WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

None

1980-06-01

2

Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

M. J. Russell

2006-06-01

3

48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section...the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706...the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

2010-10-01

4

Guitar Production Standards Blueprints  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF document provides a few blueprints for guitar production standards. The drawings include some cross-sections and close-up details. Measurements are also provided. The features illustrated are common to all 25-1/2" scale length guitars.

2012-08-06

5

48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Computer monitor means a...would be a personal computer product. Printers...as used in this definition. (b)...

2010-10-01

6

Emission- and product standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

7

DOE limited standard: Operations assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

NONE

1996-05-01

8

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

NONE

1995-07-01

9

Product Family Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

Kvist, Morten

2010-01-01

10

Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 8(1); 20-26. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25524878

Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

2015-01-01

11

Assessment and standards for graduate outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assessment drives what students learn and standards drive industry. In this paper we link the two and describe how we developed robust, practical standards for graduate skills that can be used to design learning tasks and rubrics to assess learning tasks. They act also as a clear statement to students about expectations for their learning as well as to industry on the standard of the graduates that universities are delivering.

Leigh N Wood

2011-03-01

12

System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

2009-08-01

13

75 FR 79354 - Assessment Technology Standards Request for Information (RFI)  

Science.gov (United States)

...assessment tool, meets the technology standards under which...in the costs of the technology standards, or provided...practices related to the design and use of assessment interoperability technology standards? Where have...exist to describe, package, exchange, and...

2010-12-20

14

Product Safety, Private Standard Setting and Information Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay deals with product safety and liability, looking in particular at the interaction between regulation, contract and civil liability. Risk definition, assessment and management in product safety has changed in the last 20 years, and a well recognised role is played by private actors both in standard setting, in monitoring and risk management concerning post sale duties. Post-market surveillance has become a crucial part of the risk management strategies, but the regula...

Cafaggi, Fabrizio

2008-01-01

15

Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

16

Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

Jun Arakawa

2015-03-01

17

Product Family Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on cus...

Kvist, Morten; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

2010-01-01

18

Organic fish production and the standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuring animal welfare by decreasing the stocking density. This alternative model is used in many developed and developing countries in the world and the demand for this product has been the cause of increase in production amount and species variety in the market, although the model comprises 0.01% of the world aquaculture production. However, organic aquaculture production has not been developed as rapidly as organic agriculture. One of the most important reasons of this is the absence of international standards issued for organic aquaculture production. In this paper, the production principles of a number of authorized institutions certifying organic aquaculture are comparatively discussed.  

Yesim Ötles

2010-06-01

19

Standardizing products for the international NSSS market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

20

Web Service Oriented Standard Product Library  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using standard components or modules is vital in product design, development and manufacturing. The current book type catalogues and those, in the form of electronic files together with CAD drawings distributed on disks or via web-based publication systems, can not meet industry requirements for collaborative engineering. Ideally, users could source competitive offers from different vendors and use their information over the Internet. The drawbacks in the current catalogues are platform depen...

Ma, Y. S.; Rajeshbabu, T. S.; Deng, Y. M.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 true Standards for rebond foam production. 63.1301 Section 63.1301...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of...

2010-07-01

22

Technology assessment of RDX production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The known processes for producing RDX were assessed with the goal of identifying the process that would generate the least waste and pollution. It was concluded that the Bachman process employed at Holston AAP is the most economical process for producing RDX and that it probably produces less waste than any other process. It was generally agreed that the entire Holston operation is a very clean one that complies with all federal and state emission standards. In addition, a number of opportunities in which Holston could reduce their wastes were identified. Preliminary assessments of waste and pollution profiles for alternate materials, with emphasis on dual-use materials, were performed.

Coburn, M.D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

23

Standardization and Assessment of Cell Culture Media Quantities in Roller Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Bottles Employed in the Industrial Rabies Viral Vaccine Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-3, PTARV-4 and PTARV-5. The samples are taken in an appropriate time intervals for analysis of In Process Quality Control (IPQC tests. The collected viral harvests are further processed to rabies vaccine in a pilot level and in addition to scale up an industrial level. Based on the evaluation the PTARV-2 (250 mL show highly encouraging results for the Vero cell derived rabies vaccine production.

S. Jagannathan

2009-01-01

24

Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity; DOE Software Adopted as Standard for Analyzing Plant Process Heating Systems Company-Wide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study describes how the Kaiser Aluminum plant in Sherman, Texas, achieved annual savings of $360,000 and 45,000 MMBtu, and improved furnace energy intensity by 11.1% after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

2008-07-01

25

Competitiveness assessment of engineering products  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the problem of increasing the competitiveness of the engineering industry through the implementation of innovative projects. Based on the analysis of the features of innovative projects formulated a conclusion according to which the innovative projects effectiveness evaluation should take into account non-economic indicators such as social, ecological, resource, scientific and technological. We formulate the process and provide a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of innovative projects based on noneconomic indicators. This technique is aimed at assessing the projects increase the competitiveness of products, which is understood as a comprehensive line of products a whole range of different physical limitations of the essence, allowing the long run to get sustainable income.

Kharisova, A. R.; Puryaev, A. S.

2014-12-01

26

Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact ...

Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

2009-01-01

27

Web-Based Assessment of Physical Education Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Why would a school district consider implementing a district-wide, web-based assessment of student achievement of physical education standards? Why should any school or school district assume the expense, both in terms of time and money, of adopting an online assessment tool for physical education to assess students' cognitive and motor skills?…

Avery, Marybell

2012-01-01

28

COST ASSESSMENT OF STANDARD SOIL SAMPLING  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, there has been increased interest in determining the potential for C sequestration with changes in land management. This paper will discuss the potential cost of standard soil sampling for this purpose. To determine the potential cost of soil C analysis on a field scale, many of the meth...

29

Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact statement. Thus, the aim of this research was the accomplishment of a proposal including the development of procedures to apply in EIA issues surrounding the formulation, application and interpretation of significance criteria, conclusions and recommendations relevant to respect the aim of EIA that in provide environmental viability of men activities.Key-words: impact significance, methods of environmental impact assessment.

Maitê de Souza Sandoval

2009-08-01

30

Index and Indexing Assessment: Criteria and Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indexing is one of the most important methods of content representation where by assigning descriptors to the documents, their subject content are made known. Since index and indexing are remarkably significant in information retrieval, its quality and evaluation and provision of criteria and standards had always been the mainstay of researchers in this field. Given the fact that Indexing is a complex process, offering definitions, principles and methods could be step towards optimal use of the information. The present study, while offering a capsule definition of index, will investigate the indexing evaluation criteria and would follow it up with a definition of indexing. Finally a number of standards in the field of indexing are presented and would make its conclusions.

Hassan Ashrafi

2007-10-01

31

Index and Indexing Assessment: Criteria and Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indexing is one of the most important methods of content representation where by assigning descriptors to the documents, their subject content are made known. Since index and indexing are remarkably significant in information retrieval, its quality and evaluation and provision of criteria and standards had always been the mainstay of researchers in this field. Given the fact that Indexing is a complex process, offering definitions, principles and methods could be step towards optimal use of t...

Hassan Ashrafi; Zahra Kazempour

2007-01-01

32

Standardized procedure for thermalhydraulic system code assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with a systematic proposal for performing valuable thermalhydraulic system code qualification (the word qualification is used as a synonymous of assessment and validation). A procedure is described based on the experience gained in the assessment activity that includes a number of methods (sub-procedures) developed and applied at university of Pisa. The development and the qualification of the nodalization (or input deck) are concerned, as well as the post-processing of the code results (code output). The procedure is adopted in the application of the RELAP5/mod3.2 code to the analysis of a small break LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) experiment carried out in the Spes facility. (author)

33

Assessment of fluctuating asymmetry on the basis of standard deviation ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical application of newly introduced indicator and integrated index of fluctuating asymmetry, based on standard deviation, is discussed. The calculating mechanism of proposed assessment is discussed in detail.??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????.

Zorina Anastasia

2013-04-01

34

Developing Korean Standard for Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetic, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including the manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufact...

Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yu, Il Je

2011-01-01

35

40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standards for rebond foam production. 63.1301...Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301...A HAP or HAP-based material shall not be used as...equipment cleaner at a rebond foam source. (b) A...

2010-07-01

36

Alternative Bench Standards: Sample Production Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The INL has prepared four standards representing krypton concentrations of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X the reported atmospheric value of 70 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C (ie. 1.1X is 1.1 x 70, or 77 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C). A t-zero date and time of January 1, 2012 at 1200 Zulu was used for all standards. The Alternative Bench Standards (ABS) of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X, are designated by titles of ABS-A, ABS-B, ABS C and ABS-D, respectively. The concentration of Kr in air is 1.14 ppm.

N. R. Mann; T. P. Houghton; M. G. Watrous; J. G. Eisenmenger; R. K. Hague

2012-09-01

37

Establishing eutrophication assessment standards for four lake regions, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The trophic status assessment of lakes in different lake regions may provide important and fundamental information for lake trophic state classification and eutrophication control. In this study, a region-specific lake eutrophication assessment standard was established through a frequency distribution method based on chlorophyll-a concentration. The assessment standards under the oligotrophic state for lakes in the Eastern plain, Yungui Plateau, Northeast Plain and Mountain Mongolia-Xinjiang regions are total phosphorus of 0.068, 0.005, 0.011, 0.005 mg/L; total nitrogen of 1.00, 0.16, 0.37, 0.60 mg/L; Secchi depth of 0.60, 8.00, 1.55, 3.00 m; and COD(Mn) of 2.24, 1.00, 5.11, 4.00 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, a region-specific comprehensive trophic level index was developed to provide an understandable assessment method for the public. The results indicated that the frequency distribution analysis based on chlorophyll-a combined with trophic level index provided a useful metric for the assessment of the lake trophic status. In addition, the difference of eutrophication assessment standards in different lake regions was analyzed, which suggested that the sensitivities of algae to nutrients and the assessment standard of trophic status possessed significant regional differences for the four lake ecoregions. Lake eutrophication assessment standards would contribute to maximizing the effectiveness of future management strategies, to control and minimize lake eutrophication problems. PMID:24494487

Huo, Shouliang; Ma, Chunzi; Xi, Beidou; Su, Jing; Zan, Fengyu; Ji, Danfeng; He, Zhuoshi

2013-10-01

38

Qualitative risk assessment in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a Qualitative/Screening Methodology included in the draft ANS Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) Standard. The screening methodology can be used to eliminate certain specified shutdown POSs (Plant Operating States) from requiring further quantitative risk assessment in the context of a specified application based on demonstrating that their risk is lower than some predetermined limiting value. The paper also describes a methodology for qualitative risk assessment (QRA) tools that are used to support the screening process. The paper outlines the bases of both methodologies. (authors)

Burchill, W.E. [Texas University, College Station TX (United States); Drouin, M. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC (United States); Julius, J.A. [Scientech, Kent WA (United States); Kiper, K.L. [FPL Energy Co., Seabrook Station NH (United States)

2004-07-01

39

Assessment of standard formats for data exchange between scientific codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to identify standardized ways of data exchange between scientific codes compared to the current ad-hoc case by case approach. The Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) is recommended. To demonstrate feasibility, a prototype application of HDF for data exchange between two Canadian Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes, SMART (fission product behaviour in containment) and ADDAM (atmospheric dispersion and public dose calculation), was successfully developed and tested. (author)

40

[Hygienic assessment of waste of soda production].  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively. PMID:24003694

Samutin, N M; Vaisman, Y I; Rudakova, L V; Kalinina, E V; Glushankova, I S; Batrakova, G M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Standardizing Limits for Cost of Production in Commercial Egg Operation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was undertaken in Chakwal during 2000-2001 while collecting data from 109 flocks to predict standard limits for various cost components in commercial egg production enterprise. Net profit per bird was taken as response variable and the cost components one by one were standardized using quadratic functions. Maximum critical limit for total predicted cost of production per bird, cost of: feed, labor, day-old chick, building and equipment, immunization, medication, transportation, miscel...

Farooq M.; Mian, M. A.; Zahoor-ul-Haq; Durrani, F. R.; Syed, M.

2002-01-01

42

NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Credibility Assessment Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of its many responses to the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA decided to develop a formal standard for models and simulations (M&S). Work commenced in May 2005. An interim version was issued in late 2006. This interim version underwent considerable revision following an extensive Agency-wide review in 2007 along with some additional revisions as a result of the review by the NASA Engineering Management Board (EMB) in the first half of 2008. Issuance of the revised, permanent version, hereafter referred to as the M&S Standard or just the Standard, occurred in July 2008. Bertch, Zang and Steeleiv provided a summary review of the development process of this standard up through the start of the review by the EMB. A thorough recount of the entire development process, major issues, key decisions, and all review processes are available in Ref. v. This is the second of a pair of papers providing a summary of the final version of the Standard. Its focus is the Credibility Assessment Scale, a key feature of the Standard, including an example of its application to a real-world M&S problem for the James Webb Space Telescope. The companion paper summarizes the overall philosophy of the Standard and an overview of the requirements. Verbatim quotes from the Standard are integrated into the text of this paper, and are indicated by quotation marks.

