost cause of deterioration. Steel in concrete is normally protected by a passive layer due the high alkalinity of the concrete pore solution; corrosion is initiated by neutralization through atmospheric carbon dioxide and by ingress of depassivation ions, especially chloride ions. The background and consequences of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures caused by steel corrosion are summarized. Selected corrosion mechanisms postulated in the literature are briefly discussed and related to observations. The key factors controlling initiation and propagation of corrosion of steel in concrete are outlined.

  6. Effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage of reinforced concrete structures is mainly caused by chloride or carbonation induced corrosion of steel. Cathodic protection is a very effective measure for corrosion control of steel in concrete, especially in chloride contaminated concrete. In this paper, effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement is presented. Cathodic polarization of reinforcements in concrete was done under different submerged conditions. Cyclic potentiodynamic tests were used to determine the effect of cathodic protection on the behavior of the steel. Pitting appeared on the non-protected steel, but was not observed on the cathodically protected steel. microscopic photographs show that a close film exists on the protected steel, while the non-protected steel's film is loose. Investigated results have proved the effect of cathodic protection in restoring or strengthening passive film on the steel reinforcement

  7. AC-Induced Corrosion of Underground Steel Pipelines. Faradaic Rectification under Cathodic Protection: I. Theoretical Approach with Negligible Electrolyte Resistance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Bernard, Tribollet; Hisasi, Takenouti; Michel, Meyer.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubulações subterrâneas protegidos por um revestimento grosso e por polarização catódica podem sofrer danos externos sérios por corrosão na presença de tensão de corrente alternada (AC) dispersa induzida por sistemas industriais de transporte elétrico de [...] alta tensão, como linhas de tensão ou ferrovias eletrizadas. A origem do aumento da corrosão vem da não-linearidade das características corrente-potencial da interface metal-solo. Neste trabalho, avaliaremos teoricamente o aumento da densidade de corrente de corrosão e o deslocamento de potencial induzido por um sinal AC de alta amplitude a modelos de sistemas sofrendo corrosão: curvas de polarização anódicas obedecendo uma lei exponencial em relação ao potencial, e processo catódico sob a cinética de ativação-difusão mista. A originalidade do presente trabalho se encontra no uso de um número relativamente pequeno de variáveis sem dimensão para descrever a retificação faradaica no deslocamento do potencial e no aumento da corrente de corrosão. Neste artigo, o efeito da resistência do eletrólito foi negligenciado. Abstract in english Underground pipelines protected with a thick coating and by cathodic polarisation may suffer a serious external corrosion damage in the presence of stray alternating current (AC) voltage induced by high voltage industrial electric transport system, such a [...] s power lines or electrified railroads. The origin of the corrosion enhancement comes from the nonlinearity of the currentpotential characteristics of the metal-soil interface. In this paper, we will theoretically evaluate the increase of the corrosion current density and the potential shift induced by a high amplitude AC signal to models of corroding systems: anodic polarisation curves obeying an exponential law with respect to the potential, and cathodic process under the mixed activation-diffusion kinetics. The originality of the present work lies in the use of a relatively small number of dimensionless variables to describe the faradaic rectification for the corrosion potential shift and the corrosion current enhancement. In this article, the effect of the electrolyte resistance was neglected.

  8. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    1998-01-01

    An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties of high-strength pipeline steel and the concentration of hydrogen present in the steel. B. Determine the degree hydrogen absorption by cathodically protected steel exposed in natural soil sediment, which include activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). C. Compare the above points with fracture mechanical considerations on the level of stress intensity actually present in pipelines during normal operational conditions. The results were used for a discussion - based on well established fracture mechanical relations - on which set of conditions (CP-level and operating pipeline pressure) could give crack propagation. This resulted in threshold curves that can be used for assessment of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking as a function of operating pressure and hydrogen content - having the flaw size as discrete parameter. The results are to be used mainly on a conceptual basis, but it was indicated that the requirements for crack propagation include an overprotective CP-condition, a severe sulphate-reducing environment, as well as a large flaw (8 mm or a leak in the present case). A 1 mm flaw (which may be the maximum realistic flaw size) is believed to be unable to provoke crack propagation in this steel.

  9. PROTECCIÓN CONTRA LA CORROSIÓN POR SALES FUNDIDAS DE UN ACERO AL CARBONO POR ROCIADO TERMICO / (PROTECTION AGAINST THE HOT CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL BY THERMAL SPRAYING)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSE, MARULANDA; ANDRÉS, GARCÍA; JOSE, VITOLA.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la corrosión por sales fundidas mediante la técnica gravimétrica en un acero de bajo carbono rociado térmicamente con una aleación de acero inoxidable, en una mezcla de sal con 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, entre 700ºC - 850ºC. Los resultados de las pruebas gravimétricas mostraron una deficiente [...] protección de la capa rociada térmicamente y se presentó alta degradación en el recubrimiento protector, debido a que las temperaturas de exposición fueron mayores que las temperaturas de fusión de las sales. Se concluyó que la velocidad de corrosión aumenta con la temperatura y disminuye con el tiempo de exposición. Abstract in english The hot corrosion was evaluated by gravimetric techniques in a low carbon steel protected by thermal spraying with a stainless alloy, in a mixture of salt 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, between 700ºC - 850ºC.. The gravimetric tests showed a weak protection of the layer thermal spraying. The test results sho [...] wed a weak protection of the layer thermally sprayed and presented high degradation in the protective coatings because the exposure temperatures were higher than merging temperatures of the salts. It was concluded that the rate of corrosion increases with temperature and decreases with time of exposure.

  10. Corrosion pitting of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented elucidates the problem of distinguishing between anodic and cathodic sites of pitting corrosion in standard stainless steels 304 and 316. In the present work pitting has been formed by the immersion of samples in magnesium chloride solution (MgCl2) for a given time and this was confirmed by Scanning Auger Microscope (SAM) study. These results show the presence of the elements at the pits and surrounding pits. The following conclusion was obtained from the result: the resistivity of the passive film in MgCl2 solution increases with increasing amount of chromium content in the film. (author)

  11. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS might be used for detection of MIC. EN is a suitable technique to characterise the type of corrosion attack, but is unsuitable for corrosion rate estimation. The concentric electrodes galvanic probe arrangement initiates localised corrosion on the anode and seems applicable to evaluate the risk of MIC. Hydrogen permeation measurements are very useful to monitor hydrogen induced cracking accelerated by MIC.

  12. Influence of corrosion on the light steel gauge framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vladimirovna Ananina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction technology based on the light steel gauge construction is a frame technology, allowing erecting houses in a short time. The essence of this technology is using panels of light steel galvanized perforated and non-perforated profile, which form the metal frame of the building. There are many characteristics of LSGF that have been explored for nowadays. One of the main such characteristics is corrosion resistance. Corrosion protection of light steel structures are extremely important. For the construction of steel structures, electrochemical corrosion has the main importance. Electrochemical corrosion processes take place in aqueous solutions. When the metal surface in contact with the electrolyte solution there is an interaction of the metal with charged particles of solution and the transition metal ions into the solution. It is known that stress corrosion cracking occurs under the action of tensile stresses, which cause dilation of cracks. Compressive stresses counteract cracking, causing the closure of cracks. Growth of carbon content in steel leads to growth of its resistance to stress corrosion including in environments of nitrides and hydroxides. Reducing the grain size of steel increases its resistance to cracking, which is associated with the increase of cracking of path and strength increase. In a high risk of corrosion, it is better to use solid, closed sections than lattice. Greater consumption of steel will pay off as a result of increasing physical strength of the structure. Currently, the most common method of corrosion protection is the application of coatings in a layer of paint. They concede superiority in terms of stability, plated and metal coatings, but more are available.

  13. Microbial corrosion inhibition of mild steel in salty water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor is increasingly being curtailed by recent corrosion restrictions. This paper represents the results of the study of new biocide, antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor named 8-hydroxy-N'-(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetyl)quinoline-5-sulfonohydrazide (HQS) was used to inhibit corrosion causing sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). The effects of the inhibitor on mild steel dissolution in salty water environment were studied through weight loss measurements, electrochemical and microorganism tests. The results obtained from this study show that, the new inhibitor can decrease corrosion and microbial growth under the conditions tested. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons shows lower corrosion rate compared to the unprotected once. Cyclic polarization test reveals that, the biocide minimizes the pitting area (hysteresis). The nature of protective film formed on mild steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed that, the corrosion inhibition by the HQS on the mild steel surface significantly improved in the presence of biocide

  14. Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3-2 and NO-3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10-4?M 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration.

  15. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Thermodynamical Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Møller, Per; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2004-01-01

    The present understanding of selected corrosion phenomena in reinforced concrete is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to chloride induced corrosion. There is a general acceptance of the basic corrosion mechanism for steel in concrete. However different anodic reactions governing the subsequent formation and composition of corrosion products have been proposed. Suggested reactions, except half-cell reactions, are verified or rejected based on their Gibbs free energy, while the electrode potenti...

  16. Characterization of iron oxides and atmospheric corrosion of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sei Jin

    Research has been performed on steel coupons exposed to the atmosphere in order to improve the understanding of the formation and development of iron oxides which control atmospheric corrosion, and to establish data for predicting corrosion behavior taking place under specific atmospheric conditions. Improving the analytical techniques required for studying corrosion behavior was another goal of this research. Then, different analytical techniques can provide additional information, such as identification, fractions and layering of iron oxides formed on steels. The study of corrosion behavior was performed using three different analytical techniques, which provided information on the formation, development and layering of iron oxides on the corrosion products as a function of atmospheric conditions, exposure time and type of steel. In particular, the protective layer formed on weathering steel was investigated as a function of different amounts of alloying elements in the steel, atmospheric conditions and exposure times. Combined together, the results provided a better understanding of the atmospheric corrosion behavior of steel, and formed a part of database of the atmospheric corrosion characteristics. Accurate characterization of the iron oxides often formed on steel surfaces was one of the aims for this research. Seven iron oxides, goethite (?-FeOOH), akaganeite (?-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH), ?-FeOOH, hematite (/alpha- F2O3), maghemite (?- F2O3) and magnetite (F3O4), which are often found in corrosion products present on steel, were characterized by Mossbauer spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry and x-ray diffraction analysis. Complete identification of the corrosion products formed on steel required more than one and most often three of the analytical techniques. In particular, the Mossbauer characterization of the iron oxides included measuring the relative recoilless fraction (F-value), which was defined as the ratio of recoil-free fractions of two different materials. The relative recoilless fractions of the iron oxides allowed the conversion of Mossbauer subspectral areas to the relative atomic, molecular, or weight fraction of each present in a mixed iron oxide sample. The characterization of the iron oxides was used to study the atmospheric corrosion behavior of weathering, copper bearing and carbon steels as a function of environmental condition, exposure time and type of steel. Goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, maghemite and magnetite were identified in the corrosion products formed on the steel coupons. The formation of superparamagnetic goethite showed a correlation with the corrosion rate for seven types of steels. After long term exposure, superparamagnetic goethite on weathering steel, was the final iron oxide formed in the corrosion products. The conosion products typically formed in two layers. The protective layer, the inner layer, was formed by goethite and superparamagnetic maghemite. Increased amounts silicon and smaller amounts of phosphorus in the steel substrate increased the relative fraction of superparamagnetic goethite, in marine and rural environments. However, different amounts of nickel did not affect the formation of the iron oxides even after long term exposure. Increasing the silicon content in steel would be helpful in enhancing corrosion resistance for the long term lifetime of steel structures under atmospheric conditions.

  17. Corrosion protection at Crimean NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-epoxide compositions modified by adsorption-active additions as well as reinforced coatings of the same type for pipeline protection against soil corrosion are investigated to provide for corrosion protection of water-supply systems at the Crimean NPP. Laboratory test in the Asov Sea water at 50-90 deg C confirmed the reliability of the coatings proposed. Works on NPP pipeline protection are performed using the coatings recommended which appeared to be quite efficient for construction and assemling works and as a result of corrosion prevention a sufficient economic effect (1.16 millions of roubles) is abtained

  18. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin coatings for corrosion protection of steel: Surface and electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Belen [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045) - Chimie-ParisTech (ENSCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Haerkoenen, Emma [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Swiatowska, Jolanta [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045) - Chimie-ParisTech (ENSCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Maurice, Vincent, E-mail: vincent-maurice@chimie-paristech.f [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045) - Chimie-ParisTech (ENSCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Seyeux, Antoine [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045) - Chimie-ParisTech (ENSCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Marcus, Philippe, E-mail: philippe-marcus@chimie-paristech.f [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045) - Chimie-ParisTech (ENSCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Ritala, Mikko, E-mail: Mikko.Ritala@Helsinki.f [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} 10-100 nm Alumina coatings grown by ALD at 160 {sup o}C for protection of steel. {yields} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by growth precursors. {yields} Iron oxide and siloxane presence at the buried coating/steel interface. {yields} Exponential decay of coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with thickness increase. {yields} Coating thickness increase required to seal the defective first deposited 10 nm. - Abstract: ToF-SIMS, XPS, voltammetry and EIS investigation of the anti-corrosion properties of thin (10, 50 and 100 nm) alumina coatings grown by atomic layer deposition at 160 {sup o}C on steel is reported. Surface analysis shows a thickness-independent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by the growth precursors. The buried coating/alloy interface has iron oxide formed in ambient air and/or resulting from the growth of spurious traces in the initial stages of deposition. Electrochemical analysis yields an exponential decay of the coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with increasing thickness, achieved by sealing of the more defective first deposited 10 nm.

  19. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin coatings for corrosion protection of steel: Surface and electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? 10-100 nm Alumina coatings grown by ALD at 160 oC for protection of steel. ? Al2O3 stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by growth precursors. ? Iron oxide and siloxane presence at the buried coating/steel interface. ? Exponential decay of coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with thickness increase. ? Coating thickness increase required to seal the defective first deposited 10 nm. - Abstract: ToF-SIMS, XPS, voltammetry and EIS investigation of the anti-corrosion properties of thin (10, 50 and 100 nm) alumina coatings grown by atomic layer deposition at 160 oC on steel is reported. Surface analysis shows a thickness-independent Al2O3 stoichiometry of the coating and trace contamination by the growth precursors. The buried coating/alloy interface has iron oxide formed in ambient air and/or resulting from the growth of spurious traces in the initial stages of deposition. Electrochemical analysis yields an exponential decay of the coating porosity over four orders of magnitude with increasing thickness, achieved by sealing of the more defective first deposited 10 nm.

  20. Corrosion protection of 13CrMo 44 heat-resistant ferritic steel by silicon and cerium ion implantation for high-temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F.J.; Otero, E.; Hierro, M.P.; Gomez, C.; Pedraza, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia de los Materiales; Segovia, J.L. de [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Inst. Torres Quevedo, Madrid (Spain); Roman, E. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Inst. de Ciencia de los Materiales, Canto Blanco, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-10

    The influence of the ion implantation of 1 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} of silicon and 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} of cerium at 150 keV on the oxidation behaviour of a 0.80%Cr-0.40%Mo heat-resistant 13CrMo 44 ferritic steel was studied at 973 K in air for 144 h under isothermal conditions. The implanted surfaces and the corrosion products formed on the surface were characterized by means of AES, SEM and XRD. Theoretical calculations were performed by TRIM96 computational code. From the present study it was concluded that silicon enhances selective oxidation of chromium and a more protective oxide scale was found to grow. However, cerium confers a detrimental effect by cracking and spalling of the oxide layers formed at high temperature. (orig.) 13 refs.

  1. The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, 40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina

  2. Principles and criteria for the evaluation of the corrosivity of atmospheric environments on steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan PEPENAR

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the environmental impact on steel structures and the corrosivity of atmospheric environments. It defines the principles and criteria for the evaluation of atmospheric-corrosivity classes, according to European standard, which were introduced in the new technical national regulations in the field of corrosion protection of steel structures. It shows the equivalence between the new corrosivity classes and the old aggressivity classes according to Romanian standard, still in f...

  3. Localized Corrosion of Chromium Coated Steel :

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.; Beentjes, P.; Mol, A.; Terryn, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the studies of the local corrosion behaviour of chromium-coated ultra low carbon steel in NaCl solution using polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and SVET.

  4. Corrosion-protective coatings from electrically conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen Gebert; Bryan, Coleman J.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Wrobleski, Debra A.

    1991-01-01

    In a joint effort between NASA Kennedy and LANL, electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed as corrosion protective coatings for metal surfaces. At NASA Kennedy, the launch environment consist of marine, severe solar, and intermittent high acid and/or elevated temperature conditions. Electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed which impart corrosion resistance to mild steel when exposed to saline and acidic environments. Such coatings also seem to promote corrosion resistance in areas of mild steel where scratches exist in the protective coating. Such coatings appear promising for many commercial applications.

  5. Stainless steel acid corrosion inhibition by organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azobenzene dyes are effective inhibitors for austenitic 304 L and 316 L stainless steel corrosion in high acidic medium up to 7N. A good efficiency is obtained from weight loss and electrochemical Rsub(p) measurements in hydrochloric acid, while no inhibition is observed in sulfuric solutions. Transformation from the primarily azobenzene to other compounds give rise to enhanced protection of steel samples, and probable structures of the inhibiting species are proposed in view of our results

  6. Corrosion of an austenite and ferrite stainless steel weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANIMIR N. GRGUR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar metal connections are prone to frequent failures. These failures are attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties across the weld, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two types of steels and the resulting creep at the interface. For the weld analyzed in this research, it was shown that corrosion measurements can be used for a proper evaluation of the quality of weld material and for the prediction of whether or not the material, after the applied welding process, can be in service without failures. It was found that the corrosion of the weld analyzed in this research resulted from the simultaneous activity of different types of corrosion. In this study, electrochemical techniques including polarization and metallographic analysis were used to analyze the corrosion of a weld material of ferrite and austenitic stainless steels. Based on surface, chemical and electrochemical analyses, it was concluded that corrosion occurrence was the result of the simultaneous activity of contact corrosion (ferrite and austenitic material conjuction, stress corrosion (originating from deformed ferrite structure and inter-granular corrosion (due to chromium carbide precipitation. The value of corrosion potential of –0.53 V shows that this weld, after the thermal treatment, is not able to repassivate a protective oxide film.

  7. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed).

  8. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel. Pt. I. Rural and urban atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results obtained in the MICAT project for mild steel specimens exposed for 1 to 4 years in 22 rural and urban atmospheres in the Ibero-American region. Test site characterization and chemical and morphological determination of the steel corrosion product layers (SCPLs) contributed to understanding the corrosion phenomena involved. It was observed how some climatological factors could affect steel corrosion rates and SCPL properties. Although the studied atmospheres were classified into different ISO groups, steel corrosion rates did not differ significantly between them. The only common characteristic of these atmospheres was an increase in SCPLs protectiveness with exposure time. (orig.)

  9. Prevention of Crevice Corrosion of STS 304 Stainless Steel by a Mg-alloy Galvanic Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of crevice corrosion was studied for STS 304 stainless steel using a Mg-alloy galvanic anode in solutions with various specific resistivity. The crevice corrosion and corrosion protection characteristics of the steel was investigated by the electrochemical polarization and galvanic corrosion tests. Experimental results show that the crevice corrosion of STS 304 stainless steel does not occur in solutions of high specific resistivity, but it occurs in solutions of low specific resistivity like in solutions with resistivities of 30, 60 and 115 ? · m. With decreasing specific resistivity of the solution, the electrode potential of STS 304 stainless steel in the crevice is lowered. The potential of STS 304 stainless steel in the crevice after coupling is cathodically polarized more by decreasing specific resistivity indicating that the crevice corrosion of STS 304 stainless steel is prevented by the Mg-alloy galvanic anode

  10. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behaviors of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium were studied. Corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was measured to be 20 ?m/yr at 25 deg C using the AC impedance technique. This value is agreed with that obtained by weight loss at 40 deg C for 1 year. The effect of bicarbonate ion on the corrosion of carbon steel in wet bentonite was also evaluated. The carbon steels in wet bentonite having 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M concentration of bicarbonate ion gave corrosion rates of 20, 8, and 0.2 ?m/yr, respectively. Corrosion potentials of specimens were also measured and compared with the AC impedance results. Both results indicated that bicarbonate ion could effectively reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steels in bentonite due to the formation of protective layer on the carbon steel. (author)

  11. Development of novel protective high temperature coatings on heat exchanger steels and their corrosion resistance in simulated coal firing environment; Developpement de revetements pour les aciers d'echangeurs thermiques et amelioration de leur resistance a la corrosion en environnement simulant les fumees de combustion et de charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, V.

    2005-10-15

    Improving the efficiencies of thermal power plants requires an increase of the operating temperatures and thus of the corrosion resistance of heat exchanger materials. Therefore, the present study aimed at developing protective coatings using the pack cementation process. Two types of heat exchanger steels were investigated: a 17% Cr-13% Ni austenitic steel and three ferritic-martensitic steels with 9 (P91 and P92) and 12% Cr (HCM12A). The austenitic steel was successfully aluminized at 950 C. For the ferritic-martensitic steels, the pack cementation temperature was decreased down to 650 C, in order to maintain their initial microstructure. Two types of aluminides, made of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl, were developed. A mechanism of the coating formation at low temperature is proposed. Furthermore, combining the pack cementation with the conventional heat treatment of P91 allowed to take benefit of higher temperatures for the deposition of a two-step Cr+Al coating. The corrosion resistance of coated and uncoated steels is compared in simulated coal firing environment for durations up to 2000 h between 650 and 700 C. It is shown that the coatings offer a significant corrosion protection and, thus, an increase of the component lifetime. Finally, the performance of coated 9-12% Cr steels is no longer limited by corrosion but by interdiffusion between the coating and the substrate. (author)

  12. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/?Raman spectroscopy. (Author)

  13. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/?Raman spectroscopy. (Author)

  14. Stress corrosion of low alloy steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catastrophic failure of a steam turbine rotor disc at Hinkley Point 'A' Power station was shown to have been caused by the growth of a stress corrosion crack to critical dimensions. This failure has promoted great interest in the stress corrosion susceptibility of medium strength low alloy steel forgings in steam environments. Consequently, initiation and growth of stress corrosion cracks of typical disc steels have been investigated in steam and also in water at 950C. Cracking has been shown to occur, predominantly in an intergranular manner, with growth rates of between 10-9 and 10-7 mm sec.-1. It is observed that corrosion pitting and oxide penetration prior to the establishment of a stress corrosion crack in the plain samples. (author)

  15. Electrochemical study of polypyrrole/PW12O-340 coatings on carbon steel electrodes as protection against corrosion in chloride aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonastre Cano, José Antonio; Garcés Terradillos, Pedro; Huerta Arráez, Francisco; Quijada Tomás, César; García Andión, Luis; Cases Iborra, Francisco Javier

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid material polypyrrole/PW12O-340 was electrosynthesised on carbon steel electrodes in acetonitrile medium. Passivation pretreatment of carbon steel in acetonitrile/perchlorate medium was used to avoid electrodissolution of electrode during the polymerisation. These hybrid coatings were evaluated against corrosion in chloride-containing 0.05 M NaOH and solutions obtained by ?ltering Portland cement slurries. Cyclic voltammetry, polarisation resistance(Rp), and Fe2+ concentrations me...

  16. Metallic corrosion of steels embedded in calcium aluminate cement mortars

    OpenAIRE

    García Andión, Luis; Garcés Terradillos, Pedro; Cases Iborra, Francisco Javier; García Andreu, César; Vázquez Picó, José Luis

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, the corrosion levels of reinforcing steels embedded in Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC) mortars have been studied. Experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the following factors in steel corrosion: cover thickness, type of steel (carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS)), temperature at mixing and curing, influence of chloride concentration, nitrite ion as corrosion inhibitor and carbonation of mortar. The reinforcing steel bars do not become more corrod...

  17. Research on atmospheric corrosion of steel using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation between local structure around Cr in the protective rust layer on weathering steel and protective performance of the rust layer is presented as an example of corrosion research using synchrotron radiation which has recently been applied in various research fields as a useful tool. In addition, in situ observation of initial process of rust formation on steel is also mentioned. It was pointed out by considering the X-ray absorption fine structure spectra that the nanostructure of the protective rust layer on weathering steel primarily comprises of small Cr-goethite crystals containing surface adsorbed and/or intergranular CrOx3-2X complex anions. This CrOx3-2X explains the protective performance of the rust layer originated by dense aggregation of fine crystals with cation selectivity of the Cr-goethite. It is very advantageous to employ white X-rays for in situ observation of rusting process of a carbon steel covered with electrolyte thin films because rust structure might change very quickly. This in situ observation revealed the effect of ion species on the change in rust phase during wet/dry repeating. It can be said that application of synchrotron radiation on corrosion research is so useful to understand the nanostructure of surface oxides which closely relate to corrosion behavior of metals and alloys. (author)

  18. Air crevice corrosion of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test structures were used to study crevice corrosion of stainless steels, including high-strength ones, in salt fog. Test results enabled to range stainless steels according to their resistance to crevice corrosion in air: resistant steels-12Kh18N10T, 08Kh15N5D2T, 06Kh14N6D2MBT, 13Kh15N4AM3, 08Kh17N5AM3; low-resistant steels - 03Kh10N11M2T, 03Kh12N10MT, 03Kh9N9K5M3, 15Kh16N2AM; nonresistant steels -13Kh11N2V2MF, 20Kh13, 40Kh13, 95Kh18. 19 refs.; 5 tabs

  19. POLYETHERSULFONE COATING FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF STEEL IN GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA, T.

    2005-06-01

    Emphasis was directed toward evaluating the usefulness of a polyethersulfone (PES)-dissolved N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent precursor as a low-temperature film-forming anti-corrosion coating for carbon steel in simulated geothermal environments at brine temperatures up to 300 C. A {approx} 75 {micro}m thick PES coating performed well in protecting the steel against corrosion in brine at 200 C. However, at {>=} 250 C, the PES underwent severe hydrothermal oxidation that caused the cleavage of sulfone- and ether-linkages, and the opening of phenyl rings. These, in turn, led to sulfone {yields} benzosulfonic acid and ether {yields} benzophenol-type oxidation derivative transformations, and the formation of carbonyl-attached open rings, thereby resulting in the incorporation of the functional groups, hydroxyl and carbonyl, into the coating. The presence of these functional groups raised concerns about the diminutions in water-shedding and water-repellent properties that are important properties of the anti-corrosion coatings; such changes were reflected in an enhancement of the magnitude of susceptibility of the coatings surfaces to moisture. Consequently, the disintegration of the PES structure by hydrothermal oxidation was detrimental to the maximum efficacy of the coating in protecting the steel against corrosion, allowing the corrosive electrolytes to infiltrate easily through it.

  20. Corrosion and deposition of corrosion products on carbon steel and martensitic steel components of CANDU-6 reactor primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 is a heavy water cooled and moderated CANDU 6 reactor, using natural uranium as fuel. To ensure a minimal degradation of structural materials by fluid contact and to achieve or exceed the design lifetime of the plant, a chemical control and corrosion monitoring program has been established. The corrosion of the Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) components is minimized by carefully selecting and then controlling a set of chemical parameters to reduce the aggressiveness of the coolant to specific metals used in the system. Chemical control of PHTS and surveillance of structural materials corrosion is directed towards keeping chemical parameters within specified limits in order to minimize corrosion of equipment and related piping, to control the corrosion rate, impurities concentration and fission products and to minimize activity transport and heat transfer surfaces fouling. To monitor the effects of operating chemistry on the corrosion of the system's components and the build-up of activity on construction materials and to show up important effects in the activity transport, an Autoclave System is required. To determine corrosion and to characterize the superficial oxide films formed on carbon and martensitic steel, the following methods have been used: gravimetric, metallographic and electronic microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction and XPS. The analysis of the samples exposed for different times in autoclaves (197, 371, 568 and 825 days), allowed us to determine the corrosion rate, the deposition and releasing of corrosion products, as well as the characteristics of the corrosive films formed. The results obtained by corrosion analysis of the carbon and martensitic steel coupons exposed in Y1-Y4 autoclaves, assembled in by-pass of CANDU-6 reactor primary circuit from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 showed the following: - The continuous, adherent and protective oxide films were formed by generalized corrosion of structural materials. By increasing the exposure times better formation of more adherent oxides was evidenced but not any localized corrosion. The corrosion products were mainly magnetite crystalides. Their quantity increased with exposure time and was higher on samples exposed in autoclave circuits in the reactor inlet header, because the magnetite solubility is smaller, the temperature being smaller, and the coolant is probably still supersaturated in iron. The corrosion products release rate and the corrosion rate for carbon steel SA 106 gr.B decreased, while the exposure time increased. The higher values for these rates, especially at the beginning, were obtained on the samples exposed in autoclave circuits from the reactor inlet header

  1. Corrosion of steel tendons used in prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corrosion behavior of a high strength steel (ASTM A416-74 grade 270), typical of those used as tensioning tendons in prestressed concrete pressure vessels, in several corrosive environments and to demonstrate the protection afforded by coating the steel with either of two commercial petroleum-base greases or Portland Cement grout. In addition, the few reported incidents of prestressing steel failures in concrete pressure vessels used for containment of nuclear reactors are reviewed. The susceptibility of the steel to stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement and its general corrosion rate were determined in several salt solutions. Wires coated with the greases and grout were soaked for long periods in the same solutions and changes in their mechanical properties were subsequently determined. All three coatings appeared to give essentially complete protection but small flaws in the grease coatings were detrimental; flaws or cracks less than 1 mm wide in the grout were without effect

  2. Treatment Prevents Corrosion in Steel and Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, to protect rebar from corrosion, NASA developed an electromigration technique that sends corrosion-inhibiting ions into rebar to prevent rust, corrosion, and separation from the surrounding concrete. Kennedy Space Center worked with Surtreat Holding LLC, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a company that had developed a chemical option to fight structural corrosion, combining Surtreat's TPS-II anti-corrosive solution and electromigration. Kennedy's materials scientists reviewed the applicability of the chemical treatment to the electromigration process and determined that it was an effective and environmentally friendly match. Ten years later, NASA is still using this approach to fight concrete corrosion, and it has also developed a new technology that will further advance these efforts-a liquid galvanic coating applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete to protect the embedded rebar from corrosion. Surtreat licensed this new coating technology and put it to use at the U.S. Army Naha Port, in Okinawa, Japan. The new coating prevents corrosion of steel in concrete in several applications, including highway and bridge infrastructures, piers and docks, concrete balconies and ceilings, parking garages, cooling towers, and pipelines. A natural compliment to the new coating, Surtreat's Total Performance System provides diagnostic testing and site analysis to identify the scope of problems for each project, manufactures and prescribes site-specific solutions, controls material application, and verifies performance through follow-up testing and analysis.

  3. Corrosion of steel structures in sea-bed sediment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiutong Wang; Jizhou Duan; Yan Li; Jie Zhang; Shide Ma; Baorong Hou

    2005-04-01

    Seabed sediment (SBS) is a special soil that is covered by seawater. With the developments in marine oil exploitation and engineering, more and more steel structures have been buried in SBS. SBS corrosion has now become a serious problem in marine environment and an important issue in corrosion science. In this paper, approach in the field of SBS corrosion is reviewed. Electrochemical and microbial corrosion factors, corrosion mechanism, measurement of metal corrosion rate, corrosion evaluation and prediction of corrosion are also discussed here.

  4. Alternating Current Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Belland, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to investigate if the established theory concerning corrosion calculations and electrochemical behavior of carbon is valid when steel is exposed to AC in an electrolyte consisting of 3,5 wt% NaCl and distilled water. The experimental work was divided in two main parts. The first part concerned corrosion testing, including weight loss measurements in stagnant conditions in combination with linear polarization resistance experiments. AC-current densities investigated was 0-, 5...

  5. Corrosion of steel in ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas M.F.; Reddy R.G.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel alloy has been investigated by electrochemical techniques. The ionic liquids studied were 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1 hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6mim]PF6) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8mim]PF6), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ([C4mim][Tf2N]). Potentiodynamic polarization and Tafel plots were used to determine the corrosion behavior of the carbon...

  6. Conducting polyaniline/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite paints on low carbon steel for corrosion protection: electrochemical investigations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deshpande, P. P.; Vathare, S. S.; Vagge, S. T.; Tomšík, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 67, ?. 8 (2013), s. 1072-1078. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : corrosion * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  7. Kinetics and structural studies of the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of a carbon steel was studied in different atmospheres at sites in the Republic of Panama. The weight loss (corrosion penetration) suffered by the carbon steel is related to time by a bilogarithmic law. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated the rust was composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4), maghemite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH) of intermediate particle size, lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and superparamagnetic particles. Magnetite formation is related to the alternating dry-wet cycles. Goethite is related to corrosion penetration by a saturation type of behavior, following a Langmuir type of relationship. Goethite in rust protects steel against further atmospheric corrosion

  8. Kinetics and structural studies of the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, Juan A.; de Villalaz, Mariela Sánchez; de Araque, Lilibeth; de Bósquez, Agnes

    1997-09-01

    The corrosion of a carbon steel was studied in different atmospheres at sites in the Republic of Panama. The weight loss (corrosion penetration) suffered by the carbon steel is related to time by a bilogarithmic law. Mössbauer spectroscopy indicated the rust was composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4), maghemite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH) of intermediate particle size, lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and superparamagnetic particles. Magnetite formation is related to the alternating dry--wet cycles. Goethite is related to corrosion penetration by a saturation type of behavior, following a Langmuir type of relationship. Goethite in rust protects steel against further atmospheric corrosion.

  9. A Comparative Study on causes of corrosion of steel reinforcement in RC structures at Bangalore, India and Kigali, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaho G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature failure of reinforced concrete structures occurs primarily due to early corrosion of steel reinforcement. This paper intends to uplift the awareness of people about the role of structure maintenance to prevent or control corrosion in steel reinforced concrete structures. Some data collected using a designed questionnaire were distributed in Bangalore, India and Kigali, Rwanda, about corrosion of steel reinforcement which actually motivated this research. The research finds that without corrosion in steel reinforced concrete structures is just a matter of time. However corrosion map for Kigali is not available. Hence the survey has been conducted in Rwanda. Based on survey corrosion map will be prepared so that vulnerable areas for corrosion can be identified. This map will enable for protective design of structures against corrosion. The new steel RC structures corrosion monitoring systems should be incorporated for future less costly, timely maintenance for their reliable service life.

  10. Principles and criteria for the evaluation of the corrosivity of atmospheric environments on steel structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan PEPENAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact on steel structures and the corrosivity of atmospheric environments. It defines the principles and criteria for the evaluation of atmospheric-corrosivity classes, according to European standard, which were introduced in the new technical national regulations in the field of corrosion protection of steel structures. It shows the equivalence between the new corrosivity classes and the old aggressivity classes according to Romanian standard, still in force. The examples of typical environments corresponding to the corrosivity classes are also presented.

  11. Polyaspartic acid as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, R. [Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Gu, N.; Li, C. [Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The inhibitor effect of the environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor polyaspartic acid (PASP) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polarization curve results clearly reveal the fact that PASP is a good anode-type inhibitor. EIS results confirm its corrosion inhibition ability. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing PASP concentration, and the maximum inhibition efficiency was 80.33% at 10 C. SEM reveals that a protective film forms on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of this inhibitor is found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inhibitory action of the corrosion inhibitor. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, Part I – Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Møller, Per; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the world reinforced concrete is the most widely used construction material for buildings and civil engineering structures. Most reinforced concrete structures have performed satisfactory over many decades, but there still is an unacceptable large number of structures that deteriorate prematurely. Reinforcement corrosion is identified to be the foremost cause of deterioration. Steel in concrete is normally protected by a passive layer due the high alkalinity of the concrete pore solut...

  13. Internal corrosion of carbon steel piping in hot aquifers service

    OpenAIRE

    Simi?i? Miloš V.; Govedarica Dragan D.

    2011-01-01

    Internal corrosion of carbon steel pipelines is a major problem encountered in water service. In terms of prediction of the remaining lifetime for water pipelines based on the corrosion allowance, the three main approaches are corrosion modelling, corrosion inhibitor availability, and corrosion monitoring. In this study we used two theoretical corrosion models, CASSANDRA and NORSOK M-506 of quite different origin in order to predict uniform corrosivity of hot aquifers in eight different...

  14. Corrosion protection at a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in the 1970's, the Electricity Supply Commission (Eskom) in South Africa took the decision to construct South Africa's first nuclear fuelled power station. The environment at Koeberg, however, was determined as being particularly corrosive. Eskom was thus faced with the task of selecting corrosion resistant materials and protective coating systems that would provide the required performance in the hostile marine environment. In order to select the correct coating, it was decided to conduct an investigation into the behaviour of various coating systems. All the major coating suppliers in South Africa were invited to provide wet samples of the coating systems that they would recommend. These coatings were applied to mild steel panels which had been prepared in accordance with the coating manufacturer's specification. The panels were then mounted on exposure test racks at various sites. The results of this coating exposure programme were used in the compilation of the corrosion protection specifications for plant and components exposed to the atmosphere at Koeberg. 1 ill

  15. Materials corrosion and protection from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald F.

    Materials erode under environmental stresses such as high temperature, high pressure, and mechanical shock/stress, but erosion is often exacerbated by chemical corrosion. In this dissertation, periodic density functional theory (DFT) is employed to simulate interfacial adhesion, absorption kinetics, bulk diffusion, and other material phenomena (e.g., hydrogen-enhanced decohesion and shock-induced phase changes) with the intention of understanding corrosion and subsequent failure processes and guiding the design of new protective coatings. This work examines corrosion and/or protection of materials ( i.e., Fe, Ni, W) with important applications: structural steel, gun tubes, high-pressure oil recovery vessels, jet engine turbine blades, and fusion reactor walls. We use DFT to model the pressure-induced, bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in Fe, in which a new low energy pathway is predicted exhibiting nonadiabatic behavior coupling magnetic and structural changes. Protection of steel is addressed in two aspects: interfacial adhesion of protective coatings and assessment of corrosion resistance provided by a surface alloy. First, the current chrome-coated steel system is examined where extremely strong adhesion is predicted at the Cr/Fe interface originating in strong spin correlations. A ceramic coating, SiC, is considered as a possible replacement for Cr. Strong adhesion is predicted, especially for C-Fe interfacial bonds. To assess corrosion resistance, we model ingress of two common corrosive elements, H and C, into two Fe alloys, FeAl and Fe3Si. Adsorption and absorption thermodynamics and kinetics, as well as bulk dissolution and diffusion are calculated in order to determine whether these two alloys can inhibit uptake of H and C. Relative to pure Fe, dissolved H and C are less stable in the alloys, as the dissolution enthalpy is predicted to be more endothermic. Overall, the energy barriers and rate constants for adsorbed H/C diffusing into Fe3Si subsurface layers suggests that alloying Fe with Si can be an effective means to limit uptake of these elements into steel. Spallation of protective layers on jet engine turbine blades is a problem that arises during thermal cycling. An alternative thermal barrier coating system involving MoSi2 is considered and calculations predict strong adhesion at the MoSi2/Ni interface. The interfacial bonding structure reveals a mixture of metallic and covalent cross-interface bonds. The adhesion energy is similar across all three MoSi2 facets studied. Upon exposure to oxygen, this MoSi2 alloy will form a strongly adhered oxide scale, which in turn may strongly adhere the heat shield material (yttria-stabilized zirconia), thereby potentially extending the lifetime of the barrier coating. Lastly, the interaction of hydrogen isotopes (fusion fuel) with tungsten (a proposed fusion reactor wall material) is examined. Exothermic dissociative adsorption is predicted, along with endothermic absorption and dissolution. Surface-to-subsurface diffusion energy barriers for H incorporation into bulk W are large and the corresponding outward diffusion barriers are very small. In bulk W, deep energetic traps (trapping multiple H atoms) are predicted at vacancy defects. Thus, under high neutron fluxes that will produce vacancies in W, H are predicted to collect at these vacancies. In turn, locally high concentrations of H at such vacancies will enhance decohesion of bulk W, consistent with observed blistering under deuterium implantation. Limiting vacancy formation may be key to the survival of W as a fusion reactor wall material.

  16. Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Behaviors of Low and Medium Carbon Steels in Agro-Fluid Media

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to study critically the corrosion behaviour and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of low and medium carbon steels in cassava and cocoa extracts by weight loss measurement and constant extension to fracture method respectively. The results obtained showed that medium carbon steel is more susceptible to corrosion than low carbon steel in both media. SCC is also more in medium carbon steel than low carbon steel in the two media under study. These deductions are due ...