Babula, Maria; Bertch, William J.; Green, Lawrence L.; Hale, Joseph P.; Mosier, Gary E.; Steele, Martin J.; Woods, Jody

2009-01-01

43

Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

2010-01-29

44

Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978

Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

2014-01-01

45

Harmonic aggregation techniques for power quality assessment a standard framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review on the existing methods for aggregation of harmonic currents including recommended method used in IEC 61000-3-6 standard is performed and different approaches are compared. Main advantages of each method are outlined and simulation studies are performed to assess each method. A simple technique is proposed to base future research and standardization on. The proposed technique is simple, reliable and realistic though requires experimental data to derive parameters. Keywords: Electromagnetic Compatibility; Harmonic Distortion; Harmonic Aggregation; Power Quality; Current Harmonics.

Mohammad Mahdy Share Pasand

2014-06-01

46

Reviewing electricity production cost assessments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A thorough review of twelve recent studies of production costs from different power generating technologies was conducted and a wide range in cost estimates was found. The reviewed studies show differences in their methodologies and assumptions, making the stated cost figures not directly comparable and unsuitable to be generalized to represent the costs for entire technologies. Moreover, current levelized costs of electricity methodologies focus only on the producer's costs, while additional...

Larsson, Simon; Fantazzini, Dean; Davidsson, Simon; Kullander, Sven; Hook, Mikael

2013-01-01

47

Reliability of standardized assessment for adults who are deafblind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of the interRAI Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA and Deafblind Supplement (DbS. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a multidimensional, standardized assessment instrument for use with adults (18 and older who are deafblind. The interrater reliability of the instrument was tested through the completion of dual assessments with 44 individuals who were deafblind in the province of Ontario, Canada. Overall, nearly 50% of items had a kappa value of at least 0.60, indicating fair to substantial agreement for these items. Several items related to psychosocial well-being, mood, and sense of involvement had kappa scores of less than 0.40. However, among these items with low kappa values, most (78% showed at least 70% agreement between the two assessors. The internal consistency of several health subscales, embedded within the assessment, was also very good and ranged from 0.63 to 0.93. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a reliable instrument for assessing adults with deafblindness to better understand their needs, abilities, and preferences.

Dawn M. Guthrie, PhD

2011-05-01

48

Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

49

Software Productivity: Harmonization in ISO/IEEE Software Engineering Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The software productivity is an important key of software quality factors. The productivity measure has become a tool for managers since it is used to compare the performance between different companies (benchmarking and to compare the efficiency of different developers in the same company. Therefore, it allows doing strategic planning and decision making based on such measurement. A variety of international standardization bodies such as IEEE and ISO as well as software engineering researchers have proposed a set of factors which influence the software productivity attribute, and also a set of measures to evaluate it. However, there is no unique model that integrates all the software productivity best practices. The aim of this paper is to survey the available international standards and research work on software productivity and figure out the key differences in order to propose a standards-based model. Such model will include the set of quality attributes that could be used to reflect the software productivity, and a set of measures that allows evaluating the software developer’s productivity.

Laila Cheikhi

2012-02-01

50

40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

2010-07-01

51

Natural and agglomerated stone durability assessment according to technical standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of rock behaviour and durability plays an important role in the use of rocks and similar materials for all building purposes. Durability is a complex term, therefore the paper deals with the terminology and aspects related to the evaluation and prediction possibilities of stone durability. Technical standards offer some laboratory procedures suitable for stone durability assessment. The paper presents the results of the application of some standard laboratory methods on select types of natural and agglomerated stones, from the physical properties determination and durability assessment point of view. On the basis of defined criteria of physical properties, such as the value of open porosity, uniaxial compressive strength and water absorption, was predicted the behaviour of selected stones against ageing and weathering. Results of the realised laboratory weathering tests such as the determination of resistance to frost and salt crystallisation, determination of resistance to ageing by SO2 action in the presence of humidity, and determination of resistance to thermal shock, confirmed and verified rock behaviour conditional on stone genesis, mineral composition and structural characteristics.

Ivana Šimková

2010-01-01

52

Risk assessment of plant protection products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides in view of the future dialogue between risk managers and risk assessors during the next steps of the revision of the ecotoxicology guidance documents.

Hardy T

2012-10-01

53

A revised ANS standard for decay heat from fission products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The draft ANS 5.1 standard on decay heat was published in 1971 and given minor revision in 1973. Its basis was the best estimate working curve developed by K. Shure in 1961. Liberal uncertainties were assigned to the standard values because of lack of data for short cooling times and large discrepancies among experimental data. Research carried out over the past few years has greatly improved the knowledge of this phenomenon and a major revision of the standard has been completed. Very accurate determination of the decay heat is now possible, expecially within the first 104 seconds, where the influence of neutron capture in fission products may be treated as a small correction to the idealized zero capture case. The new standard accounts for differences among fuel nuclides. It covers cooling time to 109 seconds, but provides only an ''upper bound'' on the capture correction in the interval 104 9 seconds. (author)

54

Application of spreadsheets to standardize transportation radiological risk assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the complexity, volume of data and calculations required, one preferred analytical tool to perform transportation risk assessments is the RADTRAN computer code. RADTRAN combines user-determined material, packaging, transportation, demographic and meteorological factors, with health physics data to calculate expected radiological consequences and accident risk from transporting radioactive materials by all commercial modes including truck, rail, ship, air and barge. The computer code consists of two major modules for each transport mode: the incident-free module, in which doses from normal transport are calculated; and the accident module, in which dose consequences and probabilities are evaluated to generate risk estimates. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the development of a standardized procedure to perform transportation radiological risk assessments employing conventional spreadsheet programs to automate generation of RADTRAN input files and post-processing analysis of the resulting output

55

Multi Higgs and Vector boson production beyond the Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

If the electroweak symmetry breaking is originated from a strongly coupled sector, as for instance in composite Higgs models, the Higgs boson couplings can deviate from their Standard Model values. In such cases, at sufficiently high energies there could occur an onset of multiple Higgs boson and longitudinally polarised electroweak gauge boson (V_L) production. We study the sensitivity to anomalous Higgs couplings in inelastic processes with 3 and 4 particles (either Higgs bosons or V_L's) in the final state. We show that, due to the more severe cancellations in the corresponding amplitudes as compared to the usual 2 to 2 processes, large enhancements with respect to the Standard Model can arise even for small modifications of the Higgs couplings. In particular, we find that triple Higgs production provides the best multiparticle channel to look for these deviations. We briefly explore the consequences of multiparticle production at the LHC.

Belyaev, A; Rosenfeld, R; Thomas, M C

2013-01-01

56

Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern. PMID:24875152

Mellor, Dj

2015-01-01

57

Relevance of methods and standards for the assessment of measurement system performance in a High-Value Manufacturing Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements underpin the engineering decisions that allow products to be designed, manufactured, operated, and maintained. Therefore, the quality of measured data needs to be systematically assured to allow decision makers to proceed with confidence. The use of standards is one way of achieving this. This paper explores the relevance of international documentary standards to the assessment of measurement system capability in High Value Manufacturing (HVM) Industry. An internal measurement standard is presented which supplements these standards and recommendations are made for a cohesive effort to develop the international standards to provide consistency in such industrial applications.

Loftus, Pete; Giudice, Seb

2014-08-01

58

Exergetic assessment of solar hydrogen production methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. Its eco-friendly production is really crucial for better environment and sustainable development. In this paper, various types of hydrogen production methods namely solar thermal (high temperature and low temperature), photovoltaic, photoelectrolysis, biophotolysis etc are discussed. A brief study of various hydrogen production processes have been carried out. Various solar-based hydrogen production processes are assessed and compared for their merits and demerits in terms of exergy efficiency and sustainability factor. For a case study the exergy efficiency of hydrogen production process and the hydrogen system is discussed in terms of sustainability. (author)

59

Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371–9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

2014-11-01

60

Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yrrength within 1 yr

 
 
 
 
61

Assessment of hypoallergenicity of ten skincare products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensitive skin is a common skin complaint frequently associated with skin diseases or adverse reactions to cosmetic products. Manufacturers have produced numerous products targeted for patients with sensitive skin and frequently label these products as being hypoallergenic. This term implies that the product may be less likely to cause an allergic reaction and be better suited for those with sensitive skin. However, there is no federal regulatory definition of this term and products may not have clinical support of their claim. Patch testing ingredients is frequently done to identify potential irritants; however, patch-testing product formulations may provide more realistic expectations about potential skin sensitivity and help support claims of hypoallergenicity. Ten skincare products were assessed for their sensitizing potential and hypoallergenicity in 14 repeat insult patch test clinical studies, involving over 2,000 subjects. In these studies, the products were deemed to be hypoallergenic if there was no evidence of sensitization or allergic reactions. The results from these trials demonstrated that all ten products were well tolerated, showed no sensitization or allergic reactions, and support claims of hypoallergenicity. PMID:24595569

Brandt, Staci; Lio, Peter

2014-03-01

62

Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

2003-01-01

63

On risk assessment of energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

64

Applied psychology in the production of a British Standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

The applied psychological research used in the production of a British Standard on scales and indices stemmed originally from a need for smaller instruments for the Navy. The only work available, carried out for the United States Air Force,suggested even larger dials, so further work was undertaken, adopting a new approach. Following this, the author discusses the standard, commenting on manufacturer's initial reluctance to adopt the new scales, and on the difficulties over definitions, especially relating to observation error in scale readings. Numeral design had been examined and a new style tested in practical conditions in an oil refinery. Research on the differences in reading scales for speed plus accuracy and for accuracy alone is mentioned, also work which validated a scale division proposed by the French. The author concludes that the meetings of psychologists and manufacturers as a result of the preparation of the standard has had a profound effect on instrument scale design. PMID:15677114

Murrell, K F

1973-03-01

65

Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: standard operating procedure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension (PH should be evaluated using a multimodality approach to ensure that they receive a correct diagnosis. The series of investigations required includes clinical evaluation, noninvasive imaging techniques and right heart catheterisation (considered to be the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of PH. Current guidelines recommend that a detailed echocardiographic assessment is performed in all patients with suspected PH. In this review we summarise a protocol adopted by the National Pulmonary Hypertension Centres of UK and Ireland and approved by the British Society of Echocardiography for the evaluation of these patients. The views and measurements described are recommended for diagnosis, assisting in prognosis and providing a noninvasive means of following disease progression or response to therapy.