  17. Electrochemical study of corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in phosphoric medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnini, K.; Chtaini, A. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Bio Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Khouili, M.; Elbouadili, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Beni-Mellal (Morocco)

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion of metals represents a terrible waste of both natural resources and money, the failure of some stainless steel resulting from pitting corrosion is some times considered a technological problem, consequently, much effort has been expended in attempting to understand and overcome the corrosion therefore, many stainless steel/ environment combinations have been studied. The use of heterocyclic compounds as inhibitors is one of the most practical methods for protection against corrosion in acidic media. In continuation of our work on development of macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors we report in our study the corrosion inhibiting behaviour of organic compound Methoxy-2-Allyl-4 Phenol (MAP) containing coordinating and conjugation groups, at three forms (natural, polymerized and chemically treated) on the corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid. This study focused on the comparison for corrosion inhibition proprieties of these different applications using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and SEM. The specimen was evaluated to determine change in his corrosion potential and resistance polarization; These MAP products have exhibited corrosion inhibition by maintaining a high resistance polarization (low corrosion rate) in each application. These results reveal that this compound is efficient inhibitor in all forms; the most inhibition efficiency is obtained with polymerized form. To further evaluate the test data, the steel surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, SEM observations of surface treated concrete confirmed presence of inhibitor on the steel surfaces. (authors)

  18. Improvement Corrosion Resistance of Low Carbon Steel by Using Natural Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Abbas Abdulsada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steel, the most widely used engineering material, despite its relatively limited corrosion resistance used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear powered transportation, chemical processing , petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. The main objective of the present work involved the study of the inhibiting properties of natural product as Spearmint plant extract as a safety and an environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in (3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed when the immersion model in (3.5% NaCl solution that contains the inhibitor with concentration of (15% in volume, it's getting a decrease in lost weight , indicating a layer of adequate oxide on the surface of the steel, indicating that the amount of loss weight decrease with increasing concentration of inhibitor and this shows the damper on his ability to form a protective layer

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Copper-Steel Particulate Composite

    OpenAIRE

    J. T. AL-Haidary; Emad Al-Hassani; Sheelan R. Areef

    2011-01-01

    This work was conducted to study the corrosion behavior of the steel particle reinforced copper matrix composites, under different conditions; namely heat treatment, concentration of corrosion media, and different weight percent of steel particles.The density, corrosion rate, micro-structure, and Vickers micro-hardness, were investigated. The results showed that composites with limited steel particle contents can be used. The microstructure of the composites showed severe corrosion of the ste...

  20. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  1. Reinforcement steel corrosion in passive state and by carbonation: Consideration of galvanic currents and interface steel - concrete defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis aims to study the durability of nuclear waste deep storage structures. The work carried out is essentially an experimental study, and focuses on the corrosion of steel in the passive state with aerated or non-aerated conditions on the one hand, and the corrosion of steel in carbonated concrete during the propagation phase on the other hand. Indeed, the pore solution of concrete in contact with the metal is alkaline (pH between 12 and 13). Under these conditions, steel reinforced concrete remains passive by forming a stable and protective oxide layer (corrosion of steel in the passive state). This passive layer limits the steel corrosion rate at very low values (negligible on a short life time) but not null. For the nuclear waste storage structures due to a very long life time (up to several hundred years), this low corrosion rate can become a risk. Therefore, it is necessary to study the evolution of the oxide layer growth over time. The objectives of the thesis are to study the influence of the steel-concrete interface quality on reinforcement corrosion in passive and active state, and the possible occurrence of galvanic corrosion currents between different reinforcement steel areas. (author)

  2. Investigation of Carbon steel corrosion in water base drilling mud

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhil Sarhan Kadhim

    2011-01-01

    Carbon steel, the most widely used engineering material, accounts for approximately 85%, of the annual steel production worldwide. Despite its relatively limited corrosion resistance, carbon steel is used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants, transportation, chemical processing, petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. This paper Investigate Carbon steel corrosion in water. The corrosion ...

  3. The assessment of corrosion type and corrosion rate of carbon steel in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steel is one of the candidate materials for overpacks for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Japan. The estimation of corrosion allowance of carbon steel overpack needs to clarify the type of corrosion and the corrosion rate under repository conditions. The type of the corrosion occurring on overpacks depends on whether carbon steel is passivated or not. If carbon steel is passivated under repository conditions, localized corrosion such as pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking may occur under some conditions. On the other hand, if carbon steel is not passivated under repository conditions, general corrosion will occur. Passivation behavior and corrosion rate of carbon steel were investigated by electrochemical measurements under simulated repository conditions. The results of the measurements showed that carbon steel was hard to passivate in highly compacted bentonite. The immersion tests were carried out in compacted bentonite and average corrosion rates were measured from weight loss and the AC impedance of carbon steel specimens. The database of average corrosion rate were made from the data obtained by the weight loss technique. Based on the database of average corrosion rate in compacted bentonite, the relationship between average corrosion rates and test conditions were investigated. The average corrosion depth for 1000years was also estimated to be less than 5 mm. In order to simulate the accumulation of corrosion products after long term, the external current were supplied to carbon steel specimens. After the formation of corrosion products, corrosion rates were measured using AC impedance technique. The results of the measurements showed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel did not increase in the presence of corrosion products formed by external current supply. (author)

  4. The behaviour of praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate as an inhibitor for carbon dioxide corrosion and oxygen corrosion of steel in NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate (Pr(4OHCin)3) highly effective corrosion inhibitor. •Mechanism of inhibition different in CO2-saturated solutions compared to aerated system. •In natural aerated solutions a continuous protective film forms on the steel surface. •In CO2-saturated solutions inhibiting deposits form at active corrosion sites. -- Abstract: Praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate (Pr(4OHCin)3) was investigated as a novel corrosion inhibitor for steel in NaCl solutions, and found to be effective at inhibiting corrosion in both CO2-containing and naturally-aerated systems. Surface analysis results suggest that the corrosion inhibition ability of Pr(4OHCin)3 in the naturally-aerated corrosion system could be attributed to the formation of a continuous protective film. For the CO2-containing system, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of Pr(4OHCin)3 was predominantly because of formation of protective inhibiting deposits at the active electrochemical corrosion sites, in addition to a thinner surface film deposit

  5. Corrosion of two kinds of cast steels containing chromium in hot concentrated alkaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Wei

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A typical hot concentrated alkaline corrosion environment exists in alumina metallurgical industry, so that steel materials with outstanding alkaline corrosion resistance are strongly demanded for its processing equipment. In this paper, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of martensitic cast steels containing chromium in static 303g/L NaOH alkaline solution at 85? was studied through polarization and potential-time curves, corrosion weight loss and corrosion morphology analysis. Experimental results showed that protection effect by passive film of cast steel containing Cr was temporary. The low carbon steel without Cr content also exhibited chemical passivity in the same solution. The corrosion mode of the tested Cr-containing cast steel was composed of active dissolving corrosion and caustic embrittlement cracking. Dissolving corrosion was the primary mechanism for the induced weight loss, while severe caustic embrittlement cracking was secondary. With the increase of chromium content in the cast steel, the tendency of the caustic embrittlement cracking decreased, while the active dissolving corrosion increased.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in contact with bentonite under anaerobic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) consists of vitrified waste, overpack, buffer material and surrounding rock. In this system, overpack is required to prevent the contact of groundwater from vitrified waste for 1000 years. The main factor limiting this function is corrosion due to the contact with groundwater infiltrated to buffer material which is the mixture of bentonite and sand. Carbon steel is selected as one of the candidate materials for overpacks in Japan as a corrosion allowance metal. The deep underground environment for geological disposal of HLW is expected to be relatively oxidizing condition at the initial stage of repository, but it will be returned to reducing as the consumption of oxygen by the corrosion of overpack and the redox reactions with the minerals in buffer material. It is necessary to understand the corrosion behaviour of carbon steel under such anaerobic condition for the lifetime prediction of carbon steel overpack. In this study, immersion tests of carbon steel in buffer material were performed in nitrogen atmosphere in which oxygen gas concentration was controlled less than 1 ppm. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were measured by weight loss of the specimens and the corrosion products were analysed by SEM, XRD and EPMA. For investigating the influence of welding of overpack, welded samples by electron-beam welding (EBW) were used in some of the tests. Synthetic sea water (SSW) and aqueous solutions containing bicarbonate ion and chloride ion were chosen as simulated groundwater. The results indicated that the corrosion form of carbon steel under anaerobic condition was uniform corrosion and no localised corrosion such as pitting, crevice corrosion was found within our experimental conditions. Ferrous carbonate such as FeCO3 or Fe2(OH)2CO3 was identified as crystalline corrosion products by XRD. Although the corrosion rate was affected by test solution and buffer material design, the corrosion products film formed on the surface at 353 K were tight and very small corrosion rates less than 1?m/y was obtained in any cases. While, the corrosion product at 323 K was not protective and larger corrosion rate of 2?m/y was estimated. There was no influence of steel type and welding on the corrosion rate of carbon steel up to 3 years of immersion period. The average corrosion depth of carbon steel overpack was calculated to be ? 2 mm by extrapolating the obtained corrosion rate of ? 2?m/y to 1000 years, and this estimation was well agreed with natural analogue data. (authors)

  7. Protect nuclear plant fasteners from boric acid corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boric acid corrosion of pump and valve fasteners in pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants can be prevented by implementing appropriate fastener steel replacement and extended inspections to detect and correct the cause of leakage. In this paper a three-phase corrosion protection program based on system operability, outage-related accessibility, and cost of fastener replacement versus maintenance frequency increase is presented. A selection criteria for fastener material is also presented. Degradation or failure of pressure retaining fasteners at pumps and valves has been reported in several areas exposed to leakage of closures in long-term service. The resulting boric acid corrosion experienced in PWR systems is defined as an accelerated process produced when water evaporates from leaking coolant. The primary detrimental effect of boric acid leakage is wastage (or general dissolution corrosion) of low-alloy carbon steel fasteners

  8. Influence of microalloying on the corrosion resistance of steel in saturated calcium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of microalloying vanadium or titanium on improving the corrosion resistance of mild steel in saturated calcium hydroxide solution was investigated. Potential-time, potentiodynamic polarization, and impedance measurement techniques were employed. The corrosion products have been examined by infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis and by scanning electron microscopy. It has been shown that the grain refining, due to microalloying, plays an important role in enhancing the corrosion resistance of steel. Scales of calcite and iron oxides on top of a protective oxide are formed on the investigated steels

  9. Mechanism and degree of chemical elements effect on atmosphere corrosion resistance of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It follows from the proposed regression equations that falourable effect of chemical elements on steel resistance to atmospheric corrosion is determined by their ability to increase interatom bond stability in iron crystal lattice and form corrosion products with high protection properties. Element positive influence on steel corrosion resistance decreases in the following order: S, P, Si, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, C in semiurban tropical atmosphere and S, Mn, Sr, Cu, Ni, Cr in coastal atmosphere. In the latter case C increases corrosion in a greater degree as compared to P. Small ammounts of Mo decrease steel resistance in semiurban atmosphere and almost do not influence it in the coastal one. Possible mechanisms of individual element influence on steel corrosion resistance are considered

  10. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. Assessment of soil corrosivity using an electrochemical soil corrosion probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendelbo Nielsen, L.

    1998-08-01

    An electrochemical soil corrosion probe has been designed, manufactured, and tested at five different locations in the field. The probe includes facilities for hydrogen permeation measurements, local soil resistivity measurements by the Wenner fourpoint method, and open circuit potential measurements on carbon steel- and high-alloyed (SMO-254) stainless steel electrodes. The carbon steel electrodes were arranged as two sets of three-electrode arrangements. Using these arrangements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), galvanostatic pulse (GP) measurements, and DC polarisation scans were applied for characterisation of the corrosion conditions present in the soil. (au) EFP-95. 21 refs.

  11. Production, properties and application of steels resistant to atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steels, resistant to atmospheric corrosion, applied in the USSR and abroad, are reviewed. The influence of alloying elements (Cu, P, Cr, Si, Ni, Mo, Mn, As etc) upon resistance against atmospheric corrosion and mechanical properties of rolled steel is discussed. Technological properties, fields of the above steels application as well as the data on the range of product, are presented

  12. Galvanic corrosion between carbon steel 1018 and Alloy 600 in crevice with boric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work dealt with the evaluation of galvanic corrosion rate in a corrosion cell having annular gap of 0.5 mm between carbon steel 1018 and alloy 600 as a function of temperature and boron concentration. Temperature and boron concentration were ranged from 110 to 300 .deg. C and 2000?10000 ppm, respectively. After the operating temperature of the corrosion cell where the electrolyte was injected was attained at setting temperature, galvanic coupling was made and at the same time galvanic current was measured. The galvanic corrosion rate decreased with time, which was described by corrosion product such as protective film as well as boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel with time. From the galvanic current obtained as a function of temperature and boron concentration, it was found that the galvanic corrosion rate decreased with temperature while the corrosion rate increased with boron concentration. The experimental results obtained from galvanic corrosion measurement were explained by adhesive property of corrosion product such as protective film, boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel wall and dehydration of boric acid to be slightly soluble boric acid phase. Moreover the galvanic corrosion rate calculated using initial galvanic coupling current instead of steady state coupling current was remarked, which could give us relatively closer galvanic corrosion rate to real pressurized water reactor

  13. Corrosion behavior of low alloy steels containing Cr, Co and W in synthetic potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of new alloy steels was investigated using potentiodynamic (PD) tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic test in synthetic potable water. PD test results showed that all specimens exhibited active corrosion behavior, and corrosion rate tended to decrease as a result of adding alloying elements. The EIS measurements were taken to determine the polarization resistance (RP) of the rust layer. The RP values of the new alloy steel were much larger than that of carbon steel. Furthermore, more alloying elements led to a remarkable increase in the RP values. The chemical state of alloying elements (Cr, Co and W) in the rust layer of new alloy steels was analyzed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). EPMA and XPS results showed that alloying elements existed in protective compounds in the rust layer. Corrosion of the new alloy steels was suppressed by insoluble compound formed near the surface

  14. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camariñas, Galicia in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SEM/?Raman spectroscopy.La investigación fundamental en corrosión atmosférica marina de aceros al carbono es un campo científico relativamente joven que presenta grandes lagunas de conocimiento. La formación de akaganeíta en los productos de corrosión que se forman sobre el acero cuando se expone a atmósferas marinas conduce a un incremento notable de la velocidad de corrosión. En el trabajo se abordan las siguientes cuestiones: (a condiciones ambientales necesarias para la formación de akaganeíta, (b caracterización de la akaganeíta en los productos de corrosión formados, (c mecanismos de corrosión del acero al carbono en atmósferas marinas, (d exfoliación de las capas de herrumbre formadas en atmósferas marinas muy agresivas, (e predicción de la velocidad de corrosión a largo plazo, y (f comportamiento de aceros patinables. La investigación se ha llevado a cabo en campo, en el Parque Eólico de Cabo Vilano (Camariñas, Galicia en un amplio rango de salinidades atmosféricas, y a nivel de laboratorio acudiendo a técnicas convencionales de corrosión atmosférica y diversas técnicas analíticas de caracterización de superficies: microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB/ espectrometría de dispersión de energía (EDE, difracción de rayos-X (DRX, espectroscopía Mössbauer y MEB/espectroscopía ?Raman

  15. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  16. Influence of alloying elements on the corrosion properties of shape memory stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The corrosion properties of three Fe–Mn–Si–Cr–Ni–(Co) shape-memory stainless steels (SMSSs) were compared with those of a type 304 (SS 304) austenitic stainless steel. ? A considerably high Si content (about 40 at%) is present in the anodic passive films formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. ? The high protectiveness of the anodic passive film formed on SMSSs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution results from a protective film consisting of a (Fe, Cr)–mixed silicate. ? The SMSSs exhibited higher corrosion resistance than SS 304 in highly oxidizing environments. ? The SMSSs showed poor corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution compared to that of SS 304. - Abstract: The corrosion properties of three Fe–Mn–Si–Cr–Ni–(Co) shape memory stainless steels were studied based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, immersion and polarization tests. The test results were compared with those of a type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The XPS analyses indicated substantial Si content in the anodic passive films formed on shape memory stainless steels in sulfuric acid solution and that the high protectiveness of these films results from a protective film consisting of a (iron, chromium)–mixed silicate. The corrosion rate of the shape memory stainless steels in boiling nitric acid solution was lower than that of austenitic stainless steel. The high silicon content was found to play an important role in the corrosion behavior of these shape memory alloys in highly oxidizing environments. Due to their high manganese content, the shape memory stainless steels showed poor corrosion behavior in 3.5% sodium chloride solution when compared with austenitic stainless steel.

  17. Development of ion-plated aluminide diffusion coatings for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection of a nickel-based superalloy and a stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Abdel Raouf

    This project was carried out at the University of Toronto and Cametoid Ltd of Whitby, Ontario. Ohno continuous casting; a novel net shape casting technique, was used to generate, Al-Y, Al-Ce, Al-La, and Al-Si-Y, in form of 1.6 to 1.7 mm diameter alloy wires. These alloy wires exhibited suitable properties for use as feed materials to an Ion Vapor Deposition facility. The deposition parameters were optimized to provide coatings with a compact and cohesive columnar structure with reduced porosity and diffusion barriers that were essential to ensure the success of the diffusion process in the subsequent stage. Solid-state diffusion heat treatment processes were developed in order to form the stable aluminide phases, AlNi and FeAl, on IN738 and S310 substrates, respectively. Experiments simulating the coating service conditions and environments encountered during the prospective aerospace and fuel cell applications were conducted to evaluate the performance of each aluminide coating developed during this study. Thermal cyclic oxidation and molten sulfate corrosion studies were performed on coated IN738 pins at 1050°C and 900°C, respectively, simulating the service environment of turbine engine blades and other hot section components. Molten carbonate corrosion behavior was investigated for coated S310 coupons that were immersed in, or covered with a thin film of molten carbonate, at 650°C, in air plus 30%CO2, to simulate the operating conditions of the cathode-side separator plates of molten carbonate fuel cells. The behavior of the reactive elements, yttrium, cerium, lanthanum, and silicon in enhancing the adhesion of the protective aluminum oxide scale was determined by weight variation experiments, structural examination and compositional analysis. The influence of the base material elements, nickel, chromium, and iron, on the formation of protective oxides was investigated. All coatings were found to provide significant improvement for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection. For protection of IN738, Al-La coatings provided the greatest protection during oxidative thermal cycling, whereas Al-Ce coatings were found to be the most effective for protection against corrosive molten sulfate environments in aerospace applications. For protection of S310 against the corrosive environments of molten carbonate fuel cells, the effectiveness of the aluminide coatings were in the sequence, from the most to the least effective, Al-La, Al-Ce, Al-Y, and Al-Si-Y Mechanisms for Lanthanum and cerium protective behavior in high temperature aluminide diffusion coatings were suggested from the results of this study combined with literature information.

  18. Electrochemical Studies of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Peroxide Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajay K; Vipin Chaudhary; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects corrosion aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted on stainless steel 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild steel in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion ...

  19. Crevice corrosion resistances of stainless steels in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the effects of minor elements on crevice corrosion resistances of stainless steels ranging from AISI 316 to the 6% molybdenum austenitic stainless steels in order to define an alloy composition suitable for seawater service and, in particular, for resistance to crevice corrosion. Overall, the results indicate the feasibility of significantly improving the corrosion resistance of the high-alloy austenitic stainless steels to the point where they would be suitable for seawater service

  20. Increasing of corrosion resistance of nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of C, Cr, Ni, V, Mo, Co, Al, Ti, Cu and Si on the corrosion resistance of the nitrided stainless steels has been studied alloying that ensures the post-nitriding corrosion resistance have been established. A lit-par-lit phase analysis of the nitrided 03Kh11N10M2T steel has been carried out; the reasons for the increased corrosion resistance of the low-carbon Cr-Ni steels following the nitriding are interpreted

  1. The effect of organic matter associated with the corrosion products on the corrosion of mild steel in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Wagh, A.B.

    the corrosion of mild steel and the temperature and dissolved oxygen of seawater. In contrast to this, the corrosion and mild steel was inversely related to the organic carbon and water extractable carbohydrates associated with the corrosion products of mild...

  2. Corrosion Test of US Steels in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) and Kinetic Modeling of Corrosion in LBE Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the LBE corrosion test results of several US steels, and a preliminary analysis using a kinetic model for corrosion in LBE systems. Tube and rod specimens of austenitic steels 316/316L, D9, ferritic/martensitic steels HT-9 and T- 410 and Russian martensitic steel EP823 were inserted in an LBE loop CU-1M at IPPE. The oxygen concentration in LBE was between 3-5x10-6 wt% and the flow velocity in the test sections was 1.9 m/s. The tests were performed simultaneously at 460 and 550 deg. C for 1000, 2000 and 3000 hours. Weight change, optical, SEM and X-ray analysis of the specimen performed, obtaining results on oxide film thickness, corrosion depth, microstructure and composition changes. Protective oxide films formed on the surfaces of all steels. The oxides on austenitic steels are thin compared to the oxides on ferritic/martensitic steels, which have pronounced double layer structure. T-410 specimens suffered local corrosion. Parallel to the experimental investigations, a kinetic model was developed for corrosion and corrosion product transport in oxygen controlled LBE systems. Our model incorporates the species distribution based on local thermodynamic equilibrium at the surface of structural materials into boundary conditions, and directly calculates mass transport through boundary layer diffusion and convection in the bulk flow. The model predicts drastic reduction of corrosion when oxygen in LBE is properly controlled. It also predicts complex profiles of corrosion and precipitation in flow loops that are dependent upon global conditions. This indicates that the straightforward test results may have limited applicable range if the configuration and conditions of the entire test loop are not carefully taken into account. (authors)

  3. 78 FR 15376 - Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ...Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From...countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from...antidumping duty orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products...

  4. Influence of burnishing on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of duplex steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ?abanowski

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the current study was to investigate the usability of burnishing-inducted surface enhancement method for improve the stress corrosion cracking resistance of duplex stainless steel.Design/methodology/approach: The surface layers upon round in cross section specimens were performed through burnishing treatment. Corrosion tests were performed with the use of Slow Strain Rate Test technique in inert (glycerin and aggressive (boiling 35% MgCl2 solution environments.Findings: It was shown that burnishing treatment increases corrosion resistance of the steel. Stress corrosion cracking resistance depends on the magnitude of cold work at surface layers. High level of cold work decreases corrosion resistance.Research limitations/implications: This study does not indicate the optimum stress level and stress distribution in surface layers for the best corrosion resistance. It is necessary to continue the research to determine burnishing parameters for demanded properties of duplex steel surface layers.Practical implications: The burnishing treatment can significantly improve stress corrosion resistance of specified parts of chemical installations working in the contact with aggressive media. Such parts as valve parts or propeller shafts can be successfully protected against corrosion attack.Originality/value: Burnishing surface enhancement for constructional parts made of duplex stainless steels exposed to corrosive environments has not been reported in literature. Application of this technology can increase life-time of chemical installation devices and improve their reliability.

  5. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  6. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  7. Crevice corrosion properties of stainless steels in diluted sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments of crevice corrosion occurrence condition, initiation rate and propagation rate were conducted for several kind of stainless steels used for feedwater-condenser system of boiling water reactor. The occurrence condition was obtained from comparison of crevice corrosion potential and corrosion potential as a function of kind of steel and chloride ion concentration is parameters. Threshold chloride concentration of crevice corrosion for SUS304L, SUS316L and SCS19A was 500ppm. The value for SUS403 was 15ppm. Constant potential test was conducted in order to obtain corrosion initiation time from current-time profile, corrosion depth from observation of the test specimen. Dependency of crevice corrosion initiation time on temperature was obtained in 6000ppm chloride diluted sea water. Maximum corrosion depth was obtained from inspection of each specimen then compared with corrosion propagation time. (author)

  8. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland) for periods of 3 and 8 months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel. PMID:26257707

  9. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland) for periods of 3 and 8 months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel. PMID:26257707

  10. Atmospheric Corrosion on Steel Studied by Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate initial products on steel by atmospheric corrosion, conversion electron Moessbauer measurements were carried out at temperatures between 15 K and room temperature. From the results obtained at low temperatures, it was found that the corrosion products on steel consisted of ferrihydrite.

  11. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  12. Bimetallic corrosion of high-strength stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the studied on corrosion of VNS-2, VNS-59, EhI961, EhP517, EhP866, 20Kh13, 40Kh13, 95Kh18 and EhI474 in salt fog and 3 % NaCl solution it is established that contact with titanium alloys does not intensify the corrosion; contact with copper alloys strengthens the corrosion of steels excluding the VNS-2 and VNS-59 steels. Contacts with titanium and copper alloys do not reduce the resistance of the steels under consideration against corrosion cracking

  13. Steel corrosion in ammonia solutions studied by Moessbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosive action of diluted ammonia solutions has been thoroughly studied until 90s. A particular interest towards studying it after this time arisen from problems relating to environment protection. We have initiated a programme which involves the study of steel samples in ammoniac solutions. The steel samples were obtained from industrial Fe-C steel with C of low concentration. The surface of the samples was diamond polished, subsequently degreased and desiccated. The corrosion process of the samples was performed in an electrolytic cell with diluted ammonia solutions of concentration ranging within 10-1 - 10-4 N. Moessbauer measurements were performed at room temperature in the transmission (TMS) and conversion electron spectroscopy (CEMS) using a conventional constant-acceleration spectrometer with a 57 Co-Rh source. The TMS spectrum shows the presence of a single sextet: ?-iron. The best fit of the CEMS spectra uses an addition wide line to the sextet. The parameters of the wide line correspond to a non-stoichiometric oxide with (probably) small particles. Also the line parameters prove that we have studied the early stage of the corrosion process. All CEMS spectra show that on the surface the directions of the ?-ray and the magnetic moments are nearly perpendicular. There is a magnetic anisotropy on the surface of the samples, which remains even in the corroded samples. In contrast TMS spectrum shows that in the interior of the sample the magnetic moments are in a random arrangement. The result of the corrosion is the layer appearance (non-stoichiometric iron oxide) on the sample surface. The layer thickness increases with the change of the NH3 concentration from 10-1 to 10-4 N. (authors)

  14. Thin film corrosion protecting coatings for high temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wind, J.; Nitschke, F.; Meyer, M. [Daimler-Benz AG, Berlin (Germany). Forschung Technikumfeld

    1997-12-31

    One of the major problems in high temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cells) is the corrosion of metallic components. A method to solve this problem was proposed. Stainless steel components are usually protected by coatings which tend to diffuse into the substrate. This results in reduced protection or even a complete loss of protection. It was suggested that a diffusion barrier applied between the coating and substrate could solve this problem. The corrosion of steel sheet material coated with a diffusion layer and a corrosion protecting layer was studied. Materials studied included the refractory metals molybdenum, tungsten, chromium nitride and titanium nitride. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiles were described for samples coated with each of these materials as a diffusion barrier and with a nickel layer on top before diffusion. AES revealed a very low diffusion of components from the coatings to the substrate and vice versa. Metallographic cross sections also showed that the system prevents corrosion almost completely. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Initial Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Pan, Chen; Wang, Zhenyao; Yu, Guocai

    2015-02-01

    The initial corrosion behavior of carbon steel subjected to Shenyang industrial atmosphere has been investigated by weight-loss measurement, scanning electron microscopy observation, x-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The experimental results reveal that the corrosion kinetics of the initial corrosion of carbon steel in industrial atmosphere follows empirical equation D = At n , and there is a corrosion rate transition from corrosion acceleration to deceleration; the corrosion products are composed of ?-FeOOH, ?-FeOOH, Fe3O4, as well as FeS which is related to the existence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rust layers. The effect of dust particles on the corrosion evolution of carbon steel has also been discussed.

  16. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Potential Monitoring and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy during Corrosion Initiation and Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Mason, Thomas O.

    2005-01-01

    A reinforced mortar specimen that allows potential measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) immediately after preparation was designed and tested. The specimen consists of a mortar cylinder with a central rebar and a concentric arrangement of embedded Ru/Ir activated titanium wires. The wires can act as both reference and counter electrode during EIS and, thus, no external electrode is required. The defined geometry solves reproducibility problems involved with application of an external reference electrode for EIS. Changes of the electromotive force (EMF) between rebar and titanium wires can be monitored immediately after preparation. The wire arrangement also allows investigation of local changes in the bulk mortar by EIS or by measuring the potential development of the titanium wires versus an external standard electrode. The specimen design was evaluated in an investigation on the effect of the steel quality and the steel surface properties on initiation and propagation of chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. Besides untreated (as received) carbon rebars and stainless rebars, selected surface treatments and galvanization were investigated. The surface treatments included grit blasting, electrochemical and hydrochloric acid cleaning (HCl) as well as weathering. The results indicate that the investigated treatments of the carbon steel surface have no major effect on the initiation period, which was approximately 20 days under the actual conditions. The galvanized rebar appears to be protected throughout the experimental period to date (200 days), whereas active corrosion of the stainless steel appeared to be initiated after 100 days exposure.

  17. Improvement of barrier properties of a hybrid sol-gel coating by incorporation of synthetic talc-like phyllosilicates for corrosion protection of a carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Joncoux-Chabrol, Karine; Bonino, Jean-Pierre; Gressier, Marie; Menu, Marie-Joëlle; Pébère, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Sol–gel coatings for corrosion protection of metals are a good alternative to toxic chromate treatments. The present work focussed on the incorporation of inorganic fillers in a sol–gel coating to improve the barrier properties of the film. Talc-like phyllosilicates obtained by hydrothermal synthesis at 160°C, 260°C and 350°C, called T160, T260 and T350 respectively, were selected as inorganic fillers. The synthetic materials showed talc lamellar structure but, in contrast with natural talc, ...

  18. Boric acid corrosion protection program for pump and valve fasteners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recognized that the boric acid corrosion wastage of pump and valve fasteners is mainly a maintenance problem. Therefore, the nuclear utilities of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants can prevent this damage by implementing appropriate fastener steel replacement and extended inspections to detect and correct the cause of leakage. A 3-Phase Corrosion Protection Program is presented for implementation based on system operability, outage related accessibility and cost of fastener replacement versus maintenance frequency increase. A selection criteria for fastener material is indicated based on service limitation: metal temperature and preloading. (orig.)

  19. Boric acid corrosion protection program for pump and valve fasteners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisidis, N.; Popescu, M.; Ratiu, M. (ABB Impell Corp., San Ramon, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    It has been recognized that the boric acid corrosion wastage of pump and valve fasteners is mainly a maintenance problem. Therefore, the nuclear utilities of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants can prevent this damage by implementing appropriate fastener steel replacement and extended inspections to detect and correct the cause of leakage. A 3-Phase Corrosion Protection Program is presented for implementation based on system operability, outage related accessibility and cost of fastener replacement versus maintenance frequency increase. A selection criteria for fastener material is indicated based on service limitation: metal temperature and preloading. (orig.).

  20. Corrosion Behavior of High-Strength Bainitic Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Layek, S.; Giribaskar, S.; Mondal, Kallol

    2015-04-01

    The present work discusses corrosion behavior of newly developed bainitic steels made by isothermal heat treatment of a new steel composition (0.71 pct C, 1.15 pct Mn, 0.20 pct Ni, 0.59 pct Cr, 0.40 pct Cu, 0.35 pct Si, 0.026 pct S, 0.027 pct P, and rest Fe (weight percent)). Corrosion behavior of the pearlitic steel made by normalization is also studied. Electrochemical polarization and salt fog tests are carried out in 0.6 M NaCl. Steel rusts after salt fog tests are analyzed. Modified composition, finer microstructures, and compact rust morphology attribute to better corrosion resistance of the bainitic steels. Corrosion mechanisms for the pearlitic and bainitic steels are discussed.

  1. New Sol-gel Formulations to Increase the Barrier Effect of a Protective Coating Against the Corrosion and Wear of Galvanized Steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Raquel, Kunst; Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio, Cardoso; Lilian Vanessa Rossa, Beltrami; Claúdia Trindade, Oliveira; Tiago Lemes, Menezes; Jane Zoppas, Ferreira; Célia de Fraga, Malfatti.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new pretreatment method that uses alkoxide precursors with a plasticizing agent; the purpose of this study is to improve the electrochemical and mechanical properties of a galvanized steel surface. Galvanized steel was covered with a hybrid film obtained from a sol that consist [...] ed of two alkoxide precursors, 3 - (trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), with nitrate cerium in a concentration of 0.01 M and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticizer. The hybrid coatings were obtained by dip-coating method with various concentrations of plasticizer (0, 20, 40 and 60 g.L-1). The hybrid films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry, contact angle measurements, a tribometer with the type-setting ball on the plate and electrochemical tests. The addition of the plasticizer into the hybrid films improves the corrosion resistance behavior compared to the sample without the plasticizer. The addition of 20 g.L-1 of plasticizer showed the best performance in the electrochemical tests. The mechanical behavior results indicated that higher PEG concentrations resulted in films with enhanced durability.

  2. Improved corrosion protection of powered roof supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.R.; Talks, M.G.; Trudgeon, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Corrosion damage to equipment has required British Coal to spend considerable sums of money on refurbishing. The corrosion protection currently applied during equipment manufacture is influenced more by initial costs than by total life cost. This paper describes a major corrosion project which was conducted to assess metallic, paint and plastic coatings for the protection of powered roof support components. The project involved evaluation of coatings in the laboratory and on coal face installations, estimating the total life costs and deciding upon the most suitable coatings for future use. About 16000 components were involved in the field trials: the costs and production schedules relating to the protective systems were thus representative of large scale use. Forty two protective coatings were used in the underground field trials, with varying degrees of success. The results enabled an improved corrosion protection scheme to be produced whose use should result in substantial savings to British Coal. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Fabrication of superhydrophobic textured steel surface for anti-corrosion and tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Jin; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Can; Zhang, Mingsuo; Li, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    We describe a simple and rapid method to fabricate superhydrophobic textured steel surface with excellent anti-corrosion and tribological properties on S45C steel substrate. The steel substrate was firstly ground using SiC sandpapers, and then polished using diamond paste to remove scratches. The polished steel was subsequently etched in a mixture of HF and H2O2 solution for 30 s at room temperature to obtain the textured steel surface with island-like protrusions, micro-pits, and nano-flakes. Meanwhile, to investigate the formation mechanism of the multiscale structures, the polished steel was immersed in a 3 wt% Nital solution for 5 s to observe the metallographic structures. The multiscale structures, along with low-surface-energy molecules, led to the steel surface that displayed superhydrophobicity with the contact angle of 158 ± 2° and the sliding angle of 3 ± 1°. The chemical stability and potentiodynamic polarization test indicated that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface had excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the steel substrate. The tribological test showed that the friction coefficient of the superhydrophobic surface maintained 0.11 within 6000 s and its superhydrophobicity had no obvious decrease after the abrasion test. The theoretical mechanism for the excellent anti-corrosion and tribological properties on the superhydrophobic surface were also analyzed respectively. The advantages of facile production, anti-corrosion, and tribological properties for the superhydrophobic steel surface make it to be a good candidate in practical applications.

  4. Experiencies of corrosion and corrosion protection in seawater-cooling systems in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the experience of the corrosion resistance of pumps, heat exchangers, valves, and pipings in different seawater-cooling system. For pumps and heat exchangers the experience has been so extensive that a clear picture of todays status can be given. Owing to more scanty data concerning valves and pipes the survey of the corrosion in these components is less well substantiated. The most common pumps in the cooling systems of power stations are vertically extended shaft pumps. To counteract corrosion on column and casing with organic surface coating and on stainless steel shafts and impellers under shutdown conditions, these should be provided with internal and external cathodic protection. The experience of tin and aluminium bronzes in impellers and shafts in such pumps has been so poor - erosion and cavitaion damage - that a change has usually been made to preferentially ferritic-austenitic Mo-alloyd stainless steels. The combination of stainless steel/Ni-Resist 2 D has been found unsatisfactory owing to the occurrence of galvanic corrosion on the latter material. For heat exchangers, titanium has proved to be far and away the best choice. In the optimal blanket solution for a titanium heat exchangers the tubes are seal-welded to tube sheets of explosion-bonded titanium clad steel. For retubing of old condensers a similar procedure with tubes of high-alloy stainless steel in tube sheets of stainless clad steel is of economic interest. The effect of chlorination of the cooling water, however, remains to be clarified before such a procedure can be unreservedly recommended. Pipings of rubber-lined carbon steel or with thick coatings of solvent-free opoxy resin have shown very good corrosion resistance. Tar-epoxy-resin-coated pipes, however, should usually be provided with internal cathodic protection. Cement-lined carbon steel pipes are used with varying results in the offshore industry. Recently, however, pipes of the high slloy stainless steel 254 SMO have also come into use for similar purposes. (Author)

  5. Further studies of the anaerobic corrosion of steel in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the horizontal emplacement concept (KBS-3H) for the disposal of radioactive waste, which is being developed in Sweden and Finland, copper canisters with cast iron inserts will be surrounded by bentonite buffer and mounted in perforated carbon steel support structures in boreholes within the bedrock. The groundwater will be reducing, leading to anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous material. It is important to understand both the effect of bentonite on the corrosion behaviour of the steel and the effect of the corrosion products on the performance of the bentonite. Previous work on the corrosion of steel in bentonite was extended to investigate a wider range of conditions, including the possible effects of alkaline plumes released from concrete support structures and the effect of chloride concentration and temperature on the corrosion rate of steel in bentonite. Corrosion rates were measured by collecting hydrogen produced by the anaerobic corrosion of iron. In addition, a range of analytical techniques was applied to study the composition and morphology of the corrosion products and the distribution and chemical state of the iron released into the bentonite. Comparison was also made between corrosion in compacted bentonite and artificial bentonite porewater. In the presence of bentonite, the corrosion product layer was relatively thin compared to fully aqueous conditions, probably because the ferrous ions released by corrosion exchanged with the bentonite interlayer or attached to the surface of the bentonite grains, rather than forming a separate iron oxide phase. (author)

  6. Corrosion behaviour of plastically deformed high-Mn austenitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was the comparison of corrosion resistance in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution of two high-manganese austenitic steels of the 0.05C-25Mn-Al-Si-Nb-Ti type in a plastically deformed state.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were carried out on specimens obtained from a thermo-mechanically rolled sheet and then plastically deformed through bending and immersed in corrosive solutions (1N H2SO4 for 100 hours. The mass decrement was calculated by the gravimetric method, whereas the character of corrosion damages was observed in metallographic investigations using light and scanning electron microscopes both in the polished and etched states.Findings: It was found that after the thermo-mechanical processing one steel is characterized by an austenitic structure with numerous annealing twins, whereas in the second steel lamellar martensitic phases in an austenitic matrix occur. The investigations showed that the examined high-manganese steels have very low corrosion resistance in normal H2SO4. Higher impact on the corrosion resistance than the phase composition has the chemical composition. The mass decrement of the steel with martensite plates is a bit higher than that witha single-phase austenitic matrix. The specimens were intensively dissolved due to general corrosion accompanying by pitting and hydrogen cracking.Research limitations/implications: To investigate in more detail the corrosion behaviour of high-manganese austenitic steels, the polarization tests and the analysis of corrosion products should be carried out.Practical implications: The obtained results can be used for searching the appropriate way of improving the corrosion resistance of high-strength high-manganese austenitic steels.Originality/value: The corrosion resistance of two types of advanced high-manganese austenitic steels with different initial structures was compared. Hydrogen impact in austenitic steels was discussed.

  7. Inhibition properties of self-assembled corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline for mild steel corrosion in chloride solution saturated with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline effectively protects mild steel from CO2 corrosion. •Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to the investigate kinetics of corrosion inhibitor adsorption. •Adsorption of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) on corrosion of mild steel in chloride solutions saturated with CO2 was investigated by weight loss measurements (WL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption mechanism and kinetics of self-assembled (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) monolayers formation on gold were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance measurements (QCM). WL and AFM results demonstrated that TOFA/DETA imidazoline can effectively protect mild steel surface from corrosion. QCM measurements shown that the adsorption of TOFA/DETA imidazoline onto gold follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm and further investigation of the adsorption process will be carried out on a corroding metal surface

  8. The Corrosion Behavior of Cold Sprayed Zinc Coatings on Mild Steel Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Naveen Manhar; Kiran, B.; Jyothirmayi, A.; Phani, P. Sudharshan; Sundararajan, G.

    2013-04-01

    Zinc and its alloy coatings have been used extensively for the cathodic protection of steel. Zinc coating corrodes in preference to the steel substrate due to its negative corrosion potential. Numerous studies have been conducted on the corrosion behavior of zinc and its alloy coatings deposited using several techniques viz., hot dip galvanizing, electrodeposition, metalizing or thermal spray etc. Cold spray is an emerging low temperature variant of thermal spray family which enables deposition of thick, dense, and pure coatings at a rapid rate with an added advantage of on-site coating of steel structures. In the present study, the corrosion characteristics of cold sprayed zinc coatings have been investigated for the first time. In addition, the influence of heat treatment of zinc coating at a temperature of 150 °C on its corrosion behavior has also been addressed.

  9. Corrosion and wetting behaviour of metals and steels with molten alkali carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. M.; Bennett, P. S.

    1991-02-01

    The corrosion and wetting behavior of metals and steels with molten alkali carbonates is of particular interest for the design of molten carbonate fuel cells. Such cells, operating at 650 C with a lithium and potassium carbonate electrolyte, offer a very corrosive medium for fuel cell components. Static corrosion tests under simulated anode conditions have shown that rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, palladium, silver, gold, Nickel 200 and Monel 400 exhibit no measurable corrosion over a 100 h period. Copper, Kanthal and Fecralloy exhibit good resistance with thin protective oxide layers. Stainless steels show less resistance to attack with thicker, more permeable oxide coatings being formed. In addition, contact angle measurements indicate that copper, gold, silver and ruthenium demonstrate appreciable nonwetting under a H2-CO2 atmosphere. Steels are substantially wetted.

  10. Corrosion protection of Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberg is South Africa's first nuclear power station. This paper describes the manner in which a corrosion protection specification for the project was compiled, the types of coatings used and the particular requirements of this project

  11. / Factorial design applied to corrosion of superduplex stainless steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.J., Mesquita; R.P., Nogueira; I.N., Bastos.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Steels employed in offshore oil and gas production are subject to a very corrosive environment. Especially the new oilfields located in pre-salt layers imply the contact of steels with high brine concentration, high temperature and presence of corrosive gas such as CO2. Besides these facts, stainles [...] s steels have to present higher mechanical properties obtained from an optimized heat treatment. In order to take into account these factors and their synergisms, on the present paper, we have chosen a factorial experimental design to study the corrosion behavior of superduplex steel UNS S32750 by electrochemical tests. The results of open circuit potential, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance were analyzed with statistical methods considering a confidence level of 95%. The factors that significantly affect the corrosion potential are the carbon dioxide and heat treatment; the corrosion current is sensitive to carbon dioxide, and the resistance of polarization is strongly affected by the CO2 content.

  12. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption of Anthocleista Djalonesis Leaf Extract on the Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel

    OpenAIRE

    C.E. Ogukwe; C.O. Akalezi; M. A. Chidiebere; K.L. Oguzie; Z.O. Iheabunike; E.E. Oguziea

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Anthocleista djalonesis (AD) have been investigated as non toxic corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic environments (1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4, respectively). Corrosion rates were evaluated at 30 °C using the weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. AD extract was found to inhibit mild steel corrosion in both acidic media via adsorption of the extract organic matter on the metal/solution interface....

  13. Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Behaviors of Low and Medium Carbon Steels in Agro-Fluid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to study critically the corrosion behaviour and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC of low and medium carbon steels in cassava and cocoa extracts by weight loss measurement and constant extension to fracture method respectively. The results obtained showed that medium carbon steel is more susceptible to corrosion than low carbon steel in both media. SCC is also more in medium carbon steel than low carbon steel in the two media under study. These deductions are due to higher carbon content in medium carbon steel coupled with various aggressive corrosion constituents contained in these media. Hydrogen embrittlement, as well as carbon cracking, is responsible for SCC of these materials in the agro-fluid media.

  14. Materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature corrosion thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some protection solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - corrosion costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature corrosion: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other corrosion types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - protective coatings against corrosion and oxidation; 19 - high temperature corrosion in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers corrosion in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature corrosion in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature corrosion in new energies industry. (J.S.)

  15. Electrochemical Studies of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Peroxide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects corrosion aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted on stainless steel 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild steel in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion and attack around the weld area. Corrosion attack estimated from long term immersion tests is found in agreement, by and large, with that analyzed from electrochemical test. E-pH diagrams drawn for water-peroxide system have been used to understand the corrosivity of the peroxide media. An attempt has been made to suggest a suitable material of construction for handling the test media on the basis of degree of corrosion attack on them and their cost and the mechanical properties.

  16. Corrosion resistant structural materials and protective metal coatings for power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistant materials used for manufacturing NPP heat exchanger systems and heat resistant protective coatings are considered. Noted is development and application of a number of steels (EhP350, EhP 756, EhP 882), intended to substitute the 08Kh18N10T steel and having higher resistance to corrosion cracking, to intercrystalline and pitting corrosion at temperatures up to 350 deg C at a smaller Ni content. Considered is the problem of improvement of chemical deposition of Ni-based alloys (Ni-P, Ni-P-W, Ni-B) for protection of the NPP components

  17. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The morphology of the corrosion of steel in cement paste was studied in situ. • During galvanostatic corrosion, carbon steel reinforcement corroded homogeneously. • On ferritic stainless steel, deep corrosion pits formed and caused wider cracks. • The measured rate of steel loss correlated well with Faraday’s law of electrolysis. - Abstract: In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover

  18. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel. Pt. II. Marine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results obtained in the MICAT project for mild steel specimens exposed for 1 to 4 years in 47 marine atmospheres in the Ibero-American region. All these atmospheres were characterized for climatology, pollution and corrosion rates according to ISO standards. Complementary morphological and chemical characterization of the steel corrosion product layers (SCPLs) formed in these atmospheres was carried out. The overall analysis of results contributes to understanding, in a systematic way, how atmospheric corrosivity categories can be correlated with corrosion mechanisms. Special aspects of the atmospheres, from pure to mixed marine, were considered. (orig.)

  19. Corrosion of vessel steel during its interaction with molten corium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: bechta@sbor.spb.su; Khabensky, V.B. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Vitol, S.A. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Krushinov, E.V. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Lopukh, D.B. [SPb Electrotechnical University (SpbGETU), Professor Popov str., b.5/3, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V.V. [Institute of Silicate Chemistry of Russian Academy of Science (ISC of RAS), Odoevsky str., b. 24/2, 199155 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Martinov, A.P. [SPb Electrotechnical University (SpbGETU), Professor Popov str., b.5/3, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Martinov, V.V. [Scientific Research Technological Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor of Leningrad Oblast 188540 (Russian Federation); Fieg, G. [Forshungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institut fur Neutronenphysik and Reaktortechnik, Postfach 3640, D-78021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tromm, W. [Forshungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institut fur Neutronenphysik and Reaktortechnik, Postfach 3640, D-78021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [Europaeische Kommission, General Direktion GFS, Institut fuer Transurane (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tuomisto, H. [Fortum Engineering Ltd. 00048 FORTUM, Rajatorpantie 8, Vantaa (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    An experimental examination of the cooled vessel steel corrosion during the interaction with molten corium is presented. The experiments have been conducted on 'Rasplav-2' test facility and followed up with physico-chemical and metallographic analyses of melt samples and corium-specimen ingots. The results discussed in the first part of the paper have revealed specific corrosion mechanisms for air and inert atmosphere above the melt. Models have been proposed based on this information and approximate curves constructed for the estimation of the corrosion rate or corrosion depth of vessel steel in conditions simulated by the experiments.

  20. Model for microbiologically influenced corrosion of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 5 years, extensive chemical, metallurgical, and biological information has been collected from corrosion sites from many different components composed of carbon steel, stainless steels, and copper alloys exposed to a variety of environments. The purpose of this extensive sampling was to determine those conditions under which microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of various alloys occur and to describe the physical, biological, and chemical characteristics in the corrosion sites that would most likely indicate MIC. This paper concentrates on a model of MIC in carbon steels because the most complete information is available for this case

  1. The role of molybdenum in corrosion resistance of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Mo on corrosion properties of stainless steels in 1M MgCl2 solution was studied using an electrochemical polarization method. Procedure for the preparation of electrochemically polarized samples for surface analysis is described. The samples surface were analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The stainless steel which has high Mo content has a better resistance to corrosion in Cl containing media. Cr and Mo are enriched in the surface of Mo-bearing stainless steels which have undergone high anodic-metal dissolution. Mo may exist as MoO2 which is responsible in slowing down the rate of corrosion attack. (author)

  2. Effect of environment on corrosion characteristics of newly developed DMR-1700 structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injeti Gurrappa and Guntupalli Malakondaiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of any metallic material depends on the environment to which it is exposed. DMR-1700 steel is a material for structural applications that has been recently developed at Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory by changing the chemistry of alloying elements. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its corrosion characteristics under different environmental conditions is essential. In the present paper, we report the results of a systematic corrosion study that was carried out on the new steel to determine the effect of the environment on the protective nature of the oxide scale that forms on its surface under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, the oxide scale as well as the resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion were studied in various environments. The surface morphologies of the corroded steels were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM to determine the nature of the corrosion. On the basis of studies by different techniques, DMR-1700 steel is recommended for the manufacture of components used in various systems in conjunction with the application of an appropriate protective coating to improve its resistivity to corrosion.

  3. Effect of environment on corrosion characteristics of newly developed DMR-1700 structural steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrappa, Injeti; Malakondaiah, Guntupalli

    2008-04-01

    The corrosion resistance of any metallic material depends on the environment to which it is exposed. DMR-1700 steel is a material for structural applications that has been recently developed at Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory by changing the chemistry of alloying elements. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its corrosion characteristics under different environmental conditions is essential. In the present paper, we report the results of a systematic corrosion study that was carried out on the new steel to determine the effect of the environment on the protective nature of the oxide scale that forms on its surface under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, the oxide scale as well as the resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion were studied in various environments. The surface morphologies of the corroded steels were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the nature of the corrosion. On the basis of studies by different techniques, DMR-1700 steel is recommended for the manufacture of components used in various systems in conjunction with the application of an appropriate protective coating to improve its resistivity to corrosion.

  4. Experiences of corrosion and corrosion protection in seawater systems in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the experience of the corrosion resistance of pumps, heat exchangers, valves and pipings in different seawater cooling systems in Scandinavia, including power reactor cooling systems in Finland and Sweden. For pumps and heat exchangers the experience has been so extensive that a clear picture of today's standing can be given. Owing to scanty data concerning valves and pipes, the survey of the corrosion in these components is less well supported. Vertically extended centrifugal pumps are the pumps in general use in power plant cooling systems. To counteract corrosion on pump riser and pump casing having an organic surface coating, and on stainless steel shafts and impellers, these components should be provided with internal and external cathodic protection. For tube and plate type heat exchangers, titanium has proved to be the best material choice. Rubber-enclosed carbon steel pipings, or pipings having a thick coating of epoxy plastic, have shown very strong corrosion resistance in power plant seawater cooling systems. Valves in seawater systems have primarily been affected by corrosion due to poorly executed or damaged organic coating on cast iron. Different seawater-resistant bronzes (red bronze, tin bronze and aluminium bronze) are therefore preferable as valve materials

  5. Role of nanophase oxides in short-term atmospheric corrosion of structural steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Rama

    Systematic studies on the development of nanophase iron oxides in the corrosion products of carbon and weathering steel were performed to understand the role of nanophase oxides in short-term atmospheric corrosion. Similarities and/or differences between short-term and long-term atmospheric corrosion were established by studying carbon steel and weathering steel coupons exposed in mild marine environments for short-term and comparing it with previously established long-term data. Influence of substitutional elements, in particular chromium, in forming nanophase goethite was investigated. Crystallographic, magnetic and morphological properties of nanophase chromium substituted goethite have been characterized in order to understand the protective nature of chromium-substituted goethite in a naturally weathered steel surface. Spectroscopic investigation of the corrosion products of both carbon and weathering steel indicated that lepidocrocite and goethite were the predominant oxides to form following short-term exposures. The corrosion coatings were well layered for exposure times as early as 2 months. The layering was very similar to that observed on steel coupons exposed for more than 8 years. The outer layer was composed of lepidocrocite and occasionally goethite. The inner layer was mainly composed of nanophase goethite. The relative fraction of nanophase goethite was significantly higher in weathering steel compared to carbon steel at the end of six months of exposure. The data analysis also revealed that during the first two months of exposure weathering steel corrodes faster than carbon steel. However carbon steel corrodes more rapidly after 6 months of exposure. At the end of one year, the corrosion rate of carbon steel is higher than weathering steel. It is proposed that during the couple of months, nucleation of oxides is the dominant process in both carbon and weathering steel. At the end of six months, a considerable amount of nanophase goethite formed on carbon steel continues to grow into bigger crystals. On the other hand, in weathering steel the crystal growth of a significant fraction of initially formed nanophase goethite is inhibited. It is proposed that substitutional elements like chromium inhibit the crystal growth in weathering steel. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data for showed that with increasing chromium concentration, the crystallite size of synthetic goethite measured from X-ray diffraction and particle length of goethite measured from Mossbauer spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, became smaller. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Prediction of external corrosion for steel cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently manages the UF6 Cylinder Program (the program). The program was formed to address the depleted-uranium hexafluoride (UF6) stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders. The cylinders are located at three DOE sites: the K-25 site (K-25) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The System Requirements Document (SRD) (LMES 1996a) delineates the requirements of the program. The appropriate actions needed to fulfill these requirements are then specified within the System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) (LMES 1996b). The report presented herein documents activities that in whole or in part satisfy specific requirements and actions stated in the UF6 Cylinder Program SRD and SEMP with respect to forecasting cylinder conditions. The wall thickness projections made in this report are based on the assumption that the corrosion trends noted will continue. Some activities planned may substantially reduce the rate of corrosion, in which case the results presented here are conservative. The results presented here are intended to supersede those presented previously, as the quality of several of the datasets has improved

  7. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural purpose. Although such, so-called, combined reinforcement systems, are gaining impact within the construction industry, they are only marginally covered by existing guidelines for structural design and the literature concerning their mechanical and, in particular their durability aspects, is sparse. The aim of the work presented in this Ph.D. thesis was to quantify the influence of steel fibres on corrosion of traditionalreinforcement bars embedded in uncracked concrete as well as cracked concrete. Focus of the work was set on the impact of steel fibres on corrosion propagation in uncracked concrete and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas electrochemically active (depassivated/corroding) steel fibres are conducting. The impact of electrochemically active (depassivated/corroding) steel fibres on the electrical resistivity of SFRC was studied experimentally and analytically herein. Those studies showed that the addition of electrically conductive steel fibres may potentially reduce the electrical resistivity of concrete. Numerical studies of the correlation between the corrosion rate and the electrical resistivity of concrete were presented to study the impact of conductive steel fibres on the corrosion propagation phase of reinforcement bars. It was observed that under extreme conditions, viz. conductive (depassivated/corroding) steel fibres throughout the concrete volume, the reduction of the electrical resistivity caused by conductive fibres lead to a remarkable increase in the corrosion rate. However it is stressed that the case of corroding steel fibres throughout the concrete volume is somewhat hypothetical due to the very high corrosion-resistance of embedded steel fibres. Thus the investigated case refers to a worst-case scenario. Numerical and experimental studies on the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of load-induced cracks in concrete showed that the steel fibres restrained the crack width of a bending crack through the concrete cover, once the crack was formed. Moreover the numerical studies showed that the length of separation at the concrete/steel-bar interface (displacement discontinuity perpendicular to the reinforcement bar) was reduced for SFRC compared to plain concrete, whereas there was no clear impact on the slip at the concrete/steel-bar (displacement discontinuity parallel to the reinforcement bar) caused by the steel fibres. Additional experimental and numerical studies concerning corrosion of reinforcement embedded in cracked concrete (plain concrete and SFRC) showed that the time-to-corrosion-intiation was similar

  8. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS surfaces; 2) inhibiting the cathodic reactions at the corrosion site of CS; 3) extending the coverage of cement over CS surfaces; and, 4) improving the adherence of the cement to CS surfaces. Thus, the CS’s corrosion rate of 176 milli inch/per year (mpy) for 1 wt% FA-foamed cement without AP was considerably reduced to 69 mpy by adding only 2 wt% AP. Addition of AP at 10 wt% further reduced this rate to less than 10 mpy.

  9. AFM study of steel corrosion in aqueous solutions in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Benito, B.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early corrosion stages are studied in carbon steel by means of a solution simulating that contained in concrete pores. Non-carbonated solution contains 5% NaCl. The atomic force microscopy (AFM technique is used to study material performance after different immersion times (up to 48 h. Obtained data are compared to electrochemical ones (corrosion potential and polarization resistance. Analysis of images and roughness evolution along time shows that steel initially tends to reach passivity, although the passive layer rapidly loses its protective character due to chloride attack.

    Este trabajo estudia los primeros estados de la corrosión de un acero al carbono en una disolución que simula la existente en los poros del hormigón, sin carbonatar, con un 5% de NaCl. Para ello, se ha empleado la técnica de microscopía de fuerza atómica (AFM, estudiando el comportamiento del material tras diferentes tiempos de inmersión, hasta 48 h, en la disolución. Estos datos se comparan con datos electroquímicos (potencial de corrosión y resistencia de polarización. El análisis de las imágenes y la evolución de la rugosidad con el tiempo muestran que el acero tiende inicialmente a pasivarse, pero la capa pasiva pierde rápidamente su carácter protector debido al ataque de los cloruros.

  10. Corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel containing rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex alloy (foundry alloy) calcite-silicon-magnesium-rare earth metal on corrosion resistance of the 03Kh18N20M3D3C3B steel has been studied. It is shown that introduction of low additions of rare earths improves its corrosion resistance improves its corrosion resistance in agressive media (in 70% - sulfuric acid) in the range of transition from active to passive state. Effect of additional introduction of rare earth metals is not considerable, if potential of steel corrosion is in the range of stable passive state (32% - sulfuric acid). Additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex foundry alloy, containing rare earth metals, provides a possibility to use a steel with a lower content of Cr, Ni, Mo, than in conventional acid-resistant steels in highly agressive media

  11. Corrosion resistance of high-manganese austenitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to compare the corrosion resistance of two new-developed high-manganese austenitic steels in 1N H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions.Design/methodology/approach: The steels used for the investigation were thermo-mechanically rolled and then solution heat-treated from a temperature of 850°C. Corrosion resistance of investigated steels was examined using the immersion test. The specimens were weighed and dipped in the prepared solutions for 100 h. After the test, the percentage weight loss was calculated. The metallographic investigations of corrosion damages included light and scanning electron microscope observations both in the polished and etched states.Findings: It was found that after the thermo-mechanical processing one steel is characterized by an austenitic structure with numerous annealing twins, whereas in the second steel ? and ?’ martensite plates in an austenitic matrix were observed. According to the results of the immersion tests it was found that the examined steels exhibit a comparable corrosion resistance. They show very poor corrosion resistance in H2SO4 solution and low corrosion resistance in NaCl medium. The weight loss in chloride solution is much lower, what is explained by different corrosion mechanisms. In both the solutions, the intensive general corrosion and corrosion pitting were observed. In acidic medium they are created in a way of hydrogen depolarization and in NaCl in the way of oxygen depolarization.Research limitations/implications: To investigate in more detail the corrosion behaviour of high-manganese austenitic steels, the investigations should include polarization tests and an analysis of corrosion products.Practical implications: The obtained results can be used to search for the appropriate way of improving the corrosion resistance of high-manganese steels with a single-phase austenitic structure as well as the austenite structure containing ? and ?’ martensite.Originality/value: The corrosion resistance of two types of advanced high-strength high-manganese austenitic steels with different initial structures was compared in acidic and chloride solutions.

  12. Passivation and Corrosion Behavior of Modified Ferritic-Pearlitic Railway Axle Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Srivastav, Simant; Gajbhiye, N. S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of two newly developed ferritic-pearlitic railway axle steels (MS3 and MS6) and the standard Indian conventional axle steel has been studied in sodium borate buffer solution of pH 8.4 with and without the presence of NaCl. The polarization behavior of both the new axle steels shows close resemblance, whereas, different polarization behavior has been observed for the conventional axle steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have clearly reflected significantly improved passivation behavior for the newly developed steels compared to that of the conventional axle steel. NaCl salt fog exposure tests have also shown superior corrosion resistance of the newly developed axle steels as compared to the conventional axle steel. Higher surface roughness on the corroded conventional axle steel has also been observed compared to the smoother surface in case of the new axle steels. Higher corrosion resistance of the new axle steels has been attributed to their finer microstructure and strongly adherent protective rusts.

  13. Influence of Paint on Steel Corrosion for Marine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou Abdel-Samad; Yaser Soud; Zaki, M

    2014-01-01

    The majority of naval ships are constructed of mild steel. Corrosion is a major concern in a maritime environment. This particular type of material degradation has recently received more attention by the marine industry. The present work aims to investigate the effect of recent coatings used in marine ship surfaces for preventing corrosion. Experiments were performed according to standard tests to evaluate and measure the coating adhesion to steel and to measure the cor...

  14. Efficiency Criterion of Corrosion Inhibitors of Carbon Steel in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, K.

    2014-01-01

    A criterion of the efficiency evaluation of corrosion inhibitors of metallic samples in aqueous solutions was proposed for the first time.The criterion was derived based on calculating the limit of ratio value of the resistivity of carbon steel sample in inhibited seawater (?ins) to the resistivity of the carbon steel sample in blank seawater (?s). In other words, the criterion; lim (?ins/?s) =1 will determine the efficiency of the corrosion inhibitor in the seawater when ?ins becomes equal (...

  15. Electrochemical Studies of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Peroxide Solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ajay K., Singh; Vipin, Chaudhary; A., Sharma.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution control measures have resulted in replacement of chlorine by peroxide as bleaching chemical. Change of chemical affects corrosion aspects, the suitability of existing plant metallurgy and materials of construction of bleach plants. Accordingly long term immersion and electrochemical corros [...] ion tests were conducted on stainless steel 304L, 316L, 2205 and 6% Mo and mild steel in peroxide solutions of pH 10. The materials were tested for uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion and attack around the weld area. Corrosion attack estimated from long term immersion tests is found in agreement, by and large, with that analyzed from electrochemical test. E-pH diagrams drawn for water-peroxide system have been used to understand the corrosivity of the peroxide media. An attempt has been made to suggest a suitable material of construction for handling the test media on the basis of degree of corrosion attack on them and their cost and the mechanical properties.

  16. Monitoring Corrosion of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Kumar Verma; Sudhir Singh Bhadauria; Saleem Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for eva...

  17. A New Green Ionic Liquid-Based Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the use of new hydrophobic ionic liquid derivatives, namely octadecylammonium tosylate (ODA-TS and oleylammonium tosylate (OA-TS for corrosion protection of steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Their chemical structures were determined from NMR analyses. The surface activity characteristics of the prepared ODA-TS and OA-TS were evaluated from conductance, surface tension and contact angle measurements. The data indicate the presence of a double bond in the chemical structure of OA-TS modified its surface activity parameters. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM, Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX analysis and contact angle measurements were utilized to investigate the corrosion protection performance of ODA-TS and OA-TS on steel in acidic solution. The OA-TS and ODA-TS compounds showed good protection performance in acidic chloride solution due to formation of an inhibitive film on the steel surface.

  18. Corrosion and potentiostatic hydrogenation of carbon steels in carbonate and sulfide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behaviour and hydrogenation of two structural carbon steel at controlled potentials in the interval of -1.4 V-+0.4 V in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution (pH 9.4) on the free oxygen access, solution deaeration with argon and saturation with hydrogen sulfide (pH 8.5) are studied. It is established that in the deaerated solution on the potential cathode shift is realized the steel cathode protection where as in carbonate-sulfide solution is found increasing the corrosion rate. 6 refs., 3 figs

  19. Electrochemical and corrosion behavior of carbon steel in SULFIRAN process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behavior of carbon steel was evaluated in Fe-EDTA solution designed to be used in acid gas treatment process (SULFIRAN plant) in the temperature range between 35 deg. C and 45 deg. C. Electrochemical techniques, i.e. polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied for laboratory evaluations. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) and weight loss techniques were used to determine the corrosion rate for pilot tests. In addition, several surface analysis techniques such as XRD, XRF, SEM and optical microscopy were employed to determine the corrosion morphology. Metallurgical and SEM investigations of the carbon steel corrosion showed corrosion-induced damages in SULFIRAN process. The corrosion demonstrated in the forms of severe uniform corrosion, wide shallow pits formation, under deposit corrosion, hydrogen micro-void formation, and hydrogen induced disbonding between the interfaces of the inclusion (MnS) and metal matrix. The corrosion rate of carbon steel alloy is predicted to be very high (>200 mils per year or mpy) in this process.

  20. Electrochemical and corrosion behavior of carbon steel in SULFIRAN process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neshati, J. [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Neshatyj@ripi.ir; Abedi, S. Sh. [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Forsat, Kh. [Engineering and Process Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jenab, M. Hosseini [Gas Science Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirfendereski, S. [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Corrosion behavior of carbon steel was evaluated in Fe-EDTA solution designed to be used in acid gas treatment process (SULFIRAN plant) in the temperature range between 35 deg. C and 45 deg. C. Electrochemical techniques, i.e. polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied for laboratory evaluations. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) and weight loss techniques were used to determine the corrosion rate for pilot tests. In addition, several surface analysis techniques such as XRD, XRF, SEM and optical microscopy were employed to determine the corrosion morphology. Metallurgical and SEM investigations of the carbon steel corrosion showed corrosion-induced damages in SULFIRAN process. The corrosion demonstrated in the forms of severe uniform corrosion, wide shallow pits formation, under deposit corrosion, hydrogen micro-void formation, and hydrogen induced disbonding between the interfaces of the inclusion (MnS) and metal matrix. The corrosion rate of carbon steel alloy is predicted to be very high (>200 mils per year or mpy) in this process.

  1. Inhibition of steel corrosion by electrosynthesized poly(o-anisidine)-dodecylbenzenesulfonate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(o-anisidine)-dodecylbenzenesulfonate (POA-DBSA) coatings were synthesized on stainless steel from aqueous solution containing o-anisidine and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid by using cyclic voltammetry. These coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Corrosion tests of these coatings were carried out in aqueous 3% NaCl solution by using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization technique, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that POA-DBSA acts as a corrosion protective coating on steel and reduces the corrosion rate (CR) of steel almost by a factor of 14.5.

  2. Inhibition of steel corrosion by electrosynthesized poly(o-anisidine)-dodecylbenzenesulfonate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhari, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna6480@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425001, Maharashtra (India); Patil, P.P. [Department of Physics, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425001, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-09-01

    Poly(o-anisidine)-dodecylbenzenesulfonate (POA-DBSA) coatings were synthesized on stainless steel from aqueous solution containing o-anisidine and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid by using cyclic voltammetry. These coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Corrosion tests of these coatings were carried out in aqueous 3% NaCl solution by using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization technique, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that POA-DBSA acts as a corrosion protective coating on steel and reduces the corrosion rate (CR) of steel almost by a factor of 14.5.

  3. Corrosion and Wear Resistance of Carbon Films Obtained by Electrodeposition on Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio, Cardoso; Tiago, Falcade; Sandra Raquel, Kunst; Célia Fraga, Malfatti.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In improving the corrosion and hardness proprieties of ferritic stainless steel, the use of protective coatings becomes an interesting alternative. In this study, a carbon layer was deposited on AISI 430 by electrodeposition using N,N-dimethylformamide with the addition of an organic dopant as the e [...] lectrolyte. The AISI 430 stainless steel was pretreated by anodization aiming to optimize the film anchoring. The obtained films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, by scanning electron microscopy and by optical interferometry. The microstructural characterization of the films was obtained by Raman Spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by open circuit potential and by potentiodynamic polarization. The friction test and the scratch test were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. The Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of an amorphous carbon film. The films improved the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. In addition, on the wear analysis the coating showed a good adhesion on the substrate.