Julia Grapsa

2012-09-01

66

Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: standard operating procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension (PH) should be evaluated using a multimodality approach to ensure that they receive a correct diagnosis. The series of investigations required includes clinical evaluation, noninvasive imaging techniques and right heart catheterisation (considered to be the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of PH). Current guidelines recommend that a detailed echocardiographic assessment is performed in all patients with suspected PH. In this review we summarise a protocol adopted by the National Pulmonary Hypertension Centres of UK and Ireland and approved by the British Society of Echocardiography for the evaluation of these patients. The views and measurements described are recommended for diagnosis, assisting in prognosis and providing a noninvasive means of following disease progression or response to therapy. PMID:22941889

Howard, Luke S; Grapsa, Julia; Dawson, David; Bellamy, Michael; Chambers, John B; Masani, Navroz D; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Simon R Gibbs, J

2012-09-01

67

Assessing the HIPAA standard in practice: PHR privacy policies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health service providers are starting to become interested in providing PHRs (Personal Health Records). With PHRs, access to data is controlled by the patient, and not by the health care provider. Companies such as Google and Microsoft are establishing a leadership position in this emerging market. A number of benefits can be achieved with PHRs, but important challenges related to security and privacy must be addressed. This paper presents a review of the privacy policies of 20 free web-based PHRs. Security and privacy characteristics were extracted and assessed according to the HIPAA standard. The results show a number of important differences in the characteristics analyzed. Some improvements can be made to current PHR privacy policies to enhance the audit and management of access to users' PHRs. A questionnaire has been defined to assist PHR designers in this task. PMID:22254820

Carrión, Inmaculada; Alemán, José Luis Fernández; Toval, Ambrosio

2011-01-01

68

The development of an Arctic standard for floating production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry uses floating offshore structures to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store and offload the product to an export tanker or pipeline system. The floating structure can include the hull, marine systems, accommodation, hydrocarbon processing facilities, storage and offloading systems, a mooring system to hold the structure on location, the flow lines or risers connecting the unit to the well head, and the subsea installations and the flowlines that collect the hydrocarbons from the wells. This paper discussed the development of ISO 19906, a new standard for the design of floating oil and gas production facilities in the Arctic. Ice management will play a prominent role in the standard, which is due to be published in 2009. The authors presented their views on some of the rationale that went into the development of requirements for floating structures in this standard, with reference to ship-shaped hull or barge units; column stabilized and buoy type units; and, tension leg platform units. The standard deals with design principles and functional requirements applicable to the life cycle of the floating structure, such as the construction phases; transportation, installation, and move-off phases; the operating phase; and, the decommissioning phase. The same principles should be used for both steel hulled floating structures and structures fabricated from other materials. This paper also reviewed another standard which is under development for the design of floating production systems, namely ISO 19904 for materials, equipment, and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries. Ice action and hull design issues were discussed along with the requirements for the design, construction and operation of a hull with respect to the considerations of the Arctic environment. The requirements for establishing an ice management system that addresses the detection, threat evaluation and implementation of active mitigation measures to deal with hazardous ice situations, including both glacial ice features and sea ice were also reviewed. The entire production system of a floating production facility should be designed appropriately for the geographical location and environmental conditions. This could potentially involve seasonal operation, special operating procedures, ice management or even disconnection. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Makrygiannis, M. [BP Norway AS, Stavanger (Norway); McKenna, R. [R. McKenna Consultant, Wakefield, PQ (Canada); Wright, B. [B. Wright Associates, Canmore, AB (Canada); Allyn, N. [Westmar Consultants, North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sildnes, T. [Det Norske Veritas, Hovik (Norway); Jolles, W. [Agip KCO, Den Haag (Netherlands); Morland, M. [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway); Grant, R. [Grantec, Halifax, NS (Canada)

2006-11-15

69

AN ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The high performing East Asian development model sparked controversies in the academia: its success was ascribed alternatively to nation-states, markets, and sociocultural factors. This paper undertakes a comparative assessment of the last two generations of submodels, i.e. ASEAN-4 and China, by quantifying and interpreting their total factor productivity (TFP) using the Solow Model. Results show that capital accumulation was their major growth driver before the beginning of the millennium. S...

Ga?rdu, Dana

2011-01-01

70

Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the sp...

Ruban, Anna

2012-01-01

71

40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or...

2010-07-01

72

40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or...

2010-07-01

73

40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each...

2010-07-01

74

40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—diisocyanate...

2010-07-01

75

40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each...

2010-07-01

76

Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variatio...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

77

Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials: Recommendations for Standardization, Production, and Usage  

Science.gov (United States)

Experience gained during the Apollo program demonstrated the need for extensive testing of surface systems in relevant environments, including regolith materials similar to those encountered on the lunar surface. As NASA embarks on a return to the Moon, it is clear that the current lunar sample inventory is not only insufficient to support lunar surface technology and system development, but its scientific value is too great to be consumed by destructive studies. Every effort must be made to utilize standard simulant materials, which will allow developers to reduce the cost, development, and operational risks to surface systems. The Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop held in Huntsville, AL, on January 24 26, 2005, identified the need for widely accepted standard reference lunar simulant materials to perform research and development of technologies required for lunar operations. The workshop also established a need for a common, traceable, and repeatable process regarding the standardization, characterization, and distribution of lunar simulants. This document presents recommendations for the standardization, production and usage of lunar regolith simulant materials.

Sibille, L.; Carpenter, P.; Schlagheck, R.; French, R. A.

2006-01-01

78

Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products  

CERN Document Server

1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2013-01-01

79

Assessing product image quality for online shopping  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

2012-01-01

80

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.  

CERN Multimedia

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

ATLAS, collaboration

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflection and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals with what-questions and that the portfolio is expected to handle a number of challenges with regard to the documentation of learning processes and achievements as well as the conditioning of learning activities. Furthermore, is becomes clear that descriptions of how the portfolio works are sparse. Based on systems theory, the paper adopts a how-perspective: How does the portfolio re-describe learning? How does it scaffold and organise communication? The conclusion is that systems theory allows us to re-describe the portfolio as a teaching technology, which, by scaffolding both reflection and reflexivity, produces unique conditions for the stimulation and observation of learning, thus increasing the complexity of learning observation.

Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

2014-01-01

82

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection toASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

83

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

2011-10-31

84

Using Microsoft Excel to Assess Standards: A "Techtorial". Article #2 in a 6-Part Series  

Science.gov (United States)

Standards-based assessment is a term currently being used quite often in educational reform discussions. The philosophy behind this initiative is to utilize "standards" or "benchmarks" to focus instruction and assessments of student learning. The National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 2004) provide a framework to guide this process for…

Mears, Derrick

2009-01-01

85

Two Models for Evaluating Alignment of State Standards and Assessments: Competing or Complementary Perspectives?  

Science.gov (United States)

The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…

Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

86

75 FR 66038 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...horizons are used for compliance assessments as described in...and consistency in compliance assessments. Because RFC appears...planning reserves assessments, which could include either (i) a methodology to determine...

2010-10-27

87

Curvaton decay by resonant production of the Standard Model higgs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate in detail a model where the curvaton is coupled to the Standard Model higgs. Parametric resonance might be expected to cause a fast decay of the curvaton, so that it would not have time to build up the curvature perturbation. However, we show that this is not the case, and that the resonant decay of the curvaton may be delayed even down to electroweak symmetry breaking. This delay is due to the coupling of the higgs to the thermal background, which is formed by the Standard Model degrees of freedom created from the inflaton decay. We establish the occurrence of the delay by considering the curvaton evolution and the structure of the higgs resonances. We then provide analytical expressions for the delay time, and for the subsequent resonant production of the higgs, which ultimately leads to the curvaton effective decay width. Contrary to expectations, it is possible to obtain the observed curvature perturbation for values of the curvaton-higgs coupling as large as 10?1. Our calculations also apply in the general case of curvaton decay into any non Standard Model species coupled to the thermal background

88

Standardizing Limits for Cost of Production in Commercial Egg Operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken in Chakwal during 2000-2001 while collecting data from 109 flocks to predict standard limits for various cost components in commercial egg production enterprise. Net profit per bird was taken as response variable and the cost components one by one were standardized using quadratic functions. Maximum critical limit for total predicted cost of production per bird, cost of: feed, labor, day-old chick, building and equipment, immunization, medication, transportation, miscellaneous items, bedding and electricity was Rs. 343.41, Rs. 22.97, Rs. 21.63, Rs. 17.39, Rs. 9.08, Rs. 7.80, Rs. 3.32, Rs. 3.30, Rs. 2.05, Rs. 2.03, respectively. The critical maximum limits were the indicators suggesting that any increase beyond those limits would render the enterprise uneconomical. The information provided may serve a useful purpose for the commercial layer farms in improving net profit from commercial layers in Chakwal.

Farooq. M.

2002-01-01

89

Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p < 0.05) than fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p < 0.05) than for biofuels. Analysis of inorganic compounds like PM??,?.?, SO? or NO(x) shows some advantages of sugar beet bioethanol and soybean biodiesel production (p < 0.05), although production of sugarcane bioethanol shows larger impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p < 0.001). Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

2013-01-01

90

Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production  

Science.gov (United States)

Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

2009-04-01

91

77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY...establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power supplies...Establish Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power...

2012-06-29

92

Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar although big differences between sugar cane and sugar beet exist at a few points. The qualitative approach of other fields like workning environment or specific environmental aspects is necessary to get a broader view of the problem. Nevertheless, it does not allow for a definite decision either. Therefore, privileging sugar cane or sugar beet may only be decided after a precise weighting of the environmental impacts or resource conumption. However, weighting is a political decision especially because two contries with different local conditions are dealt with. Hence, diciding which sugar to buy becomes a personal choice. What the danish consumer should be aware of is that no big difference has been found between sugar from sugar cane and sugar from sugar beet with regard to environmental impacts and resource consumption.

Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon

1999-01-01

93

International Financial Standards: Assessing Effectiveness from the Private Sector Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates market participants’ endorsement of international financial standards. While the most part of scholarship works has focused on market incentives for states to comply, we shift the focus of the analysis to the incentives for market participants. Why do markets participants choose to follow through the standard and to incorporate states’ compliance with international standards in their investment decisions? In answering this question, the paper develops two hypotheses...

Moschella, Manuela

2009-01-01

94

Product unconformable in the light of legal regulations and the ISO 9001:2000 standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.

Justyna Górna

2009-01-01

95

Single top production as a window to physics beyond the standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production of single top quarks at a high energy hadron collider is studied as a means to identify physics beyond the standard model related to the electroweak symmetry breaking. The sensitivity of the s-channel W* mode, the t-channel W-gluon fusion mode, and the tW- mode to various possible forms of new physics is assessed, and it is found that the three modes are sensitive to different forms of new physics, indicating that they provide complimentary information about the properties of the top quark. Polarization observables are also considered, and found to provide potentially useful information about the structure of the interactions of top quarks

96

Single top quark production as a window to physics beyond the standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production of single top quarks at a high energy hadron collider is studied as a means to identify physics beyond the standard model related to the electroweak symmetry breaking. The sensitivity of the s-channel W* mode, the t-channel W-gluon fusion mode, and the tW- mode to various possible forms of new physics is assessed, and it is found that the three modes are sensitive to different forms of new physics, indicating that they provide complimentary information about the properties of the top quark. Polarization observables are also considered, and found to provide potentially useful information about the structure of the interactions of top quarks

97

Vasoprotective endothelial effects of a standardized grape product in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenesis of coronary lesion development is a multi-factorial process involving a number of different cell types and covariates, and injury and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is an important marker and likely participant in the initiation and/or progression of most forms of heart disease. In addition to chronic dysfunction of endothelial responses in patients with established heart disease, there is evidence that 'acute insults' can cause measurable dysfunction in vascular response in humans (drug toxicities, hypoxia, high fat meal). Such repeated acute insults may contribute to disease risk in otherwise healthy individuals or promote disease progression in established patients. Consumption of grape products, especially wine, has been linked to lower cardiovascular risk but the vascular endothelial effects of grape products in healthy normal subjects, in the absence of ethanol, have not been evaluated. We therefore tested the hypotheses that 1) a standardized product derived from fresh grapes (GP, acute and chronic consumption) improves endothelial performance in healthy normal young subjects, and 2) that concomitant grape consumption affects the 'acute endothelial insult' caused by a single standardized high fat meal (HF). Acute consumption of GP equivalent to 1.25 cups of fresh grapes caused significant improvement in brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) within 3 h of consumption, when compared to control consumption of sugar solution (p<0.05). No acute changes in heart rate, hemodynamics, or lipid profiles were observed. When this 'dose' was then consumed twice daily for 3 weeks FMD was further improved and total antioxidant capacity in plasma was slightly increased (p<0.05), with no change in heart rate, hemodynamics, or lipid profiles. A single HF meal (900 cal, 49 g total fat) caused a 50% reduction in FMD response when consumed alone, and this effect coincided with increased blood triglyceride levels within 3 h post-consumption. In contrast the concomitant consumption of GP with the HF meal completely prevented this HF-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (p<0.05), but had no effect on rising triglycerides. These data demonstrate that a modest intake of fresh grapes can have acute favorable effects on vascular endothelial function in normal healthy subjects, that chronic intake can further improve performance and concomitant intake can blunt the 'acute insult' to endothelium caused by a typical western HF meal. This effect is likely to be related to antioxidant effects at the endothelium, rather than changes in blood lipids. These data support epidemiological data of the health benefits of grapes, and demonstrate that 'favorable' food consumption can apparently reduce some toxicities induced by 'unfavorable' food consumption. PMID:18805507

Chaves, Alysia A; Joshi, Mandar S; Coyle, Christen M; Brady, Joshua E; Dech, Spencer J; Schanbacher, Brandon L; Baliga, Reshma; Basuray, Anupam; Bauer, John Anthony

2009-01-01

98

Standards, Assessments, and Accountability. Education Policy White Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

Standards-based education reform has a more than 20-year history. A standards-based vision was enacted in federal law under the Clinton administration with the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and carried forward under the Bush administration with the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. In a recent…

Shepard, Lorrie, Ed.; Hannaway, Jane, Ed.; Baker, Eva, Ed.

2009-01-01

99

Social Moderation, Assessment and Assuring Standards for Accounting Graduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidencing student achievement of standards is a growing imperative worldwide. Key stakeholders (including current and prospective students, government, regulators and employers) want confidence that threshold learning standards in an accounting degree have been assured. Australia's new higher education regulatory environment requires that…

Watty, Kim; Freeman, Mark; Howieson, Bryan; Hancock, Phil; O'Connell, Brendan; de Lange, Paul; Abraham, Anne

2014-01-01

100

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

 
 
 
 
101

AN ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high performing East Asian development model sparked controversies in the academia: its success was ascribed alternatively to nation-states, markets, and sociocultural factors. This paper undertakes a comparative assessment of the last two generations of submodels, i.e. ASEAN-4 and China, by quantifying and interpreting their total factor productivity (TFP using the Solow Model. Results show that capital accumulation was their major growth driver before the beginning of the millennium. Subsequently growth is led by technical change in ASEAN-32, and capital inputs respectively in late industrialising economies, i.e., China and the Philippines. The main differences between the two submodels consist in levels in growth rates and technical progress contributions, which are strongly sped up in China by transition and integration in global production networks. For ASEAN-4 average null or negligible TFP values in the 1990s point to structural vulnerabilities that surface during the Asian financial crisis. ASEAN-3’s recovery is led by technical change though.

Dana GÂRDU

2011-10-01

102

40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions...Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards...flexible polyurethane foam production—diisocyanate emissions...this section, or a carbon adsorption system meeting...displaced vapors through activated carbon before...

2010-07-01

103

76 FR 16250 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...Reliability Standard before us does not preclude or...state PUC with regard to resource adequacy. As the Commission...were not included. The resource availability characteristics...and deliverability of fuel; (2) common mode outages that affect resource availability;...

2011-03-23

104

Assessing changes in drought characteristics with standardized indices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standardized drought indices like the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are more and more frequently adopted for drought reconstruction, monitoring and forecasting, and the SPI has been recently recommended by the World Meteorological Organization to characterize meteorological droughts. Such indices are based on the statistical distribution of a hydrometeorological variable (e.g., precipitation) in a given reference climate, and a drought event is defined as a period with continuously n...

Vidal, J. P.; Najac, J.; Martin, E.; Franchiste?guy, L.; Soubeyroux, J. M.

2010-01-01

105

Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

2010-05-01

106

Advancement of isotope separation for the production of reference standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a mass separator that is currently producing high purity isotopes for use as internal standards for high precision isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In 2008, INL began the revival of the vintage 1970’s era instrument. Advancements thus far include the successful upgrading and development of system components such as the vacuum system, power supplies, ion-producing components, and beam detection equipment. Progress has been made in the separation and collection of isotopic species including those of Ar, Kr, Xe, Sr, and Ba. Particular focuses on ion source improvements and developments have proven successful with demonstrated output beam currents of over 10 micro-amps 138Ba and 350nA 134Ba from a natural abundance source charge (approximately 2.4 percent 134Ba). In order to increase production and collection of relatively high quantities (mg levels) of pure isotopes, several advancements have been made in ion source designs, source material introduction, and beam detection and collection. These advancements and future developments will be presented.

Jared Horkley; Christopher McGrath; Andrew Edwards; Gaven Knighton; Kevin Carney; Jacob Davies; James Sommers; Jeffrey Giglio

2012-03-01

107

Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

2012-01-01

108

Quality assessment of Landsat surface reflectance products using MODIS data  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric F.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

2012-01-01

109

Branch standard centre for radionuclide metrology and isotope production standardization in Czechoslovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks are described of the branch standardization centre. The principal information sources are listed in the field of technical standardization as are the methods of the processing and use of these sources for the compilation of technical standards. (M.D.)

110

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: New Mexico and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 011  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the New Mexico Standards Based Assessment (NMSBA) standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be based. Applying…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

111

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

112

Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 1 : Methodology, tools and case studies in product development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A detailed introduction to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products, Danish acronym: UMIP) methodology on life cycle assessment (LCA) including toolbox, introduction to the use of LCA in product development and five comprehensive case studies on electromechanical products.

Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

1997-01-01

113

40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

2010-07-01

114

Biodegradability assessment of aliphatic polyesters using standard methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Important information concerning polymer’s final fate in the environment can be achieved in biodegradation studies performed in the aquatic environment. In this context, the focus of the present work was to evaluate the biodegradability level of blends containing aliphatic polyesters using standard methods. Blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and five biodegradable polymers (poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and Mater-Bi (thermoplastic starch with PLA or PCL)) w...

Moura, I.; Machado, A. V.; Duarte, F. M.; Brito, A. G.; Nogueira, R.

2008-01-01

115

Assessing the Value of Coding Standards: An Empirical Study:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preprint of paper published in: ICSM 2008 - IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, 28 September-4 October 2008; doi:10.1109/ICSM.2008.4658076 In spite of the widespread use of coding standards and tools enforcing their rules, there is little empirical evidence supporting the intuition that they prevent the introduction of faults in software. Not only can compliance with a set of rules having little impact on the number of faults be considered wasted effort, but it can actu...

Boogerd, C. J.; Moonen, L.

2008-01-01

116

Risk Management and Assessment of Upgrading and Standardizing Guardrail  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has installed guardrail systems on interstate highways and other highways in accordance with a variety of standards throughout the years. Traffic volume has increased and the posted speeds have been raised on most INDOT’s interstate highways. Consequently, the characteristics of run-off-the-road (ROR) crashes may have changed. In the meantime, material prices have increased considerably and the guardrail maintenance and crash repair costs hav...

Zhu, Karen; Li, Shuo

2009-01-01

117

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Texas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 007  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the alignment between the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

118

Wolbachia detection: an assessment of standard PCR protocols.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wolbachia is a large monophyletic genus of intracellular bacteria, traditionally detected using PCR assays. Its considerable phylogenetic diversity and impact on arthropods and nematodes make it urgent to assess the efficiency of these screening protocols. The sensitivity and range of commonly used PCR primers and of a new set of 16S primers were evaluated on a wide range of hosts and Wolbachia strains. We show that certain primer sets are significantly more efficient than others but that no ...

Simo?es, P. M.; Mialdea, G.; Reiss, D.; Sagot, Marie-france; Charlat, S.

2011-01-01

119

Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

2014-01-01

120

ASSESSING THE USE OF A STANDARDIZED DENTAL DIAGNOSTIC TERMINOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Although standardized terminologies, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), have been in use in medicine for over a century, in the dental profession, efforts to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagnostic terminology - the ‘EZcodes’ terminology was developed in 2009. Fifteen dental practices and schools in the United States and Europe have implemented the ‘EZcodes’. In this paper we report on the utilization and valid entry of the EZcodes at three of the dental schools that have adopted this standardized dental diagnostic terminology. Electronic data on the use of procedure codes with diagnostic terms from the three schools over a one-year period between July 2010 and June 2011 were aggregated. The diagnostic term and procedure code pairs were adjudicated by three calibrated dentists. Analyses were conducted to gain insight into the utilization and valid entry of the EZcodes diagnostic terminology in the one-year period extending from 7/1/2010 through 6/30/2011. Error proportions in the entry of diagnostic term (and by diagnostic category) were also computed. Within the twelve-month period included in the analysis, a total of 29,965 diagnostic terms and 249,411 procedure codes were entered at the three institutions resulting in a utilization proportion of 12%. Caries and periodontics were the more frequently used categories. More than 1000 of the available 1321 diagnostic terms were never used at the three institutions. Overall, 60.5% of the EZcodes entries were found to be valid. In summary, our results demonstrate low utilization of EZ codes in an electronic dental record and raise the need for specific training of dental providers on the importance of using dental diagnostic terminology and specifically how to use the terms within the EHR. This will serve to increase the use/correct use of the EZcodes diagnostic terminology and ultimately create a reliable platform for undertaking clinical, outcomes and quality improvement-related research. PMID:23314462

Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel M.; Stark, Paul C.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.; Ramoni, Rachel B.; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta E.; Kimmes, Nicole S.; Tavares, Anamaria

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this article was to review prospects and constraints of LCA as a tool to assess the integrated environmental impact of conventional and organic animal production. This aim was illustrated using results fro...

Boer, I. J. M.

2002-01-01

122

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2010-01-01

123

75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to...proposed rule for mercury emissions from the gold mine ore processing and production area source category. We are...

2010-05-20

124

Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported to Saudi Arabia in order to curtail their excess and safeguard consumer health. PMID:19250956

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

2009-07-01

125

Standards-Based Curriculum, Differentiated Instruction, and End of Course Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Differentiated instruction, standards-based curriculum, and end of course assessments (ECAs) are not mandated in most high schools across the United States. As such, classroom grades do not accurately reflect district report cards. In particular, grades at the study site, a suburban high school, do not show the specific standards and benchmarks…

Hartnell, Benjamin Jeffry

2011-01-01

126

INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

Qahir, Katayon

2007-01-01

127

Implementation of bioavailability in standard setting and risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioavailability is, to an increasing extent, recognised as the key issue linking the increased levels of toxicants to actually occurring adverse effects in ecosystems, whilst taking the modifying effects of the abiotic components of the environment into account. Various factors may affect bioavailability in the field, and these factors are often time and space dependent. This is one of the main reasons why legislators have been reluctant to implement bioavailability in risk assessment procedures. Over the last few years, however, considerable scientific progress has been made with regard to increasing our understanding of the chemical and ecological mechanisms responsible for rendering chemicals available for uptake and toxicity. As a consequence, legislators face the challenge of having to anticipate the scientific progress and to implement bioavailability in legislation. This contribution reports on the possibilities of implementing various methodologies within a maximum time period of three years. PMID:15750581

Peijnenburg, Willie; Sneller, Else; Sijm, Dick; Lijzen, Johannes; Traas, Theo; Verbruggen, Eric

2004-01-01

128

Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine del...

Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

2001-01-01

129

Standardization and Assessment of Preformulation Parameters of Rasayana Tablet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rasayana tablet is a polyherbal preparation recommended as a tonic. It contains Amla, Gokhru and Galo in equal proportion. This preparation is generally marketed in the form of churna and tablet with several problems in weight hardness, disintegration time and friability. The present work is based on the Standardization of individual ingredients and formulation of Rasayana tablets with improved formulation parameters in order to compare it with the marketed formulation. Pharmacognostical parameters were also checked for individual crude drugs and marketed tablets like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying and powder microscopy. The preformulation parameters like bulk density, tap density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose were also checked for laboratory granules. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using sucrose (55 % solution and starch (20 % solution as binder. The designed formulations were evaluated for thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The designed formulation was in conformity to the properties evaluated for the tablets and is discussed in detail.

Shah V. K.

2010-01-01

130

Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

131

Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From November 1993 to August 1994, 55 patients with localized prostate carcinoma had three gold seeds placed in the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance prior to the start of radiotherapy in order to track prostate motion. Patients had a planning CT scan before initial simulation and again at about 40 Gy, just prior to simulation of a field reduction. Seed position relative to fixed bony landmarks (pubic symphysis and both ischial tuberosities) was digitized from each pair of orthogonal films from the initial and boost simulation using the Nucletron brachytherapy planning system. Vector analysis was performed to rule out the possibility of independent seed migration within the prostate between the time of initial and boost simulation. Prostate motion was seen in the posterior (mean: 0.56 cm; SD: 0.41 cm) and inferior directions (mean: 0.59 cm; SD: 0.45 cm). The base of the prostate was displaced more than 1 cm posteriorly in 30% of patients and in 11% in the inferior direction. Prostate position is related to rectal and bladder filling. Distension of these organs displaces the prostate in an anterosuperior direction, with lesser degrees of filling allowing the prostate to move posteriorly and inferiorly. Conformal therapy planning must take this motion into consideration. Changes in prostate position of this magnitude preclude the use of standard margins

132

Validity and Fairness of State Standards-Based Assessments for English Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

English language learners (ELLs) constitute one of the fastest growing subpopulations of students in the United States. It is important to determine whether the assessments used by states in determining students' proficiencies are valid and fair for ELLs. This study focused on several standards-based assessments in mathematics and science…

Young, John W.; Cho, Yeonsuk; Ling, Guangming; Cline, Fred; Steinberg, Jonathan; Stone, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

133

The Assessment of Professional Standard Competence of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the level of competence needed for teachers of the visually impaired. The assessment was based on Professional Standard Competence developed by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) for special education teachers in 2001. The researchers used questionnaires to acquire information about 190 South Korean…

Lee, Hae-Gyun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kang, Jong-Gu

2008-01-01

134

Assessing the total factor productivity of cotton production in egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this paper is to decompose the productivity growth of Egyptian cotton production. We employ the stochastic frontier approach and decompose the changes in total factor productivity (CTFP) growth into four components: technical progress (TP), changes in scale component (CSC), changes in allocative efficiency (CAE), and changes in technical efficiency (CTE). Considering a situation of scarce statistical information, we propose four alternative empirical models, with the purpose of looking for convergence in the results. The results provide evidence that in this production system total productivity does not increase, which is mainly due to the negative average contributions of CAE and TP. Policy implications are offered in light of the results. PMID:25625318

Rodríguez, Xosé A; Elasraag, Yahia H

2015-01-01

135

Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01

136

24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Methods for Rubber Products—Chemical Analysis...D418-82—Standard Methods of Testing Pile...Standard Test Method for Flammability...O. Box 12215, Research Triangle Park...concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's...identifying the manufacturing plant...