  4. Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>R.S. Abdel Hameed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Expired ranitidine was tested as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in this medium at 303 K. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018771','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018771"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking properties of 15-5PH <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Rosa, Ferdinand</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Unexpected occurrence of failures, due to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (SCC) of structural components, indicate a need for improved characterization of materials and more advanced analytical procedures for reliably predicting structures performance. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility of 15-5PH <span class="hlt">steel</span> over a wide range of applied strain rates in a highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environment. The selected environment for this investigation was a highly acidified sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution. The selected alloy for the study was a 15-5PH <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the H900 condition. The slow strain rate technique was selected to test the metals specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19101532','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19101532"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ? 20 and 4000C. The hydrolysis of Mg2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 250C, which, in turn, influences the <span class="hlt">protective</span> nature of the magnetite <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data for the <span class="hlt">steels</span> were analyzed, and an analytical model for general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2043888','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2043888"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of constructional <span class="hlt">steels</span> in marine and industrial environment frontier work in atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Saha, Jayanta Kumar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>An exhaustive research study on atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of structural <span class="hlt">steel</span>, this important publication, with numerous illustrations, details investigative methods for a better understanding of the degradation process, and mixes for high-performance paints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22010086','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22010086"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of RAFM <span class="hlt">steel</span> in liquid breeders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Valentyn, Tsisar [Physico-Mechanical Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv (Ukraine); Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Minoru [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Fujii, Naoki [Biko chemical company, Kobe, 658-0013 (Japan); Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Eiji [Santoku cooperation, Kobe, 673-0443 (Japan)</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> experiments for RAFM, JLF-1 <span class="hlt">steel</span> (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.1C) in three types of liquid breeders (i.e. Li, Pb-17Li and Flinak) were performed at 600 {sup o}C. The influence of the different experimental parameters, such as a flowing condition, an exposure time and a geometric condition, on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior was investigated. The present study focused on the evaluation of the weight loss of the corroded specimen by the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> model based on mass transfer. The dissolution of the metal elements from the <span class="hlt">steel</span> was accelerated by the fluids. An erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> was caused by the peeling off of the corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface in the flowing liquid breeders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43049721','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43049721"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental and theoretical studies of thiazoles as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Graphical abstract: The inhibition effect of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 2-mercaptothiazoline on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1.0 M H2SO4 was studied using electrochemical techniques. The effects of the presence of extra NH2 group and N atom in 2A5MT on the ability to act as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors were investigated by theoretical calculations. Highlights: ? The inhibition effects of thiazoles on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1.0 M H2SO4 were studied. ? It was shown that both thiazole compounds act as excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. ? The high inhibition efficiency was attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. ? Langmuir adsorption isotherm exhibited the best fit to the experimental data. ? Quantum chemical calculations show there is a correlation between inhibitive property and molecular parameters. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (2A5MT) and 2-mercaptothiazoline (2MT) on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1.0 M H2SO4 were studied with potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. It was shown that both 2A5MT and 2MT act as good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. The high inhibition efficiencies were attributed to the simple blocking effect by adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. The effects of the presence of extra NH2 group and N atom in 2A5MT on the ability to act as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors were investigated by theoretical calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46014486','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46014486"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior on 304L austenite stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this work, 304L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples were exposed at 700 °C for 10hrs in different <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments; dry oxygen, molten salt, and molten salt + dry oxygen. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of samples was analyzed using weight change measurement technique, optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The existence phases of corroded sample were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was recorded in dry oxygen while the highest was in molten salt + dry oxygen environments with the value of 0.0062 mg/cm2 and ?13.5225 mg/cm2 respectively. The surface morphology of sample in presence of salt mixture showed scale spallation. Oxide scales of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 were the main phases developed and detected by XRD technique. Cr2O3 was not developed in every sample as <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers but chromate-rich oxide was developed. The cross-section analysis found the oxide scales were in porous, thick and non-adherent that would not an effective barrier to prevent from further degradation of alloy. EDX analysis also showed the Cr-element was low compared to Fe-element at the oxide scale region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22308313','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22308313"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior on 304L austenite stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sahri, M. I.; Othman, N. K.; Samsu, Z.; Daud, A. R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)</p> <p>2014-09-03</p> <p>In this work, 304L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples were exposed at 700 °C for 10hrs in different <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments; dry oxygen, molten salt, and molten salt + dry oxygen. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of samples was analyzed using weight change measurement technique, optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The existence phases of corroded sample were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate was recorded in dry oxygen while the highest was in molten salt + dry oxygen environments with the value of 0.0062 mg/cm{sup 2} and ?13.5225 mg/cm{sup 2} respectively. The surface morphology of sample in presence of salt mixture showed scale spallation. Oxide scales of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were the main phases developed and detected by XRD technique. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was not developed in every sample as <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers but chromate-rich oxide was developed. The cross-section analysis found the oxide scales were in porous, thick and non-adherent that would not an effective barrier to prevent from further degradation of alloy. EDX analysis also showed the Cr-element was low compared to Fe-element at the oxide scale region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::d37f7e51a3ea70e5d58f448b2c276f27','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::d37f7e51a3ea70e5d58f448b2c276f27"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Carboxylates as Aqueous <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> and 2024, 6061, and 7075 Aluminum Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Volkan Cicek; Mehmet Ozdemir</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Synthesis and characterization of environmentally friendly metallo-organic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for <span class="hlt">protection</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> and certain aluminum alloys are being sought to replace carcinogenic hexavalent chromium based <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors. Given the toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromates, the purpose of this study is not just synthesizing any efficient <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for certain alloys of certain metals to be applied in different environments, but also to find environmentally frien...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::ec2cef7c137065f00bca43c0750e0353','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::ec2cef7c137065f00bca43c0750e0353"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and Characterization of Benzilate Esters as Aqueous <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> and 2024, 6061, and 7075 Aluminum Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Volkan Cicek; Mehmet Ozdemir</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this investigation, synthesis and characterization of environmentally friendly metallo-organic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for <span class="hlt">protection</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> and certain aluminum alloys are being sought to replace hexavalent chromium based <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors. For this reason, several <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibiting species such as benzilic acid and metal oxyanions were combined in a single compound with the general formula, (M)x(benzilicacid)y(M?aOb)z. First group of such compounds were synthesized in a similar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30000665','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30000665"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> resulting from short term exposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products from short term atmospheric exposures of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, is very important to understand the processes that lead to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and ultimately improve the performance of such <span class="hlt">steel</span> in highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments. Many regions along the Gulf of Mexico have extremely <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments due to high mean annual temperature, humidity, time-of-wetness and every high atmospheric pollutants. The process the formation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products resulting from short term exposure of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, both as a function of environmental conditions and exposure time, has been investigated. Two sets of coupons were exposed at marine and marine locations, in Campeche, Mexico. Each set was exposed between 1 and 12 months to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> as a function of time. During the exposure periods, the relative humidity, rainfall, mean temperature, wind speed and wind direction were monitored along with the chloride and sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air. The corroded coupons were analyzed by Moessbauer, Raman, Infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction in order to completely identify the oxides and map their location in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> coating. Scattering and transmission Moessbauer analysis showed some layering of the oxides with lepidocrocite and akaganeite closer to the surface. The fraction of akaganeite phase increased at sites with higher chloride concentrations. A detailed analysis on the development of the oxide phases as a function of exposure time and environmental conditions will be presented. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27034366','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27034366"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> properties of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings made by different methods of thermal spraying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> ability of thermally sprayed stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings in aggressive environments is considerably limited as compared to bulk materials of the same composition. The two main reasons for the decrease in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance are the porosity in the coatings and the oxidation of elements, particularly chromium, during spraying process. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance and structure of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coatings, ANVAL 254 SMO, made by different methods of thermal spraying were evaluated in this work. The coatings were produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), atmospheric plasma spraying using gas shielding around the plasma (APS/S), low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), detonation gun spraying (DGS) and high velocity oxyfuel spraying (HVOF). Electrochemical methods were used for determining the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> ability of coatings in 3.5% NaCl-solution and in sulfur acid solution (pH 3 and 1). The structure and composition of coatings were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysator (SEM/EDS). The porosity of the coatings was determined by water impregnation method, optical microscopy and mercury porosimeter. The results showed that the best coating quality can be achieved by LPPS- and HVOF-coatings. Oxidation and porosity restrict the use of APS-coatings in <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments. The oxidation can be avoided by using argon gas shield around the plasma flame during spraying. Due to porosity all studied coatings suffered crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in chloride solution. Despite high Mo-alloying the best coatings reached only the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI 316</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22..483J','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22..483J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">Protection</span> Properties of 4-[(E)-[(2,4-Dihydroxy phenyl)methylidene] amino]-6-methyl-3-sulfanylidene-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-5-one [DMSTT] Toward Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Sulfuric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>John, Sam; Joseph, Abraham</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in aerated 0.5 N H2SO4 solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization studies (Tafel), linear polarization studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, adsorption studies, and surface morphological studies. The effect of inhibitor concentration on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, the effect of temperature, degree of surface coverage, adsorption kinetics, and surface morphology are investigated. The inhibition efficiency increased markedly with increase in the additive concentration and decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The presence of DMSTT decrease the double-layer capacitance and increase the charge transfer resistance. The value of activation energy ( E a) of metal <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, adsorption equilibrium constant ( K ads), and free energy of adsorption (? G ads) were calculated from the temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current. The adsorption of inhibitor molecule on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface follow Langmuir isotherm. DMSTT offers excellent inhibition properties and acts as a mixed-type inhibitor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30000883','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30000883"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical evaluation of crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An electrochemical method for the evaluation of crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> is described. Specimens are carefully abraded in order to give a large number of microcrevices when the specimen is placed in contact with a rubber o-ring. Twelve specimens are tested simultaneously in a purpose-built electrochemical cell. A constant potential is applied to the specimens and the temperature automatically raised at intervals until a current increase indicates the onset of crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and thereby defines the critical crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> temperature (CCT). Testing has been performed on a wide range of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in 3.5% NaCl at +700 mV SCE. The temperature was raised by 5 C every 70 minutes. Results show good reproducibility with a typical standard deviation of below 5 C. There is also excellent agreement with the ranking of crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance for different <span class="hlt">steel</span> grades which is obtained by immersion testing in 6% FeCl3 solution. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApSS..254.5569A','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApSS..254.5569A"><span id="translatedtitle">An electroactive co-polymer as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Achary, Ganesha; Naik, Y. Arthoba; Kumar, S. Vijay; Venkatesha, T. V.; Sherigara, B. S.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solution containing various concentrations of a co-polymer formed between maleic anhydride and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VPMA) was investigated using weight-loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. The polymer acts as an effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium. The inhibition process is attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film of co-polymer on the metal surface which <span class="hlt">protects</span> the metal against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the metal surfaces confirmed the existence of an adsorbed film. The adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased with increase in temperature and acid concentration. The thermodynamic functions of the adsorption and dissolution processes were evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40030150','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40030150"><span id="translatedtitle">An electroactive co-polymer as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solution containing various concentrations of a co-polymer formed between maleic anhydride and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VPMA) was investigated using weight-loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. The polymer acts as an effective <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid medium. The inhibition process is attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film of co-polymer on the metal surface which <span class="hlt">protects</span> the metal against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the metal surfaces confirmed the existence of an adsorbed film. The adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased with increase in temperature and acid concentration. The thermodynamic functions of the adsorption and dissolution processes were evaluated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::612beb9a4a15fa6bf7a18befb81aef95','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::612beb9a4a15fa6bf7a18befb81aef95"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>A. Grajcar; S. Ko?odziej,; W. Krukiewicz</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The aim of the paper is to compare the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of two new-developed high-manganese austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in 1N H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions.Design/methodology/approach: The <span class="hlt">steels</span> used for the investigation were thermo-mechanically rolled and then solution heat-treated from a temperature of 850°C. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of investigated <span class="hlt">steels</span> was examined using the immersion test. The specimens were weighed and dipped in the prepared solutions for 100 h. After the test, the p...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______537::cd4c690280d0571949afaed49815f815','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______537::cd4c690280d0571949afaed49815f815"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">Protection</span> under Thermal Insulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Sigbjørnsen, Karen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> under insulation (CUI) is an extensive and costly problem for the petrochemical and chemical industry. Both good coatings to mitigate the problem and test methods to ensure the quality of these coatings are needed. In this thesis, four coatings; standard epoxy coating, epoxy phenolic coating, titanium modified inorganic copolymer (TMIC) and thermally sprayed aluminium (TSA), were tested for their ability to mitigate the problem. To simulate the CUI conditions, several test methods m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______119::9a94fd9791fdd92a107f17ecf6383901','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______119::9a94fd9791fdd92a107f17ecf6383901"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> fatigue of a superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weldment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Comer, Anthony John</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> have superior mechanical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties compared to austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> such as the grade 300 series. This is a result of a microstructure consisting of roughly equal percentages of austenite (y) and ferrite (a) and negligible inclusion content. As a result, super duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are increasingly being used in the offshore oil and gas industries. It is also envisaged that they will find application in the emergent renewable energy sec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21054489','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21054489"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> nuclear waste containers in marine sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report describes a study of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> nuclear waste containers in deep ocean sediments, which had the objective of estimating the metals allowance needed to ensure that the containers were not breached by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for 1000 years. It is concluded that, under such disposal conditions, carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> would not be subject to localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Therefore, the study concentrated on evaluating the rate of general attack. This was done by developing a mechanistically based mathematical model that was formulated on the conservative assumption that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> would be under activation control and would not be impeded by the formation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layers. This model predicted that an allowance of 33 mm would be required for a 1000-year life</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19016971','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19016971"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> nuclear waste containers in marine sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report describes a study of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> nuclear waste containers in deep ocean sediments, which had the objective of estimating the metal allowance needed to ensure that the containers were not breached by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for 1000 years. It was concluded that under such disposal conditions carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> would not be subject to localised <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> or hydrogen embrittlement, and therefore the study concentrated on evaluating the rate of general attack. This was carried out by developing a mechanistically based mathematical model which was formulated on the conservative assumption that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> would be under activation control, and would not be impeded by the formation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layers. This model predicted that an allowance of 33 mm would be required for a 1000 year life. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39068215','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39068215"><span id="translatedtitle">Water <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of ODS ferritic-martensitic <span class="hlt">steel</span> tubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> have superior radiation resistance; it is possible to achieve a service temperature of up to around 973 K because of their superior creep strength. These advantages of ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> facilities their application to long-life cladding tubes in advanced fast reactor fuel elements. In addition to neutron radiation resistance, sufficient general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance to maintain the strength of the cladding, and the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (SCC) resistance for spent-fuel-pool cooling systems and high-temperature oxidation for the fuel-clad chemical interaction (FCCI) of ODS ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span> are required. Although the addition of Cr to ODS is effective in preventing water <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and high-temperature oxidation, an excessively high amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the formation of a Cr-rich ?' precipitate. The Cr content in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite, the ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is controlled. In a previous paper, it has been demonstrated that the resistances of 9Cr- and 12Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> for high-temperature oxidation are superior to those of conventional 12Cr ferritic <span class="hlt">steel</span>. However, the water <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> data of ODS ferritic-martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> are very limited. In this study, a water <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test was conducted on ODS <span class="hlt">steels</span> in consideration of the spent-fuel-pool cooling condition, and the results were compared with those of conventional austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> and ferritic-martensitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23076415','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23076415"><span id="translatedtitle">Crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistivity assessment of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and stainless alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The disposal facility for radioactive wastes requires long-term integrity. Metal is considering to use as the engineered barrier which constructs the outer walls in such facility, in order to prevent groundwater from percolating into such disposal facility. The present report discusses crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistivity assessment of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and stainless alloys. Potential-pH (E-pH) diagram for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is obtained in the environment of water which imitates groundwater in Japan. And the repassivation potential for crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, ER,CREV, is measured by an electro-chemical test. And natural <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential, ESP, and ER,CREV for stainless alloys. Type 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span> and Titanium alloys (ASTM Gr. 1-Ti, Gr, 12-Ti), are measured in the environment of neutral and alkalized water. And usable condition of these materials are discussed. The conclusion of this paper are: 1) In the environment of higher values of pH, carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is in the state of passivation. In this state it can occur crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, at least in the condition of [Cl-]? 10ppm. So, using carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is inadequate for coexistence with concrete lining which shows higher pH environment. In neutral pH environment which without concrete, carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is in the state of uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and can be used by previous consideration of diminishing its thickness by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. 2) Usable diagram for crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless alloys is obtained, which includes [Cl-] concentration and temperature as a parameter. And it can be said that the adequate selection of materials by using this diagram can assure long-term integrity for groundwater <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26044178','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26044178"><span id="translatedtitle">The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of maraging <span class="hlt">steel</span> in various media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of maraging <span class="hlt">steel</span> in various media has been studied using electrode kinetic measurements. The media used included IN H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, IN HCl and artificial sea water, all at room temperature. The <span class="hlt">steel</span> used was 350 grade of maraging <span class="hlt">steel</span> and its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior was studied in annealed as well as aged condition. In addition to the general behavior observed using potentiodynamic polarization, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates were also evaluated using our own method known as ZTCorr. This method has been proved to be robust and accurate as compared to any other known method. The surfaces of corroded specimens were examined in an scanning electron microscope. The pitting observed in samples corroded by sea water was found to be associated with the inclusion present in the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Passive behavior was noted in IN H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ but not IN HCl or artificial sea water. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11551596','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11551596"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in lithium-stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal-convection systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of types 304L and 316 austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> by flowing lithium was studied in thermal-convection loops operated at 500 to 6500C. Both weight and compositional changes were measured on specimens distributed throughout each loop and were combined with metallographic examinations to evaluate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> processes. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate and mass transfer characteristics did not significantly differ between the two austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Addition of 500 or 1700 wt ppM N to purified lithium did not increase the dissolution rate or change the attack mode of type 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Adding 5 wt % Al to the lithium reduced the weight loss of this <span class="hlt">steel</span> by a factor of 5 relative to a pure lithium-thermal-convection loop</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ljs.academicdirect.org/A14/140_146.htm','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://ljs.academicdirect.org/A14/140_146.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Fecraly Coating on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behaviour of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Joseph B. AGBOOLA</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Steel</span> has found wide application in hot rolling equipments in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> industry and the oil rig structures in sea water. These equipments are frequently subjected to <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> and temperature condition which causes severe damage to them, hence the need to develop <span class="hlt">steel</span> suitable to withstand these conditions in terms of surface treatment. This research work investigates the effect of FeCrAlY coating on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> under high temperature and aggressive environment. Iron based coatings are used due to low cost among other properties such as good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance, ease of machining and high ductility when compared to hard metals.Thermal spraying of the specimens was carried out using high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> test was carried out on both coated and uncoated samples. All samples were subjected to the same high temperature treatment for oxidation test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/boms/026/03/0307-0310','GOOGLE-IAS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/boms/026/03/0307-0310"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> simulation device for marine structural <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/">Indian Academy of Sciences (India)</a></p> <p>Hou Baorong; Xiang Bin</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> simulation device was studied using offshore long scale hanging specimens. An Ni–Cu–P <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimen was studied by analysing its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> types. The appearance of the samples and the surface of the metallic substrate after the removal of the rust layer produced by these two methods were observed and compared after 470 days of exposure. The phase structure of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products under different marine environments were analysed and compared. It further indicated good correlation between the electrically connected hanging specimen method and the long scale hanging specimen method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-27/pdf/2013-23636.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-27/pdf/2013-23636.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 59651 - Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-27</p> <p>...A-580-816] Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...duty order on certain <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products...2\\ See Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-30/pdf/2012-13078.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-30/pdf/2012-13078.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 31877 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Scheduling of Full Five...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-30</p> <p>...Third Review)] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...antidumping duty orders on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>- resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-06/pdf/2011-22730.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-06/pdf/2011-22730.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 55004 - Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-06</p> <p>...A-580-816] Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...antidumping order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE...Products and Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-29/pdf/2013-07402.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-29/pdf/2013-07402.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 19210 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-29</p> <p>...Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...duty (CVD) order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...1\\ See <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-25/pdf/2011-1393.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-25/pdf/2011-1393.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 4291 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Partial Rescission of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-25</p> <p>...Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>- resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-14/pdf/2010-22887.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-14/pdf/2010-22887.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 55769 - Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-14</p> <p>...A-580-816] Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...antidumping order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE...Products and Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-06/pdf/2012-21993.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-06/pdf/2012-21993.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 54891 - Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-06</p> <p>...A-580-816] Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from...antidumping order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE...2012. See Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>- Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-09/pdf/2011-29056.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-09/pdf/2011-29056.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 69703 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of Extension of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-09</p> <p>...Administration [A-580-816] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...antidumping duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...review. See Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-13/pdf/2010-31217.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-13/pdf/2010-31217.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 77615 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of Extension of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-13</p> <p>...Administration [A-580-816] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...antidumping duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...review. See Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-04/pdf/2011-33770.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-04/pdf/2011-33770.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 301 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From Germany and Korea: Institution of Five-Year...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-04</p> <p>...Third Review)] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...Countervailing Duty Order on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...Antidumping Duty Orders on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-14/pdf/2011-32092.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-14/pdf/2011-32092.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 77775 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-14</p> <p>...Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from...countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...December 31, 2009. See <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-27/pdf/2013-23643.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-27/pdf/2013-23643.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 59652 - Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-27</p> <p>...A-580-816] Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...duty order on certain <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products...2\\ See Certain <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-09/pdf/2013-21890.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-09/pdf/2013-21890.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 55057 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-09</p> <p>...Administration [A-580-816] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from...antidumping duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE...effective this date. See <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-23/pdf/2012-9665.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-23/pdf/2012-9665.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 24221 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Notice of Commission...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-23</p> <p>...Third Review)] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From...countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from...antidumping duty orders on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>- resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44012538','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44012538"><span id="translatedtitle">Poly(o-phenylenediamine) as an inhibitor of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in HCl solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The inhibition properties of the electro-prepared P(o-phenylenediamine), P(oPD), on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MS) in HCl solutions have been investigated under different experimental conditions using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The data obtained from the two techniques are comparable and showed that the presence of P(oPD) in the acid solutions suppresses the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of MS indicating that the polymer acts as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency (IE%) of the polymer enhances with increasing its concentration and decreases with an increase in temperature. The inhibition occurs through adsorption and formation of barrier film on the metal surface which separates the metal from direct contact with the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium and hence <span class="hlt">protects</span> the metal against the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Langmuir isotherm fits well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters for both dissolution and adsorption processes were determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22052574','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22052574"><span id="translatedtitle">Poly(o-phenylenediamine) as an inhibitor of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in HCl solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Abd El Rehim, S.S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Sayyah, S.M., E-mail: smsayyah@hotmail.com [Polymer Research Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, 62514 Beni-Suef (Egypt); El-Deeb, M.M.; Kamal, S.M.; Azooz, R.E. [Polymer Research Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, 62514 Beni-Suef (Egypt)</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The inhibition properties of the electro-prepared P(o-phenylenediamine), P(oPD), on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MS) in HCl solutions have been investigated under different experimental conditions using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The data obtained from the two techniques are comparable and showed that the presence of P(oPD) in the acid solutions suppresses the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of MS indicating that the polymer acts as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency (IE%) of the polymer enhances with increasing its concentration and decreases with an increase in temperature. The inhibition occurs through adsorption and formation of barrier film on the metal surface which separates the metal from direct contact with the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium and hence <span class="hlt">protects</span> the metal against the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Langmuir isotherm fits well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters for both dissolution and adsorption processes were determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000400004','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000400004"><span id="translatedtitle">Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>R.S. Abdel Hameed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in this medium at 303 K. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1 indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000400004&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000400004&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">/ Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>R.S., Abdel Hameed.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in this medium at 303 K. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41014525','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41014525"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental factors affecting the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> III. Measurement of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> currents of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in Ca(OH)2 solutions under natural <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Using a simple electrolytic cell, the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> is measured in Ca(OH)2 solutions in presence of chloride and sulfate as aggressive ions. Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current starts to flow after an induction period which depends on the concentration of both the aggressive and the passivating anions. The pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current densities reach steady-state values which depend also on the type and concentration of the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> and passivating anions. The <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> action of the aggressive species decreased in the order: SO42- > Cl-. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> is found to be governed by a single electron transfer reaction. Raising the temperature decreases the induction period associated with pit initiation and increases the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current associated with pit propagation. From Arrhenius plots, the activation energies for both pit initiation and pit propagation in presence of chloride and sulfate ions are calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=109922','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=109922"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable non-<span class="hlt">protective</span> films and atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Payer, J.H.; Ball, G.R.; Rickett, B.I.; Kim, H.S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>In order for a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process to proceed beyond a few monolayers, the transport of reactants through the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer is necessary. The formation of a stable non-<span class="hlt">protective</span> film is required for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to continue beyond initial stages. High rates of ionic transport through the non-<span class="hlt">protective</span> film on the metal surface supply reactants to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction interface and allow <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to continue beyond surface coverage. In this paper, the processes relevant to film stability in atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> are identified and discussed. Several systems currently under study in the research group will be discussed in the context of non-<span class="hlt">protective</span> films and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reactant transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/871570','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/871570"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protective</span> coating for metallic materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7267872','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7267872"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of high chromium ferritic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ferritic <span class="hlt">steels</span> developed for seawater desalination and containing 20 to 28% chromium, up to 5% Mo and additions of nickel and copper have been tested with respect to their <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour, in particular in chloride containing media. The materials in the sensibilized state were tested for intercrystalline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility in the Strauss-, Streicher-, nitric acid hydrofluoric acid- and Huey-Tests. No intercrystalline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was encountered in the case of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 28% Cr and 2% Mo. The resistance to pitting was assessed on the basis of rupture potentials determined by potentiokinetic tests. The resistance of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> with 20% Cr and 5% Mo or 28% Cr and 2% Mo is superior to that of the molybdenum containing austenitic types. Addition of nickel yields a significant increase in crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance; the same applies to resistance in sulfuric acid. In boiling seawater all the materials tested are resistant to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking. No sign of any type of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was found on nickel containing <span class="hlt">steels</span> after about 6,000 hours exposure to boiling 50% seawater brine even under salt deposits. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46099524','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46099524"><span id="translatedtitle">The synergistic effect of polyamidoamine dendrimers and sodium silicate on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in soft water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • The composite demonstrated synergistic effects and exhibited mixed-type <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition behavior. • The composite showed remarkable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition property at a relatively low dosage. • The composite functioned more environmental-friendly compared to traditional inhibitors. • The composite have been adsorbed on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface as a <span class="hlt">protective</span> film against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack. - Abstract: The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition properties of a combination of polyamidoamine dendrimers and sodium silicate for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in soft water has been examined and characterized by weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that this environmental friendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor at relatively low dosages had a good inhibition effect on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in soft water. The adsorption of a combination of polyamidoamine dendrimers and sodium silicate obeys a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization studies show that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor was a mixed inhibitor. EDS determined the nature of the adsorption layer on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces, and AFM further confirmed the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> film on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24021963','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24021963"><span id="translatedtitle">Intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in fuel reprocessing environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism in stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> is well explained by the combined effect of environmental and metallurgical factors. As for the environmental factors, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential is the critical issue. In fuel reprocessing environments, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials are expected to be 1200 ± 150 mV (SHE). At the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials lower than about 1200 mV (SHE) in the passive state <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential region, the Cr depleted zone is the main metallurgical factor to induce IGC and compounds such as Ni phosphide (Ni3P2), Laves phase (Fe2Mo) and X phase (Fe18Cr6Mo5) have been confirmed to play the most important role in IGC above about 1200 mV (SHE) in the transpassive state <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential region. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43023393','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43023393"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Research and Development in Solving Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Problems of <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Industries in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A rust layer, so called '<span class="hlt">protective</span>' rust layer, on a weathering low-alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> has strong <span class="hlt">protective</span> ability for atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. We have recently found through a large number of spectroscopic studies including Moessbauer spectroscopy that the <span class="hlt">protective</span> rust layer forms after long-term phase transformation. The phase and structure of the rust definitely control the <span class="hlt">protective</span> ability of the rust layer. From this recent knowledge, some new technologies have been developed. One is the surface-treatment technique that provides a possibility for obtaining the <span class="hlt">protective</span> rust layer in a relatively short period even in the severe environments such as in marine and chloride (de-icing salts) containing environments. Others are based on selection of effective alloying elements for <span class="hlt">steel</span> materials. These are particularly important for application in areas where <span class="hlt">protective</span> rust layer formation may be hindered or prevented. In this paper, we mention recent progress in research and development on rusting <span class="hlt">protection</span> by rust for atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45077915','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45077915"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> mitigation by photo-catalytic coatings for stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Incidents of intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (IGSCC) have occurred in boiling water reactors (BWRs) for decades. The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (ECP) is currently a major indicator for the IGSCC susceptibility of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS) components in BWR environments. This study proposes a novel technique of photo-catalytic treatment to mitigate the IGSCC problems in BWRs that could eventually lead to a lower demand of dissolved hydrogen for hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were selected as the coating material for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mitigation of Type 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS) in high temperature water. Electrochemical polarization analyses were conducted to investigate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of both treated and untreated samples in 288degC pure water with O2 concentration of 300 ppb. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was then imposed upon the treated samples to examine if there was any photoelectric effect on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of the treated samples. According to the experimental results, the ECPs of the treated samples with UV became lower than those without UV, and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of the treated with UV irradiation were actually lower, as expected. These results indicate that the ZrO2 or TiO2 treatment in combination with UV radiation would effectively reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of Type 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in high temperature oxygenated environments. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38088417','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38088417"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks in liquid nuclear wastes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this work is to understand how solution chemistry would impact on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of waste storage <span class="hlt">steel</span> tanks at the Hanford Site. Future tank waste operations are expected to process wastes that are more dilute with respect to some current <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibiting waste constituents. Assessment of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage and of the influence of exposure time and electrolyte composition, using simulated (non-radioactive) wastes, of the double-shell tank wall carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> alloys is being conducted in a statistically designed long-term immersion experiment. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates at different times of immersion were determined using both weight-loss determinations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility was assessed using short-term cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results presented in this paper correspond to electrochemical and weight-loss measurements of the immersed coupons during the first year of immersion from a two year immersion plan. A good correlation was obtained between electrochemical measurements, weight-loss determinations and visual observations. Very low general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates (-1) were estimated using EIS measurements, indicating that general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> in contact with liquid wastes would no be a cause of tank failure even for these out-of-chemistry limit wastes. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20769429','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20769429"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbiologically influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> by thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva, R.; Cortes-Martinez, R.; Galvan-Martinez, R.; Torres-Sanchez, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Edificio ' ' U' ' , C.U. Apartado Postal 52-B, CP, 58000, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Garcia-Diaz, J.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Centro de Graduados, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)</p> <p>2006-07-15</p> <p>Bacterial influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of AISI 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> (SS) and ASTM A36 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> by two strains of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were analyzed. Thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria were isolated from the condensate fluid of ''Los Azufres'', a geothermal electric field located in the State of Michoacan at Central Mexico. Anaerobic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests were carried out for 15, 30 and 60 days in lactate-containing media at 50 C and 40 C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> morphology. Pitting density was determined with an optical microscope. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> potential, anodic potentiodynamic polarization curves and pH values were measured under anaerobic conditions. Results show that the microbial activity influenced the overall <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process, whereas, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and localized attack <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (LAC) were found. The anodic polarization curves show that passivation and activation processes should take place on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface of the sample and pH decreases as the exposure time increases. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB..tmp...51M','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB..tmp...51M"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Acidified Feronia elephantum Leaf Extract on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Muthukrishnan, Pitchaipillai; Prakash, Periakaruppan; Ilayaraja, Murugan; Jeyaprabha, Balasubramanian; Shankar, Karikalan</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> is used as a structural material for pipes, tank, reaction vessels, etc. which are known to corrode invariably in contact with various solvents. From the view point of a nation's economy and financial implications of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> hazard, it is necessary to adopt appropriate means and ways to reduce the losses due to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The use of eco-friendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors are increasing day by day. Feronia elephantum leaf extract (FELE) has been tested as eco-friendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for A262 mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M HCl solutions using non-electrochemical (Gravimetric, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and electrochemical techniques (open circuit potential, potentiostatic polarization, and electrochemical impedance measurements). The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency is found to increase with increase in FELE concentration but decrease with temperature, which is suggestive of physical adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of FELE on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM results confirm the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer by FELE over mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTST...21..987H','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTST...21..987H"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Processing and Heat Treatment on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Resistance and Properties of High Alloyed <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hill, Horst; Weber, Sebastian; Raab, Ulrich; Theisen, Werner; Wagner, Lothar</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and abrasive wear are two important aspects to be considered in numerous engineering applications. Looking at <span class="hlt">steels</span>, high-chromium high-carbon tool <span class="hlt">steels</span> are proper and cost-efficient materials. They can either be put into service as bulk materials or used as comparatively thin coatings to <span class="hlt">protect</span> lower alloyed construction or heat treatable <span class="hlt">steels</span> from wear and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. In this study, two different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant tool <span class="hlt">steels</span> were used for the production of coatings and bulk material. They were processed by thermal spraying and super solidus liquid phase sintering as both processes can generally be applied to produce coatings on low alloyed substrates. Thermally sprayed (high velocity oxygen fuel) coatings were investigated in the as-processed state, which is the most commonly used condition for technical applications, and after a quenching and tempering treatment. In comparison, sintered <span class="hlt">steels</span> were analyzed in the quenched and tempered condition only. Significant influence of alloy chemistry, processing route, and heat treatment on tribological properties was found. Experimental investigations were supported by computational thermodynamics aiming at an improvement of tribological and <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> resistance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33063076','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33063076"><span id="translatedtitle">Results of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests in flowing liquid Pb/Bi at 420-600 deg. C after 2000 h</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests were carried out on austenitic AISI 316L and 1.4970 <span class="hlt">steels</span> and on MANET <span class="hlt">steel</span> up to 2000 h of exposure to flowing (up to 2 m/s) Pb/Bi. The concentration of oxygen in the liquid alloy was controlled at 10-6 wt%. Specimens consisted of tube and rod sections in original state and after alloying of Al into the surface. After 2000 h of exposure at 420 and 550 deg. C the specimen surfaces were covered with an intact oxide layer which provided a good <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack of the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. After the same time <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack at 600 deg. C was severe at the original AISI 316L <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens. The alloyed specimens containing FeAl on the surface of the alloyed layer still maintained an intact oxide layer with good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> up to 600 deg. C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21527292','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21527292"><span id="translatedtitle">Materials <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">protection</span> at high temperatures; <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> et <span class="hlt">protection</span> des materiaux a haute temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Balbaud, F.; Desgranges, Clara; Martinelli, Laure; Rouillard, Fabien [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Duhamel, Cecile [Mines ParisTech, Centre des materiaux UMR-CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Marchetti, Loic; Perrin, Stephane [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse (France); Molins, Regine [Mines ParisTech, Direction de la Recherche, 60 Bvd Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Chevalier, S.; Heintz, O. [Laboratoire interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); David, N.; Fiorani, J.M.; Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Univ. Henri Poincare Nancy-1 - CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wouters, Y.; Galerie, A. [SIMAP UMR CNRS 5266, Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la Piscine BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres Cedex (France); Mangelinck, D. [IM2NP, UMR6242, CNRS, Univ. Paul Cezanne, Case 142, Faculte de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Viguier, B.; Monceau, D. [Univ. de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, INP-ENSIACET, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 44362, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Soustelle, M. [Ecole nationale superieure des mines, Saint Etienne (France); Pijolat, M. [Centre Spin, Ecole des mines de Saint Etienne (France); Favergeon, J.; Brancherie, D.; Moulin, G.; Dawi, K. [Laboratoire Roberval, UTC (France); Wolski, K.; Barnier, V. [Centre SMS, EMSE, UMR 5146, LCG, Univ. de Lyon, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Rebillat, F. [LCTS, Univ. de Bordeaux (France); Lavigne, O. [Onera, Dep. Materiaux et Structures Metalliques, BP 72, 29 av. de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon (France); Brossard, J.M. [Dep. energetique et procedes, Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation, Limay (France); Ropital, F. [IFP Energies Nouvelles, BP 3, 69360 Solaize (France); Mougin, J. [CEA-Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">protection</span> at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some <span class="hlt">protection</span> solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and oxidation; 19 - high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in new energies industry. (J.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38045038','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38045038"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> and finishing of automobiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed <span class="hlt">steel</span> having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of one primer coat and a double finish coat. The two finishing coats are applied one immediately after the other, and both are baked simultaneously. An alternate system is to apply a red iron oxide epoxy primer followed by a gray epoxy primer and to bake the two coats at 200 degree C for about 35 minutes. The dry film thickness is about is about 1.5 mils. This coating is wet sanded, washed, and dried then top-coated with a double (wet-on-wet) coat of alkyd-amino resin enamel. The enamel is baked at 120 degree C for about 35 minutes. The lacquer system consists of one prime coat followed by several coats of lacquer finish. Number of coats depending on the price range of the car. All the efforts are made to make the metal surface as smooth as possible and free from rough places due to spot wielding and filing. This means a minimum of sanding on the primer, thus saving in labour cost but also makes possible less pigment in the primer resulting in better hold-out of the finish. However, the primer must be hard enough to sand easily, because rubbery primers tare slow sanding and tend to show scratch marks from the sand paper. All metal surfaces are given a passivating treatment before application of the primer. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/2994','DRSNIO-EN'); return false;" href="http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/2994"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://drs.nio.org/drs/advanced-search">Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)</a></p> <p>PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.</p> <p></p> <p>Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> showed higher rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in seawater containing oil and lower <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______935::052c277da40fca0f27514bc34f969cae','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______935::052c277da40fca0f27514bc34f969cae"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour at the interface of <span class="hlt">steel</span> bars embedded in cement slurries: effect of phenol polymer coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>García Andión, Luis; Garcés Terradillos, Pedro; Lapuente Aragó, Rocío; Vázquez Picó, José Luis; Cases Iborra, Francisco Javier</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Cyclic voltammetry has been employed to investigate the behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes in solutions obtained by ?ltering of calcium aluminate cement and portland cement slurries. Electro-polymerized phenol coating on <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes has also been studied in carbonate medium. The phenol electro-polymerization occurs on a passivated surface and leads to adherent and stable polymeric ?lm exhibiting a partial <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The Fourier transform infrar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39009225','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39009225"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Testing of Borated Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has specified borated stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A 887-89, Grade A, UNS S30464, to be the material used for the fabrication of the fuel basket internals of the preliminary transportation, aging, and disposal canister system preliminary design. The long-term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance performance of this class of borated materials must be verified when exposed to expected YMP repository conditions after a waste package breach. Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests were performed on crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> coupons of Type 304 B4 and Type 304 B5 borated stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> exposed to single postulated in-package chemistry at 60 C. The results show low <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates for the test period</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32067779','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32067779"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> testing of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium metal waste form</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposition of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms contain irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructure and some of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies being conducted on the waste form alloys. Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, immersion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and vapor hydration tests have been performed on various alloy compositions to evaluate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior and resistance to selective leaching of simulated fission products. The SS-Zr waste forms are successful at the immobilization and retention of fission products and show potential for acceptance as high-level nuclear waste forms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21565187','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21565187"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni-W coatings electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>: Chemical composition, mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Arganaraz, M.P. Quiroga; Ribotta, S.B. [INQUINOA-CONICET, Instituto de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, (4000) San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina); Folquer, M.E., E-mail: mefolquer@fbqf.unt.edu.ar [INQUINOA-CONICET, Instituto de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, (4000) San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina); Gassa, L.M.; Benitez, G.; Vela, M.E.; Salvarezza, R.C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, Suc. 4, C.C. 16, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Highlights: > Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. > New procedures for achieving deposits by current pulse techniques. > Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define coating characteristics. > Ni-W coatings <span class="hlt">protect</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions. - Abstract: Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings were electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from electrolyte solutions containing sodium tungstate, nickel sulfate and sodium citrate, using different current pulse programs. Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define chemical composition, grain size, thickness and hardness. According to the electrodeposition conditions the deposited coatings showed 15-30 at% W, the grain size ranged from 65 to 140 nm, and the hardness varied from 650 to 850 Hv. Tungsten carbide also present in the coating contributed to its hardness. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the Ni-W coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was tested by potentiodynamic polarization in a neutral medium containing sulphate ions. The Ni-W coating <span class="hlt">protected</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43042995','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43042995"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni-W coatings electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>: Chemical composition, mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. ? New procedures for achieving deposits by current pulse techniques. ? Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define coating characteristics. ? Ni-W coatings <span class="hlt">protect</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions. - Abstract: Hard, ductile and adherent nanostructured Ni-W coatings were electrodeposited on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from electrolyte solutions containing sodium tungstate, nickel sulfate and sodium citrate, using different current pulse programs. Current pulse frequency was the dominant factor to define chemical composition, grain size, thickness and hardness. According to the electrodeposition conditions the deposited coatings showed 15-30 at% W, the grain size ranged from 65 to 140 nm, and the hardness varied from 650 to 850 Hv. Tungsten carbide also present in the coating contributed to its hardness. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the Ni-W coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> was tested by potentiodynamic polarization in a neutral medium containing sulphate ions. The Ni-W coating <span class="hlt">protected</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> induced by sulphate anions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22233866','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22233866"><span id="translatedtitle">Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> detection in stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> using ultrasounds; Deteccion de la <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> por picadura en aceros inoxidables empleando ultrasonidos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, C.; Biezma, M. V.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Passive metallic systems are able to develop in a spontaneous way a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on the metallic surface that offers excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance since really in a physical barrier for the reaction with the environment. However, some factors can break locally this layer, promoting one of the most insidious attack, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, which produces local chemical conditions that favouring the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> process causing defects in the material, as externals and internals ones, with a random distribution on the metal surface. In this work, ultrasounds non destructive technique has been employed using as variable the maximum amplitude of the back wall echo in order to detect this type of attack. The material employed is an austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI 304, wherein appear several defectology distributions as superficial such as depths simulating pits. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-40422012000800005-scl','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-40422012000800005-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Desenvolvimento e uso do compósito de Nb2O5|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersão térmica sobre o aço AISI 1020 para proteção contra a corrosão pelo solo em estruturas enterradas / Development of Nb2O5|Cu composite as AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal spray coating for <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by soil in buried structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Oscar, Regis Junior; José Maurílio da, Silva; Kleber Franke, Portella; Ramon Sigifredo Cortes, Paredes.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english An Nb2O|Cu <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two <span class="hlt">corrosively</span> aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatin [...] gs in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/22012568/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/22012568/"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite as AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> thermal spray coating for <span class="hlt">protection</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by soil in buried structures; Desenvolvimento e uso do composito de Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersao termica sobre o aco AISI 1020 para protecao contra a corrosao pelo solo em estruturas enterradas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Regis Junior, Oscar [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica; Silva, Jose Maurilio da; Portella, Kleber Franke [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa em Engenharia Civil; Paredes, Ramon Sigifredo Cortes, E-mail: regis@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>An Nb{sub 2}O|Cu <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two <span class="hlt">corrosively</span> aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite for use in buried structure <span class="hlt">protection</span>. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22222766','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22222766"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> piping in nuclear power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Kim, Sang Hyun</p> <p>2006-02-15</p> <p>Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (FAC) is a process whereby the normally <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide layer on carbon or low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> dissolved into a stream of flowing water resulting in increasing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. Major influencing factors that affect the FAC are flow velocity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and <span class="hlt">steel</span> composition. The experimental study described in this paper was focused on evaluating the FAC behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> according to environment conditions. Feasibility tests for the mitigation method against the FAC were also carried out with controlling the water chemistry and with applying the magnetic field. A high temperature rotating cylinder electrode (HTRCE) and a water chemistry control system was developed to perform the electrochemical test in high temperature water environments. The main design concept of HTRCE is to assure stable operation of working electrode in a severe environment, to insulate electrode housing except working electrode surface against external fluid, and to extract <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> parameter from the rotating cylinder to outside of the autoclave safely. The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (ECP) and current density were measured as a function of temperature and rotating speed using polarization monitoring. ECP values dropped at a rate of -1.51 mV/.deg. C above 150 .deg. C, which may be come from the formation of magnetite on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. With increasing rotation of the RCE, the ECP shifted upward in all temperature ranges. This shift may be attributed to the diffusion enhancement of the oxidizing agents in the rapidly flowing of fluid. From the velocity exponent of the cathodic half-cell current density on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, it was evident that a mass transfer process first dominated the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction at 150 .deg. C, and then an activation process partly controlled the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics with increasing temperature. From the results of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> experiment at high temperature water, HTRCE has been proved as an effective device to evaluate the velocity sensitivity of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction in high temperature water. An electrochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of fluid flow and dissolved oxygen on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and to correlate electrochemical aspect with the flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. In neutral pH water containing 2 ppb oxygen, the ECP and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density were increased with rotation of electrode. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> current density showed similar tendency with a wall shear stress on the surface of electrode due to the fluid flow. The wall shear stress might cause a decrease in the mass transfer boundary layer thickness resulting in increase in the rate of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction due to faster diffusion of the soluble <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product into the bulk solution. When the oxygen concentration exceeds a threshold concentration, the cathodic current previously supplied by the hydrogen evolution reaction is substituted by an equivalent reaction due to oxygen reduction. Thus, the ECP increases up to the range of hematite which has a very low solubility and electric conductivity. The hematite formation would lead to inhibit flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The effects of a magnetic field on the FAC behavior of a low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> were evaluated to develop a method to mitigate against feeder wall thinning. A magnet-attached rotating cylinder electrode and piping <span class="hlt">steel</span> covered with simulated oxide film were used in potentiodynamic test and erosion test to determine the magnetic effect on electrochemical and erosional aspect of the oxide layer, respectively. An Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction was active in the magnetic field because the local mass transfer rate was increased by the magnetohydrodynamic force generated by a coupling of the electric and magnetic field. However, the magnetic field effect decreased with increasing temperature and rotation velocity. Those might be come from the facts that the thickness of the diffusion layer decreased with rotating velocity and the diffusion constant increased with increasing temperatu</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45043721','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45043721"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> piping in nuclear power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (FAC) is a process whereby the normally <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide layer on carbon or low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> dissolved into a stream of flowing water resulting in increasing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. Major influencing factors that affect the FAC are flow velocity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and <span class="hlt">steel</span> composition. The experimental study described in this paper was focused on evaluating the FAC behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> according to environment conditions. Feasibility tests for the mitigation method against the FAC were also carried out with controlling the water chemistry and with applying the magnetic field. A high temperature rotating cylinder electrode (HTRCE) and a water chemistry control system was developed to perform the electrochemical test in high temperature water environments. The main design concept of HTRCE is to assure stable operation of working electrode in a severe environment, to insulate electrode housing except working electrode surface against external fluid, and to extract <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> parameter from the rotating cylinder to outside of the autoclave safely. The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (ECP) and current density were measured as a function of temperature and rotating speed using polarization monitoring. ECP values dropped at a rate of -1.51 mV/.deg. C above 150 .deg. C, which may be come from the formation of magnetite on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. With increasing rotation of the RCE, the ECP shifted upward in all temperature ranges. This shift may be attributed to the diffusion enhancement of the oxidizing agents in the rapidly flowing of fluid. From the velocity exponent of the cathodic half-cell current density on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, it was evident that a mass transfer process first dominated the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction at 150 .deg. C, and then an activation process partly controlled the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics with increasing temperature. From the results of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> experiment at high temperature water, HTRCE has been proved as an effective device to evaluate the velocity sensitivity of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction in high temperature water. An electrochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of fluid flow and dissolved oxygen on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and to correlate electrochemical aspect with the flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. In neutral pH water containing 2 ppb oxygen, the ECP and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density were increased with rotation of electrode. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> current density showed similar tendency with a wall shear stress on the surface of electrode due to the fluid flow. The wall shear stress might cause a decrease in the mass transfer boundary layer thickness resulting in increase in the rate of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction due to faster diffusion of the soluble <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product into the bulk solution. When the oxygen concentration exceeds a threshold concentration, the cathodic current previously supplied by the hydrogen evolution reaction is substituted by an equivalent reaction due to oxygen reduction. Thus, the ECP increases up to the range of hematite which has a very low solubility and electric conductivity. The hematite formation would lead to inhibit flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The effects of a magnetic field on the FAC behavior of a low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> were evaluated to develop a method to mitigate against feeder wall thinning. A magnet-attached rotating cylinder electrode and piping <span class="hlt">steel</span> covered with simulated oxide film were used in potentiodynamic test and erosion test to determine the magnetic effect on electrochemical and erosional aspect of the oxide layer, respectively. An Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reaction was active in the magnetic field because the local mass transfer rate was increased by the magnetohydrodynamic force generated by a coupling of the electric and magnetic field. However, the magnetic field effect decreased with increasing temperature and rotation velocity. Those might be come from the facts that the thickness of the diffusion layer decreased with rotating velocity and the diffusion constant increased with increasing temperatu</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::4bc6f424b09ea8f104a3f740e4c9081f','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::4bc6f424b09ea8f104a3f740e4c9081f"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed on <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the first months of atmospheric exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Antunes Renato Altobelli; Costa Isolda; Faria Dalva Lúcia Araújo de</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and weathering <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to three different types of atmospheres, at times ranging from one to three months, have been identified. The <span class="hlt">steels</span> were exposed in an industrial site, an urban site (São Paulo City, Brazil), and a humid site. The effect of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> type on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed in the early stages of atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> has been evaluated. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed at the various exposure locations were characterized by Raman...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.2809M','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.2809M"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> on Borided and Non-borided <span class="hlt">Steels</span> Immersed in 1 M HCl Solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mejía-Caballero, I.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.; Herrera-Hernández, H.; Herrera-Soria, O.; Campos Silva, I.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In this study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistances of AISI 1018 and AISI 304 borided and non-borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> were estimated using polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Boriding of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples was conducted using the powder-pack method at 1223 K with 6 h of exposure. Structural examinations of the surfaces of the borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> showed the presence of a Fe2B layer with isolated FeB teeth on the AISI 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span>, whereas a compact layer of FeB/Fe2B was formed on the AISI 304 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Polarization resistance and EIS of the borided and non-borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> surfaces were performed in a <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> solution of 1 M HCl. The EIS data were analyzed during 43 days of exposure to the acid solution. Impedance curves obtained during this period for the borided and non-borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> were modeled using equivalent electrical circuits. The results of both electrochemical techniques indicated that boride layers formed at the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces effectively <span class="hlt">protect</span> the samples from the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> effects of HCl. The main <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> processes observed on the boride layers were pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=131407','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=131407"><span id="translatedtitle">Crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> repassivation temperatures of highly alloyed stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Valen, S.; Gartland, P.O. [SINTEF Corrosion Center, Trondheim (Norway)</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted to study the repassivation temperature of a highly alloyed austenitic (UNS S31254) and of a highly alloyed duplex (UNS S32750) stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS). When initiated at a high temperature, repassivation occurred at a temperature level significantly lower than normally associated with initiation of crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Experimental results combined with computer modeling of crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> explored the mechanistic aspects. In this respect, the similarity between the hysteresis observed by cyclic polarization and cyclic temperature tests was emphasized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/246795-FXP0vG/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/246795-FXP0vG/"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in high temperature water; La <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> generalisee des aciers au carbone dans l`eau a haute temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Gras, J.M.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This short paper seeks to provide a summary of the main knowledge about the general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in high temperature water. In pure water or slightly alkaline deaerated water, <span class="hlt">steels</span> develop a <span class="hlt">protective</span> coating of magnetite in a double layer (Potter and Mann oxide) or a single layer (Bloom oxide). The morphology of the oxide layer and the kinetics of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depend on the test parameters controlling the solubility of iron. The parameters exercising the greatest influence are partial hydrogen pressure and mass transfer: hydrogen favours the solubilization of the magnetite; the entrainment of the dissolved iron prevents a redeposition of magnetite on the surface of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Cubic or parabolic in static conditions, the kinetics of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tends to be linear in dynamic conditions. In dynamic operation, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is at least one order of magnitude lower in water with a pH of 10 than in pure water with a pH of 7. The activation energy of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is 130 kJ/mol (31 kcal/mol). This results in the doubling of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> at around 300 deg C for a temperature increase of 15 deg C. Present in small quantities (100-200 ppb), oxygen decreases general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> but increases the risk of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> - even for a low chloride content - and stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking or <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-fatigue. The <span class="hlt">steel</span> composition has probably an influence on the kinetics of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in dynamic conditions; further work would be required to clarify the effect of some residual elements. (author). 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApSS..148..171A','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApSS..148..171A"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies of laser-melted carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Agudelo, A. C.; Gancedo, J. R.; Marco, J. F.; Creus, M. F.; Gallego-Lluesma, E.; Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>We have observed by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) that the irradiation of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces with an industrial CO 2 laser, under different experimental conditions, brings about the formation of ?-Fe 2O 3, Fe 3O 4 and Fe 1- xO. The larger beam-surface interaction times favour the formation of greater amounts of Fe 3+ oxides (mainly ?-Fe 2O 3) within the depth that can be probed by CEMS (?300 nm). A model based on the numerical solution of the heat-diffusion equation gives evidence that the oxidation processes are mainly dictated by the time at which the metal remains at temperatures higher than the melting point. In addition, the samples have been subjected to wet-dry <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cycles in SO 2-polluted atmospheres and monitored by CEMS and weight gain. The oxide layer reduces noticeably the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. This <span class="hlt">protection</span> is related to the composition of the oxidation layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46027981','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46027981"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental studies of 2-pyridinecarbonitrile as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hydrochloric acid solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> effect of inhibitor was studied in 0.1 mol L?1 HCl on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. • The inhibitor efficiency increases with increase in the concentration of inhibitor. • SEM micrographs showed that the inhibitor has a good <span class="hlt">protective</span> film on the metal surface. - Abstract: The effect of 2-Pyridinecarbonitrile (2-PCN) was studied on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> (MS) <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 0.1 mol L?1 HCl by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The surface morphologies of the MS were investigated in the inhibitor-free and in the presence of 10 mmol L?1 2-PCN containing <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media, at 120 h exposure period by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanism of adsorption was determined from the potential of zero charge (Epzc). 2-PCN adsorption on the MS surface obeyed the isotherm of Langmuir and the thermodynamic parameters Kads; ?Gads° were also calculated and discussed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......220L','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......220L"><span id="translatedtitle">The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low-carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated Yucca Mountain repository environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Lian, Tiangan</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of nuclear waste container materials in possible concentrated underground environments is one of the major concerns in Yucca Mountain repository project. Low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> (LCS) is considered an optional material to serve as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> allowance layer. AISI 1016 low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was investigated in concentrated J-13 ground waters. The electrochemical behavior of LCS was studied by monitoring <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential behavior, measuring polarization resistance and conducting anodic potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic polarization tests. LCS showed excellent resistance against general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in J-13 waters under de-aerated conditions, with the measured <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates at 25sp° and 90sp°C were less than 0.28 mpy. The temperature, precipitation and overall concentration effects on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate were minimal under de-aerating conditions. Under aerated conditions, the dissolved oxygen significantly increased <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of LCS in the J-13 water with low concentration and temperature. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rate reached 5.5 mpy in aerated 10X J-13 water at 25sp°C. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rate of LCS decreased in aerated J-13 waters with increasing temperature or concentration. With limitation of solubility, concentration overall species in J-13 water up to 1000X did not increase <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate or tendency of localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Resistance to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> varies with presence of aggressive Clsp- ions, oxidizer, inhibitors and precipitates. With heavy precipitates in overall concentrated J-13 waters at 90sp°C, measured pitting and <span class="hlt">protection</span> potentials were increased significantly. Presence of dissolved oxygen or higher Clsp- fraction decreased Esbpit, and significantly decreased Esbprot as well. However, 1000X Clsp- J-13 water formed passive film on LCS at 25sp°C. Addition of Fesp{3+} significantly increased pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tendency, because adding FeClsb3 removed inhibitor and passivator anions from aerated J-13 waters during the solution preparation. With presence of Fesp{3+} or depletion of inhibitor/passivator anions, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was observed on LCS shortly exposed in J-13 Fesp{3+} waters. The pitting is believed to initiated under the iron hydroxides/oxides deposits. Higher temperature initiated pits at a lower potential and shorter induction time. Dissolved silicate ions were found an effective inhibitor in J-13 waters to reduce <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate and prevent localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Formation of stable metal silicates assures the inhibitory effects of precipitates at higher temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-14392013000600035&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-14392013000600035&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> assessment by electrochemical impedance on metakaolin blended mortars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Víctor, Triana; Juan, Lizarazo-Marriaga; Jhon Olaya, Flórez.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Since <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> in concrete is the cause of major economic losses, Portland cement has been traditionally replaced by cements blended with pozzalanic materials, most of which have been found to reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This paper shows the results of an experimental resear [...] ch aimed to investigate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcement in mortar using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this, concrete laboratory samples containing a 0.0055 m <span class="hlt">steel</span> bar and prepared with just ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and metakaolin at a replacement level of 20% were analyzed. In order to accelerate the <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process, all the samples were kept in a 3% NaCl solution and a constant anodic electrical potential was applied. Variations in the water to cementitious material ratio (0.5 and 0.6) and metakaolin proportion were analyzed, while the cementitious material to sand ratio was kept constant at 1:2.25 in all of the specimens. The results showed a reduction in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates when metakaolin was used as a blending admixture, especially at water to cementitious material ratio of 0.5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17058581','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17058581"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of niobium-to-<span class="hlt">steel</span> welded joints in boiling nitric acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of niobium with stell welded joints in boiling nitric acid is studied by melting of <span class="hlt">steel</span> only. It is shown that it corresponds to the 12Kh18N10T <span class="hlt">steel</span> resistance and is determined by general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. At the presence of interlayer of intermetallic compounds in the niobium with <span class="hlt">steel</span> contact zone the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of joints decreases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37078964','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37078964"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> MAVL wastes containers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The long lived and medium activity wastes are conditioned or could be re-conditioned in primary drums of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. In the framework of wastes storage, these drums will be placed in concrete containers; each containers would contain one or more drums. This document recalls global information on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, analyzes specific conditions bond to the drums conditioning in concrete containers and the nature of the wastes, and details the consequences on the possible risks of external and internal <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the drums. (A.L.B.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://lejpt.academicdirect.org/A27/120_130.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://lejpt.academicdirect.org/A27/120_130.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of some conventional stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in electrolyzing process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Amal NASSAR</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to increase the amount of hydrogen generated from the water electrolysis process. Some conventional stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> (316; 409; 410 and 430 were used as anode and cathode in electrolysis process. Further study was carried out on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> trend in all the investigated metals. It is observed that the electrode material can effect on the amount of hydrogen generate by electrolyzing process and metal composition of the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> effects on the rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27043571','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27043571"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of high alloy <span class="hlt">steels</span> in natural sea water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper deals with an investigation into regularities of settlement and potential impact of microbial forms on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 12Kh18N10T stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> depending on its microstructure. It is shown that inhomogeneity of the morphorological composition and quantitative distribution of microorganisms on the surface of alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> is caused by the selectivity of bacterial cells settlement on the substrate structural elements. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> destruction at microscopic level primarily starts in the zones of microorganism concentration. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35045068','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35045068"><span id="translatedtitle">AFM evaluation for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of ion irradiated stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Development and research about analytical method for the study of irradiation assisted stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was conducted. Specimens were irradiated by Ni3+ ions at 573 to 673K up to dose level of 35 dpa with synergetic implantation of He ions. The specimens were etched in H2SO4 solution at a constant potential, and then corroded positions were evaluated by atomic force microscope (AFM) and electron backscatter diffraction pattern (EBSP) technique. The developed method could quantitatively evaluate irradiation effects on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior. He implantation reduced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ijettjournal.org/volume-8/number-3/IJETT-V8P222.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://ijettjournal.org/volume-8/number-3/IJETT-V8P222.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficiency of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors on Cathodic <span class="hlt">Protection</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Tobinson Briggs</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available This study is on experiment being carried out to determine the efficiency of in inhibitors on catholically <span class="hlt">protected</span> medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea water in Bonny and Ogbokoro in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The experiment was conducted using the total immersion technique in a non-flowing media containing sea water inhibited with potassium dichromate, sodium nitrate, ECIO21A, sarvor CK 368, and Kurizets 636. In the course of this research work, Cathodically <span class="hlt">protected</span> and unprotected medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> were totally immersed in seawater containing the aforementioned inhibitors differently. Their weight loss, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, pH value and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials were determined at intervals of 72 hours, over 2016 hours the test lasted. The results obtained shows that inhibitor EC1021A has efficiency of 79.8%, other results are as follows: Kurizet S.636, 77%, savor CK368, 43%, potassium dichromate, 35% and sodium nitrate, 1.88%. It was concluded that EC1021A is the most efficient inhibitor, under a non-flow system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20988688','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20988688"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of zinc-magnesium coated <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Hosking, N.C. [Ford Motor Company Ltd., Dunton Engineering Centre, Room GB15/GM-D01, Laindon, Basildon, Essex SS15 6EE (United Kingdom) and School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: niamh.hosking@gmail.com; Stroem, M.A. [Volvo Car Corporation, Building VCPC, Maildrop PV 1B, Volvo Jacobs vag, Goeteborg SE-405 31 (Sweden); Shipway, P.H. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Rudd, C.D. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)</p> <p>2007-09-15</p> <p>A significant body of work exists in the literature concerning the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of zinc-magnesium coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> (ZMG), describing its enhanced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance when compared to conventional zinc-coated <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This paper begins with a review of the literature and identifies key themes in the reported mechanisms for the attractive properties of this material. This is followed by an experimental programme where ZMG was subjected to an automotive laboratory <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test using acidified NaCl solution. A 3-fold increase in time to red rust compared to conventional zinc coatings was measured. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products detected on ZMG included simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}Cl{sub 2}(OH){sub 8} . H{sub 2}O), possibly modified by magnesium uptake, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) and a hydroxy carbonate species. It is proposed that the oxygen reduction activity at the (zinc) cathodes is reduced by precipitation of alkali-resistant Mg(OH){sub 2}, which is gradually converted to more soluble hydroxy carbonates by uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This lowers the surface pH sufficiently to allow thermodynamically for general precipitation of insoluble simonkolleite over the corroding surface thereby retarding the overall <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reactions, leaving only small traces of magnesium <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products behind. Such a mechanism is consistent with the experimental findings reported in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-97072015000100004&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-97072015000100004&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">STUDY OF <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF NOVEL SEMICARBAZONES ON MILD <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>RATHIKA, GOVINDASAMY; SWETHA, AYAPPAN.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> using acids by three different novel Semicarbazones as inhibitors have been studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The inhibition efficiency, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, the nature of anchor [...] ing sites and the adsorption characteristics have been determined from the results. It was found that the newly synthesized compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors with high inhibition efficiency. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitors concentration but decreases with increasing the temperature. Addition of halide ion enhances the inhibition efficiency. The adsorption of the inhibitors on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning Electron Spectroscopy is used to examine the surface morphology of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples both in the presence and absence of inhibitors at optimum conditions. Scanning Electron Microscope reveals the formation of a smooth, dense <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer in the presence of inhibitor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37115505','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37115505"><span id="translatedtitle">Bio-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in synthetic and natural sea water of modified stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> by poison elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In seawater, bacteria can modify the behaviour of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> towards <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. It can be then considered to control this type of degradation by a better adjustment of the chemical composition of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> used. In this work, has been studied the influence of the addition of 'poisons' elements for bacteria on the bio-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of an austenitic 316L <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The added elements were copper, tin and arsenic. After a bibliographic study and a description of the metallographic, electrochemical and surface analyses methods used, the results obtained in the considered media are given: synthetical seawater, natural, or sterilized and then inoculated. The specific role of each addition elements has then been revealed as well as the alteration of the <span class="hlt">protecting</span> films and of the induced bio-film, and the behaviour differences in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (O.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20856740','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20856740"><span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Rahim, Afidah A. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)]. E-mail: afidah@usm.my; Rocca, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Steinmetz, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Kassim, M.J. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Adnan, R. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Sani Ibrahim, M. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)</p> <p>2007-02-15</p> <p>The inhibitive behaviour on <span class="hlt">steel</span> of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38028898','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38028898"><span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The inhibitive behaviour on <span class="hlt">steel</span> of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24061751','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24061751"><span id="translatedtitle">The Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in 1 N HCl by Imidazole Derivatives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Patel, Niketan S; Jauhari, Smita; Mehta, Girishkumar N</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The inhibition effect of imidazole derivatives 4-methyl-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acid (MPBI) and 1,4'-Dimethyl-2'-propyl-1H,3'H-2,5'-dibenzimidazole (DPBI) against mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1 N HCl solutions were evaluated using conventional weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The weight loss results showed that both are excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors, electrochemical polarizations data revealed the mixed mode of inhibition and the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have shown that the change in the impedance parameters, charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance, with the change in concentration of the inhibitor is due to the adsorption of the molecule leading to the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on the surface of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The inhibition action of these compounds was, assumed to occur via adsorption on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface through the active centres contained of the molecule. PMID:24061751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::498f1fab0305aaaa8abadfb5c2a69553','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::498f1fab0305aaaa8abadfb5c2a69553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> potential of 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulfuric acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>BORE JEGDIC; DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC; JOVAN P. POPIC</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The potentiodynamic study of the electrochemical behavior of austenitic 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in deaerated aqueous sulfuric acid of pH 1 revealed that the <span class="hlt">steel</span> achieved a stable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential of ca. – 0.350 V (SCE) independent of whether the electrode had previously been cathodically “activated” or anodically passivated. It was also shown that the experimentally observed anodic peak was not the usually obtained anodic passivation peak, as is the case with a number of metal, but an artifa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45105586','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45105586"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of acoustic emission to monitor the effect of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One of the most important causes of reinforced concrete structures deterioration is the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the reinforcement <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depends on the presence of aggressive agents such as chlorides in the surrounding medium. Numerous <span class="hlt">protection</span> techniques have been employed to mitigate this <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Among them, the use of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors has been considered as one of the most effective solutions. In the present work, the influence of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steels</span> embedded in mortar, and immersed in sodium chloride solution, was investigated by acoustic emission technique. The monitoring of specimens shows that the phosphate based inhibitor addition in the mortar increase the threshold of chloride concentrations, causing the breakdown of <span class="hlt">steel</span> passivation layer. Thus, the acoustic signatures of concrete fracture and of structure degradation during the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of these specimens have been highlighted. Similarly, the mechanism of phosphate action in terms of preventing <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in mortar specimens was analysed by characterization methods (SEM, XRD) of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>-mortar interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22284178','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22284178"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of acoustic emission to monitor the effect of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Nahali, Haifa [Laboratoire MATEIS CNRS UMR5511 (Equipe CorrIS), INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Univ. de Tunis El Manar, Belvedere (Tunisia). Unite de Recherche ' ' Mecanique-Energetique' ' ; Dhouibi, Leila [Univ. de Tunis El Manar, Belvedere (Tunisia). Unite de Recherche ' ' Mecanique-Energetique' ' ; Idrissi, Hassane [Laboratoire MATEIS CNRS UMR5511 (Equipe CorrIS), INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>One of the most important causes of reinforced concrete structures deterioration is the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the reinforcement <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depends on the presence of aggressive agents such as chlorides in the surrounding medium. Numerous <span class="hlt">protection</span> techniques have been employed to mitigate this <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Among them, the use of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors has been considered as one of the most effective solutions. In the present work, the influence of phosphate based inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steels</span> embedded in mortar, and immersed in sodium chloride solution, was investigated by acoustic emission technique. The monitoring of specimens shows that the phosphate based inhibitor addition in the mortar increase the threshold of chloride concentrations, causing the breakdown of <span class="hlt">steel</span> passivation layer. Thus, the acoustic signatures of concrete fracture and of structure degradation during the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of these specimens have been highlighted. Similarly, the mechanism of phosphate action in terms of preventing <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in mortar specimens was analysed by characterization methods (SEM, XRD) of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>-mortar interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26011181','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26011181"><span id="translatedtitle">Case histories of microbiologically influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weldments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microbiologically influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (MIC) is initiated or accelerated by microorganisms and is currently recognized as a serious problem affecting the construction and operation of many industrial facilities, including nuclear power plants. The purpose of this paper is to review how biofouling and MIC can occur and discuss current mechanistic theories. A case history of MIC attack in power plants is examined with emphasis on the role of welding and heat treatment variables using laboratory electrochemical analyses. Although MIC can occur on a variety of alloys, pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> failures of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> are often associated with weldments. MIC occurs as the result of a consortium of microorganisms colonizing on the metal surface and their variety (fungi, bacteria, algae, mold, and slimes) enables them to form support systems for cross feeding to enhance survival. The metabolic processes influence <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of materials by destroying <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings, producing a localized acid environment, creating <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> deposits, or altering anodic and cathodic reactions. On stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, biofilms destroy the passive oxide film on the surface of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> and subject them to localized forms of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Many of the MIC failures in industry result in pitting to austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weldments. Pitting primarily occurs in the weld metal, heat affected zones, and adjacent to the weld in the base metal. Depending on the conditions of the concentration cell created by the biofilm, either phase of the two-phase duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, austenite or delta ferrite, may be selectively attacked. Theories have been proposed about the mechanism of MIC on austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> and and a general understanding is that some function associated with the biofilm formation directly affects the electrochemical process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST...24..629P','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST...24..629P"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitigating Localized <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Using Thermally Sprayed Aluminum (TSA) Coatings on Welded 25% Cr Superduplex Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Paul, S.; Lu, Q.; Harvey, M. D. F.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA) coating has been increasingly used for the <span class="hlt">protection</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> offshore structures, topside equipment, and flowlines/pipelines exposed to both marine atmospheres and seawater immersion conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of TSA coatings in preventing localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, such as pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 25% Cr superduplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SDSS) in subsea applications, has been investigated. Welded 25% Cr SDSS (coated and uncoated) with and without defects, and surfaces coated with epoxy paint were also examined. Pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests, on welded 25% Cr SDSS specimens with and without TSA/epoxy coatings, were conducted in recirculated, aerated, and synthetic seawater at 90 °C for 90 days. The tests were carried out at both the free <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials and an applied cathodic potential of -1100 mV saturated calomel electrode. The acidity (pH) of the test solution was monitored daily and adjusted to between pH 7.5 and 8.1, using dilute HCl solution or dilute NaOH, depending on the pH of the solution measured during the test. The test results demonstrated that TSA prevented pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 25% Cr SDSS in artificial seawater at 90 °C, even when 10-mm-diameter coating defect exposing the underlying <span class="hlt">steel</span> was present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38049256','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38049256"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the galvanized SS400 <span class="hlt">steel</span> in NaCl solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A typical CANDU plant generates about 5,000 spent fuel bundles annually, which are stored in a spent fuel pool. Because the storage capacity of a spent pool is 10 years of spent fuel bundles, the Silo type storage modules are used to store the extra fuel bundles. In a multi-unit site like Wolsong, the extra space needed for the Silo type storage modules are ever increasing with the operating years. Therefore a more space effective storage system is necessary to accommodate all the extra spent fuels from the four CANDU units at site. A new dry storage system, MACSTOR/KN-400 (M/KN- 400) that is based upon MACSTOR design concept was developed. M/KN-400 will be built at the seaside in Wolsong site and galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> will be used for storage cylinder material to <span class="hlt">protect</span> from the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Generally, galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span>, in which the Zn layer on the surface acts as a sacrificial anode, are known to have good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in the atmospheric or aqueous conditions. However, in the brine condition containing chloride ions or steam environment, the Zn layer can be damaged. Therefore, considering the seaside atmosphere in which the storage system are located, the integrity of the storage cylinder is likely to be affected by the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> caused by the salt included in the atmosphere. In this study, electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests were performed on the galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> to estimate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the storage cylinder</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20883785','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20883785"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the galvanized SS400 <span class="hlt">steel</span> in NaCl solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Hong, Seung Mo; Jang, Chang Heui; Kim, In Sup [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Ho; Choi, Byung Il [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>A typical CANDU plant generates about 5,000 spent fuel bundles annually, which are stored in a spent fuel pool. Because the storage capacity of a spent pool is 10 years of spent fuel bundles, the Silo type storage modules are used to store the extra fuel bundles. In a multi-unit site like Wolsong, the extra space needed for the Silo type storage modules are ever increasing with the operating years. Therefore a more space effective storage system is necessary to accommodate all the extra spent fuels from the four CANDU units at site. A new dry storage system, MACSTOR/KN-400 (M/KN- 400) that is based upon MACSTOR design concept was developed. M/KN-400 will be built at the seaside in Wolsong site and galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> will be used for storage cylinder material to <span class="hlt">protect</span> from the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Generally, galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span>, in which the Zn layer on the surface acts as a sacrificial anode, are known to have good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in the atmospheric or aqueous conditions. However, in the brine condition containing chloride ions or steam environment, the Zn layer can be damaged. Therefore, considering the seaside atmosphere in which the storage system are located, the integrity of the storage cylinder is likely to be affected by the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> caused by the salt included in the atmosphere. In this study, electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests were performed on the galvanized carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> to estimate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the storage cylinder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4187L','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4187L"><span id="translatedtitle">Localized Surface Modification on 1018 Low-Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> by Electrolytic Plasma Process and its Impact on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Liang, Jiandong; Guo, Shengmin; Wahab, Muhammad A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Electrolytic plasma process (EPP) was applied on 1018 low-carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> sample surfaces and tested in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The treatment details of the EPP were described, and the test results indicate the improvement in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, and localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was due to the unique surface features resulting from the EPP treatment. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protections</span> show a sustainable consistency for EPP-treated samples in a 48 h immersion test. SEM (with FIB) and XRD were used to characterize the surface features. Potential polarization and cyclic voltammetry were performed for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> evaluations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762015000200523&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762015000200523&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior and Microstructure of Borided Tool <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Muzaffer, Erdogan; Ibrahim, Gunes.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In the present study, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviors of borides formed on cold work tool <span class="hlt">steel</span> have been investigated in a 4% M HCl acid solution. Boriding was performed in a solid medium consisting of Ekabor-II powders at 850 and 950°C for 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and the h [...] ardness tester. XRD analysis of boride layers on the surface of the samples revealed the existence of FeB, Fe2B, CrB, Cr2B and MoB compounds. Depending on the chemical composition of substrates and boriding time, the boride layer thickness on the surface of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> ranged from 13.14 ?m and 120.82 ?m. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the samples ranged from 1806 to 2342 HV0,05, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated the samples was 428 HV0,05. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> was higher compared with that of the unborided <span class="hlt">steels</span>. The borided <span class="hlt">steels</span> increased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistances of the <span class="hlt">steels</span> 8-17- fold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36105084','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36105084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the Tournemire clay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> are possible materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers for long term geological disposal in argillaceous environments. Experimental studies of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of such materials has been conducted in various conditions. Concerning the numerous laboratory experiments, these conditions (water and clay mixture or compacted clay) mainly concern the bentonite clay that would be used for the engineered barrier. On the opposite, only few in-situ experiments has been conducted directly in the local clay of the repository site (such as Boom clay, etc.). In order to better estimate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in natural clay site conditions, an experimental study has been conducted jointly by EDF and IRSN in the argillaceous French site of Tournemire. In this study, A42 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens have been exposed in 3 different zones of the Tournemire clay formation. The first type of environmental conditions concerns a zone where the clay has not been affected by the excavation (EDZ) of the main tunnel neither by the main fracture zone of the clay formation. The second and third ones are located in the EDZ of the tunnel. In the second zone, an additional aerated water flows from the tunnel, whereas it does not in the third place. Some carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens have been extracted after several years of exposure to these conditions. The average <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate has been measured by the weight loss technique and the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth has been evaluated under an optical microscope. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> products have also been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. Results are then discussed regarding the surrounding environmental conditions. Calculations of the oxygen transport from the tunnel through the clay and of the clay re-saturation can explain, in a first approach, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the different tested zones. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43049678','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43049678"><span id="translatedtitle">Sodium phthalamates as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? N-Alkyl-sodium phthalamates as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for industry in acidic medium. ? Compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. ? Efficiencies were proportional to aliphatic chain length and inhibitor concentration. ? Iron complexes and chelates with phthalamates contributed to carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. - Abstract: Three compounds of N-alkyl-sodium phthalamates were synthesized and tested as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid. Tests showed that inhibitor efficiencies were related to aliphatic chain length and dependent on concentration. N-1-n-tetradecyl-sodium phthalamate displayed moderate efficiency against uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, 42-86% at 25 deg. C and 25-60% at 40 oC. Tests indicated that compounds behave as mixed type inhibitors where molecular adsorption on <span class="hlt">steel</span> followed Langmuir isotherm, whereas thermodynamic suggested that a physisorption process occurred. XPS analysis confirmed film formation on surface, where Fe+2 complexes and Fe+2 chelates with phthalamates prevented <span class="hlt">steel</span> from further <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45017573','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45017573"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> studies of cold spray Ni-50Cr coating on boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the current investigation Ni-50Cr powder was deposited on two boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> SA-213-T22 and SA 516 (Grade 70) by cold spray process. The hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of coated as well as bare boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> was evaluated in an aggressive environment of Na2SO4-60% V2O5 under cyclic conditions at an elevated temperature of 900 oC. The kinetics of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was approximated by the weight change measurements made after each cycle for a total period of 50 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 1 h heating in a tube furnace followed by 20 min cooling in ambient air. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) techniques were used to analyse the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products. Both the uncoated boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> suffered intensive spallation in the form of removal of their oxide scales, which may be attributed to the formation of unprotective Fe2O3 dominated oxide scales. The Ni-50Cr coated <span class="hlt">steels</span> showed lesser weight gains and the oxide scales remained intact till the end of the experiment. The phases revealed in the oxide scales of the coated specimens were mainly oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels which are reported to be <span class="hlt">protective</span> against the hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1318::2f170feccb456b442f4cdc07e0603221','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1318::2f170feccb456b442f4cdc07e0603221"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of different hot rolled <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Perez, F. J.; Martinez, L.; Hierro, M. P.; Gomez, C.; Portela, A. L.; G.N. Pucci; Duday, D.; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Greday, Y.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The oxidation-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of hot rolled alloys was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of the non-oxidised alloys was first determined in order to have a reference behaviour. Then, each alloy was oxidised for 1 and 3 days at 650 degrees C in air and its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour was also determined. For all the alloys, Fe2O3 was formed at the scale-gas interface. However, the Fe2O3 crystallographic structures varied as a function of the alloy composit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20671850-rcfPqK/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20671850-rcfPqK/"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in the automotive paint industry for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Since many years ED-paints are <span class="hlt">protecting</span> car bodies against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> package' interact. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000300004&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000300004&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition and Adsorption of Anthocleista Djalonesis Leaf Extract on the Acid <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>C.E., Ogukwe; C.O., Akalezi; M. A., Chidiebere; K.L., Oguzie; Z.O., Iheabunike; E.E., Oguziea.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Anthocleista djalonesis (AD) have been investigated as non toxic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acidic environments (1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4, respectively). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates were evaluated at 30 °C using the weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy [...] and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. AD extract was found to inhibit mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in both acidic media via adsorption of the extract organic matter on the metal/solution interface. Polarization data indicate that the extract functioned via a mixed inhibition mechanism, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of the extract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000300004','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000300004"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibition and Adsorption of Anthocleista Djalonesis Leaf Extract on the Acid <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>C.E. Ogukwe</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Anthocleista djalonesis (AD have been investigated as non toxic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acidic environments (1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4, respectively. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rates were evaluated at 30 °C using the weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. AD extract was found to inhibit mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in both acidic media via adsorption of the extract organic matter on the metal/solution interface. Polarization data indicate that the extract functioned via a mixed inhibition mechanism, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of the extract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43084358','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43084358"><span id="translatedtitle">Crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> control for stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> using radiation-induced surface activation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>When a semiconductor film is irradiated by ?-rays, excited electrons are transferred to a base metal in contact with the film, resulting in cathodic-anodic reactions and surface activation of the metal oxide film. The authors first produced radiation-induced surface activation (RISA) in 2000 and have used it in the development of a new <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> method. This report describes a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mitigation technique based on RISA to prevent crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, using low-intensity radiation. Experimental results show that an electrode potential of -100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl was produced and maintained on TiO2-coated SUS304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens immersed in artificial seawater and in close contact with a small, sealed 60Co source (external irradiation) or activated by neutron irradiation to become self-exciting, with no <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> observed for more than 7 days. In contrast, the potential of a specimen without a radiation source decreased to less than -280 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> occurred beneath the O-ring within a few days. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> control mechanism was explored by measurement of dissolved oxygen and iron ions in the solution. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19..761B','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19..761B"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on the Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> by Rauvolfia serpentina in Acid Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Bothi Raja, P.; Sethuraman, M. G.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Alkaloid extract of Rauvolfia serpentina was tested as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl and H2SO4 using weight loss method at three different temperatures, viz., 303, 313, and 323 K, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. It is evident from the results of this study that R. serpentina effectively inhibits the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in both the acids through adsorption process following Tempkin adsorption isotherm. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and temperature. Free energy of adsorption calculated from the temperature studies also revealed the chemisorption. The mixed mode of action exhibited by the inhibitor was confirmed by the polarization studies while SEM analysis substantiated the formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer over the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::7735c69d521d8f1b9caa6b836d3aec30','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::7735c69d521d8f1b9caa6b836d3aec30"><span id="translatedtitle">Anti-<span class="hlt">Corrosive</span> Effect of Tridax Procumbens – Zn2+ System Controlling the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>C. Kumar; Mohan, R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract Tridax Procumbens(TP) in controlling the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> aqueous medium containing 60 ppm of chloride ions in absence and presence of Zn2+ has been studied by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 1 ml of Tridax Procumbens extract and 150 ppm of Zn2+ offers 96% inhibition efficiency. The synergistic effect exists between Tridax Procumbens and Zn2+ system. Polarization study shows that the Trida...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::bdbc7495bc5a31856e0ca63fd462a6cb','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::bdbc7495bc5a31856e0ca63fd462a6cb"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Resistance of Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> by Using Natural <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Shaymaa Abbas Abdulsada; Khadim F. Al-Sultani</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the most widely used engineering material, despite its relatively limited <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance used in large tonnages in marine applications, nuclear powered transportation, chemical processing , petroleum production and refining, pipelines, mining, construction and metal-processing equipment. The main objective of the present work involved the study of the inhibiting properties of natural product as Spearmint plant extract as a safety and an environmentally friendly <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.4456L','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.4456L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of B-Mo-W Complex Inhibitor on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in 55% LiBr Solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Li, Jielan; Liang, Chenghao; Huang, Naibao</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The inhibition effects of B-Mo-W complex inhibitor on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 55% LiBr solution were investigated using weight-loss method, electrochemistry tests, SEM, EDX, and XRD. The ingredients of B-Mo-W complex inhibitor included organic phosphonic acid B, Na2MoO4, and Na2WO4. The results revealed that B-Mo-W complex inhibitor was capable of inhibiting the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 55% LiBr solution, exhibiting high inhibition efficiencies around 97.7%. B-Mo-W complex inhibitor promoted the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> passive film composed of Fe, Mo, W, and O elements. The passive film decreased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, improved the electrochemistry performance, and enhanced anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> ability of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46094534','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46094534"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> and zirconium alloys of zinc injection into primary coolant of WWER-1000 reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Long term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> 08H18N10T and zirconium alloys E-110 and Ukrainian pilot calciumthermic Zr+1%Nb were carried out in the primary coolant environment of WWER reactors with the additives 0.01 and 0.03 dm3 of zinc. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics and the condition of the oxide films were studied. Tests were conducted at temperatures 275, 300, 325, and 350 deg C and at pressures corresponding to an equilibrium pressure of water vapor. It was shown that the addition of zinc improves the <span class="hlt">protective</span> properties of the oxide films on stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> grade 08X18H10T and does not affect negatively the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of zirconium alloys. The possible mechanism of the influence of zinc on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> was suggested. Also it was suggested to consider the possibility of utilization of zinc injection technology on Ukrainian WWER reactors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22272601','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22272601"><span id="translatedtitle">Cesium <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process in Fe–Cr <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, K., E-mail: jn090102@gmail.com [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, 1-2-4 Kanawa-cho, Tsuruga 914-0055 (Japan); Tanigaki, T.; Matsuyama, M. [Nuclear Power and Energy Safety Engineering Course, University of Fukui, 3-9-1, Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Fukumoto, K.; Uno, M. [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, 1-2-4 Kanawa-cho, Tsuruga 914-0055 (Japan)</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>A cesium <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> out-pile test was performed to Fe–Cr <span class="hlt">steel</span> in a simulated fuel pin environment. In order to specify the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products, the corroded area was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A cesium <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process in Fe–Cr <span class="hlt">steel</span> was successfully developed proceeding from both experimental results and thermochemical consideration. The corroded area was mainly formed by Fe layer and Fe depleted oxidized layer. The Fe depleted oxidized layer was formed by Cr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presumed main <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reactions were 2Cr+2/3 O{sub 2}?Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(?G{sub 650°C}=-894.1kJ/mol) and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}+46Cs+46O{sub 2}?23Cs{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}+6C(?G{sub 650°C}=-25018.1kJ/mol). Factors of these reactions are chromium, carbon, oxygen and cesium. Therefore, cesium <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> progression must be dependent on the chromium content, carbon content in the <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the supply rate of oxygen and temperature which correlated with the diffusion rate of cesium and oxygen into the specimen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46102382','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46102382"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> microstructure on high temperature aqueous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbonsteels 106 Gr-B/ A-333 Gr.6 are being used in the Primary and Secondary heat transport systems of PHWR. Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> microstructure can change significantly on heat treatment either during the manufacture of the piping or during fabrication /welding of piping at site. The resultant microstructure can vary anywhere from pearlite to martensite or bainite, depending on the carbon content. This can also influence the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of these materials in the reactor. In this paper two carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> materials of different microstructures (Ferrite-Pearlite/ Bainite) were exposed to simulated PHWR primary water chemistry conditions in a recirculating test facility. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> release rates for the specimen with bainite microstructure remained higher for the entire duration of exposure. The specimen withdrawn at regular intervals were characterized by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Mott Schottky analysis to assess the differences in the film properties. The oxide film formed on the material with bainite microstructure showed higher n-type defect density, lower film resistance and lower charge transfer resistance. These explain the sustained higher <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> observed on the material with bainite microstructure. The distinct difference between the specimens is more evident on films formed in shorter time span. This observation is of importance for the piping prone to flow accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, where the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product film is extremely thin and is being continuously replenished. A carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> material with Bainite microstructure in these regions can increase the rate of wall thickness reduction. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12636878','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12636878"><span id="translatedtitle">Acid electrolyte fuel cell method having improved carbon <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbon containing members susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in an acid electrolyte fuel cell are <span class="hlt">protected</span> against such <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> through the practice of supplying carbon dioxide gas to the fuel cell regions adjacent these members</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0075843','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0075843"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> properties of plasma deposited high-alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Neufuss, Karel</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 47, - (2002), s. 243-254. ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, high-alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span>, polarization curves, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0245788','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0245788"><span id="translatedtitle">Crude Oil <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline <span class="hlt">Steel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 137, ?. 5 (2015), 051401. ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue * crude oil * pipeline <span class="hlt">steel</span> * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2014 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=171870','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=171870"><span id="translatedtitle">Barnacle-induced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of high-alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Koryakova, M.D.; Filonenko, N.Yu.; Kaplin, Yu.M. [Institute of Chemistry, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Local <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of two sorts of high-alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> under the action of acorn barnacles (Balanuses) has been studied. It has been shown that in natural seawater at anaerobic conditions beneath living and dead barnacles, metabolic activity of bacteria may be considered as a primary cause for local surface depassivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0243178','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0243178"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of phosphated <span class="hlt">steels</span> with plasma sprayed ceramic coatings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Brožek, Vlastimil; Mastný, L.; Pokorný, P.</p> <p></p> <p>Zagreb : Croatian Metallurgical Society (CMS), 2014 - (Mamuzi?, I.). s. 401 ISBN N. [International Symposium of Croatian Metallurgical Society SHMD 2014/11./. 22.06.2014-26.06.2014, Šibenik] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : <span class="hlt">steel</span> phosphating * phosphate coatings * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance * bond strength of coatings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32067781','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32067781"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium alloy waste forms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposal of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The baseline waste form for spent fuels from the EBR-II reactor is a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>-15 wt.% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article briefly reviews the microstructure of various SS-Zr waste form alloys and presents results of immersion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests performed on these alloys. The electrochemical tests show that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of SS-Zr alloys is comparable to those of other alloys being considered for the Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The immersion tests demonstrate that the SS-Zr alloys are resistant to selective leaching of fission product elements and, hence, suitable as candidates for high-level nuclear waste forms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5044108','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5044108"><span id="translatedtitle">Behavior of aspartic acid as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Kalota, D.J.; Silverman, D.C. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> by aspartic acid (C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4]), an amino acid of low molecular weight, was found to depend strongly on pH. At a pH less than the ionization constant at [approximately]9.5 to 10 (measured at 25 C), C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] appeared to accelerate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Above the pH, it acted as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for <span class="hlt">steel</span>. A specially constructed potential-pH diagram for iron (Fe) that incorporated C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] showed the change in behavior was accompanied by the most stable thermodynamic state changing from an iron aspartate complex to iron oxide. Polymerized C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] (polyaspartic acid) behaved in a similar manner. Some other amino acids of low molecular weight behaved similarly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46102512','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46102512"><span id="translatedtitle">A comprehensive study of ?-radiation induced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It has been well established that the rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> strongly depends on the nature of surface oxide formed on the material and the aqueous redox condition. Exposed to ionizing radiation water decomposes into both oxidizing and reducing species, such as ·OH, H2O2, O2, ·O2-, etc. Under long-term irradiation conditions, these radiolysis products achieve low, but steady-state levels and can dictate the aqueous redox condition, and, hence, may control <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> reactions. However, since the radiolysis products are chemically reactive, their steady-state concentrations in the homogeneous solution phase can be easily affected by parameters such as pH, temperature and the presence of other dissolved species. Oxide film formation and conversion, which can influence the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour, are also strongly pH and potential dependent. We have been investigating the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> as a model material, and the effect of g-irradiation on the kinetics, as a function of pH, temperature, surface film composition, and dissolved chemical species using various electrochemical, surface and chemical speciation analyses. The present study focuses on the effect of g-radiation on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and compares it with that of chemically added H2O2 at room temperature Various oxide films were grown potentiostatically on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes, and then exposed to either g-radiation at a dose rate of ?6.8 kGyxh-1 or to [H2O2] in a range of 10-6 to 10-2 M. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> kinetics were studied by monitoring the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (ECORR), and periodically performing linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to determine polarization resistances (RP). The concentrations of radiolysis products, H2O2, H2, and O2 were measured as a function of time by gas-chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. To determine the nature of oxide films present on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analyses were performed on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrodes after exposure to either ?-radiation or H2O2. This study has shown that both ECORR and RP behaviour under radiation conditions could be simulated in a solution containing a representative concentration of H2O2, indicating that H2O2 is the key radiolysis product controlling carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Both the steady-state ECORR and RP are strong functions of [H2O2], but nearly independent of the initial oxide film composition. These results indicate that the effect of g-radiation on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is mainly via its effect on the aqueous redox species concentrations, and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate may be predicted if the concentration of radiolytically-produced H2O2 can be determined. The ECORR and RP behaviour showed two distinct ranges dependent on [H2O2]. For [H2O2] < 10-3 M, ECORR increased linearly with log [H2O2], whereas, for [H2O2]3 10-3 M, ECORR was independent of [H2O2] due to the fact that that ECORR is determined primarily by the surface decomposition of H2O2. The general understanding developed from the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> study is applicable to other alloys, and the study on radiation induced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> has been extended to stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> and Stellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16045060','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16045060"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in sour gas environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' <span class="hlt">steels</span>, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> and on certain specialty <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23046938','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23046938"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. CITROSOLV process influence. Pt. 6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In order to <span class="hlt">protect</span> carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> towers and piping of Girlder sulfide (G.S.) experimental heavy water plants against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfides, a method, previously published, was developed. Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, forms iron sulfide scales. In oxygen free solutions evolution of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> follows the sequence: mackinawite ? cubic ferrous sulfide ? troilite ? pyrrotite ? pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite-pyrite or pyrite are the most <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa, for periods of 14 days). CITROSOLV Process (Pfizer) is used to descaling and passivating stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> plant's components. This process must be used in mixed (carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> - stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>) circuits and may cause the formation of magnetite scales over the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The influence of magnetite in the pyrrotite-pyrite scales formation is studied in this work. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0012-73532009000400022-col','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0012-73532009000400022-col"><span id="translatedtitle">PROTECCIÓN CONTRA LA CORROSIÓN EN SALES FUNDIDAS DE UN ACERO HOT ROLLED, EN EL RANGO DE TEMPERATURAS DE 400 ºC-600 ºC, RECUBIERTO POR ROCIADO TÉRMICO CON ACERO INOXIDABLE 312 / <span class="hlt">PROTECTION</span> AGAINST THE HOT <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> OF <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> HOT ROLLED, BETWEEN TEMPERATURES OF 400ºC - 600ºC, COATED BY THERMAL SPRAY, WITH STAINLESS <span class="hlt">STEEL</span> 312</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>JOSE LUDDEY, MARULANDA; JOSE LUIS, TRISTANCHO; ADRIANA, CAÑAS.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Se evaluó la corrosión por sales fundidas mediante la técnica gravimétrica en un acero de bajo carbono tipo hot rolled, rociado térmicamente con una aleación de acero inoxidable tipo 312, con el equipo Rototec, en una mezcla de sal 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, entre 400ºC - 600ºC, durante tiempos de 1-7-2 [...] 2 horas. Los resultados mostraron una moderada protección de la capa rociada térmicamente y se presentó alta degradación en el recubrimiento a 600ºC. Se concluyó que la velocidad de corrosión aumenta con la temperatura y disminuye con el tiempo de exposición. Abstract in english The hot <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was evaluated by gravimetric techniques in a hot rolled <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protected</span> by thermal spraying with a 312 stainless alloy, with the equipment Rototec, in a mixture of salt 20% Na2SO4 - 80% V2O5, amoung 400ºC - 600ºC, during times of 1-7-22 hours. The test results showed a moderate pro [...] tection of the layer thermally sprayed and presented high degradation in the <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings to 600ºC. It was concluded that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate increases with temperature and decreases with exposure time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9c59d6c721df78cbeadf147715898eb8','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9c59d6c721df78cbeadf147715898eb8"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of A36 Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Dong Chen; Max Yen; Paul Lin; Steve Groff; Richard Lampo; Michael McInerney; Jeffrey Ryan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0) decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37089067','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37089067"><span id="translatedtitle">Rhenium Uptake as Analogue 96Tc by <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Static batch experiments were used to examine the sorption of dissolved perrhenate [Re(VII)], as a surrogate for pertechnetate [Tc(VII)], on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products of A-516 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons contacted with synthetic groundwater or dilute water. After 109 days of contact time, the concentration of dissolved Re(VII) in the synthetic groundwater matrix decreased by approximately 26%; the dilute water matrix experienced a 99% decrease in dissolved Re(VII) over the same time period. Bulk x-ray diffraction (XRD) results for the corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons showed that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products consisted primarily of maghemite, lepidocrocite, and goethite. Analyses of the coupons by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) indicated that Re was present with the morphologically complex assemblages of Fe oxide/hydroxide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products for samples spiked with the highest dissolved Re(VII) concentration (1.0 mmol/L) used for these experiments. Analyses of corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons contacted with solutions containing 1.0 mmol/L Re(VII) by synchrotron-based methods confirmed the presence of Re sorbed with the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons. Analyses showed that the Re sorbed on these corroded coupons was in the +7 oxidation state, suggesting that the Re(VII) uptake mechanism did not involve reduction of Re to a lower oxidation state, such as +4. The results of our studies using Re(VII) as an analogue for 99Tc(VII) suggest that 99Tc(VII) would also be sorbed with <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products and that the inventory of 99Tc(VII) released from breached waste packages would be lower than what is now conservatively estimated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014690','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014690"><span id="translatedtitle">Molybdate Coatings for <span class="hlt">Protecting</span> Aluminum Against <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Conversion coatings that comprise mixtures of molybdates and several additives have been subjected to a variety of tests to evaluate their effectiveness in <span class="hlt">protecting</span> aluminum and alloys of aluminum against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Molybdate conversion coatings are under consideration as replacements for chromate conversion coatings, which have been used for more than 70 years. The chromate coatings are highly effective in <span class="hlt">protecting</span> aluminum and its alloys against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> but are also toxic and carcinogenic. Hexavalent molybdenum and, hence, molybdates containing hexavalent molybdenum, have received attention recently as replacements for chromates because molybdates mimic chromates in a variety of applications but exhibit significantly lower toxicity. The tests were performed on six proprietary formulations of molybdate conversion coatings, denoted formulations A through F, on panels of aluminum alloy 2024-T3. A bare alloy panel was also included in the tests. The tests included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), measurements of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42082533','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42082533"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of H2S on the CO2 <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acidic solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acidic solutions, and to investigate the mechanism of iron sulfide scale formation in CO2/H2S environments. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests were conducted using 1018 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 wt.% NaCl solution (25 oC) at pH of 3 and 4, and under atmospheric pressure. The test solution was saturated with flowing gases that change with increasing time from CO2 (stage 1) to CO2/100 ppm H2S (stage 2) and back to CO2 (stage 3). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rate and behavior were investigated using linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic tests were performed at the end of each stage. The morphology and compositions of surface <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the addition of 100 ppm H2S to CO2 induced rapid reduction in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate at both pHs 3 and 4. This H2S inhibition effect is attributed to the formation of thin FeS film (tarnish) on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface that suppressed the anodic dissolution reaction. The study results suggested that the precipitation of iron sulfide as well as iron carbonate film is possible in the acidic solutions due to the local supersaturation in regions immediately above the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, and these films provide <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> in the acidic solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::615633bc6a7c5b597d7b9da7febf75d8','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::615633bc6a7c5b597d7b9da7febf75d8"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">Protection</span> Performance and Spectroscopic Investigations of Soluble Conducting Polyaniline-Dodecylbenzenesulfonate Synthesized via Inverse Emulsion Procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Shreepathi, Subrahmanya; Hoang, Van Hung; Holze, Rudolf</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> performance of a completely soluble polyaniline-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid salt (PANI-DBSA) on C45 <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been studied with electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic measurements. Chloroform is the most suitable solvent to process the pristine PANI-DBSA because of negligible interaction of the solvent with the polyaniline (PANI) backbone. An anodic shift in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (E=~70  mV), a decrease in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current and a significant increas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000300001&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000300001&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Chemically Deposited Single and Bi-layered Conducting Polymer Coatings on Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>M, Mobin; Nelofar, Tanveer.</p> <p>2011-07-19</p> <p>Full Text Available The emeraldine base (EB) was synthesized by chemically oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride aqueous medium. The polymer was chemically deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens using tetra methyl urea (TMU) as solvent through solvent evaporation method. The coat [...] ing of polypyrrole (PPy) on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was deposited by chemical polymerization. A bi-layered polymer coating comprising of inner coat of PPy with top coat of EB (PPy/EB) was also deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> following identical procedure. The deposited EB, PPy and PPy/EB coatings were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The anticorrosive properties of single and bi-layered coatings was investigated in major <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments such as 0.1 M HCl, 5% NaCl solution, artificial seawater, distilled water, tap water and open atmosphere by conducting various <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests which include: immersion test, open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and atmospheric exposure test. The results of immersion tests showed that the PPy/EB coating gave best <span class="hlt">protection</span> in all media under investigation, the <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency being in the range of 72 to 79% after 30 days of immersion. The result of OCP measurements showed significant positive shift in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential for single as well as bi-layered coatings in all <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium under investigation; the bi-layered coating showing more positive <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. The potentiodynamic polarization studies also confirmed lower <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates for PPy/EB coating than the single polymer coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000300001','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042011000300001"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Chemically Deposited Single and Bi-layered Conducting Polymer Coatings on Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>M Mobin</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The emeraldine base (EB was synthesized by chemically oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride aqueous medium. The polymer was chemically deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens using tetra methyl urea (TMU as solvent through solvent evaporation method. The coating of polypyrrole (PPy on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was deposited by chemical polymerization. A bi-layered polymer coating comprising of inner coat of PPy with top coat of EB (PPy/EB was also deposited on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> following identical procedure. The deposited EB, PPy and PPy/EB coatings were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The anticorrosive properties of single and bi-layered coatings was investigated in major <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environments such as 0.1 M HCl, 5% NaCl solution, artificial seawater, distilled water, tap water and open atmosphere by conducting various <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests which include: immersion test, open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and atmospheric exposure test. The results of immersion tests showed that the PPy/EB coating gave best <span class="hlt">protection</span> in all media under investigation, the <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency being in the range of 72 to 79% after 30 days of immersion. The result of OCP measurements showed significant positive shift in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential for single as well as bi-layered coatings in all <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> medium under investigation; the bi-layered coating showing more positive <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. The potentiodynamic polarization studies also confirmed lower <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates for PPy/EB coating than the single polymer coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/boms/024/04/0355-0360','GOOGLE-IAS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/boms/024/04/0355-0360"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of hot dip zinc and zinc-aluminium coatings on <span class="hlt">steel</span> in seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/">Indian Academy of Sciences (India)</a></p> <p>Yan Li</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>A comparative investigation of hot dip Zn–25Al alloy, Zn–55Al–Si and Zn coatings on <span class="hlt">steel</span> was performed with attention to their <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance in seawater. The results of 2-year exposure testing of these at Zhoushan test site are reported here. In tidal and immersion environments, Zn–25Al alloy coating is several times more durable than zinc coating of double thickness. At long exposure times, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate for the Zn–25Al alloy coating remains indistinguishable from that for the Zn–55Al–Si coating of similar thickness in tidal zone, and is two to three times lower than the latter in immersion zone. The decrease in tensile strength suggested that galvanized and Zn–55Al–Si coated <span class="hlt">steel</span> suffer intense pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in immersion zone. The electrochemical tests showed that all these coatings provide cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> to the substrate metal; the galvanic potentials are equal to – 1,050, – 1,025 and – 880 mV (SCE) for zinc, Zn–25Al alloy and Zn–55Al–Si coating, respectively, which are adequate to keep the <span class="hlt">steel</span> inside the immunity region. It is believed that the superior performance of the Zn–25Al alloy coating is due to its optimal combination of the uniform <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance and pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. The inferior <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance by comparison of the Zn coating mainly results from its larger dissolution rate, while the failure of the Zn–55Al–Si coating is probably related to its higher susceptibility to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in seawater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13648272','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13648272"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunization of type 316 and 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> to intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking by thermochanical treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermomechanical treatment associated with carbide stabilizing aging of cold worked material followed by recrystallization heating gave plain standard stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> substantial resistance to the intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and cracking in various test environments. IGSCC susceptibility tests on the so treated materials after giving a typical thermal history of simulated welding showed that the treatment worked satisfactorily in type 316 <span class="hlt">steel</span> over wide range of conditions, while type 304 could be <span class="hlt">protected</span> to only a limited extent with very closely controlled treatments. The response of the materials to the sensitizing heating in terms of impurity segregation at grainboundaries was also examined by means of microchemical analysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24032233','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24032233"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of preliminary carburization on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of diffusion-chromized low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermodiffusion method of anticorrosive chromium carbide coating of a wide range of mechanical engineering articles from low-carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> by preliminary saturation of their surface with carbon was developed. The following technological sequence of atnicorrosive <span class="hlt">protection</span> of low-carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> can be recommended: cementation at the temperature of 1100-1150 deg for 2 h; diffusional chrome-plating at the temperature of 1150 deg for 4 H; chemical passivation in potassium bichromate aqueous solution. The technology suggested ensures high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of diffusion-chromized coatings under conditions of humid air atmosphere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18055494','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18055494"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in clay and sea sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A serie of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test have been conducted putting in contact mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples with clay and two types of sea sediments. The test have been performed at 30, 50 and 900C up to a maximum duration time of 220 days. As the tests were performed in a closed system, most of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> arrived in anoxic conditions. After an initial stabilization period <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> weight losses increase linearly with time. The long term <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate in presence of carbonaceous sediments is significantly higher than that obtained in clay or clay rich sediments. An analysis of the ion diffused in the porous media has shown that all the iron which is corroded in the anoxic condition is released in a soluble form. 11 refs</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19081989','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19081989"><span id="translatedtitle">Appearance and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The resistance of 38 types of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> (SSs) to degradation in the atmosphere was directly related to alloy chromium and molybdenum contents by spectrocolorimetric measurements and a visual rating system. Only AISI 410 exhibited any signs of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in a semi-rural environment. Significant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product staining occurred on all non-molybdenum-bearing stainless grades that had been exposed for 2 to 15 y at the 250-m lot on Kure Beach, NC. Stainless grades that had been sensitized by an autogenous welding operation were susceptible to preferential <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> at weld and heat-affected zone surfaces when exposed to the coastal environment. Galvanic attack and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product staining was observed for certain dissimilar metal couples between AISI 304 and various nonferrous metals. Photometric technology provided an efficient, reliable, and quantitative test technique that was superior to conventional methods for evaluating the relative performance of SS in the atmosphere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46099472','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46099472"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental factors affecting the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span>. VI. Benzotriazole and its derivatives as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors of <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • The rate of oxide film repair follows a direct logarithmic law. • The inhibition efficiency depend on Cl? and the organic additives concentrations. • Benzotriazoles inhibit pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by way of adsorption. • ?G°ads values for organic additives reveal a chemisorption mechanism. - Abstract: Benzotriazole and some of its derivatives cause inhibition of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of reinforcing <span class="hlt">steel</span> in saturated naturally aerated Ca(OH)2 solutions contaminated by Cl?. The inhibition efficiency of these compounds depends on both the inhibitor type and concentration, as well as, on the chloride ions content. Inhibition by these compounds is assumed to take place through the formation of iron-chloro-benzotriazoles complexes and/or the adsorption of the deprotonated species on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface according to Langmuir’s isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters Kads and ?G°ads for the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. Benzotriazoles shift the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential into the noble direction accounting for increased resistance to pitting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e7ba9b760d0d4c8e4ee1d028daf648cb','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e7ba9b760d0d4c8e4ee1d028daf648cb"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of two kinds of cast <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing chromium in hot concentrated alkaline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Li, Wei; LIU Jun-quan; TU Xiao-hui3</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A typical hot concentrated alkaline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environment exists in alumina metallurgical industry, so that <span class="hlt">steel</span> materials with outstanding alkaline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance are strongly demanded for its processing equipment. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of two kinds of martensitic cast <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing chromium in static 303g/L NaOH alkaline solution at 85? was studied through polarization and potential-time curves, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> weight loss and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> morphology analysis. Experiment...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40063783','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40063783"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of ?-FeOOH on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed in tropic marine environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed in Wanning area, which located in the south part of China with tropic marine environment characters, was studied at different exposure periods (up to 2 years). To investigate the effect of ?-FeOOH on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in high chloride ion environment, rust layer was analyzed by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and the rusted <span class="hlt">steel</span> was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. The weight loss test indicated that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> sharply increased during 6 months' exposure and gradually reduced after longer exposure. The results of rust analysis revealed that the underlying <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was dependent on the inherent properties of the rust layers formed under different conditions such as composition and structure. Among all the iron oxide, ?-FeOOH exerted significant influence. The presence of a monolayer of the rust as well as ?-FeOOH accelerated the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process during the initial exposure stage. EIS data implied that ?-FeOOH in the inner layer was gradually consumed and transformed to ?-Fe2O3 in the wet-dry cycle, which was beneficial to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the substrate and reduced the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJAP..6130801G','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJAP..6130801G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solution by humid air plasma treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Ghali, Noureddine; Addou, Ahmed; Mutel, Brigitte; Benstaali, Baghdad; Bentiss, Fouad; Brisset, Jean-Louis</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> (C75) is exposed to highly reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals OH created by a gliding arc discharge (GAD) in humid air at atmospheric pressure. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> properties of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> treated by GAD are studied versus different treatment times (t) and for an immersion in corroding 0.5 M sodium chloride solution during 24 h. Evolutions of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate are studied using weight loss measurements and electrochemical methods, e.g., electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results obtained by GAD treatment show that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> decreases with the ennoblement of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential and the decrease of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density. This indicates that the plasma treatment acts as an anodic type inhibitor and suggests the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer. EIS measurements confirm the presence of this film: the charge transfer resistance (Rct) increases with GAD treatment time, leading to a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition efficiency around 73% for a treatment time equal to 60 min. This confirms the importance of the plasma effect. The gliding arc discharge is a clean and efficient technology for the surface treatment of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>; it improves the anticorrosion properties of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aggressive environments, forming a resistant and insulating barrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::960e786e072e74f00bbcae18f14bfa07','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::960e786e072e74f00bbcae18f14bfa07"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behaviour of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> 304 Electroplated with Zinc Followed by Blue Passivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>H.B. Sherine; C.C. Rajakumari; Rajendran, S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of three stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> materials, namely, stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS), stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> electroplated with zinc (SS-Zn) and stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> electroplated with zinc followed by blue passivation (BP), has been evaluated in an aqueous solution containing 3.5% NaCl. A potentiodynamic polarization study and AC impedance spectra have been used to investigate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of these metals. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of these materials in 3.5% NaCl increased in the followin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44030748','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44030748"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbiologically influenced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (MIC) in stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> heat exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> attack in the form of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product tubercles was observed in an AISI 304 (EN 1.4301) stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> heat exchanger only after 36 months of service. Failure analyses revealed that in one of the attacked areas <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> had penetrated the entire wall thickness of 6.2 mm, but in most of the cases it reached the depth of 2-4 mm. In this paper, we report the results from a thorough microstructural characterization of the corroded heat exchanger carried out with optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Microstructural studies by OM, SEM and XRD revealed a two-phase structure of austenite and ferrite in the bulk material, as well as the preferential attack of the ferrite phase. SEM surface studies disclosed bacteria in and close to the attacked areas. Cross-sectional SEM examinations showed the distribution and composition of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products within and underneath the tubercles. TEM and XRD studies gave information about the amorphous and/or nanocrystalline nature of some of the formed <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products. These results are discussed in this paper and, based on them, the main <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism for the observed attack is suggested. Further, explanations for the propagation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> along the ferrite phase are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18012854','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18012854"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary investigations on the <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of PUSPATI's tap water toward different types of <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> of tap water toward three types of <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been investigated. It was found that galvanised <span class="hlt">steels</span> and stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> do not experience any significant weight loss after being immersed in tap water for 15 to 30 days. Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span>, on the other hand, was found to lose 0.34% of its weight after an immersion of 15 days and 0.46% of its weight after 30 days immersion. Water analysis indicates that during the immersion, significant amounts of Fe3+ ions were transferred from the metal surface into the solution. Results of the hardness measurement also suggest that CaCo3 scales which are loosely adhered to the surface of the metal have been formed. However, such layers are of no <span class="hlt">protective</span> value and were removed during the cleaning of the specimen. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31060473','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31060473"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in liquid lead after treatment with intensive pulsed electrons beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It is shown that improvement of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of OPTIFER IVc and 1.4970 <span class="hlt">steels</span> is achieved by melting and alloying of the surface with intensive pulsed electrons beams. The pulsed electron beam is produced by the GESA device. It is equipped with a cold multi point cathode that provides the beam electrons. Their energy can be varied between 50 and 150 keV. The power density of the electron beam yields up to 2 MW/cm2 at the target surface and covers an area of 30-70 cm2. For the first time, the influence of reflected electrons on the energy deposition during melting of a surface layer is investigated. The magnetic field causes the electrons to be reflected several times between target and the electric field of the accelerator. The resulting changes of the energy deposition are calculated and proved experimentally. The Child-Langmuir equation, which describes the discharge current, is extended by a correction term that considers the back scattered electrons. Aluminum is alloyed into the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface up to 15 ?m in depth to improve the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. A 18 ?m thick aluminum foil is placed onto the surface and molten together with the surface <span class="hlt">steel</span> layer. The aluminum alloys into the molten <span class="hlt">steel</span> layer with almost constant concentration. The aluminum concentration achieved in the layer amounts to 8-30% depending on the pulse duration of the electron beam. A test stand was build up for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> experiments in which the <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens are exposed to liquid lead containing a controlled oxygen concentration. Control of oxygen is employed by adjustment of the H2/H2O ratio in the gas phase. The experiments were carried out with <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples in as received condition, after surface melting and after alloying of Al into the surface. The maximum exposure time ranged up to 3000 hours. After 3000 hours of exposure a threefold oxide layer is developed on the as received <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface that <span class="hlt">protects</span> the <span class="hlt">steel</span> from the solution attack of liquid lead. The uppermost layer, that grows on the original surface, consists of magnetite. Below the magnetite there is a (Fe, Cr)-spinel layer. The third, innermost layer consists of an oxygen diffusion zone in which oxygen penetrates via the grains and grain boundaries. The intergranular attack of oxygen is strongly reduced in 1.4970 <span class="hlt">steel</span> by treatment of the surface with the electron beam of GESA. Opposed to this, treatment of OPTIFER IVc <span class="hlt">steel</span> brings no advantages. Alloying of Al into the surface, however, improves both <span class="hlt">steel</span> types such that no <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attack is observable after 1500 hours of exposure. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800007882','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800007882"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking evaluation of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The resistance of the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> PH13-8Mo, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking was investigated. Round tensile and c-ring type specimens taken from several heats of the three alloys were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, to salt spray, and to a seacoast environment. The results indicate that 15-5PH is highly resistant to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking in conditions H1000 and H1050 and is moderately resistant in condition H900. The stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking resistance of PH13-8Mo and 17-4PH stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in conditions H1000 and H1050 was sensitive to mill heats and ranged from low to high among the several heats included in the tests. Based on a comparison with data from seacoast environmental tests, it is apparent that alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water is not a suitable medium for accelerated stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> testing of these pH stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20195132','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20195132"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of an impinging liquid-solid jet on the electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Hu, X.; Neville, A. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> rely on their passive film for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> in saline environments and localised disruption of the passive film can lead to high local rates of material loss. Materials which exhibit passivity in static conditions are often susceptible to erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> under severe hydrodynamic regimes. In this paper the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of two superaustenitic (UNS S31254 and UNS S32654) and one superduplex (UNS S32750) stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> was examined in static conditions at a range of temperatures from 18 C to 70 C and during exposure to an impinging saline jet containing varying concentrations of solid particles. In static conditions the materials exhibit decreasing resistance to passivity breakdown as the temperature is increased and a critical breakdown temperature for UNS S31254 and UNS S32750 was identified. Under liquid-solid impingement the materials exhibit an active regime near to the free <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential followed by a stabilised current regime as more positive potentials. The complex electrochemical response is dependent on the material grade and the solid particle concentration. Also in the paper assessment of the 'recovery' of the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> after exposure to slurry impingement is addressed. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24238898','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24238898"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Desulfovibrio alaskensis biofilms on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in marine environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Wikie?, Agata J; Datsenko, Iaryna; Vera, Mario; Sand, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Sulfate reducing prokaryotes are associated with the <span class="hlt">steel</span> deterioration. They build heterogeneous biofilms, capable of accelerating <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> processes. In this study metabolic activity and the biofilm development of Desulfovibrio alaskensis were correlated to electrochemical response of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. In the exponential growth phase sulfide concentration reached its maximum of about 10mM. This phenomenon was responsible for the parallel increase in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (Ecorr) up to -720mV (vs. SCE). Subsequently, during the intensive biofilm formation and development another Ecorr peak (-710mV vs. SCE) occurred. Decrease in Ecorr was registered during the biofilm maturation and kept stable, being 20mV lower than in the control. While carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was <span class="hlt">protected</span> from the microbial attachment and exposed to metabolic products, only one potential maximum (-730mV vs. SCE) was recorded. Here Ecorr variations coincided with sulfide concentration changes and kept at 120mV lower vs. the control. Weight loss examinations revealed <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates, which did not exceed 0.05mm/y. Confocal microscopy suggested the importance of extracellular proteins in the biofilm formation. Above 150 proteins were detected in the EPS matrix. Surface effects of biofilm and metabolic products were visualised, revealing the role of attached microorganisms in the localised <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. PMID:24238898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=69984','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=69984"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical Properties and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Weldments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Mohamed Mahdy</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available This research involves studying the mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of ?low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>? (0.077wt% C before and after welding using Arc, MIG and TIG welding. The mechanical properties include testing of microhardness, tensile strength, the results indicate that microhardness of TIG, MIG welding is more than arc welding, while tensile strength in arc welding more than TIG and MIG.The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low carbon weldments was performed by potentiostat at scan rate 3mV.sec-1 in 3.5% NaCl to show the polarization resistance and calculate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate from data of linear polarization by ?Tafel extrapolation method?. The results indicate that the TIG welding increase the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density and anodic Tafel slop, while decrease the polarization resistance compared with unwelded low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Cyclic polarization were measured to show resistance of specimens to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and to calculate the forward and reveres potentials. The results show shifting the forward, reverse and pitting potentials toward active direction for weldments samples compared with unwelded sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::77a7a558f74afbec2624d15e0684f7fc','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::77a7a558f74afbec2624d15e0684f7fc"><span id="translatedtitle">Aluminide <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings on high–temperature creep resistant cast <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>J. Kubicki; A. Kochma?ska</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of research on aluminide <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings manufactured on high–temperature creep resistant cast <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The main purpose of these coatings is <span class="hlt">protection</span> against the high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, especially at high carburizing potential atmosphere. Coatings were obtained on cast <span class="hlt">steel</span> type G–XNiCrSi36–18 with the following methods: pack cementation, paste method, cast method and slurry cementation. The phase composition, thickness and morphology of coatings were...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1050993/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1050993/"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in thiocyanate-containing solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen</p> <p>2012-09-19</p> <p>It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the <span class="hlt">steel</span> were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide (visible as a black <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and <span class="hlt">steels</span> were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and that selecting <span class="hlt">steels</span> with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6ca168b8fefe32f7dbe9021f9d0b749c','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6ca168b8fefe32f7dbe9021f9d0b749c"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical Properties and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Weldments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Mohamed Mahdy; Majid H. Abdulmajeed; Rana A.Majed</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This research involves studying the mechanical properties and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of ?low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>? (0.077wt% C) before and after welding using Arc, MIG and TIG welding. The mechanical properties include testing of microhardness, tensile strength, the results indicate that microhardness of TIG, MIG welding is more than arc welding, while tensile strength in arc welding more than TIG and MIG.The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low carbon weldments was performed by potentiostat at scan rate 3mV.sec-1 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::cbcdf01d5974ae6225c4e4ea7c0523bd','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::cbcdf01d5974ae6225c4e4ea7c0523bd"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyrazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>L. Herrag; A. Chetouani; S. Elkadiri; B. Hammouti; A. Aouniti</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The effect of 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl)-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (P1) and 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl)-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (P2) was evaluated as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in molar hydrochloric using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarisation. The results obtained reveal that those compounds reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibiting action increases with the concentration of pyrazole compo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26072777','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26072777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> cracking of rotor <span class="hlt">steels</span> of steam turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Results of investigation of stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of steam turbine materials in nuclear, fossil and geothermal power plants have been analysed. The role of factors that cause damage to rotor discs, mono block and welding rotors of steam turbines has been shown. These are yield stress and <span class="hlt">steel</span> composition, stress intensity coefficient and crack growth rate, composition and temperature of the condensed steam and water, electrochemical conditions. The conclusion has been made about the state of stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of the rotors materials, and main investigation trends which are necessary to solve this problem have been listed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HyInt.112...67A','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HyInt.112...67A"><span id="translatedtitle">A CEMS Study of the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> After Surface Laser Irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Agudelo, A. C.; Gancedo, J. R.; Marco, J. F.; Creus, M. F.; Gallego-Lluesma, E.; Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of laser-irradiated carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces against SO2-polluted atmospheres has been investigated by means of weight gain measurements and CEMS. The results show that the laser-irradiated samples present a higher <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance than the non-irradiated <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products are found to be superparamagnetic ?-FeOOH and an amorphous Fe3+ oxyhydroxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400002&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400002&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> in synthetic wastewater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>R., Sandoval-Jabalera; E., Arias-del Campo; J.G., Chacón-Nava; J.M., Malo-Tamayo; A., Martínez-Villafañe.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> exposed to synthetic wastewater has been studied using linear polarization resistance (LPR), cyclic potentiodynamic curves (CPC), electrochemical noise (EN), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The conditions were: biochemical o [...] xygen demand (BOD) of 776 ppm, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1293 ppm, pH = 8 and the cell temperature was 24 °C. From the CPC and EN results, no localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was found for the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. However, the reverse was true for the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The EIS results showed that different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism occurred for the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> compared with the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This shows that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism strongly depends on the type of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Overall, the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span> exhibited the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, followed by the 410 alloy. The highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance was achieved by the 800 alloy. In addition, SEM analyses were carried out to explain the experimental findings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400002','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400002"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> in synthetic wastewater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>R. Sandoval-Jabalera</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of 1018, 410 and 800 <span class="hlt">steels</span> exposed to synthetic wastewater has been studied using linear polarization resistance (LPR, cyclic potentiodynamic curves (CPC, electrochemical noise (EN, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS tests. The conditions were: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD of 776 ppm, a chemical oxygen demand (COD of 1293 ppm, pH = 8 and the cell temperature was 24 °C. From the CPC and EN results, no localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was found for the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. However, the reverse was true for the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The EIS results showed that different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism occurred for the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> compared with the stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This shows that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism strongly depends on the type of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Overall, the 1018 <span class="hlt">steel</span> exhibited the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, followed by the 410 alloy. The highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance was achieved by the 800 alloy. In addition, SEM analyses were carried out to explain the experimental findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.tj-es.com/index.php/tjes/article/view/72','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.tj-es.com/index.php/tjes/article/view/72"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Heat Treatments on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Resistance of Medium -Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> using Sulfuric Spring Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ikhlas Basheer</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is one of the important problems that may be occur to the parts of machinery and equipment after manufactured and when used as a result of exposure to <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media. Plain-carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is considered as one of the most common minerals used in industrial applications. Some of heat treatments can have direct effect on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> by building up galvanic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cells between its microscopic phases. Therefore, to adopt one of kinds of the plain-carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the most commonly used in industry to be study subject, that is medium carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> and took samples of this <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been treated thermally in three methods which the normalising, annealing, and hardening .The <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> media used in the research is Sulfuric Spring, it contains many chemical compounds to show its influence on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The weight loss method is used to determine <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate and to compare between the results obtained, show that the greatest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the annealed <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the hardened <span class="hlt">steel</span> is the lowest while the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>  resistance of the normalised <span class="hlt">steel</span> is in-between them.         Calcium carbonate was formed on the metal surface which acts as an isolating layer which decrease <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate with time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PSSCR...2.3778D','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PSSCR...2.3778D"><span id="translatedtitle">3DII implantation effect on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties of the AISI/SAE 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Dulcé M., Héctor J.; Rueda v., Alejandro; Dougar-Jabon, Valeri</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The three dimensional ion implantation technology (3DII) is one of the methods of improving the tribological characteristics and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement processes in metals. In this report, some results concerning the resistance effect of nitrogen ion implantation to oxidation of the sample, made of AISI/SAE 1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span>, are given. The nitrogen ions were implanted in the discharge chamber of the JUPITER reactor. Both the treated and untreated samples were tested through potential-static measurements, which permitted to determine the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current, the slopes that characterise the braking level of anode and cathode reactions. The polarization resistance near the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential is calculated. The results of the study encourage to consider the nitrogen ion implantation in high voltage and low pressure discharges as one of the methods of anticorrosive <span class="hlt">protection</span> which do not change the geometric configuration of the treated <span class="hlt">steel</span> pieces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43125269','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43125269"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">Protection</span> for Epoxy and Urethane Coating by EIS under Various Cyclic <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Protective</span> coatings play an important role in the <span class="hlt">protection</span> of metallic structures against <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environment. The main function of anticorrosive coating is to prevent the materials from <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> agents, such as water, oxygen and ions. In the study, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> properties of urethane and epoxy coating systems were evaluated using EIS methods exposed to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> acceleration test such as Norsok M501, Prohesion and hygrothermal cyclic test. AFM analysis of the coating systems was carried out to monitor the change of roughness of coatings. Urethane coating system was more stable than the epoxy coating under given cyclic conditions. Water uptake into the urethane coatings was less than that into the epoxy coating. The urethane coating system showed better <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> than epoxy coating system based on the changes of the impedance modulus at low frequency region with exposure time. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> properties of the epoxy and urethane coatings was well correspond with their surface roughness changes and water uptakes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/7/8/5746','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/7/8/5746"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of A36 Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Dong Chen</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0 decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. Meanwhile, the sensor’s normalized capacitance (C/C0 increased continuously from 1.0 to 1.46. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the iron rust on A36 had crystals of lepidocrocite and magnetite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajeassp.2009.750.753','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajeassp.2009.750.753"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Steel</span> Piling <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Management of Al-Zubare Harbor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Mohammed H. Hafiz</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Problem statement: Damage due to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is a significant problem worldwide. Countries around the world have estimated that the cost of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to their national economies to be 3-4% of their gross national product. Approach: Design and implementation a new <span class="hlt">steel</span> piling of the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Management Program (CMP in Al-Zubare harbor. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> management algorithm can be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 of the program is the programmatic assessment of the project. Phase 2 of the program involves physical assessment and actual remediation. Phase 3 of the program mainly deals with future monitoring of the repaired structure. Results: The CMP included activities performed to mitigate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, to repair <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-induced damage and to replace the structures that are badly corroded. Installation and maintenance requirements are identified.Conclusion: The data was collected from the tide table for Al-Zubare Harbor in the year 2004. The highest tide of the year would fall on 17 October 2004 at 1.05 am with level 3.5 m, while the lowest tide of the year would fall on 3 July 2004 at 5.13 am with level 0m. The detection results show that this program is feasible and effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('www.electrochemsci.org/papers/1020080.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="www.electrochemsci.org/papers/1020080.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and Inhibition of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in neutral medium by 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>S. A. M. Refaey, F. Taha and A. M. Abd El-Malak</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (316L SS in NaCl solution by using potentiondynamic, EDX and scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques was determined. The addition effect of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI on the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 316L SS in NaCl solutions were investigated at different temperatures (25, 40, 50 and 60 °C. The results indicate that the increase of MBI concentration leads to shift the pitting potential to more positive potential, i.e. pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition behavior of MBI argued to the adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, which can impede the aggressive anions to reach the base 316L SS surface. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increases with increasing MBI concentration but decreased with the increasing of the temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24018425','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24018425"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> produced failures in valves made of micro-melted stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Micro-melted stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> show less resistance against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> than laminated <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This work analyses the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> causes detected in the body of a series of valves made of micro-melted stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> which were installed in a food processing plant. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26036561','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26036561"><span id="translatedtitle">High-temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> in molten sodium tetraborate under atmosphere of air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Results of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process investigation at 1123-1223 K in molten sodium tetraborate on the surface of samples produced of <span class="hlt">steels</span> alloyed by 1-6 mas.% of Mn, chromium-nickel <span class="hlt">steels</span> containing 0.35 mas.% of C, 1-3 mas.% of Cr and Ni, as well as of a group of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistant <span class="hlt">steels</span> are generalized</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::60013011dbef49300c42591c686c9cc4','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::60013011dbef49300c42591c686c9cc4"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic characterisation of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solutions by artemisia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>M. Bouklah; B. Hammouti</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The effect of natural occurring extract of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 in the temperature range 298 - 353 K is studied by weight loss method, electrochemical polarisation and linear polarisation Rp measurements. Results obtained reveal that extract reduces the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of artemisia content at 10 g/L to reach 95% and 99% at 298 and 353 K, respectively. Results obtained by gravimetric and electrochemical polaris...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HTMP...34..115S','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HTMP...34..115S"><span id="translatedtitle">Mill Scale <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and Prevention in Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Heat Exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sharma, Pankaj; Roy, Himadri</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The cause of material degradation of an ASTM A-124 grade carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> tube belonging to a heat exchanger has been investigated. Visual examination, followed by an in-depth microstructural characterization using optical microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and scanning electron microscopy, was carried out for understanding the primary cause of material degradation. Based on the results of an extensive examination as well as the background information provided on the heat exchanger, it was determined that the <span class="hlt">steel</span> tubes were predominantly damaged by the mechanism of crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> facilitated by the presence of mill scale. It is concluded that the heat exchanger tubes were not properly investigated for defects after their fabrication. Based on the situation, the proper cleaning method was selected for preventing further <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the system. A chemical cleaning process was designed using acid pickling along with an inhibitor and a surfactant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042008000200004&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042008000200004&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyrazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>L., Herrag; A., Chetouani; S., Elkadiri; B., Hammouti; A., Aouniti.