2010-04-01

137

78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...and finished goods that comply with...products they purchase are in compliance...wood or finished good product bill...announced EPA's intention to investigate...producer who purchases finished kitchen...imported finished good, the records...could require an electronic copy of the...

2013-06-10

138

Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

None

1980-08-01

139

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Louisiana and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 009  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) and Graduation Exit Examination (GEE) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

140

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Arkansas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 008  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the current alignment between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability Program (ACTAAP) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

142

The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated.

Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

2013-11-15

143

The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated

144

Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

145

Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized.

Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.

1995-01-01

146

Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)


This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china) to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate enviro...

Yang, Li-li; Zhang, Shao-jie; Gao, Ge

2006-01-01

147

The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensitivity, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of neurocognitive function in patients with schizophrenia use widely variable assessment techniques. Clinical trials assessing the cognitive enhancing effect of new medications have used neurocognitive assessment batteries that differed in content, length and administration procedures. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a newly developed instrument that assesses the aspects of cognition found to be most impaired and most strongly correlated with outcome in patients with schizophrenia. The BACS requires less than 35 min to complete in patients with schizophrenia, yields a high completion rate in these patients, and has high reliability. The BACS was found to be as sensitive to cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia as a standard battery of tests that required over 2 h to administer. Compared to healthy controls matched for age and parental education, patients with schizophrenia performed 1.49 standard deviations lower on a composite score calculated from the BACS and 1.61 standard deviations lower on a composite score calculated from the standard battery. The BACS composite scores were highly correlated with the standard battery composite scores in patients (r=0.76) and healthy controls (r=0.90). These psychometric properties make the BACS a promising tool for assessing cognition repeatedly in patients with schizophrenia, especially in clinical trials of cognitive enhancement. PMID:15099610

Keefe, Richard S E; Goldberg, Terry E; Harvey, Philip D; Gold, James M; Poe, Margaret P; Coughenour, Leigh

2004-06-01

148

Safety and efficacy assessment of standardized herbal formula PM012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m, and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group at doses of 0 (vehicle control, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups, but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects.

Sohn Sung-Hwa

2012-03-01

149

Assessing Operational Total Lightning Visualization Products  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 2003, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program successfully provided total lightning data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) to the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, Alabama. The major accomplishment was providing the observations in real-time to the NWS in the native Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) decision support system. Within days, the NALMA data were used to issue a tornado warning initiating seven years of ongoing support to the NWS' severe weather and situational awareness operations. With this success, SPoRT now provides real-time NALMA data to five forecast offices as well as working to transition data from total lightning networks at Kennedy Space Center and the White Sands Missile Range to the surrounding NWS offices. The only NALMA product that has been transitioned to SPoRT's partner NWS offices is the source density product, available at a 2 km resolution in 2 min intervals. However, discussions with users of total lightning data from other networks have shown that other products are available, ranging from spatial and temporal variations of the source density product to the creation of a flash extent density. SPoRT and the Huntsville, Alabama NWS are evaluating the utility of these variations as this has not been addressed since the initial transition in 2003. This preliminary analysis will focus on what products will best support the operational warning decision process. Data from 19 April 2009 are analyzed. On this day, severe thunderstorms formed ahead of an approaching cold front. Widespread severe weather was observed, primarily south of the Tennessee River with multiple, weak tornadoes, numerous severe hail reports, and wind. This preliminary analysis is the first step in evaluation which product(s) are best suited for operations. The ultimate goal is selecting a single product for use with all total lightning networks to streamline training and science sharing.

Stano, Geoffrey T.; Darden, Christopher B.; Nadler, David J.

2010-01-01

150

40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

151

40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

152

40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

153

40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?  

Science.gov (United States)

...the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces...Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces...the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces...For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine...

2010-07-01

154

40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP...

2010-07-01

155

40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

156

40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions...

2010-07-01

157

40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

158

40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—source-wide...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

160

Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA, a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157 was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran. The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

M Afshari

2012-05-01

162

Strategic environmental assessment for energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

163

DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

164

DOE [Department of Energy]-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

165

Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production  

Science.gov (United States)

Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel–oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel–methanol samples, respectively.

Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M.

2015-02-01

166

Recent advances in environmental risk assessment of transformation products.  

Science.gov (United States)

When micropollutants degrade in the environment, they may form persistent and toxic transformation products, which should be accounted for in the environmental risk assessment of the parent compounds. Transformation products have become a topic of interest not only with regard to their formation in the environment, but also during advanced water treatment processes, where disinfection byproducts can form from benign precursors. In addition, environmental risk assessment of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals requires inclusion of human metabolites as most pharmaceuticals are not excreted into wastewater in their original form, but are extensively metabolized. All three areas have developed their independent approaches to assess the risk associated with transformation product formation including hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard assessment including dose-response characterization, and risk characterization. This review provides an overview and defines a link among those areas, emphasizing commonalities and encouraging a common approach. We distinguish among approaches to assess transformation products of individual pollutants that are undergoing a particular transformation process, e.g., biotransformation or (photo)oxidation, and approaches with the goal of prioritizing transformation products in terms of their contribution to environmental risk. We classify existing approaches for transformation product assessment in degradation studies as exposure- or effect-driven. In the exposure-driven approach, transformation products are identified and quantified by chemical analysis followed by effect assessment. In the effect-driven approach, a reaction mixture undergoes toxicity testing. If the decrease in toxicity parallels the decrease of parent compound concentration, the transformation products are considered to be irrelevant, and only when toxicity increases or the decrease is not proportional to the parent compound concentration are the TPs identified. For prioritization of transformation products in terms of their contribution to overall environmental risk, we integrate existing research into a coherent model-based, risk-driven framework. In the proposed framework, read-across from data of the parent compound to the transformation products is emphasized, but limitations to this approach are also discussed. Most prominently, we demonstrate how effect data for parent compounds can be used in combination with analysis of toxicophore structures and bioconcentration potential to facilitate transformation product effect assessment. PMID:21473617

Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin

2011-05-01

167

Assessment of new tropospheric real time product at GOP  

Science.gov (United States)

A benchmark campaign was started in February 2013 at the Geodetic observatory Pecny (GOP) for the assessing of Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) estimated from GNSS data in real time in order to support nowcasting or severe weather events monitoring. For this purpose, we developed the Tefnut application which is derived from the G-Nut software library. Our solution is based on the Precise Point Positioning technique (PPP) exploiting the real time precise orbits and clocks provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). Since February 2013, real time ZTDs have been continuously derived for 36 stations selected worldwide for the benchmark campaign. Resulted ZTDs can be characterized by the standard deviation of 6-9 mm when compared to the EUREF and IGS final tropospheric products. The precision requirement for the nowcasting, initially defined during the EU TOUGH project, has been thus already accomplished. Site-specific biases of up to 15 mm (from a monthly statistics) are however still observed being caused by incomplete precise models in the software. These biases are stable enough to be effectively reduced before a usage of real time ZTDs in meteorological applications. The benchmark campaign included both static and kinematic coordinate solutions. The latter resulted in a slightly worse ZTD precision only, which might be encouraging to develop a system for exploiting also receivers on moving platforms for this type of applications. The G-Nut/Tefnut software is being enhanced steadily and we will focus on further improvements towards higher accuracy of estimated tropospheric parameters as well as an for extensions towards multi-GNSS and advanced tropospheric products monitoring the atmospheric asymmetry too.

Vaclavovic, Pavel; Dousa, Jan

2014-05-01

168

Product Standards, Exports and Employment An Analytical Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through the process of globalization, trade dependence and interdependence of the developing countries have increased phenomenally than ever before. The characteristic of this late twentieth-century globalization process has been the new technological revolution that has led to a high rate of world exports of electronics and other high-technology products. This has marginalized most of the developing countries exporting largely the low quality and low value-addition manufacturing and primary ...

Acharyya, Rajat

2004-01-01

169

Standardized Mapping of Nursing Assessments across 59 U.S. Military Treatment Facilities  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: Create an interoperable set of nursing flowsheet assessment measures within military treatment facility electronic health records using the 3M Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD). DESIGN: The project comprised three phases: 1) discovery included an in-depth analysis of the Essentris data to be mapped in the HDD; 2) mapping encompassed the creation of standard operating procedures, mapping heuristics, and the development of mapping tools; and 3) quality assurance incorporated validation of mappings using inter-rater agreement. RESULTS: Of 569,073 flowsheet concepts, 92% were mapped to the HDD. Of these, 31.5% represented LOINC concepts, 15% represented SNOMED CT and 1% represented both. 52.5% were mapped to HDD concepts with no standardized terminology representations. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing flowsheet data can be mapped to standard terminologies but there is not the breadth of coverage necessary to represent nursing assessments. Future work is necessary to develop a standard information model for the nursing process. PMID:23304303

Harman, Tiffany L.; Seeley, Rachael A.; Oliveira, Ivete M.; Sheide, Amy; Kartchner, Tosh; Woolstenhulme, R. Dean; Wilson, Patricia S.; Lau, Lee Min; Matney, Susan A.

2012-01-01

170

Assessing output and productivity growth in the banking industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assesses the evolution of output and productivity in the Greek banking industry for the period 1990-2006. Three main categories of bank output were estimated based on modern theoretical approaches, while for the aggregation and estimation of output and inputs and the estimation of productivity (partial and total factor) we relied on the index number method (Tornqvist index). Additionally, we considered the effect of labor quality on banks’ productivity and using a...

Athanasoglou, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Evangelia; Staikouras, Christos

2008-01-01

171

Standards-based Assessment of Development Toolchains in Safety-Critical Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To reduce the risks of software design failures, the software development processes are more and more subject to regulations fixed in (domain-specific) standards that define criteria for the selection of techniques and measures. In this paper we propose a method for the assessment of development processes and toolchains. The tasks and tools in the development process are modelled and then classified using an ontology that is constructed on the basis of the standard, and a reasoning tool is ap...

Szatma?ri, Zolta?n

2009-01-01

172

Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective?To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods?The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to scre...

Jiao, Zhi-gang; Wang, Zhi-jie; Cao, Wei-min; Zheng, Ying-juan; Jiang, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Yan-ge; Chen, Yong-sheng; Zhou, Xi-jiang

2012-01-01

173

Risk assessment of topically applied products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken skin associated with various skin disorders. BADGE and derivatives had a tendency to permeate pig skin membranes in vitro with higher fluxes in the tape stripped membranes compared to the non-treated membranes. Data from the in vitro skin permeation study and from the literature were used as input parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was foundto be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC. Both UV filters are endocrine disrupting compounds with 3-BC being the more potent. UV filters in sunscreen are often present in high concentrations, which potentially may lead to high systemic exposure dosages. Thus, the risk associated with use of 3-BC and 4-MBC containing sunscreen with regards to endocrine disrupting effects was found to be high and more data is urgently needed in order to fully assess the human risk of 3-BC and 4-MBC in commercial sunscreen.

SØborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen

2007-01-01

174

Algorithms, clinical practice guidelines, and standardized clinical assessment and management plans: evidence-based patient management standards in evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this issue, Farias and colleagues describe how to develop a clinical care pathway by using a structured, continuous learning process embedded within the day-to-day delivery of care. Their method is called Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs). A care pathway, such as a SCAMP, includes multiple decision points and related recommendations. The SCAMP process can test the validity of each decision point if clinicians document patient data and record their reasoning when they deviate from the recommended action at a decision point. The unique feature of SCAMPs is that they encourage dissent, unlike clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), algorithms, and bundled electronic health record protocols, which are designed to be followed. If a clinician deviates from the recommended action at a decision point, an explanation is required. This feedback, which should explain why a patient does not precisely "fit" the logic of the care pathway, may lead the SCAMP developers to modify the decision point.The authors of this Commentary argue that SCAMPs and CPGs, two approaches to developing clinical standards of care, are fundamentally equivalent. The key link between them is the recently described process of deconstructing a CPG into the many steps that are necessary to consistently apply it to clinical practice. The SCAMP process puts these steps to the test of daily practice.The Commentary ends with a list of foundational principles for developing standards of clinical care. These principles should apply to care pathways, algorithms, practice guidelines, or SCAMPs. PMID:25295966

Sox, Harold C; Stewart, Walter F

2015-02-01

175

Assessing Quality of Data Standards: Framework and Illustration Using XBRL GAAP Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of data standards or metadata schemas is to improve the interoperability of data created by multiple standard users. Given the high cost of developing data standards, it is desirable to assess the quality of data standards. We develop a set of metrics and a framework for assessing data standard quality. The metrics include completeness and relevancy. Standard quality can also be indirectly measured by assessing interoperability of data instances. We evaluate the framework using data from the financial sector: the XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) taxonomy and US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings produced using the taxonomy by approximately 500 companies. The results show that the framework is useful and effective. Our analysis also reveals quality issues of the GAAP taxonomy and provides useful feedback to taxonomy users. The SEC has mandated that all publicly listed companies must submit their filings using XBRL. Our findings are timely and have practical implications that will ultimately help improve the quality of financial data.

Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Harris

176

A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

177

Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

2008-07-01

178

Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

2014-06-01

179

Image processing of standard grading scales for objective assessment of contact lens wear complications  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocular complications in contact lens wearers are usually graded by specialists using visual inspection and comparing with established standards. The standard grading scales consist of either a set of illustrations or photographs ordered from a normal situation to a severe complication. In this work, an objective assessment of contact lens wear complications is intended by applying different image processing techniques to two standard grading scales (Efron and CCLRU grading scales). In particular, conjunctival hyperemia and papillary conjunctivitis are considered. Given a set of standard illustrations or pictures for each considered ocular disorder, image preprocessing is needed to compare equivalent areas. Histogram analysis allows segmenting vessel and background pixel populations, which are used to determine the most relevant features in the measurement of contact lens effects. Features such as color, total area of vessels and vessel length are used to evaluate bulbar and lid redness. The procedure to obtain an automatic grading method by digital image analysis of standard grading scales is described.

Perez-Cabre, Elisabet; Millan, Maria S.; Abril, Hector C.; Otxoa, E.

2004-10-01

180

Assessment of the microbial parameters along the production phases at a dairy plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this paper was to detect the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) in raw milk, to assess the hygiene parameters during the milk processing and to evaluate the safety of the fi nal dairy products using standard ISO methods. Staphylococcus aureus showed highest prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms (85%), followed by Escherichia coli (46%) and Listeria monocytogenes (...

Angelovski Ljupco; Jankuloski Dean; Ratkova Marija; Prodanov Mirko; Mojsova Sandra; Sekulovski Pavle

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Product in Process: From Ambiguities of Standard English to Issues That Divide Us.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard written English is defined by those in power as a classless and unchanging grapholect, a public idiom in worldwide use that is presently the unofficial official language. However, true standard English is not changeless, but represents a product in constant process, existing though there is conflict and variation within both the norm and…

Sledd, James

182

Quality control and quality standards for the production of bone allografts in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a rapid progress of tissue banking especially Bone Banking in China, In order to strengthen the control on medical devices, Ministry of Public Health (MPH) issued the 'Regulation on Supervision of Critical Medical Devices, MPH Decree No. 54' in 1997. The SPTB was requested to submit new application for the approval of production and providing of tissue allografts. The needed documents are clinical reports, package insert, quality standards of product, Quality System Regulation (QSR) and audit report. Quality System Regulation document adopted the GMP standard for medical devices of FDA, US (21 CFR 620-1997). SPTB will amend the existed Quality Manual to suit the requirement of QSR. Referring to the AATB Standards, SPTB established 'Technical Standards' for Tissue Banking and was approved by the local government, which will be the supplement of the submitted QSR document. Considering the need of market control, MPH requested to submit a 'Quality Standard of Product' and the method of inspection. SPTB has completed such standards for final inspection of bone products, which includes the test for residual water, microbiology, bone species, colour and structure. In addition, the Tissue Bank has completed standards for in process inspection, which includes residual blood, radiation sterilization, initial bioburden, package leakage and biomechanics. In-process inspection is important for the control of non-conforming final products to assure the safety and efficacyproducts to assure the safety and efficacy of bone grafts. Methods of in process inspection and final inspection are described and discussed in this paper

183

Assessment of Competitiveness of Industrial Products on the Basis of Commercial Assessment of its Quality ?????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of search for new improved methods of assessment of the level of product competitiveness and efficient ways of its growth is topical and requires a more detailed study. The goal and task of the article is a study of main directions of assessment of product quality as a main component of its competitiveness and development of expression of the indicator of goods competitiveness on the basis of it. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, the arti...

Grynova Valentyna M.; Mysko Natalya V.

2013-01-01

184

Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

2013-01-01

185

Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

2012-02-01

186

Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

K. Hollenstein

2005-01-01

187

The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification--Level 2, Version 9. Volume 14  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-2 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 2 standard data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. The Level 2 Standard Data Products specifically include those derived geophysical data values (i.e., ice sheet elevation, cloud height, vegetation height, etc.). Additionally, the appropriate correction elements used to transform the Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products into Level 2 Data Products are included. The data are packaged with time tags, precision orbit location coordinates, and data quality and usage flags.

Lee, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

188

The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification-Level 1, Version 9  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-1 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 1 standard data products. GLAS Level 1 standard data products are composed of Level 1A and Level 1B data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. GLAS Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products are composed from those Level 0 data that have been reformatted or transformed to corrected and calibrated data in physical units at the full instrument rate and resolution.

Lee, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

189

Your Standards or Mine? The Case for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the creation and objectives of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and reviews the findings of an evaluation of the NAEP, published in "Measuring the Quality of Education," by Wirtz and Lapointe. Focuses on the role that the NAEP can play in establishing uniform, national educational standards. (GC)

Lapointe, Archie E.; Koffler, Stephen L.

1982-01-01

190

Local versus Standardized Content Assessment: Some Management Implications, or Why Bother?  

Science.gov (United States)

In a quest to improve student learning and simultaneously to satisfy accrediting agencies, colleges make decisions about how to assess knowledge or content as students graduate. The authors address the strengths and weaknesses of locally developed exams as contrasted to national, standardized tools, and describe a process for developing local…

Smith, Lois J.; Clements, Christine; Olson, Janet E.

2010-01-01

191

Proficiency Assessment Standards in Second Language Acquisition Research: "Clozing" the Gap  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to sensitize SLA researchers to the importance of documenting and controlling for their participants' proficiency in the target language, with the goal of establishing more robust proficiency assessment standards in experimental research. First, this article presents a survey of recent (2000-2008) foreign and second-language…

Tremblay, Annie

2011-01-01

192

Training and Validation of Standardized Patients for Unannounced Assessment of Physicians' Management of Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Standardized patients (SPs) have been developed to measure practitioner performance in actual practice settings, but results have not been fully validated for psychiatric disorders. This study describes the process of creating reliable and valid SPs for unannounced assessment of general-practitioners' management of depression disorders…

Shirazi, Mandana; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami, A.; Kashani, A. Sabouri; Parikh, Sagar; Alaeddini, F.; Arbabi, Mohammad; Wahlstrom, Rolf

2011-01-01

193

Setting Proficiency Standards for School Leadership Assessment: An Examination of Cut Score Decision Making  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Performance evaluation informs professional development and helps school personnel improve student learning. Although psychometric literature indicates that a rational, sound, and coherent standard-setting process adds to the credibility of an assessment, few studies have empirically examined the decision-making process. This article…

Cravens, Xiu Chen; Goldring, Ellen B.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.

2013-01-01

194

Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

195

Tests of Alignment among Assessment, Standards, and Instruction Using Generalized Linear Model Regression  

Science.gov (United States)

An essential component in school accountability efforts is for assessments to be well-aligned with the standards or curriculum they are intended to measure. However, relatively little prior research has explored methods to determine statistical significance of alignment or misalignment. This study explores analyses of alignment as a special case…

Fulmer, Gavin W.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

2014-01-01

196

Assessment of the Draft AIAA S-119 Flight Dynamic Model Exchange Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of a draft AIAA standard for flight dynamics model exchange, ANSI/AIAA S-119-2011, was conducted on behalf of NASA by a team from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The assessment included adding the capability of importing standard models into real-time simulation facilities at several NASA Centers as well as into analysis simulation tools. All participants were successful at importing two example models into their respective simulation frameworks by using existing software libraries or by writing new import tools. Deficiencies in the libraries and format documentation were identified and fixed; suggestions for improvements to the standard were provided to the AIAA. An innovative tool to generate C code directly from such a model was developed. Performance of the software libraries compared favorably with compiled code. As a result of this assessment, several NASA Centers can now import standard models directly into their simulations. NASA is considering adopting the now-published S-119 standard as an internal recommended practice.

Jackson, E. Bruce; Murri, Daniel G.; Hill, Melissa A.; Jessick, Matthew V.; Penn, John M.; Hasan, David A.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Falck, Robert D.; McCarthy, Thomas G.; Vuong, Nghia; Zimmerman, Curtis

2011-01-01

197

By-products in earth construction. Assessment of acceptability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 70 million tonnes of natural mineral aggregates are used each year in Finland for road construction and earthworks. Depletion of the best materials, the need for resource conservation and longer transport distances have all increased the need to introduce substitute materials for natural aggregates. At the same time industry, construction and other similar activities produce large quantities of potentially usable by-products. Current waste legislation also supports the use of wastes as substitutes for natural raw materials. The use of secondary products of industry and other activities requires that they be proven to be environmentally friendly and technically suitable. In the project 'By-products in earthworks - assessment of applicability' guidance was developed for the assessment of the environmental and technical applicability of secondary products for use in earthworks and road construction. The project was a part of the Finnish Ecogeo Technology Programme. The guide was prepared in collaboration between several research institutes. The guide presents the legislative requirements for the utilisation of secondary products in earthworks, recommendations for the investigation of environmental and technical applicability, recommendations for environmental and technical criteria of the utilisation in earthworks and recommendations for product quality control procedures. A tiered system is presented for the assessment of environ- mental compliance. The assessment levels are as follows: 1. Concentrations of harmful components. 2. Leaching of harmful components from unpaved and paved constructions. 3. Risk assessment. During the preparation of the guide, the environmental, legal and technical preconditions for the use of the secondary materials were extensively investigated. The results of these studies were published in separate reports. The following aspects, amongst others, were studied during the project: The environmental and health risks of the use of industrial by-products and the methodologies of risk assessment; The environmental criteria for the utilisation of industrial by-products in earth constructions; The methods for laboratory-scale functional testing of the secondary products used in earthworks: The life-cycle environmental impact of usage, and the methodologies of life-cycle environmental impact assessment; The binding and transport of harmful components in soil; The Finnish environmental permit practice and suggestions for the development of more adaptable legal measures and A quality control system for the production and use of secondary materials in earthworks. (orig.)

Mroueh, U.-M.; Maekelae, E.; Wahlstroem, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kauppila, J.; Sorvari, J. [Finnish Environmental Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, P.; Salminen, R. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Juvankoski, M.; Tammirinne, M. [VTT Communities and Infrastructures, Espoo (Finland)

2000-07-01

198

Validation of the Standard Method for Assessing Flicker From Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper studies the validity of the standard method in IEC 61400-21 for assessing the flicker emission from multiple wind turbines. The standard method is based on testing a single wind turbine and then using the results of this test to assess the flicker emission from a number of wind turbines. This study is based on the data from two wind farms, one with fixed-speed wind turbines and one with variable-speed wind turbines. The data are: a type test at the terminals of a wind turbine, and measurements at the connection of a collection line to the substation. The type test data are used to assess the flicker emission at the collection line; this assessment is then compared to the actual measurements in order to study the accuracy of the estimation. It was observed in both wind farms, that the assessment based on the standard method is statistically conservative compared to the measurements. The reason for this is the statistical characteristics of flicker emission.