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl)-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (P1) and 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl)-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (P2) was evaluated as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in molar hydrochloric using weight los [...] s measurements and electrochemical polarisation. The results obtained reveal that those compounds reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibiting action increases with the concentration of pyrazole compounds to attain 98.5 % at the 10-3 M of (P2). The increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the inhibition efficiency of the compounds in the temperature range 308 - 353 K. The adsorption isotherm of inhibitors on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been determined. The thermodynamic data of activation and adsorption are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042008000200004','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042008000200004"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyrazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>L. Herrag</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (P1 and 1-{[benzyl-(2-cyano-ethyl-amino]-methyl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (P2 was evaluated as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in molar hydrochloric using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarisation. The results obtained reveal that those compounds reduce the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibiting action increases with the concentration of pyrazole compounds to attain 98.5 % at the 10-3 M of (P2. The increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the inhibition efficiency of the compounds in the temperature range 308 - 353 K. The adsorption isotherm of inhibitors on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> has been determined. The thermodynamic data of activation and adsorption are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008435','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008435"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">Protection</span> of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Calle, L. M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings for the atmospheric <span class="hlt">protection</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. NASA's KSC Beachside <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most <span class="hlt">corrosive</span>, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> control, have led researchers at NASA's <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in <span class="hlt">protecting</span> launch infrastructure and hardware from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18084924','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18084924"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of unalloyed <span class="hlt">steel</span>, cast <span class="hlt">steel</span> and cast iron as final storage canister material in water-bearing granite rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>During final storage of radioactive waste the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of the canister materials is an important parameter. In this study the external <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of unalloyed <span class="hlt">steel</span>, cast <span class="hlt">steel</span> and cast iron in water-bearing granite rocks is discussed with a particular view to the conditions in Switzerland (temperature, pressure, water composition, etc.). The report is based on a critical literature review, on the author's own experience and on experience from other fields of technology. Furthermore, model calculations are made for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates to be expected in the presence of a mass transfer barrier. The most important results are as follows: -<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates in waters and soils are low, provided oxygen is excluded or <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers are formed, -under the expected conditions all of the relevant waters can produce significant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, -the pressure dependence of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is small, while the temperature dependence is large, -in the presence of an effective convection and diffusion barrier (bentonite) the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is very small (10-5 mm/year), -if such a barrier maintains its properties for the required lifetime of the final storage system the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of the canister material can be neglected. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0176035','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0176035"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Fatigue Properties of L485MB <span class="hlt">Steel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Brož, P.</p> <p></p> <p>Leoben Austria : Montanuniversitat Leoben Austria, 2009 - (Eichlseder, W.), s. 61-62 ISBN 978-3-902544-02-5. [Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics /26/. Leoben (AT), 23.09.2009-26.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FT-TA5/076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue * <span class="hlt">steel</span> * S-N curves Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::bfa68b210fd701dbfca635977316d96a','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::bfa68b210fd701dbfca635977316d96a"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in industrial process environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Heaver, Edward Ernest</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The interactions between engineering materials and their environment which give rise to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking are reviewed and industrial examples from the petrochemical industry are described. In one of the examples, cracking took place in carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to pressurised gas containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water. The crack morphology in this system was studied by metallography of samples from industrial gas processing plants and the crack growth rates we...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45022881','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45022881"><span id="translatedtitle">Intergranular <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> test Methods for Type 430 Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Several testing methods for determining intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties of Type 430 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> are described. These include a new electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test, a chemical etching test, and modified immersion tests from the ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid and cupric sulfate-sulfuric acid tests. A good agreement was observed between the tests. The tests described in this paper can be utilized for both heat treated and welded samples</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::558ecb854d07a6ed967bd1c618c682d7','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::558ecb854d07a6ed967bd1c618c682d7"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Benzothiazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>K. Parameswari; Chitra, S.; Selvaraj, A; S.Brindha; M. Menaga</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The influence of benzothiazole derivatives on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M H2SO4 was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and AC-impedance techniques. The synergistic effect by the addition of halide ions had been studied. The experimental results showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreases with increasing temperature; potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that benzothiazole derivatives acted as catho...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______571::98ac35778b11a2b86a908a3af094d2dc','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______571::98ac35778b11a2b86a908a3af094d2dc"><span id="translatedtitle">Microgalvanic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of laser-welded HSLA <span class="hlt">steels</span>:</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Looi, Y.-M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Laser welding of galvanized high strength low alloy (HSLA) <span class="hlt">steels</span> leads to the evaporation of zinc at the weld and the formation of a heat-affected-zone (HAZ). High heat input due to welding generates macro galvanic coupling between the weld and the parent metal as well as micro galvanic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> at different microstructures of the weld, HAZ and the parent metal. Different microstructural substructures exhibit different electrochemical characteristics, potentially leading to microgalvanic co...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::ab5f1abfe06c3fcd7e136db86dd0f789','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::ab5f1abfe06c3fcd7e136db86dd0f789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of an austenite and ferrite stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> weld</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>BRANIMIR N. GRGUR; VLADANA N. RAJAKOVI?-OGNJANOVI?</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dissimilar metal connections are prone to frequent failures. These failures are attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties across the weld, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two types of <span class="hlt">steels</span> and the resulting creep at the interface. For the weld analyzed in this research, it was shown that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> measurements can be used for a proper evaluation of the quality of weld material and for the prediction of whether or not the material, after the applied welding proce...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093948','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093948"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructure, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and tribological and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu coated stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Jin, Xiaomin; Gao, Lizhen; Liu, Erqiang; Yu, Feifei; Shu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hefeng</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A Ti-Cu coated layer on 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (SS) was obtained by using the Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (CFUBMS) system to improve antibacterial activity, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and tribological properties. The microstructure and phase constituents of Ti-Cu coated layer were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and tribological properties of a stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> substrate, SS316L, when coated with Ti-Cu were investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surface was tested using the spread plate method. The results indicate that the Ti-Cu coated SS316L could achieve a higher <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> polarization resistance and a more stable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential in an SBF environment than the uncoated SS316L substrate. The desirable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> performance of Ti-Cu may be attributable to the formation of a Ti-O passive layer on the coating surface, <span class="hlt">protecting</span> the coating from further <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The Ti-Cu coated SS316L also exhibited excellent wear resistance and chemical stability during the sliding tests against Si3N4 balls in SBF environment. Moreover, the Ti-Cu coatings exhibited excellent antibacterial abilities, where an effective reduction of 99.9% of Escherichia coli (E.coli) within 12h was achieved by contact with the modified surface, which was attributed to the release of copper ions when the Ti-Cu coatings are in contact with bacterial solution. PMID:26093948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36078593','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36078593"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> evaluation of galvanised <span class="hlt">steel</span> by thin layer activation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The release of certain metals, such as zinc, from outdoor constructions due to atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is of some concern. For risk assessments the evaluation of the amount of released metal is of importance. Various methods can be used to study the release of metals. These include those using radiotracers, such as thin layer activation (TLA). To verify the reliability of TLA with respect to conventional techniques in the evaluation of atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, galvanised <span class="hlt">steel</span> was exposed to a mild marine environment. The amount of zinc in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products, released through artificial leaching, at different time intervals was evaluated by TLA and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). A good correlation between the results was found indicating the feasibility of TLA for these release studies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=427762','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=427762"><span id="translatedtitle">Threshold <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates for durability problems in reinforced structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, J.A.; Feliu, S. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas; Rodriguez, P. [Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey (Mexico)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Mortar cracking was investigated by impressing a constant anodic current density onto <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcements. The time and the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> penetration required for crack onset was determined. Tests were carried out in calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]{sub 2})-saturated solutions and in mortar with and without chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) addition. Data reproducibility was poor and could be ascribed to current efficiencies much > 100%, corroded surface area fractions much , 100%, and occasional diffusion of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products via macropores to the mortar surface. Notwithstanding potential effects of these uncertainties, results showed penetrations of a few tens of micrometers (25.4 {micro}m = 1 mil) could give rise to cracking. Fairly low <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of {approximately} 1 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} (6.45 {micro}A/in.{sup 2}) could result in hazardous damage during short service periods (5 y to 10 y).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44107199','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44107199"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> control of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in phosphoric acid by purpald – Weight loss, electrochemical and XPS studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? AHMT is good <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 2 M H3PO4. ? Tafel polarization study indicates that AHMT is mixed-type of inhibitor. ? Weight loss, polarization and EIS methods are in reasonable agreement. ? AHMT adsorption is well described by Langmuir isotherm. ? XPS analysis was used to establish the nature of AHMT adsorption on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. - Abstract: The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition properties of purpald (4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AHMT)) on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in phosphoric acid (2 M H3PO4) solution has been examined and characterized by weight loss, Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The experimental results reveal that the compound has a good inhibiting effect on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 2 M H3PO4 solution. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but the temperature has hardly effect on the inhibition efficiency of AHMT. The adsorption of AHMT is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic data and XPS analysis clearly show that the adsorption mechanism of AHMT on carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface in 2 M H3PO4 solution is mainly electrostatic-adsorption. Potentiodynamic polarization studies have shown that AHMT acts as a mixed-type of inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS studies were analyzed to model inhibition process through appropriate equivalent circuit model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19..135D','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMEP...19..135D"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> in Ultrahigh-Purity Water and Steam Systems by Surface Analytical Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Dong, Xia; Iacocca, Ronald G.; Bustard, Bethany L.; Kemp, Craig A. J.</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipes with different degrees of rouging and a Teflon®-coated rupture disc with severe <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> were thoroughly investigated by combining multiple surface analytical techniques. The surface roughness and iron oxide layer thickness increase with increasing rouge severity, and the chromium oxide layer coexists with the iron oxide layer in samples with various degrees of rouging. Unlike the rouging observed for stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipes, the fast degradation of the rupture disc was caused by a crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environment created by perforations in the <span class="hlt">protective</span> Teflon coating. This failure analysis clearly shows the highly <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> nature of ultrapure water used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, and demonstrates some of the unexpected <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms that can be encountered in these environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.2464A','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.2464A"><span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Zinc Acetylacetonate and Benzothiazole in Epoxy Coating on the <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Amoozadeh, S. M.; Mahdavian, M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition effect of zinc acetylacetonate (ZAA) and benzothiazole (BTH) mixture was evaluated for mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 3.5% NaCl solution. To this end, ZAA:BTH mixtures ranged from 6:1 to 1:6 mol ratios were examined by weight loss and open circuit potential to obtain optimal mole ratio. The optimal mixture of ZAA:BTH at 1:5 mol ratio showed a significant <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition efficiency proved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization studies. The addition of the optimal mixture of ZAA:BTH to epoxy coating showed a considerable increase of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> evaluated by salt spray exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.grpjournal.org/download/Corrosion%20of%20Stainless%20Steels%20of%20Cryogenic%20Hydrocarbon%20Flare%20Tips%20Burners.aspx','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.grpjournal.org/download/Corrosion%20of%20Stainless%20Steels%20of%20Cryogenic%20Hydrocarbon%20Flare%20Tips%20Burners.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steels</span> of Cryogenic Hydrocarbon Flare Tips Burners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>H. U. Nwosu</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Analysis of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of AISI Type 304 Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> (SS used in flare tips (burners of natural gas (NG extraction facilities is considered to determine the resistance of this grade of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> to the aggressive <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> actions of the environment. It was observed that the grade of SS yielded quite early to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> attacks which gave effects to scaling, flaking, pitting, material thinning and flare distortions in the burners contrary to expectations. This necessitated replacements with costs and thus there was need to analyse the causes and find solutions to the problem in such a way that a longer service time could be obtained with minimal shut downs. The solution was found in the grades of SS with balanced higher quantities of nickel, chromium, molybdenum and SS type with partial nitrogen substitution for nickel which helps in stabilization of the austenite structure. There was need to balance the contents of the alloying elements to ensure the desired microstructure is preserved. Further study is required in the area of “weld decay” caused by intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the weld HAZ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26062603','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26062603"><span id="translatedtitle">Crevice <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of 304 L Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Chloride Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of 304 L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sodium chloride solution at 25 and 80 degree C. Two types of specimens were used in this investigation. Cylindrical type specimens were used for the determination of passive currents and critical crevice solution (CCS) characteristics which are the pH and the chloride ion concentration. The other type, a metal to non metal assembly, is used for the evaluation of the crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility. The potentiodynamic results showed that the critical pH of the crevice solution for 304 L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> (as defined by old field (1) and sutton) lies between 2.1 and 2.5 in I M NaCl. on the other hand, the critical PH of the crevice solution as defined by crolet (2) is about 2.5 in 1 M NaCl. increasing the chloride ion concentration resulted in increasing the pH of the crevice solution. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans conducted in 1 M NaCl at 25 degree C and 80 degree C showed that 304 L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> sulfur from sever crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the test solution with the increase in severity of the attack with temperature. The cyclic polarization scans were further supplemented by Sem investigation. 10 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25039110','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25039110"><span id="translatedtitle">Localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of high alloyed austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The susceptibility of several high alloyed stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> against localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was investigated by traditional potentiostatic and -kinetic methods and the current transient technique. Different test cells, proposed in literature, were evaluated for use in testing of plate materials. The AVESTA-cell showed to be not useful for potentiokinetic current density potential curves, but useable for pitting experiments. After pickling and prepassivation epoxy embedded materials proved to be resistant to crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> at the metal-resin interface. The electrode in form of a wire was the most reliable crevice free cell design. The grinding of the samples in the pretreatment procedure was found to have a large effect on the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour. Using different paper types with varying grit, a drop in pitting potential for rougher surfaces and an increase in metastable pitting activity was found. Increasing surface roughness led also to changes in the electronic structure of the passive film reflected by a lower bandgap energy. High alloyed stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> showed no breakdown potential within the examined potential range. Compared to 18/8 type stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> significantly less transients were found. The number of transients decreases with increasing molybdenum and chromium content</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::65af33f627f4287e543a8b6a2216d836','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::65af33f627f4287e543a8b6a2216d836"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the Inhibitive Effect of Pyrazolo [3, 4-b] Pyridine on <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in 1 M HCl Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Moulay Abderrahim EL MHAMMEDI; Abdelilah CHTAINI</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study to investigate the effect of pyrazolo [3-4-b] pyridine on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1.0M hydrochloric acid (HCl) by using the following methods: the weight loss method, the potentiodynamic polarization methods, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.It was found that the adsorption of inhibitor could prevent <span class="hlt">steel</span> from weight loss and the adsorption accorded with the Langmuir adsorption, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> could be explained by the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20057276','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20057276"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dissolved oxygen on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in gamma ray irradiation environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Experimental data on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in actual BWR primary environment under irradiated field are lacking in literature, because the personnel access and maintenance for the experiment are difficult. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test loop, which had two test sections set inside and outside of the irradiation test room, was used to do the work successfully. The tests were performed by control of water quality in two typical BWR <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environments, namely normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> products released from the main loop construction material, type 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potentials of test coupons, type 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, were measured. And the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> oxide films formed on the coupons were characterized. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviors of the austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> were affected by the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environment, which was determined by both of the water chemistry condition, NWC or HWC, and radiolysis of water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39021780','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39021780"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> of buried pipes: study, simulation and application of solar energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> is intensively used on <span class="hlt">steel</span> pipes in petroleum and gas industries. It is a technique used to prevent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> which transforms the whole pipe into a cathode of a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cell. Two types of cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems are usually used: 1) the galvanic <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems which use galvanic anodes, also called sacrificial anodes being electrochemically more electronegative than the structure to be <span class="hlt">protected</span> and 2) the imposed current systems, which through a current generator will deliver a direct current from the anode to the structure to be <span class="hlt">protected</span>. The aim of this work is to design a cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> system of a pipe by imposed current with auxiliary electric solar energy. (O.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400006','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400006"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic characterisation of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solutions by artemisia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>M. Bouklah</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of natural occurring extract of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 in the temperature range 298 - 353 K is studied by weight loss method, electrochemical polarisation and linear polarisation Rp measurements. Results obtained reveal that extract reduces the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of artemisia content at 10 g/L to reach 95% and 99% at 298 and 353 K, respectively. Results obtained by gravimetric and electrochemical polarisation are in good agreement. Polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of the natural artemisia does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction and acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with temperature. The adsorption of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400006&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042006000400006&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic characterisation of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid solutions by artemisia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>M., Bouklah; B., Hammouti.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of natural occurring extract of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 in the temperature range 298 - 353 K is studied by weight loss method, electrochemical polarisation and linear polarisation Rp measurements. Results obtained reveal that extract reduces the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. [...] The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of artemisia content at 10 g/L to reach 95% and 99% at 298 and 353 K, respectively. Results obtained by gravimetric and electrochemical polarisation are in good agreement. Polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of the natural artemisia does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction and acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with temperature. The adsorption of artemisia on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________70::1df70d351d48494f573f33a4e5c36c17','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________70::1df70d351d48494f573f33a4e5c36c17"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage on the initiation of fatigue cracks in high strength stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Rezig, E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This research project investigates the influence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> flaws on the initiation of fatigue cracks in high strength stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and more particularly in 15-5 precipitation hardening high strength stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Susceptibility of 15-5PH to localised <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was examined and pit-like <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> flaws produced by pitting and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> were introduced in fatigue specimens in order to measure the influence of these surface flaws on fatigue crack initiation. Fro...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::449d47215a952c4de31a551112edbad0','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::449d47215a952c4de31a551112edbad0"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Analysis of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in CO2 Loaded Amine Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Abdelbaki Benamor; Mohammed Jaber Al-Marri</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical model simulating the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous amine-CO2 environment was developed and used to analyze the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> phenomena in CO2 loaded amine solutions. A mechanistic <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> model is applied to identify the most important agents responsible for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The model incorporates an equilibrium model based on an activity coefficient approach according to Debye-Huckel theory and mixed potential theory to simulate the concent...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::4df5bdff9667a8b4daaa434887bb181f','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::4df5bdff9667a8b4daaa434887bb181f"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behaviour of the welded <span class="hlt">steel</span> sheets used in automotive industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>D. Katundi; A. Tosun-Bayraktar; E. Bayraktar; D. Toueix</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: of this paper is to characterise the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in the <span class="hlt">steel</span> sheets (Hot dip galvanizing of <span class="hlt">steel</span> sheets) used in automotive industry. In fact, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of automotive components by road salt is a widely known problem. The different parts under the car body and the interior surface of body panels suffer easily from the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> products deposited on roads and used mainly to melt snow. A comparison in a chemical investigation of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate for base metals (without w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::4abe48cef19f8571dde468b0f3a5b2ff','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::4abe48cef19f8571dde468b0f3a5b2ff"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERGRANULAR <span class="hlt">CORROSION</span> OF STAINLESS <span class="hlt">STEELS</span> UNDER TRANSPASSIVE CONDITIONS : STUDY OF SILICON SEGREGATION IN <001> TILT BICRYSTALS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stolarz, J.; Le Coze, J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> under transpassive conditions depends strongly on silicon content of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. A linear relation between intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate at constant electrochemical potential in the transpassive range and silicon content at grain boundaries has been found. The electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test has been applied to study the misorientation dependence of silicon segregation in symmetrical stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> tilt bicrystals containing 0.3 and 0.8 wt...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______260::088a9c715835419bcdb4d836a8339f88','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______260::088a9c715835419bcdb4d836a8339f88"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of hydrogen on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and stress induced cracking of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Kivisäkk, Ulf</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen is the smallest element in the periodical table. It has been shown in several studies that hydrogen has a large influence on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and cracking behaviour of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Hydrogen is involved in several of the most common cathode reactions during <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and can also cause embrittlement in many stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. Some aspects of the effect of hydrogen on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and hydrogen-induced stress cracking, HISC, of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> were studied in this work. These aspects rel...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46027978','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46027978"><span id="translatedtitle">High temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> in hydrochloric atmosphere under oil shale ashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • High temperature gaseous hydrochloric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> analysis of different boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span>. • Influence on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the presence of oil shale ashes and cyclic removing. • Empiric kinetic coherence equation and diagram for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth versus time. • Additional oxidation tests of all materials investigated. • Qualitative analysis of the present <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms. - Abstract: High temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in power plants is a main breakdown criterion in boiler applications. This study is focused on the high-temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of several boiler <span class="hlt">steels</span> used in Estonian power plants, which were experimentally tested in gaseous hydrochloric environment combined with Estonian oil shale ashes in a high temperature <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test up to 600 °C. Scanning electron microscopy supported by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to reveal different <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanisms. Results indicate a strong dependence of the boiler <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> to the present anions in the oil shale ash and their removal in the boiler</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517028','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517028"><span id="translatedtitle">A shape-recovery polymer coating for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of metallic surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Lutz, Alexander; van den Berg, Otto; Van Damme, Jonas; Verheyen, Karen; Bauters, Erwin; De Graeve, Iris; Du Prez, Filip E; Terryn, Herman</p> <p>2015-01-14</p> <p>Self-healing polymer coatings are a type of smart material aimed for advanced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of metals. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of two new UV-cure self-healing coatings based on acrylated polycaprolactone polyurethanes. On a macroscopic scale, the cured films all show outstanding mechanical properties, combining relatively high Young's modulus of up to 270 MPa with a strain at break above 350%. After thermal activation the strained films recover up to 97% of their original length. Optical and electron microscopy reveals the self-healing properties of these coatings on hot dip galvanized <span class="hlt">steel</span> with scratches and microindentations. The temperature-induced closing of such defects restores the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> and barrier properties of the coating as shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique. Therefore, such coatings are a complementary option for encapsulation-based autonomous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> systems. PMID:25517028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..345...10X','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..345...10X"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed on different surfaces of <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to simulated groundwater solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Xu, Qiufa; Gao, Kewei; Wang, Yanbin; Pang, Xiaolu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of a low alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated groundwater was investigated. The upward surface of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> underwent more serious <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> than the downward surface. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed on the upward and downward surfaces were characterized by SEM, EDX, and XRD, and the electrochemical properties of bare and rusted samples were analyzed. The difference in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of the different surfaces of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> could be attributed to the potential difference between the upward and downward surfaces as well as the higher amount of CaCO3 deposits on the downward surface leading to a compact <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042013000300001&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042013000300001&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Sea Water by Sodium Gluconate-Zn2+ System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>S., Rajendran; K., Anuradha; K., Kavipriya; A., Krishnaveni; J., Jeyasundari; V., Sribharathy.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of sodium gluconate (SG)-Zn2+ system in controlling <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea water has been evaluated by weight-loss method. The formulation consisting of 250 ppm of SG and 75 ppm of Zn2+ has 98% IE. Influence of duration of immersion on the IE of SG-Zn2+ has been e [...] valuated. The mechanistic aspects of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition have been investigated by polarization study and AC impedance spectra. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> film has been analysed by FTIR and luminescence spectra. The surface morphology and the roughness of the metal surface have been analysed by atomic force microscopy. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> film consists of Fe2+-SG complex and Zn(OH)2. It is found to be UV-fluorescent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTA...45.3981B','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTA...45.3981B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Steel</span> Microstructure Effect on Mechanical Properties and <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of High Strength Low Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo; Li, Ximing; Castaneda, Homero</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Different thermomechanical treatments were applied to a high strength low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> with a novel chemical composition. As a result, three different microstructures were produced with dissimilar mechanical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties. Subsequently, a tempering heat treatment was applied to redistribute the phases in the <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Microstructure A with 56 pct martensite and 32 pct bainite presented high strength but medium ductility; microstructure C with 95 pct ferrite and 3 pct martensite/austenite resulted in low strength and high ductility, and finally microstructure B with 98 pct bainite and 2 pct martensite/austenite resulted in high strength and ductility. Alternatively the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior obtained by polarization curves was characterized in 0.1 M H2SO4, 3 M H2SO4, 3.5 wt pct NaCl, and NS4 solutions resulting in similar magnitudes, while the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior acquired by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy had slightly differences in 3 M H2SO4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JNuM..371..134M','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JNuM..371..134M"><span id="translatedtitle">Time dependence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in <span class="hlt">steels</span> for use in lead-alloy cooled reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Machut, McLean; Sridharan, Kumar; Li, Ning; Ukai, Shigeharu; Allen, Todd</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Stability of the <span class="hlt">protective</span> oxide layer is critical for the long-term performance of cladding and structural components in lead-alloy cooled nuclear systems. Measurements have shown that removal of the outer magnetite layer is a significant effect at higher temperatures in flowing lead-bismuth. Developing a predictive capability for oxide thickness and material removal is therefore needed. A model for the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in liquid lead-alloys has been employed to assist in materials development for application in the Generation IV Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Data from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests of <span class="hlt">steels</span> in Los Alamos National Laboratory's DELTA Loop is used to benchmark the model and to obtain predictions of long-term material's <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance. The model is based on modifications of Wagner's diffusion based oxidation theory and Tedmon's equation for high-temperature oxidation with scale removal. Theoretically and experimentally obtained values for parabolic oxide growth rate, mass transfer <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, and long-term material thinning rates are presented and compared to the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000100005&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000100005&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> by some Phenyltetrazole Substituted Compounds in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Y., Elkacimi; M., Achnin; Y., Aouine; M. Ebn, Touhami; A., Alami; R., Touir; M., Sfaira; D., Chebabe; A., Elachqar; B., Hammouti.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Phenyltetrazole substituted compounds, namely 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (PT), 5-(4chlorophenyl)- 1H-tetrazole (Cl-PT), 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole (MO-PT) and 5-p-tolyl-1H-tetrazole (M-PT) were synthesized to study their inhibition behavior on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl by weight loss measurement, poten [...] tiodynamic polarization studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It has been observed that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate decreases and inhibition efficiency increases with increasing in phenyltetrazole substituted concentration and dependence on molecular structure. Polarization data indicate that these compounds act as very good cathodic inhibitors of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl. The result showed that the inhibition efficiency decreased with temperature and increased with immersion time. EIS has the same trend of inhibitive effect as that of the polarization data, which indicates the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface by molecules adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000100005','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000100005"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> by some Phenyltetrazole Substituted Compounds in Hydrochloric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Y. Elkacimi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Phenyltetrazole substituted compounds, namely 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (PT, 5-(4chlorophenyl- 1H-tetrazole (Cl-PT, 5-(4-methoxyphenyl-1H-tetrazole (MO-PT and 5-p-tolyl-1H-tetrazole (M-PT were synthesized to study their inhibition behavior on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. It has been observed that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate decreases and inhibition efficiency increases with increasing in phenyltetrazole substituted concentration and dependence on molecular structure. Polarization data indicate that these compounds act as very good cathodic inhibitors of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M HCl. The result showed that the inhibition efficiency decreased with temperature and increased with immersion time. EIS has the same trend of inhibitive effect as that of the polarization data, which indicates the formation of a <span class="hlt">protective</span> layer on mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface by molecules adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22028094','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22028094"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> in G.S. [Girldler sulphide] plants: Pt. 7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In order to <span class="hlt">protect</span> carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> towers and piping of a GS experimental heavy water plant against <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide, a method, elsewhere published, was developed. Carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide forms iron sulphide scales. In oxygen free solutions, evolution of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> follows the sequence mackinawite ? cubic ferrous sulphide ? troilite ? pyrrotite ? pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite and pyrite are the most <span class="hlt">protective</span> layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa for a period of 14 days). During a plant shutdown procedures, the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">protected</span> with those scales is exposed to water and highly humid air; under such conditions oxidation is unavoidable. Later, treatment in plant conditions does not regenerate scales because the composition of regenerated scales involves more soluble iron sulphides such as mackinawite and troilite. Therefore, it is not recommendable to expose the <span class="hlt">protective</span> scales to atmospherical conditions. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27075564','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27075564"><span id="translatedtitle">Binding of nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> valve stems caused by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product build-up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> governor valve stems are used in safety-related reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) and auxiliary feedwater (AFW) pumps at Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors, respectively. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of the governor valve stems in the packing assembly area has been noted in at least seventeen nuclear power plants. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> product build-up between the valve stem and packing assembly has resulted in binding of the valve stem in at least nine of these plants. Nitriding is known to degrade the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of, stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This is due to the formation of chromium nitrides in the diffusion layer of the hardened case which leave the surrounding matrix depleted in chromium. The rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is substantially affected by the presence or absence of a continuous, adherent compound layer. The compound layer is less susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> than the diffusion layer and acts to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the underlying diffusion layer from being exposed to moisture. At Calvert Cliffs, the original nitrided stem had a continuous, adherent compound layer and a hardened case of approximately 60 microns in depth. This stem performed acceptably for years. In contrast, the replacement nitrided stems did not have a continuous, adherent compound layer and had a hardened case of approximately 10 microns in depth. These stems performed acceptably for three or four months. This difference in performance is attributed primarily to the absence of an adherent, continuous compound layer in the recently-supplied nitrided stems. Since nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> valve stems will corrode in the presence of moisture (although at substantially different rates), the replacement valve stems will be fabricated from Inconel 718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=367703','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=367703"><span id="translatedtitle">Binding of nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> valve stems caused by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product build-up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Coffin, S.M.; Hardies, R.O. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., Lusby, MD (United States). Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> governor valve stems are used in safety-related reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) and auxiliary feedwater (AFW) pumps at Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors, respectively. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of the governor valve stems in the packing assembly area has been noted in at least seventeen nuclear power plants. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> product build-up between the valve stem and packing assembly has resulted in binding of the valve stem in at least nine of these plants. Nitriding is known to degrade the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of, stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>. This is due to the formation of chromium nitrides in the diffusion layer of the hardened case which leave the surrounding matrix depleted in chromium. The rate of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is substantially affected by the presence or absence of a continuous, adherent compound layer. The compound layer is less susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> than the diffusion layer and acts to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the underlying diffusion layer from being exposed to moisture. At Calvert Cliffs, the original nitrided stem had a continuous, adherent compound layer and a hardened case of approximately 60 microns in depth. This stem performed acceptably for years. In contrast, the replacement nitrided stems did not have a continuous, adherent compound layer and had a hardened case of approximately 10 microns in depth. These stems performed acceptably for three or four months. This difference in performance is attributed primarily to the absence of an adherent, continuous compound layer in the recently-supplied nitrided stems. Since nitrided type 410 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> valve stems will corrode in the presence of moisture (although at substantially different rates), the replacement valve stems will be fabricated from Inconel 718.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45052267','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45052267"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of nickel alloys and stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in polluted or confined PWR environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document addresses the issue of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of materials used in PWR nuclear reactors, notably in steam generators which have been particularly affected by this kind of degradation due to a progressive accumulation of impurities. The authors first present the different materials used in secondary circuit and in auxiliary circuits of PWRs: carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> and low alloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span>, nickel alloys, stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span>, and other materials. They discuss the degradation of steam generator tubes by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>: <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environments, types of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (wastage, pitting, intergranular stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking), and influence of the environment and of the microstructure. They also propose a brief overview of modelling efforts in the case of the 600 alloy, and indicates measures to mitigate the tube degradation by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (water treatment, better design of steam generators and secondary circuit, improvement of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance). The next part addresses the degradation by stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in polluted environments in PWRs reactors: return on experience, stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking in media contaminated by impurities (intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of sensitized or work hardened <span class="hlt">steels</span>, transgranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by chloride ions, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by diluted sulphate + chloride, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in concentrated boric acid solutions)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20609846','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20609846"><span id="translatedtitle">Adsorption and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-inhibiting effect of Dacryodis edulis extract on low-carbon-<span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in acidic media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Oguzie, E E; Enenebeaku, C K; Akalezi, C O; Okoro, S C; Ayuk, A A; Ejike, E N</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The inhibition of low-carbon-<span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 1M HCl and 0.5M H(2)SO(4) by extracts of Dacryodis edulis (DE) was investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. DE extract was found to inhibit the uniform and localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the acidic media, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process was inhibited by adsorption of the extracted organic matter onto the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface in a concentration-dependent manner and involved both protonated and molecular species. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to illustrate the process of adsorption of some specific components of the extract. PMID:20609846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ChJOL...7..355D','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ChJOL...7..355D"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on <span class="hlt">protection</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> piles of Baoshan general <span class="hlt">steel</span> factory wharf by using DZ and DZ-2 tapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Dai, Zhongdao; Ni, Xiangyu; Xia, Gengmei; Yuan, Li</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Steel</span> piles at the tidal zone can be seriously corroded. Common <span class="hlt">protective</span> methods such as painting or coating with rubber or other <span class="hlt">protective</span> materials, etc. cannot provide full <span class="hlt">protection</span> when used as supplementary <span class="hlt">protection</span> because these traditional methods require strict pretreatment and sealing of the metallic surface from the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> mediums, and time for the <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings to solidify. This is very difficult under the severe action of waves and surges on the sea. With our oil-soluble DZ-2 tape, <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency for hanging <span class="hlt">steel</span> plates at the tidal and splash zones reaches to 82 99%. The <span class="hlt">protection</span> efficiency of water soluble DZ tape at the tidal zone reaches to 92.9%. The DZ and DZ-2 tapes can rapidly reduce the original <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> velocity to ten percent and one percent respectively as fully proved by the 500 hour rapid <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> testing with indoor salt fog and by the relevant electrochemical parameters of instantaneous <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> velocity, etc. DZ tape absorbs much OH- to cause a pH rise. A synergistic <span class="hlt">protective</span> effect is gained when DZ tape is used together with cathodic <span class="hlt">protection</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> piles at the tidal zone. The working principle of DZ tape is different from that of DZ-2 tape even though they are composed of the same chemical materials. The latter provides <span class="hlt">protection</span> because of the close affinity between metal and its carboxyl group shields the active centre at the metal surface to reduce the activation energy of metal. The carbon chain forms a covering oil film of netted structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://lejpt.academicdirect.org/A14/001_010.htm','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://lejpt.academicdirect.org/A14/001_010.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless <span class="hlt">Steels</span> in Lithium Bromide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ayo Samuel AFOLABI</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of these <span class="hlt">steels</span> occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> shows a greater resistance to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> than austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in the structure of duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupled with higher content of chromium in its composition. Both <span class="hlt">steels</span> produced electrochemical noise at increased concentrations of lithium bromide due to continuous film breakdown and repair caused by reduction in medium concentration by the alkaline <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product while surface passivity observed in duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is attributed to film stability on this <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17018818','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17018818"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of chemical composition of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> on erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in wet steam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Both in conventional and nuclear power stations suspended iron oxides in the steam water circuit can cause occurrence of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in evaporators of conventional boilers, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in steam generators of pressurized water reactors and deposition and caking of iron oxides on fuel elements in nuclear reactor. For a large number of <span class="hlt">steel</span> compositions the resistance against erosion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in wet steam was determined in a laboratory test. Minute quantities of chromium, copper and molybdenum have proven to increase the resistance against erosion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. <span class="hlt">Steels</span> originated from some obvious erosion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in-service failures proved to have low resistance against erosion <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the laboratory test. 10 figures and 2 tables are given</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMMM..22..829Z','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMMM..22..829Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of chromium on the initial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low alloy <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the CO2-O2-H2S-SO2 wet-dry <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environment of cargo oil tankers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Qing-he; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Peng-cheng; Lu, Min-xu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The influence of Cr on the initial <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of low-alloy <span class="hlt">steels</span> exposed to a CO2-O2-H2S-SO2 wet-dry <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> environment was investigated using weight-loss measurements, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate increases with increasing Cr content in samples subjected to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> for 21 d. However, the rust grain size decreases, its specific surface area increases, and it becomes more compact and denser with increasing Cr content, which indicates the enhanced <span class="hlt">protectivity</span> of the rust. The results of charge transfer resistance ( R ct) calculations indicate that higher Cr contents can accelerate the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> during the first 7 d and promote the formation of the enhanced <span class="hlt">protective</span> inner rust after 14 d; the formed <span class="hlt">protective</span> inner rust is responsible for the greater <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance during long-term exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1033::576e3445885a53524575b001c99d1296','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1033::576e3445885a53524575b001c99d1296"><span id="translatedtitle">High strength stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> 14301 for prestressed concrete structures <span class="hlt">protection</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Alonso Alonso, Maria Cruz; Sanchez Moreno, Mercedes; Mazario, E.; Recio, F. J.; Mahmoud, H.; Hingorani, R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>High Strength Stainless <span class="hlt">Steels</span> (HSSS) are being developed with the aim to improve <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of prestressed concrete structures in aggressive environments. In the present paper focus is given to mechanical and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of a HSSS type 14301. The ability of passivation in alkaline media and the risk of local <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> (pitting) in presence of chlorides, has been determined. Besides, the response of the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> submitted to mechanical strains similar to those ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e8bc23d5fec4b09f96582aa20f0116b1','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e8bc23d5fec4b09f96582aa20f0116b1"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenyl Phthalimide as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitor for <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of C-<span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Sulphuric Acid Solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>I. Zaafarany</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The effect of some phenyl phthalimide derivatives on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. Inhibition was explained by adsorption of these compounds on the metal surface. The adsorption follows Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Some thermodynamic functions were computed and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042009000500010&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042009000500010&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenyl Phthalimide as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitor for <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of C-<span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Sulphuric Acid Solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>I., Zaafarany.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of some phenyl phthalimide derivatives on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasin [...] g temperature. Inhibition was explained by adsorption of these compounds on the metal surface. The adsorption follows Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Some thermodynamic functions were computed and discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34079589','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34079589"><span id="translatedtitle">High-strength <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steels</span> of austenite-martensite class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The structure and properties are investigated in austenitic-martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span>. New high-strength <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resisting <span class="hlt">steels</span> VNS-43 (?u = 1650 MPa) and VNS-65 (?u = 1800 MPa) are designed with additions of Ce, La and Y for decreasing impurity contents and for grain refinement. <span class="hlt">Steels</span> VNS-43 and VNS-65 posses high levels of fracture toughness, low-cycle fatigue strength, stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. Optimal heat treatment conditions for the <span class="hlt">steels</span> are given</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43076678','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43076678"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Si as alloying element on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of weathering <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? Weathering <span class="hlt">steels</span> with different concentrations of Si as alloying element were exposed to laboratory atmospheric conditions. ? The iron oxides formed as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products were characterized and analyzed by XRD, TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. ? Silicon affects the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of weathering <span class="hlt">steels</span>. ? Silicon promotes the formation of goethite as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product with small particle size. - Abstract: The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in saline conditions of weathering <span class="hlt">steel</span> with different concentrations of Si (1, 2 and 3 wt.%) exposed to dip dry tests (simulating wet/dry cycles of atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>) was studied by weight loss, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">steels</span> exhibit better <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance with increasing Si concentration. The formation of Fe-oxides such as goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite was observed. Superparamagnetic goethite is the dominant phase in the rust developed on the Si <span class="hlt">steels</span>, indicating that Si favors the formation of goethite with small particle size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108093522','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108093522"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen-related stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking in line pipe <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A correlation between hydrogen concentration (C0) and the critical stress intensity factor for propagation of hydrogen-related cracks has been established by fracture mechanical testing of CT-specimens for the heat affected zone of an X-70 pipeline <span class="hlt">steel</span>. This has been compared with field measurements of the hydrogen uptake by cathodically <span class="hlt">protected</span> <span class="hlt">steel</span> exposed in heavy clay and peat type soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39110507','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39110507"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of unalloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> in geological storage conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The concept retained for high level and years living radioactive waste disposal is the underground storage. It is then necessary to know the behaviour in time (about 10000 years) of the different constituent elements of the containment. The storage site chosen is the Bures' ones, presenting a clay formation at 600 m of depth. Each compartment is separated of a sufficient distance in order to profit of the thermal dispersion effect in the rock for optimizing the cooling of the package. In this work, has been used an unalloyed <span class="hlt">steel</span> sur-container. The aim is to understand the resistance of the material under <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and loading, and particularly the stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> which is a particular case of cracking assisted by environment. The material studied is a weld of two unalloyed <span class="hlt">steels</span> obtained by electron beam. Slow traction tests have been carried out in an autoclave in the following experimental conditions: interstitial water in equilibrium with a helium-CO2 mixture 5.4 per thousand under 50 bar and at a temperature of 90 C. The results show an influence of the hydrogen <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> on the mechanical behaviour of the material and particularly a decrease of the size of the reduction in area, which is practically unexisting in the case of the melted zone. These results are explained into details. (O.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29033673','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29033673"><span id="translatedtitle">Irradiation Assisted Stress <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Cracking of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Irradiation Assisted Stress <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in oxygenated high temperature water was studied. The IASCC failure has been considered as a degradation phenomenon potential not only in the present light water reactors but rather common in systems where the materials are exposed simultaneously to radiation and water environments. In this study, effects of the material and environmental factors on the IASCC of austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> were investigated in order to understand the underlying mechanism. The following three types of materials were examined: a series of model alloys irradiated at normal water-cooled research reactors (JRR-3M and JMTR), the material irradiated at a spectrally tailored mixed-spectrum research reactor (ORR), and the material sampled from a duct tube of a fuel assembly used in the experimental LMFBR (JOYO). Post-irradiation stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking tests in a high-temperature water, electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> tests, etc., were performed at hot laboratories. Based on the results obtained, analyses were made on the effects of alloying/impurity elements, irradiation/testing temperatures and material processing, (i.e., post-irradiation annealing and cold working) on the cracking behavior. On the basis of the analyses, possible remedies against IASCC in the core internals were discussed from viewpoints of complex combined effects among materials, environment and processing factors. (author). 156 refs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46100682','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46100682"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation effect on <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and thermal loads during corium melt in-vessel retention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • The METCOR facility simulates vessel <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in contact with corium. • <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates in UO2+x–ZrO2–FeOy coria accelerate above 1050 K. • However <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates can also be limited by melt O2 supply. • The impact of this on in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy is discussed. - Abstract: During a severe accident with core meltdown, the in-vessel molten core retention is challenged by the vessel <span class="hlt">steel</span> ablation due to thermal and physicochemical interaction of melt with <span class="hlt">steel</span>. In accidents with oxidizing atmosphere above the melt surface, a low melting point UO2+x–ZrO2–FeOy corium pool can form. In this case ablation of the RPV <span class="hlt">steel</span> interacting with the molten corium is a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process. Experiments carried out within the International Scientific and Technology Center's (ISTC) METCOR Project have shown that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate can vary and depends on both surface temperature of the RPV <span class="hlt">steel</span> and oxygen potential of the melt. If the oxygen potential is low, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is controlled by the solid phase diffusion of Fe ions in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layer. At high oxygen potential and <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface layer temperature of 1050 °C and higher, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate intensifies because of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layer liquefaction and liquid phase diffusion of Fe ions. The paper analyzes conditions under which <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> intensification occurs and can impact on in-vessel melt retention (IVR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22394985','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22394985"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation effect on <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and thermal loads during corium melt in-vessel retention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Almjashev, V.I. [Alexandrov Scientific-Research Technology Institute (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Bechta, S.V. [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Gusarov, V.V. [SPb State Technology University (SPbGTU), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), St Paul lez Durance (France); Bottomley, P.D., E-mail: paul.bottomley@ec.europa.eu [EC-Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, M. [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Piluso, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Cadarache, St Paul lez Durance (France)</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Highlights: • The METCOR facility simulates vessel <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in contact with corium. • <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates in UO{sub 2+x}–ZrO{sub 2}–FeO{sub y} coria accelerate above 1050 K. • However <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates can also be limited by melt O{sub 2} supply. • The impact of this on in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy is discussed. - Abstract: During a severe accident with core meltdown, the in-vessel molten core retention is challenged by the vessel <span class="hlt">steel</span> ablation due to thermal and physicochemical interaction of melt with <span class="hlt">steel</span>. In accidents with oxidizing atmosphere above the melt surface, a low melting point UO{sub 2+x}–ZrO{sub 2}–FeO{sub y} corium pool can form. In this case ablation of the RPV <span class="hlt">steel</span> interacting with the molten corium is a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> process. Experiments carried out within the International Scientific and Technology Center's (ISTC) METCOR Project have shown that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate can vary and depends on both surface temperature of the RPV <span class="hlt">steel</span> and oxygen potential of the melt. If the oxygen potential is low, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is controlled by the solid phase diffusion of Fe ions in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layer. At high oxygen potential and <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface layer temperature of 1050 °C and higher, the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate intensifies because of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> layer liquefaction and liquid phase diffusion of Fe ions. The paper analyzes conditions under which <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> intensification occurs and can impact on in-vessel melt retention (IVR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41067273','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41067273"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">protection</span> of spent Al-clad research reactor fuel during extended wet storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A variety of spent research reactor fuel elements with different fuel meats, geometries and 235U enrichments are presently stored under water in basins throughout the world. More than 90% of these fuels are clad in aluminum (Al) or its alloy and are susceptible to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. This paper presents an overview of the influence of Al alloy composition, galvanic effects (Al alloy/stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>), crevice effects, water parameters and synergism between these parameters as well as settled solids on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of typical Al alloys used as fuel element cladding. Pitting is the main form of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and is affected by water conductivity, chloride ion content, formation of galvanic couples with rack supports and settled solid particles. The extent to which these parameters influence Al <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> varies. This paper also presents potential conversion coatings to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the spent fuel cladding. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20067955','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20067955"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> behavior of low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in high pH aqueous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this work was to study the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior and localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> susceptibility of low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in simulated ground water at a pH of 9.75 and a temperature of 95 C. These studies were conducted as part of a program to evaluate materials for long term nuclear waste storage. The test conditions used in the present study typify those of a basalt repository in the state of Washington, but selected aspects of the results are applicable to low carbon <span class="hlt">steels</span> in other environments of similar composition. Modeling studies of pit propagation in low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> showed that pit depth propagation increased with the presence of inert of nonreactive pit walls. It has not been determined that sufficient pit depth and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product accumulation would develop to produce this <span class="hlt">protective</span> effect assumed in the model. The present investigation applied conventional electrochemical techniques to study pitting susceptibility of low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, and procedures and results are discussed. Testing involved making cyclic anodic polarization measurements of the A 27 low carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens in Grande Rone No. 4 water at a temperature of 95 C. The pH was approximately 9.75. Some tests were made in Grande Ronde No. 4 water containing a mixture of 75 percent basalt and 25 percent bentonite. The basalt and bentonite mixture were to fill one half of the testing flask, but the bentonite expanded upon becoming wet and the mixture filled approximately two thirds of the volume of the flask. The solution and mixture were held at temperature for one hour prior to inserting the specimen and beginning the test</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13695207','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13695207"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue behaviour of turbineblade <span class="hlt">steels</span> in the region of initial steam condensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The fact that a large proportion of the total number of turbine failures is due to blade damage, particularly in the region of initial steam condensation, led to comprehensive investigations of the behaviour of 12/13% chromium <span class="hlt">steels</span>. 17% Cr-4% Ni <span class="hlt">steel</span>, duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> and titanium alloys with regard to pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue strength of these materials after a specific number of cycles in media representative of operating conditions is dependent principially on whether or not pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and/or hydrogen-induced crack propagation along cleavage planes occur during dynamic loading in the relevant environment. With optimisation of heat treatment, duplex stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> free from copper, 17% Cr-4% Ni <span class="hlt">steel</span> and the titanium alloy, TiAl6V4 offer better <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> fatigue behaviour than the 12/13% chromium <span class="hlt">steels</span>, performance improving in the order as listed. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/7/12/7722','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/7/12/7722"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Study on the Electrochemical Anti-<span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Properties of <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Structures Applying the Arc Thermal Metal Spraying Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Hong-Bok Choe</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The arc thermal metal spraying method (ATMSM provides proven long-term <span class="hlt">protective</span> coating systems using zinc, aluminum and their alloys for <span class="hlt">steel</span> work in a marine environment. This paper focuses on studying experimentally the anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> criteria of ATMSM on <span class="hlt">steel</span> specimens. The effects of the types of spraying metal and the presence or absence of sealing treatment from the thermal spraying of film on the anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance of TMSM were quantitatively evaluated by electrochemical techniques. The results showed that ATMSM represented a sufficient <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance with the driving force based on the potential difference of more than approximately 0.60 V between the thermal spraying layer and the base substrate <span class="hlt">steel</span>. Furthermore, it was found that the sealing treatment of specimens had suppressed the dissolution of metals, increased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential, decreased the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density and increased the polarization resistance. Metal alloy Al–Mg (95%:5% by mass with epoxy sealing coating led to the most successful anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> performance in these electrochemical experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/931115/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/931115/"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of External <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> for <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Cylinders--2007 Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) is stored in over 62,000 containment cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. Over 4,800 of the cylinders at Portsmouth were recently moved there from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The cylinders range in age up to 56 years and come in various models, but most are 48-inch diameter 'thin-wall'(312.5 mil) and 'thick-wall' (625 mil) cylinders and 30-inch diameter '30A' (including '30B') cylinders with 1/2-inch (500 mil) walls. Most of the cylinders are carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span>, and they are subject to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) manages the cylinders to maintain them and the DUF{sub 6} they contain. Cylinder management requirements are specified in the System Requirements Document (LMES 1997a), and the activities to fulfill them are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (LMES 1997b). This report documents activities that address DUF{sub 6} cylinder management requirements involving measuring and forecasting cylinder wall thicknesses. As part of these activities, ultrasonic thickness (UT) measurements are made on samples of cylinders. For each sampled cylinder, multiple measurements are made in an attempt to find, approximately, the minimum wall thickness. Some cylinders have a skirt, which is an extension of the cylinder wall to <span class="hlt">protect</span> the head (end) and valve. The head/skirt interface crevice is thought to be particularly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, and for some skirted cylinders, in addition to the main body UT measurements, a separate suite of measurements is also made at the head/skirt interface. The main-body and head/skirt minimum thickness data are used to fit models relating minimum thickness to cylinder age, nominal thicknesses, and cylinder functional groups defined in terms of plant site, storage yard, top or bottom row storage positions, etc. These models are then used to compute projections of numbers of cylinders expected to fail various minimum wall thickness criteria. The minimum wall thickness criteria are as follows. For thin-wall cylinders: 0 (breach), 62.5, and 250 mils. For thick-wall cylinders: 0, 62.5, and 500 mils. For 30A cylinders: 0, 62.5, and 100 mils. Each of these criteria triplets are based respectively on (1) loss of DUF{sub 6} (breaching), (2) safe handling and stacking operations, and (3) ANSI N14.1 standards for off-site transport and contents transfer. This report complements and extends previous editions of the cylinder <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> report by Lyon (1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000), by Schmoyer and Lyon (2001, 2002, 2003), and by Schmoyer (2004). These reports are based on UT data collected in FY03 and before. In this report UT data collected after FY03 but before FY07 is combined with the earlier data, and all of the UT data is inventoried chronologically and by the various functional groups. The UT data is then used to fit models of maximum pit depth and minimum wall thickness, statistical outliers are investigated, and the fitted models are used to extrapolate minimum thickness estimates into the future and in turn to compute projections of numbers of cylinders expected to fail various thickness criteria. A model evaluation is performed comparing UT measurements made after FY05 with model-fitted projections based only on data collected in FY05 and before. As in previous reports, the projections depend on the treatment of outliers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jese-online.org/Articles/Vol_04/No_2/pdf/jESE_Vol4_No2_p67-74_2014.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.jese-online.org/Articles/Vol_04/No_2/pdf/jESE_Vol4_No2_p67-74_2014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface to inhibit <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20945959','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20945959"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid by pyrrolidine derivatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Bouklah, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux et Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco)]. E-mail: hammoutib@yahoo.fr; Ouassini, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco); Hammouti, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux et Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco); Idrissi, A. El [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco)</p> <p>2006-01-15</p> <p>Novel <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors, namely 1-{l_brace}2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]ethyl{r_brace}pyrrolidin-2-one (P5) and {l_brace}[2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl]thio{r_brace}acetic acid (P4), were synthesised and tested as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The effects of P4 and P5 are also compared to their initial reactants 1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one (P1), 2-mercaptoethanol (P2) and mercaptoacetic acid (P3). The study was carried out by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation, linear polarisation resistance (R {sub p}) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of P5 to attain 89% at 5 x 10{sup -3} M. We note good agreement between the various methods explored. Polarisation measurements show also that the pyrrolidones act essentially as cathodic inhibitors. The cathodic curves indicate that the reduction of proton at the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface is an activating mechanism. P4 and P5 adsorb on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface according to Langmuir adsorption model. Effect of temperature is also studied in the 298-353 K range. Efficiency is explained by the theoretical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38099084','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38099084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid by pyrrolidine derivatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Novel <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors, namely 1-{2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]ethyl}pyrrolidin-2-one (P5) and {[2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl]thio}acetic acid (P4), were synthesised and tested as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitors for <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4. The effects of P4 and P5 are also compared to their initial reactants 1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one (P1), 2-mercaptoethanol (P2) and mercaptoacetic acid (P3). The study was carried out by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation, linear polarisation resistance (R p) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of P5 to attain 89% at 5 x 10-3 M. We note good agreement between the various methods explored. Polarisation measurements show also that the pyrrolidones act essentially as cathodic inhibitors. The cathodic curves indicate that the reduction of proton at the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface is an activating mechanism. P4 and P5 adsorb on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface according to Langmuir adsorption model. Effect of temperature is also studied in the 298-353 K range. Efficiency is explained by the theoretical studies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752371','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752371"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> electrode, form a coat of <span class="hlt">protective</span> film and then <span class="hlt">protect</span> the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> from <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the test solution. PMID:23752371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24025953','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24025953"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of spectrally tailored neutron irradiated stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effect of neutron irradiation on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of a type 316 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> irradiated at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) under the spectrally tailored condition was studied by applying electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (hereafter, FPR) test and potentiostatic electrolytic (hereafter, PSE) test were carried out on the materials irradiated at 60degC, 220degC, 330degC and 400degC up to 8 dpa. As the results of tests; (1) Only the specimen irradiated at 400degC showed a reactivation behavior by ERP test. But the reactivation current was caused by pitting-like <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of grain face etching and no grain boundary etching was observed. This behavior implies the radiation induced segregation of alloying elements in the matrix. (2) Grain boundary <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was observed clearly after PSE tests performed at trans-passive region. It was inferred that impurity elements such as P, Si were responsible for the grain boundary <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. (3) Results were compared with those from the material irradiated up to 40 dpa in the experimental FBR 'JOYO'. No remarkable distinction considered as a neutron spectrum effect was observed on the surfaces after electrochemical tests. (4) Results of EPR tests showed a similar tendency with a temperature dependence of SCC susceptibilities in pure water of the same irradiated materials. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46128268','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46128268"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulsed laser deposition of alumina coating for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> against liquid uranium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Alumina coatings find wide applications as tribological coatings and as <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings for structural materials against chemical attack. We have investigated alumina coatings deposited on Stainless <span class="hlt">Steel</span> (SS) substrates via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Characterization tests performed on these coatings including their compatibility with liquid uranium suggests alumina to be a potential candidate as a coating material for handling and containment of liquid uranium. We present here results of our detailed parametric study including dependence of average mass removal rate on laser fluence and ablation geometry and average deposition efficiency during PLD. These measurements provide vital inputs facilitating proper choice of process parameters for PLD runs. Deposited coatings have been characterized in terms of their microstructure, surface profile, adhesion to substrate, crystalline phase and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance against liquid uranium. Our PLD based alumina coatings have shown a high degree of compaction and excellent <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance to molten uranium even upto a temperature of 1165 °C. - Highlights: • Alumina films deposited on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. • PLD alumina films investigated as potential <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protective</span> coatings. • Deposited coatings have been characterized in terms of their microstructure and crystalline phase. • <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> resistance of coatings against liquid uranium was tested. • Results suggest PLD alumina films have a promising potential for containment of molten uranium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42080913','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42080913"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrodeposition of polypyrrole on 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research highlights: ? PPy films were electrodeposited on 316L SS in solutions containing MoO42- and/or NO3-. ? The coatings completely inhibit pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in chloride solutions. ? At pH 12, the PPy is electroactive and the oxide film is more stable. ? The more <span class="hlt">protective</span> films were obtained in presence of MoO42- and NO3- at pH 12. - Abstract: The electrosynthesis of polypyrrole films onto 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> from near neutral and alkaline solutions containing molybdate and nitrate is reported. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of the coated electrodes was investigated in NaCl solutions by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The polymer formed potentiostatically in a solution of pH 12 is the most efficient in terms of adhesion and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. The coating significantly reduces the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the substrate. The results are interpreted in terms of the nature of dopants, the good electroactivity of the polymer formed in alkaline solution and the passivating properties of the oxide layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21489726','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21489726"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrodeposition of polypyrrole on 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> for <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, M.B. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B., E-mail: ssaidman@criba.edu.a [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>Research highlights: {yields} PPy films were electrodeposited on 316L SS in solutions containing MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and/or NO{sub 3}{sup -}. {yields} The coatings completely inhibit pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in chloride solutions. {yields} At pH 12, the PPy is electroactive and the oxide film is more stable. {yields} The more <span class="hlt">protective</span> films were obtained in presence of MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} at pH 12. - Abstract: The electrosynthesis of polypyrrole films onto 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> from near neutral and alkaline solutions containing molybdate and nitrate is reported. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of the coated electrodes was investigated in NaCl solutions by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The polymer formed potentiostatically in a solution of pH 12 is the most efficient in terms of adhesion and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span>. The coating significantly reduces the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the substrate. The results are interpreted in terms of the nature of dopants, the good electroactivity of the polymer formed in alkaline solution and the passivating properties of the oxide layer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36014294','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36014294"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of flow rate, sand concentration and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current density of synergism in erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, the slurry-erosion behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> was investigated. The synergism due to the interaction of erosion and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was further divided into the erosion enhanced by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> promoted by erosion and effort was made to experimentally measure <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-enhanced erosion component. The results indicated that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate is promoted with increasing flow rate and the sand concentration. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-enhanced erosion is caused by the degradation of the mechanical erosion resistance and the non-uniform dissolution of surface. The mechanism of the erosion-enhanced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was discussed in line with the changes in material properties during the erosion-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> processes. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMMM..22..604G','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMMM..22..604G"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of microstructure variation on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of high-strength low-alloy <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 3.5wt% NaCl solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Guo, Yu-bing; Li, Chong; Liu, Yong-chang; Yu, Li-ming; Ma, Zong-qing; Liu, Chen-xi; Li, Hui-jun</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The effect of microstructure variation on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) <span class="hlt">steel</span> was investigated. The <span class="hlt">protective</span> property of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product layer was also explored. Experimental results reveal that the type of microstructure has significant effect on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of HSLA <span class="hlt">steel</span>. The measurement results of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that the <span class="hlt">steel</span> with acicular ferrite microstructure exhibits the lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate. Martensite exhibits a reduced <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance compared with polygonal ferrite. It is found that the surface of the acicular ferrite specimen uniformly covered by <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products is seemingly denser and more compact than those of the other two microstructures, and can provide some amount of <span class="hlt">protection</span> to the <span class="hlt">steel</span>; thus, the charge transfer resistance and modulus values of the acicular ferrite specimen are the largest. However, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products on martensite and polygonal ferrite are generally loose, porous, and defective, and can provide minor <span class="hlt">protectiveness</span>; thus, the charge transfer resistance values for polygonal ferrite and martensite are lower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/jas/2015/1083-1092.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/jas/2015/1083-1092.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and Analyses of Rhizophora mangle L. Leaf-Extract <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Mechanism on Reinforcing <span class="hlt">Steel</span> in Concrete Immersed in Industrial/Microbial Simulating-Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Test-data from electrochemical monitoring methods were obtained from Rhizophora mangle L. leaf-extract admixed <span class="hlt">steel</span>-reinforced concretes for detailing mechanism of the extract on <span class="hlt">steel</span>-rebar <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in 0.5 M H2SO4 (simulating industrial/microbial environment. These electrochemical test-measurements, including <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate, were subjected to the analyses of probability distributions as per ASTM G16-95 R05 through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test-statistics. Results showed that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate exhibited correlations with function of the natural plant-extract concentration and compact series of the inverse electrochemical noise resistance; the ratio of standard deviations of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current. Both the experimental and the correlated-prediction model identified Rhizophora mangle L. leaf-extract admixture concentrations that exhibited inhibition efficiency performance of ?>70% on <span class="hlt">steel</span>-rebar <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in the acidic test-medium. The adsorption isotherm modelling of the experimental and the predicted electrochemical test-results exhibited good agreements by following the Langmuir and Flory-Huggins isotherm fittings. In addition, the study identified physisorption as the prevalent <span class="hlt">corrosion-protection</span> mechanism of the <span class="hlt">steel</span>-rebar by the plant extract through both of the experimental and the correlated-prediction models of adsorption isotherm analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17015938','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17015938"><span id="translatedtitle">Current and potential transients during localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The currents flowing from a localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> site (LCS) on passive stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in air-saturated 0.25M NaCl have been studied using a vibrating probe electrode. The potential behavior during applied current was analyzed by assigning equivalent circuits to the passive surface and the localized site so that the paths of the current across the passive surface and the LCS could be calculated and compared with the measured values. The equivalent circuit of the passive surface without active localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was determined from potential transients and was found to be dependent on the prior history of the electrode. The LCS was equated to a resistance with an EMF which were calculated from the LSC current and specimen potential. The variations of this resistance were attributable to changes in solution resistance adjacent to the LCS. It was found that the capacitance of the passive surface played a major role during potential transients and the initiation of pitting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12634463','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12634463"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiochemical investigation of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> OL-32</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An isotope dilution method has been used to study the kinetics of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of OL-32 carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> under the influence of hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) in the presence of various mixtures of water with organic solvents. The effect of the reagent (water/organic solvent) on the velocity constant has been studied. In a given system this constant increases with increasing water concentration. This leads to the conclusion that the organic solvent has an inhibiting effect on the <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> action of hydrochloric acid. sup(55+59)Fe was used as a radioactive tracer (10-3 M FeCl3 with 2 . 10-6 Ci/ml). (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JTST...22.1242C','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JTST...22.1242C"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistance to <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis in Nitrided <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Cubillos, G. I.; Olaya, J. J.; Bethencourt, M.; Cifredo, G.; Blanco, G.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Coatings of zirconium oxide were deposited onto three types of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, AISI 316L, 2205, and tool <span class="hlt">steel</span> AISI D2, using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effect of the flux ratio on the process and its influence on the structure and morphology of the coatings were investigated. The coatings obtained, 600 nm thick, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The resistance to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the coatings deposited over <span class="hlt">steel</span> (not nitrided) and stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> nitrided (for 2 h at 823 K) in an ammonia atmosphere was evaluated. The zirconia coating enhances the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>'s resistance to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, with the greatest increase in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance being observed for tool <span class="hlt">steel</span>. When the deposition is performed on previously nitrided stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, the morphology of the surface improves and the coating is more homogeneous, which leads to an improved <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...282..248P','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...282..248P"><span id="translatedtitle">Graphene grown on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> as a high-performance and ecofriendly anti-<span class="hlt">corrosion</span> coating for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Pu, Nen-Wen; Shi, Gia-Nan; Liu, Yih-Ming; Sun, Xueliang; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Sun, Chia-Liang; Ger, Ming-Der; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Po-Chiang; Peng, You-Yu; Wu, Chia-Hung; Lawes, Stephen</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In this study, the growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on SUS304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> and on a catalyzing Ni/SUS304 double-layered structure was investigated. The results indicated that a thin and multilayered graphene film can be continuously grown across the metal grain boundaries of the Ni/SUS304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> and significantly enhance its <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. A 3.5 wt% saline polarization test demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> currents in graphene-covered SUS304 were improved fivefold relative to the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> currents in non-graphene-covered SUS304. In addition to enhancing the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>, a graphene coating also ameliorates another shortcoming of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in a <span class="hlt">corrosive</span> environment: the formation of a passive oxidation layer on the stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface that decreases conductivity. After a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test, the graphene-covered stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> continued to exhibit not only an excellent low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of 36 m? cm2 but also outstanding drainage characteristics. The above results suggest that an extremely thin, lightweight <span class="hlt">protective</span> coating of graphene on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> can act as the next-generation bipolar plates of fuel cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-22/pdf/2012-6942.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-22/pdf/2012-6942.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 16810 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-22</p> <p>...International Trade Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea...Register the countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE) from...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-30/pdf/2012-10350.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-30/pdf/2012-10350.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 25405 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-30</p> <p>...International Trade Administration [A-580-816] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from the Republic of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-09/pdf/2010-8148.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-09/pdf/2010-8148.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 18153 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-09</p> <p>...International Trade Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products from the Republic of Korea...Register the countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE) from Korea. See...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-14/pdf/2011-9111.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-14/pdf/2011-9111.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 20954 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-14</p> <p>...International Trade Administration [C-580-818] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea...Register the countervailing duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products (CORE) from Korea. See...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-10/pdf/2010-11018.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-10/pdf/2010-11018.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 25841 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-05-10</p> <p>...International Trade Administration [A-580-816] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from the Republic of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-15/pdf/2011-9231.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-15/pdf/2011-9231.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 21332 - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>...International Trade Administration [A-580-816] <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span>-Resistant Carbon <span class="hlt">Steel</span> Flat Products From the Republic of Korea...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> flat products from the Republic of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21412393','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21412393"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical behavior of corroded and <span class="hlt">protected</span> construction <span class="hlt">steel</span> in cement extract</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Koleva, D.A. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Section Materials and Environment, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft (Netherlands)</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of corroded, cathodically <span class="hlt">protected</span> and control (reference) construction <span class="hlt">steel</span>, previously embedded in concrete, was studied in cement extract (pH 12.6, considered as concrete pore water), using cyclic voltammetry (CVA) and potentiodynamic polarization (PDP). The necessity for this investigation occurred from the previously observed and commented discrepancies in the recorded <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> parameters for corroded and <span class="hlt">protected</span> <span class="hlt">steel</span> in embedded conditions 1. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate how the ''naturally'' formed in concrete product layers (after 460 days) will influence the electrochemical behavior of the <span class="hlt">steel</span> in cement extract. The PDP measurements reveal the lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance to be for the previously corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples, for which the most active <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential (-0.7 V SCE) and the highest anodic current in the potential region 0 to 0.6 V (SCE) were recorded. The CVA tests support the results from PDP and correlate the properties of the naturally formed layers with the recorded peak current densities and peak potentials with cycling. For all specimens, except the corroded ones, the peak potential initially shifts anodically, which denotes for a high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in the former and low <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance in the latter case. For the control and <span class="hlt">protected</span> specimens, the passive current in the potential region of 0 to 0.6 V (SCE) remains almost unchanged with cycling, i.e. the <span class="hlt">protective</span> properties of the initial layers remain unchanged. Thickening of the film with cycling does not influence the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of the previously formed layers. For the <span class="hlt">protected</span> specimens, however, a tendency to reach a steady state and change of peak currents' height only were observed, without a pronounced shift to more anodic values. An increase in the peak current only, not accompanied by anodic shift of the peak potential, suggests that the layers in the cathodically <span class="hlt">protected</span> specimens are more homogeneous and compact. Overall it can be stated that in cement extract, the product layer with lowest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance is the one on the surface of the corroded <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforcement. The product layers in the <span class="hlt">protected</span> specimens (although similar to control conditions) are with the highest <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43089125','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43089125"><span id="translatedtitle">Crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in natural sea water with different post welding treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of stainless <span class="hlt">steels</span> in naturual seawater was investigated for several post weld treatments: as-annealed, as-welded, pickled, and ground. The results confirmed the effect of the biofilm on the cathodic reaction leading to an ennoblement of the rest potential. The degree of ennoblement of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential depends on the surface finish. As-annealed and pickled samples show stable <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential approaching to 200 ? 300 mV (SCE) while as-welded and ground samples show the fluctuating <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. This points to a situation where there are conflicting effects determining the trend in free <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. Crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> initiation will tend to pull the free <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential in the active direction, whereas the presence of biofilm will tend to ennoble <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> potential. There was no visible attack on UNS S31803, S32550, and 2205W. Therefore, those stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> grades appeared to be resistant to crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in natural seawater on condition of weld metal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46084308','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46084308"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of acoustic signal emitted during <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this work, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> was evaluated by using acoustic emission(AE) technique. AE measurement system was set for detecting acoustic signal during accelerated <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> test of the specimen. AE signal started to be detected after the time of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> initiation was evaluated by anodic polarization curve. Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage was confirmed by optical microscopic observation of the surface morphology. AE cumulative counts and amplitude according to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> time could be divided into three stages. These trends were discussed in relation with changing pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism. Feasibilities of AE technique for evaluation of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> damage and mechanism were suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21334385','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21334385"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking susceptibility of stainless and duplex <span class="hlt">steels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Costa, S.; Dias, C.; Pimenta, G. [Materials Laboratory, ISQ, Taguspark, Porto Salvo (Portugal); Costa, S.; Fonseca, I. [Centre for Molecular Sciences and Materials, FCUL, Lisboa (Portugal)</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Full text of publication follows: A comparative study of the influence of chloride concentration, temperature and metal crevice formation on SCC susceptibility of DIN 1.4404, 14410, 14410-CW, 1.4318 and 1.4462 <span class="hlt">steels</span> has been performed. Single U-bend and double U-bend coupons were exposed to aqueous NaCl and MgCl{sub 2} solutions for 10 days, or until fracture, if sooner, at different temperatures. After exposure, samples were visually and dye penetrant inspected for crack or pitting determination. Results allowed producing <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> maps accounting for the influence of [Cl{sup -}], T and crevice formation on the SCC susceptibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42008136','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42008136"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> under Hydrodynamic Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-trizole-3-thiol (APTT) in 2.5 M H2SO4 solution and the effect of hydrodynamic condition on inhibition process were studied. The hydrodynamic condition experiments are simulated by rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). Change of open circuit potential (OCP) with immersion time and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the inhibition process. Results obtained from changes of open circuit potential (OCP) with immersion time, and potentiodynamic polarization are in good agreement and indicated that the inhibition process was flow velocity dependence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46003203','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46003203"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> inhibition behavior of propyl phosphonic acid–Zn2+ system for carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in aqueous solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effectiveness of propyl phosphonic acid (PPA) as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor in association with a bivalent cation like Zn2+ has been studied. An eco-friendly inhibitor in controlling <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in neutral aqueous medium in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by gravimetric method. Impedance studies of the metal/solution interface indicated that the surface film is highly <span class="hlt">protective</span> against the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the aqueous environment. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed that the inhibitor is a mixed inhibitor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (XPS) of the <span class="hlt">protective</span> film exhibited the presence of the elements viz., iron, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon and zinc. The chemical shifts in the binding energies of these elements inferred that the surface film is composed of oxides/hydroxides of iron(III), Zn(OH)2 and [Fe(II)/(III)–Zn(II)–PPA] complex. Further, the surface analysis techniques viz., FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirm the formation of an adsorbed <span class="hlt">protective</span> film on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. Based on all these results, a plausible mechanism of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26605686','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26605686"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> scale formed on stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To reveal <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> scale and corroded passive film. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> passive film is damaged by localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> scale and the process of localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals. PMID:26605686</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41009008','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41009008"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative study of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sulphuric acid by 4,4-dimethyloxazolidine-2-thione</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> <span class="hlt">protection</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in a 2.5 M H2SO4 solution by 4,4-dimethyloxazolidine-2-thione (DMT) was studied at different temperatures by measuring changes in open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> current densities calculated from EIS data were comparable to those obtained from polarisation measurements. Results showed that DMT inhibited mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in a 2.5 M H2SO4 solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiencies increased with the concentration of inhibitor, but decreased proportionally with temperature. Polarisation curves showed that DMT is a mixed-type inhibitor. Changes in impedance parameters suggested the adsorption of DMT on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface, leading to the formation of <span class="hlt">protective</span> films. The DMT adsorption on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for dissolution and adsorption were investigated. Comprehensive adsorption (physisorption and chemisorption) of the inhibitor molecules on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface was suggested based on the thermodynamic adsorption parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31014078','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31014078"><span id="translatedtitle">Pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of an advanced chromium-based stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Alloy 33 is a (wt. %) 33 Cr-32Fe-31Ni-1.6Mo-0.6CU-0.4N austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> combining high yield strength of min. 380 N/mm2 (55 KSI) with high resistance to local <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and superior resistance to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking. Ranking the material according to its PRE (pitting resistance equivalent) value, the new alloy fits in between the advanced 6% Mo superaustenitics and the nickel-base Alloy 625 but due to the balanced chemical composition the alloy shows a lot less sensitivity to segregation in the base material as well as in welded structures. It is recommended to weld the material with matching filler. The critical pitting temperature of such joints in the 10% FeCl3· 6H2O solution is reduced by only 10 C in comparison to the base material. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> tests in artificial seawater (20 g/l Cl-) with additions of chloride up to 37 g/l as well as in a NaCl-CaCl2, solution with 62 g/l Cl---revealed that the critical pitting temperature does not differentiate from the 6% Mo austenitic <span class="hlt">steel</span> Alloy 926. With respect to crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> the depassivation pH value has been determined in 1 M NaCl solution according to Crolet and again there was no difference between Alloy 33 and Alloy 926. SCC tests performed on Alloy 33 in the solution annealed condition as well as after heavy cold work up to RPO,2 ? 1,100--1,200 N/mm2 (160--174 KSI) indicate the high resistance to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking in hot sodium chloride solutions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('www.electrochemsci.org/papers/1020092.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="www.electrochemsci.org/papers/1020092.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The inhibition of <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in hydrochloric acid solution by juice of Prunus cerasus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>H. Ashassi-Sorkhabi, D. Seifzadeh</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Prunus cerasus juice inhibition effects on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in hydrochloric acid (HCl solution were investigated using polarization and electrochemical impendence techniques. The results revealed that Prunus cerasus juice acts as a <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibitor in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition is attributed to adsorption of the inhibitor on the <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7791563','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7791563"><span id="translatedtitle">[New high-strength <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steel</span> for medical instruments].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Grachev, S V; Mal'tseva, L A; Shcherbakov, V D</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>New high-strength <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steel</span> based on ageing martensite, metastable and stable austenite intended for the production of medical instruments for different purposes are considered. There are data on changing mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">steel</span> and their dependence on thermoplastic treatment condition. PMID:7791563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31040756','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31040756"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of High Chromium Ferritic/Martensitic <span class="hlt">Steels</span> in High Temperature Water. a Literature Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Available literature concerning <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of high-chromium ferritic/martensitic <span class="hlt">steels</span> in high temperature water has been reviewed. The subjects considered are general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, effect of irradiation on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (SCC) and irradiation-assisted stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking (IASCC). In addition some investigations about radiation induced segregation (RIS) are shown in order to know the compositional changes at grain boundaries of these alloys and their influence on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> properties. The data on general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> indicate moderate <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates in high temperature water up to 350 degree centigrade. Considerably larger <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates were observed under neutron irradiation. The works concerning to the behaviour of these alloys to stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking seem to conclude that in these materials is necessary to optimize the temper temperature and to carry out the post-weld heat treatments properly in order to avoid stress <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> cracking. (Author) 40 refs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20083535','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20083535"><span id="translatedtitle">Austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> combining strength and resistance to intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An austenitic stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> is described having a 0.2% yield strength of at least 100 ksi (689 N/mm2), a magnetic permeability not greater than 1,004 at 500 oersteds, intergranular <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of at least 24 hours measured by ASTM A-262 Practice E and a grain size number of ASTM 6 or finer. The <span class="hlt">steel</span> consists essentially of, in weight percent, from greater than 0.05% to about 0.10% carbon, greater than 14% to about 18% manganese, about 15% to about 20% chromium, about 1% to about 3.5% nickel, about 0.3% to about 0.55% nitrogen, about 0.1% to about 0.5% vanadium, about 1% maximum copper, about 1% maximum molybdenum, about 1% maximum silicon, about 0.04% maximum phosphorus, about 0.03% maximum sulfur and balance essentially iron</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000200002&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000200002&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Benzothiazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>K., Parameswari; S., Chitra; A., Selvaraj; S., Brindha; M., Menaga.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The influence of benzothiazole derivatives on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M H2SO4 was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and AC-impedance techniques. The synergistic effect by the addition of halide ions had been studied. The experimental results showed that the inhibit [...] ion efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreases with increasing temperature; potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that benzothiazole derivatives acted as cathodic inhibitors in 1 M H2SO4. This was supported by the impedance measurements which showed a change in the charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance, indicating adsorption of Benzothiazole derivatives on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. Atomic absorption spectroscopy studies showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000200002','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0872-19042012000200002"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of Benzothiazole Derivatives as <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors for Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>K. Parameswari</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The influence of benzothiazole derivatives on <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in 1 M H2SO4 was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and AC-impedance techniques. The synergistic effect by the addition of halide ions had been studied. The experimental results showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreases with increasing temperature; potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that benzothiazole derivatives acted as cathodic inhibitors in 1 M H2SO4. This was supported by the impedance measurements which showed a change in the charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance, indicating adsorption of Benzothiazole derivatives on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surface. Atomic absorption spectroscopy studies showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19026767','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19026767"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of AISI 304 stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in polluted seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The sequence of microbiofouling settlement on AISI 304 stain <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples exposed to polluted harbor sea water of a power cooling water intake is studied. The firts sates of bacterial colonization are followed by means of scanning electron microscopy during two weeks of exposure. The relation between microbiofouling and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is also followed by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated through electrochemical polarization experiments. The results obtained show that microbial colonization and extracellular polimeric substances forming the biofilms have a marked influence on the electrochemical behaviour of stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> in sea water. Laboratory experiments using inorganic chloride solutions or artificial sea water show a considerably lesser attack of the metal than those performed 'in situ' with natural sea water. Passivity breadown is highly facilitated when complex biological and inorganic deposits (fouling) have settled on the metal surface. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42036411','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42036411"><span id="translatedtitle">Localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in high-pH seawater-type groundwater environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It has been known that carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> can be passivated in high pH environment and sometimes be attacked by localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> such as pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. If carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> overpack is attacked by localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>, it is possible that the overpack may be penetrated in a short term, since the propagation rate of localized <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is larger than that of general <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in general. It has been known that the pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> are initiated in the presence of aggressive species for passive film represented by chloride ion. In repository environment, it is possible that the pH in groundwater containing chloride ion such as seawater type groundwater is raised by a contact with the cement material in concrete structures constructed around the engineered barrier system and then pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> or crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> is caused on the carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> overpacks. In this study, the propagation behavior of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was examined by immersion tests under air equilibrium condition using artificial groundwater at Horonobe as an example of seawater-type groundwater. As the results, the pitting factor (ratio of the maximum <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth and average <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth) were within the literature data obtained in neutral and alkaline water and in various natural water environments. The maximum <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depth of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> overpack was predicted by extreme value statistical analysis of the experimental data, and it was confirmed that the predicted <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> depths were not over the values calculated from current empirical models for propagation of pitting <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> and crevice <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> in every cases. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMSA...14..105P','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMSA...14..105P"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> in marine and rural environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Palraj, S.; Selvaraj, M.; Maruthan, K.; Natesan, M.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In continuation of the extensive studies carried out to update the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> map of India, in this study, the degradation of mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> by air pollutants was studied at 16 different locations from Nagore to Ammanichatram along the east coast of Tamilnadu, India over a period of two years. The weight loss study showed that the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> was more at Nagapattinam site, when compared to Ammanichatram and Maravakadu sites. A linear regression analysis of the experimental data was attempted to predict the mechanism of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. The composition of the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces was identified by XRD technique. The <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate values obtained are discussed in the light of the weathering parameters, atmospheric pollutants such as salt content & SO2 levels in the atmosphere, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> products formed on the mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-14392014000600035&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-14392014000600035&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of the AISI1020 <span class="hlt">steel</span> buried near electrical power transmission line towers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Anderson de Oliveira, Fraga; Marcos Antonio, Klunk; Adriano Agnoletto de, Oliveira; Gilnei Gonçalves, Furtado; Gerhard, Knörnschild; Luís Frederico Pinheiro, Dick.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Soil <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> samples buried up to hundred days close to a high voltage power transmission line tower was examined by weight loss vs. time. A higher weight loss was observed if the samples were electrically connected to the tower than if they were not. This was attributed to the inf [...] luence of alternating current (AC) signals induced in the soil by the transmission line. This field study showed for the first time the influence of the AC power line on the buried structure of the tower, while other studies so far were focused only on AC <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of cathodically <span class="hlt">protected</span> coated pipelines, running parallel to the transmission line. An improved method was used to measure weight loss by descaling in Clark solution. The new method substitutes discontinuous measurements, proposed in the ASTM-G1-90 standard, by in situ measurements of the weight loss during descaling, using a computer controlled microbalance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0248639','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0248639"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the surface finishing on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behaviour of AISI 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Dundeková, S.; Zatkalíková, V.; Fintová, Stanislava; Hadzima, B.; Škorík, Viktor</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 22, ?. 1 (2015), s. 48-53. ISSN 1335-0803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : AISI 316L stainless <span class="hlt">steel</span> * <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> * Immersion test * <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> rate Subject RIV: JK - <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/166/251</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AtmEn..27.1959M','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AtmEn..27.1959M"><span id="translatedtitle">An extremely low <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate of <span class="hlt">steel</span> in the atmosphere of Cuzco (Peru)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Morcillo, Manuel; Flores, Santiago; Salas, Guillermo; Valencia, Marcos</p> <p></p> <p>Studies of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> performed in the Peruvian city of Cuzco as part of the Ibero-American Map of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Corrosiveness</span> (MICAT) project provided extremely low <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> values, the lowest ever reported in the literature. In this paper the authors show this peculiar behaviour and comment on its plausible causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35102626','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35102626"><span id="translatedtitle">A study on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> characteristics of gear <span class="hlt">steel</span> by shot peening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The surface treatment technique to increase <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance is very important in mechanical components of structures. Therefore, this paper investigates the effects of shot peening on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance of SCM 420<span class="hlt">steel</span>. The results show that the surface compressive residual stress largely increases, which cause the increase of <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> resistance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35095732','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35095732"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio in dummy <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product on the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> behavior of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It has been reported that the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> is accelerated by a contact with magnetite, which is a representative <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product in low oxygen environment. It is important to clarify the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism in the presence of magnetite for long term prediction of overpack <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. There are two possible cathodic reactions in the presence of magnetite coupled with anodic reaction . One is reduction of Fe(III) in magnetite, and the other is hydrogen evolution reaction. If the former dominate the cathodic reaction, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> acceleration will be stopped with the consumption of Fe(III). However, if the latter is the main cathodic reaction, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> acceleration is possible to be continued for a long time. In this study, <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rate and hydrogen evolution behavior were investigated by immersion test of carbon <span class="hlt">steel</span> in contact with dummy <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product to contribute to understanding the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> mechanism. The result of the test with changing the Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product indicated that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> rates increased with increase in Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio, and rapid acceleration was observed when Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio over stoichiometrical value of magnetite (=2). The hydrogen evolution rate in the presence of dummy <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product was several times larger than that without it, but it was not increased with increase in Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio. According to this result, the severe <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> acceleration occurs when the <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> product contains excessive Fe(III), and the main cathodic reaction is Fe(III) reduction. Therefore, the severe <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> by magnetite will be stopped by the consumption of Fe(III). (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:6209131','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:6209131"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> and <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition of <span class="hlt">steels</span> and refractory materials in heavy liquid metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Croloy and refractory metals and materials by liquid Pb--55.5 wt percent Bi alloy was studied. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Fe- and Ni-free <span class="hlt">steels</span> was found to depend on dissolution of Fe, and the rate controlling step in rotating disk studies was found to be diffusion through the liquid boundary layer. In loop studies, the situation is more complex because the dissolution rate may depend on the rate at which materials can come out of solution either in the form of oxide or as elemental iron deposited in the colder portions of the circulating systems. In any case, the rate at which iron dissolves in the hot portions is very rapid. Small additions (approximately 10 to 200 ?g/g) of Zr to Pb--Bi and Ce to Pb appear to inhibit <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> remarkably and carbon and low chrome--molybdenum <span class="hlt">steels</span> are suitable for containing circulating systems. Niobium is corroded slightly in Pb--Bi but not in Pb. Ta and Mo are unattacked by all the heavy liquid metals. Graphite and SiC have pores which are penetrated by the liquid metals with bonding material like Si being leached out. (U.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-40422013000200004','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-40422013000200004"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Abel Castañeda</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> levels with respect to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current are related to changes in chloride penetration and chloride atmospheric deposition. The influence of sulphur compound deposition could also be a parameter to consider in atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforced concrete.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-40422013000200004&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-40422013000200004&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Abel, Castañeda; Juan José, Howland; Francisco, Corvo; Tezozomoc, Pérez.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosivity</span> levels with res [...] pect to <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> current are related to changes in chloride penetration and chloride atmospheric deposition. The influence of sulphur compound deposition could also be a parameter to consider in atmospheric <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> of <span class="hlt">steel</span> reinforced concrete.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ijesrt.com/issues%20pdf%20file/Archives-2014/July-2014/122.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ijesrt.com/issues%20pdf%20file/Archives-2014/July-2014/122.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> Inhibitors (Pennisetum Glaucum extracts on Mild <span class="hlt">Steel</span> used in Building Construction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>R C Chhipa*</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> of Mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> IS: 432 (Part I-1982 in various concentrations of hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid are studied by Mass Loss method in the absence and presence of the extracts of seeds plant Pennisetum glaucum (Pearl Millet. <span class="hlt">Corrosion</span> relates effects the technologies. Water plays an important role in enhancing <span class="hlt">corrosion</span>. In this paper the mass loss equation, concludes that <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition increased to proportionate concentration of the extract. It has been found that seed extract of plant Pennisetum glaucum is the effective and have high <span class="hlt">corrosion</span> inhibition efficacy. It was also observed that mild <span class="hlt">steel</span> is more susceptible in acid like HCl and H2SO4 solution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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