Barahona Garzon, Braulio; SØrensen, Poul Ejnar

2011-01-01

199

Assessing Referential Communication Skills: The Use of a Non-Standardized Assessment Procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a nonstandardized method used to assess the degree to which school-aged children with communication disorders are competent with the pragmatic skill of referential communication. Results with six children (ages 8-12) with communication disorders revealed that subjects possessed at least some referential communication…

Lucas, Deanne Reiss; And Others

1993-01-01

200

Validity: applying current concepts and standards to gynecologic surgery performance assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Validity is critical for meaningful assessment of surgical competency. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, validation involves the integration of data from well-defined classifications of evidence. In the authoritative framework, data from all classifications support construct validity claims. The two aims of this study were to develop a categorization method for validity evidence published in support of surgery performance assessments and to summarize the results of applying this methodology to the gynecologic surgery literature. This was a critical analysis of published observations reported as validity evidence in studies with a construct validity claim. Medline and Embase databases were searched using keywords: "surgery" and "construct validity". Parameters included English-language articles published from 2000 to 2012. Gynecologic studies were analyzed for definitions of construct validity and nonstandard terminology. Categorization criteria were developed and applied by the researchers to all observations. Two independent evaluators examined reported observations for compliance with guidelines provided by the Standards. Inter-rater agreement was calculated using weighted kappa. The initial search returned 167 articles. Twenty-five articles were left for inclusion in our analysis. Eighteen (72 %) articles defined construct validity as the ability to discriminate between expert and novice levels of proficiency. Within the sample, 80 discrete observations of reported validity evidence were identified and categorized according to standard classifications. Nearly 30 % of all published observations intended to demonstrate differences in performance by level of proficiency, 25 % described a scoring model, and 14 % demonstrated support of assessment content. Not one article contained a statistical correlation between assessment scores and objective outcomes from the authentic surgical environment. Medians for level of rigor ranged from 0 to 1 across all forms of evidence. Weighted kappa values ranged 0.60-0.91. Validity claims in gynecologic surgical assessment over-rely on generalizability evidence. No test-criterion evidence was observed. Increased awareness of current standards and systematic argument development is needed for gynecologic performance assessments. PMID:25416024

LeClaire, Edgar L; Nihira, Mikio A; Hardré, Patricia L

2014-11-22

 
 
 
 
201

Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. Materials and methods: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants’ ALS- competence was assessed using the Advanced Life Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is con- ducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding resuscitation teaching issued by the university. Results: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of theparticipants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites.

Jensen, Morten Lind; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus

2008-01-01

202

Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ? Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ? Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ? Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ? Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

203

Radiation Safety Analysis In The NFEC For Assessing Possible Implementation Of The ICRP-60 Standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation safety analysis of the 3 facilities in the nuclear fuel element center (NFEC) for assessing possible implementation of the ICRP-60 standard has been done. The analysis has covered the radiation dose received by workers, dose rate in the working area, surface contamination level, air contamination level and the level of radioactive gas release to the environment. The analysis has been based on BATAN regulation and ICRP-60 standard. The result of the analysis has showed that the highest radiation dose received has been found to be only around 15% of the set value in the ICRP-60 standard and only 6% of the set value in the BATAN regulation. Thus the ICRP-60 as radiation safety standard could be implemented without changing the laboratory design

204

An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and implemented to maximize benefits for biodiversity conservation. PMID:25363833

Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Rikxoort, Henk Van; Zrust, Michal

2014-10-31

205

ASSESSMENT OF OIL PRODUCTION VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

An extensive description of oil and gas exploration and production drilling technology is presented. Emphasis has been placed on the makeup, use, and disposal of drilling fluids. A simple model for assessment of VOC emissions accompanying drilling is presented, along with an esti...

206

Supporting the Preparation of Beginning Teachers with Online Assessment Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The teacher education literature is replete with recommendations regarding the preparation of new teachers who are equipped to face the complexities and instructional demands of their first year of teaching. Recently, teacher education programs have begun to use online assessment products to provide evidence that their teacher candidates' can…

Everhart, Brett; Hogarty, Kris

2009-01-01

207

Influence of standardized activities on validity of Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC is an observation-based clinical tool that evaluates ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand during bimanual activities. Two validity aspects were investigated: potential bias interaction between prosthesis users and activities performed during assessment, and potential bias interaction between activities and different user characteristics (sex or prosthetic side. Six activities were standardized for the ACMC. Upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis users (47 congenital, 11 acquired; 31 male, 27 female, average age 19.9 yr performed three standardized activities, each on one occasion. Bias-interaction analysis in the many-facet Rasch model identified inconsistent patterns in the interactions of individual users and activity facets and between activities and user characteristics. The standardized activities had no significant influence on measures of user ability. The activities functioned similarly across both sexes (p-value greater than or equal to 0.12 and across both prosthetic sides in persons with upper-limb reduction deficiency (p-value greater than or equal to 0.50 and persons with acquired amputation (p-value greater than or equal to 0.13. The results provide evidence for the validity of the ACMC across the standardized activities and support use of the ACMC in prosthesis users of both sexes and prosthetic sides. The newly standardized activities are recommended for future ACMC use.

Helen Y. N. Lindner, MSc

2014-02-01

208

Developing standards for malaria microscopy: external competency assessment for malaria microscopists in the Asia-Pacific  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years, associated with the increasing accessibility of accurate diagnosis through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and new World Health Organization guidelines recommending parasite-based diagnosis prior to anti-malarial therapy. However, light microscopy, established over 100 years ago and frequently considered the reference standard for clinical diagnosis, has been neglected in control programmes and in the malaria literature and evidence suggests field standards are commonly poor. Microscopy remains the most accessible method for parasite quantitation, for drug efficacy monitoring, and as a reference of assessing other diagnostic tools. This mismatch between quality and need highlights the importance of the establishment of reliable standards and procedures for assessing and assuring quality. This paper describes the development, function and impact of a multi-country microscopy external quality assurance network set up for this purpose in Asia. Methods Surveys were used for key informants and past participants for feedback on the quality assurance programme. Competency scores for each country from 14 participating countries were compiled for analyses using paired sample t-tests. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants including the programme facilitators and national level microscopists. Results External assessments and limited retraining through a formalized programme based on a reference slide bank has demonstrated an increase in standards of competence of senior microscopists over a relatively short period of time, at a potentially sustainable cost. The network involved in the programme now exceeds 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific, and the methods are extended to other regions. Conclusions While the impact on national programmes varies, it has translated in some instances into a strengthening of national microscopy standards and offers a possibility both for supporting revival of national microcopy programmes, and for the development of globally recognized standards of competency needed both for patient management and field research.

Ashraf Sania

2012-10-01

209

ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries’ advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries, which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.

Pierre-Yves Renard

2007-11-01

210

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

211

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables.

1984-11-15

212

Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003-2007) using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01) in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Prigent, C.; Turk, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Tian, Y.; Furuzawa, F.; Masunaga, H.

2014-09-01

213

Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003–2007 using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01 in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

H. Norouzi

2014-09-01

214

A three-story prototype commercial building model for energy standard development and assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual hourly simulation programs are generally used in the development and assessment of the impacts of building energy standards. These simulation programs require the specification of a building model as input to the simulation. Results of the simulations are sensitive to the building model, so care must be taken in the choice of the model to ensure representative results. A three-story prototype commercial building model is being used in developing requirements for the revision of ASHRAE Standard 90.1. The prototype is generic but has the capability to represent a broad range of commercial building types, sizes, orientations, and aspect ratios.

Jarnagin, R.E.

1994-06-01

215

Bioassays for risk assessment of coal conversion products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional as well as biotechnological processing coal leads to complex mixtures of products. Besides chemical and physical characterization, which provides the information for product application, there is a need for bioassays to monitor properties that are probably toxic, mutagenic or cancerogenic. Investigations carried out focused on the selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays for the sensitive estimation of toxic effects. Organisms like bacteria, Daphnia magna and Scenedesmus subspicatus, representing different complexities in the biosphere, were selected as test systems for ecotoxicological and mutagenicity studies. The results obtained indicate that bioassays are, in principle, suitable tools for characterization and evaluation of coal-derived substances and bioconversion products. Using coal products, coal-relevant model compounds and bioconversion products, data for risk assessment are presented. (orig.)

Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

1999-07-01

216

Mannequin or standardized patient: participants' assessment of two training modalities in trauma team simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple mannequins have been employed, to enable training without being dependent on expensive and advanced simulators. We wanted to assess the participants' assessment of using a standardized patient instead of a mannequin. Methods Trauma teams in five hospitals were randomly exposed to a mannequin or a standardized patient in two consecutive simulations for each team. In each hospital two teams were trained, with opposite order of simulation modality. Anonymous, written questionnaires were answered by the participants immediately after each simulation. The teams were interviewed as a focus group after the last simulation, reflecting on the difference between the two simulation modalities. Outcome measures were the participants' assessment of their own perceived educational outcome and comparison of the models, in addition to analysis of the interviews. Results Participants' assessed their educational outcome to be high, and unrelated to the order of appearance of patient model. There were no differences in assessment of realism and feeling of embarrassment. Focus groups revealed that the participants felt that the choice between educational modalities should be determined by the simulated case, with high interaction between team and patient being enhanced by a standardized patient. Conclusion Participants' assessment of the outcome of team training seems independent of the simulation modality when the educational goal is training communication, co-operation and leadership within the team.

Wisborg Torben

2009-01-01

217

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

1993-06-01

218

Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

Denis Helic

2009-10-01

219

Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

2011-10-01

220

Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

M. G. Pereira

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Assessment of the quality of durum wheat products by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence video image analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Because assessment of Durum wheat semolina purity by standard ash-test has been widely criticized, we attempted to characterize products of a semolina mill by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging. A collection of milled wheat products ranging from very pure semolina to brans were chosen for this study. Multidimensional statistical analyses (Principal component analyses) were applied to the spectral and image data. Maps showing a classification of the products according to purity were obtained without biochemical calibration. Principal component regression was applied to the data in order to test the relationship of aleurone fluorescence to ash content. Both spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging gave similar results with good determination coefficients (r2 equals 0.97 and 0.92) for the study of a single wheat variety. Products obtained from different wheat varieties were more difficult to compare.

Novales, Bruno; Abecassis, Joel; Bertrand, Dominique; Devaux, Marie-Francoise; Robert, Paul

1995-01-01

222

Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

McAloone, Timothy Charles

2003-01-01

223

GM-free private standards, public regulation of GM products and mass media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides evidence on private standards on genetically modified (GM) organisms for 44 retailers operating in 54 countries, distinguishing between retailers not using GM ingredients, and retailers using ingredients which are potentially GM in private label products. Using this information, we empirically investigate the drivers that induce retailers to adopting a GM-free private standard. The results show that many of the drivers highlighted in the literature, such as historical fact...

Vigani, Mauro; Olper, Alessandro

2014-01-01

224

GM-free private standards, public regulation of GM products and mass media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides evidence on private standards on genetically modified (GM) organisms for 44 retailers operating in 54 countries, distinguishing between retailers not using GM ingredients, and retailers using ingredients which are potentially GM in private label products. Using this information, we empirically investigate the drivers that induce retailers to adopting a GM-free private standard. The results show that many of the drivers highlighted in the literature, such as historical fact...

Vigani, Mauro; Olper, Alessandro

2013-01-01

225

A standardized conjugation protocol to assess antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAMbeta1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laboratory experiments involving five laboratories from different countries. The ultimate goal of the study was to assess the microbial potential of antibiotic resistance transfer among Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB...

Lampkowska, J.; Feld, L.; Monaghan, A.; Toomey, N.; Schjørring, S.; Jacobsen, B.; Voet, H.; Andersen, S. R.; Bolton, D.; Aarts, H. J. M.; Krogfelt, K. A.; Wilcks, A.; Bardowski, J. K.

2008-01-01

226

GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD) have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD); pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40?mg) for 4?...

Kandulski Arne; Peitz Ulrich; Mönkemüller Klaus; Neumann Helmut; Weigt Jochen; Malfertheiner Peter

2013-01-01

227

Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students, and low socio-economic status (SESstudents. The author pays particular attention to these groups and his analysis reveals some interestingresults: in accounting, the NCEA has not met expectations for these students. From 2004 to 2008, thenumber of low SES accounting students has dropped, as has the number of accounting standards entered andthe rates of achievement. Likewise, there has been no significant improvement in the academic performanceof Maori students taking accounting standards, while Pacific Island students have experienced a significantdecrease in achievement. The author also discusses how studying high school accounting impacts on tertiarylevel study and offers some future implications of this research.

Stephen Agnew

2010-12-01

228

Modern state of production of radioactivity standards in CMEA member-states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review has been given of production of radioactivity standards in the CMEA member-states. The review has been compiled on the base of catalogues from some countries (Czechoslovakia, USSR, Poland, Hungary and Romania) and on the base of information wOich had been obtained in the frameworks of bileteral cooperation with DDR. Problems are discussed of preparation of radioactive solutions, their chemicak composition and possibilities of delivery according to the information having been obtained from some producers. Problems are considered of typology of standard sources and possibilities of their application. Special attention has been paid to determination of errors and on comparison of these errors for some types of standards. Comparison has been given of standards, being fabricated in the CMEA member-states with corresponding standards, produced in the capitalist European countries

229

The series production in a standardized fabrication line for silicide fuels and commercial aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUKEM has been responsible for the development and fabrication of LEU fuel elements for MTR reactors under the frame of the German AF program since 1979. The AF program is part of the international RERTR efforts, which were initiated by the INFCE Group in 1978. This paper describes the actual status of development and the transition from the prototype to the series production in a standardized manufacturing line for silicide fuels at NUKEM. Technical provisions and a customer oriented standardized product range aim at an economized manufacturing. (Author)

230

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlighand aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

231

Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

1980-01-01

232

Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

233

Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for In vitro biofilm production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 14 Escherichia coli isolates were assessed for their ability to produce biofilm in-vitro by slime production on Congo red agar medium (CRA and microtitre plate assay. Out of 14 isolates tested, 12 were slime producing on CRA as indicated by black colonies. The isolates of E.coli varied in their ability to produce biofilm on the surface of microtitre plate ranging from 0.101 to 0.543 ODm. Out of 14 isolates tested, 10 were positive for biofilm production employing criterion of blank corrected ODs9s > 0.1. Two of slime negative isolated were also negative for biofilm production where as the two slime positive isolates were found to be negative for biofilm production. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 364-366

A.I. Dadawala

234

DEVELOPING USABLE SOFTWARE PRODUCT USING USABILITY RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Usability is an important factor in ensuring development of quality and usable software product. Ignorance and unawareness about the concept of usability and failure to address usability during software development process has led to usability problems in software product. Many efforts has been suggested in literature to overcome usability problem in software products but current practices faces challenges in reducing these usability problems. Alternatively, the concept of risk management can be used to control usability problems even though these problems cannot be eliminated totally. The concept of risk management is important to deal with usability problem before it occurs. Unfortunately, there is still lack of proper definition of usability risk and a proper model to identify, analyze and prioritize potential usability risk during Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC. This paper presents comprehensive study on the need for Usability Risk Assessment Model to reduce usability problems in software products.

Jayaletchumi T. Sambantha Moorthy

2014-03-01

235

Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

236

Developing Product Quality Control for Standardization of Tsetse Mass Production. Working Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) provides a mechanism within which SIT will be one of the major components of an integrated areawide approach to the establishment of tsetse fly-free areas. Currently world-wide tsetse production is 1/40 of the projected requirement in 2006. To achieve this objective it is essential that quality control (QC) measures suitable for the expanded production be in place. Therefore, improved QC methodology has become a top priority. Improvements in QC methodology will help to ensure the attainment of these production goals and improve quality of rearing, minimize production costs and generate trained QC and production staff required to successfully produce flies and monitor their quality and suitability for release. The proposed CRP is designed to address these issues.

237

Towards a Quantitative Performance Measurement Framework to Assess the Impact of Geographic Information Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decennia, the use of Geographic Information (GI) has gained importance, in public as well as in private sector. But even if many spatial data and related information exist, data sets are scattered over many organizations and departments. In practice it remains difficult to find the spatial data sets needed, and to access, obtain and prepare them for using in applications. Therefore Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) haven been developed to enhance the access, the use and sharing of GI. SDIs consist of a set of technological and non-technological components to reach this goal. Since the nineties many SDI initiatives saw light. Ultimately, all these initiatives aim to enhance the flow of spatial data between organizations (users as well as producers) involved in intra- and inter-organizational and even cross-country business processes. However, the flow of information and its re-use in different business processes requires technical and semantic interoperability: the first should guarantee that system components can interoperate and use the data, while the second should guarantee that data content is understood by all users in the same way. GI-standards within the SDI are necessary to make this happen. However, it is not known if this is realized in practice. Therefore the objective of the research is to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impact of GI-standards on the performance of business processes. For that purpose, indicators are defined and tested in several cases throughout Europe. The proposed research will build upon previous work carried out in the SPATIALIST project. It analyzed the impact of different technological and non-technological factors on the SDI-performance of business processes (Dessers et al., 2011). The current research aims to apply quantitative performance measurement techniques - which are frequently used to measure performance of production processes (Anupindi et al., 2005). Key to reach the research objectives is a correct design of the test cases. The major challenge is: to set-up the analytical framework for analyzing the impact of GI-standards on the process performance, to define the appropriate indicators and to choose the right test cases. In order to do so, it is proposed to define the test cases as 8 pairs of organizations (see figure). The paper will present the state of the art of performance measurement in the context of work processes, propose a series of SMART indicators for describing the set-up and measure the performance, define the test case set-up and suggest criteria for the selection of the test cases, i.e. the organizational pairs. References Anupindi, R., Chopra, S., Deshmukh, S.D., Van Mieghem, J.A., & Zemel, E. (2006). Managing Business Process Flows: Principles of Operations Management. New-Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. Dessers, D., Crompvoets, J., Janssen, K., Vancauwenberghe, G., Vandenbroucke, D. & Vanhaverbeke, L. (2011). SDI at work: The Spatial Zoning Plans Case. Leuven, Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Vandenbroucke, D.; Van Orshoven, J.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

2012-12-01

238

Product Creativity Assessment of Innovations : Considering the Creative Process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in creativity research, while the role of consumer's knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing information about a complex development process could amplify consumer's perception of product creativity. Does storytelling about the process contribute to amplifying creativity ratings? What form of storytelling is needed to make an impact? Results from 134 respondents showed a small but not significant amplifying effect from the additional process information; however, an important learning can be drawn about the form of storytelling needed. An absolute minimal form was chosen here, displaying the need for investigating other, more elaborate forms. Additionally, the analysis showed that creativity was an important driver for the assessment of other product attributes such as purchasability, portraying the importance of design creativity and underlining the importance of further investigating the role of creative process information in amplifying consumer's perception of creativity in products.

Valgeirsdottir, Dagny; Onarheim, Balder

2014-01-01

239

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Oklahoma and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 010  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests (OCT) and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAPE) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAPE assessments will be based. Applying the methodology used by…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

240

Capturing Tacit Knowledge for Assessing Employees' Competency and Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Organization has to evaluate the competencies of their workers to improve organizational productivity. However, this is difficult because organizations have difficulties to capture and retain knowledge especially tacit knowledge of their employees. Approach: The study reviewed selected literature on management knowledge and employers competencies. It also reviewed existing frameworks in knowledge management focusing on the capturing and storing tacit knowledge. Results: Results of this study will include theoretical concept for capturing tacit knowledge and storing them besides developing a model for measuring employee?s competencies in the organization. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study contributes in assessing knowledge workers performance to improve their productivity in an organization.

M. A. Jabar

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (beef and lamb in the urban region of Pisa, a medium-sized Italian city. The capacity of periurban livestock farms for meat production to fulfil urban demand was assessed on the basis of meat supply and demand. We derived meat demand from statistical data, whereas we calculated meat supply on the basis of three estimates (i.e. potential, current, actual meat supply taking into account both statistical and on-farm survey data. In particular, the potential meat supply was estimated from statistical data on slaughtered livestock, the current meat supply was estimated from meat production data of on-farm surveys, while the actual meat supply was estimated from the amount of meat sold by farmers on the local market from onfarm surveys. For the urban region of Pisa, we estimated that the potential meat supply met is equal to 16% of the beef demand and 62% of the lamb demand. This data could change, if the on-farm data is taken into account in the current supply, as was the case with lamb, which decreased to 37%, whereas beef remained almost unchanged (14%. The actual supply was 70% and 10% of the current supply for beef and lamb respectively. We identified some gaps between the three estimates, particularly for lamb production, suggesting that it may have some constraints in terms of production and commercialisation. Our results can contribute to assess local food systems and their drivers at the farm level. Furthermore these results also highlight the need for an agronomical approach to food systems based on the analysis of farm activities located in periurban areas in order to quantify the food supply that is actually produced for the local market. Food planning policies, as well as studies at the local level, could take advantage from this method.

Rosalia Filippini

2014-04-01

242

Bioequivalence for Locally Acting Nasal Spray and Nasal Aerosol Products: Standard Development and Generic Approval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for nasal spray/aerosol products for local action has been very challenging because the relationship between the drug in systemic circulation and the drug reaching the nasal site of action has not been well established. Thus, the current BE standard for these drug/device combination products is based on a weight-of-evidence approach, which contains three major elements: equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delive...

Li, Bing V.; Jin, Feiyan; Lee, Sau L.; Bai, Tao; Chowdhury, Badrul; Caramenico, Hoainhon T.; Conner, Dale P.

2013-01-01

243

Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA), a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA) production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture m...

Afshari, M.; Mottaghiyan, Z.; Emamgholi, A.; Bagheripour, M.; Zand, A.; Salehi, M.; Riazipour, M.; Kachuei, R.; Golmohammadi, R.

2012-01-01

244

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discu...

Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

2009-01-01

245

Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online (13)C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of (13)C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99°C provides quantitative oxidation to (12)CO2 and (13)CO2 respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO2, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards. PMID:25172815

Cueto Díaz, Sergio; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; García Alonso, J Ignacio

2014-09-24

246

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle. (author)

Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

2009-12-15

247

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle.

Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

2009-01-01

248

The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification-Data Dictionary, Version 1.0. Volume 15  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document contains the data dictionary for the GLAS standard data products. It details the parameters present on GLAS standard data products. Each parameter is defined with a short name, a long name, units on product, type of variable, a long description and products that contain it. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. These products are distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC).

Lee, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

249

Assessing the productivity function of soils. A review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development and survival or disappearance of civilizations has been based on the performance of soils to provide food, fibre, and further essential goods for humans. Amongst soil functions, the capacity to produce plant biomass (productivity function) remains essential. This function is closely associated with the main global issues of the 21st century like food security, demands of energy and water, carbon balance and climate change. A standardised methodology for assessing the productiv...

Mueller, Lothar; Schindler, Uwe; Mirschel, Wilfried; Graham Shepherd, T.; Ball, Bruce C.; Helming, Katharina; Rogasik, Jutta; Eulenstein, Frank; Wiggering, Hubert

2010-01-01

250

Assessment of Potential Milk Production of Chinese Hesitan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was aimed to assess a potentiality of milk production for a recently established dairy farm. A total of 201 Chinese Hesitan cows and 21 calves were raised in stall feeding system. The cows were respectively divided into area A (lactating only), B (late pregnant only), C (early pregnant only) and D (calves only). The study period lasted for 60 days which initially involved only 19 lactating cows and ended with 102 lactating cows. Physical observation of daily milk collection (twice ...

Abdullahi, A. Y.; Yang, J. B.

2012-01-01

251

Assessing net community production in a glaciated Alaska fjord  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of deglaciation in Glacier Bay (GLBA) has been observed to seasonally impact the biogeochemistry of this marine system. The influence from surrounding glaciers, particularly tidewater glaciers, has the potential to greatly impact the efficiency and structure of the marine food web within GLBA. To assess the magnitude, spatial and temporal variability of net community production (NCP) in a glaciated fjord, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon (DI...

Reisdorph, S. C.; Mathis, J. T.

2014-01-01

252

Higgs production in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the production of Higgs-boson pairs at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC), in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. At the tree level this proceeds via qq annihilation and at the one loop level via gg fusion. These mechanisms are investigated for the production of neutral and charged Higgs-boson pairs as well as for W±H-+ associated production. We present full analytical results for these processes. For our numerical analysis, we adopt the SUGRA-inspired scenario. It turns out that the SUSY contribution enhances the cross section up to 50% in the case of H+H- production. In the case of W±H-+ associated production, this can make an effect of ± 10% depending on tan ? and mH±. In the case of neutral Higgs production, this can enhance or decrease the cross section depending on tan ? and the final-state Higgs masses. (orig.)

253

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of milk production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Milk is one of the most important food products in human nutrition. Consequently, the environmental impact of its production is of high relevance. This topic is especially important for Switzerland, where 70 % of the agricultural area is covered by grassland, which can be exploited only by ruminants, and where milk contributes 24 % of the economic output of agriculture (2008). In the present study, the environmental impact of Swiss milk production was assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories as non-renewable energy demand (NRED), global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP) as well as terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity potential (TEP and AEP) were investigated in detail. Over two years, data from 66 dairy farms of very different sizes and production types with conventional and organic farming systems in different regions were analysed. The environmental impacts per kg milk varied widely. A great number of positions (the most important being purchase of foodstuff, animal emissions - first enteric methane emissions and ammonia emissions in stable, and then by manure spreading, fertilisers, energy carriers, infrastructure - and pesticides) play a role in the environmental impact. With the exception of the non-use of pesticides for the production of feedstuff in organic farming and the significantly higher values for NRED and GWP of farms in the mountain region compared to farms in the plain region, there is no correlation between the farming systems, the production region or the production volume with the environmental impact analysed. Consequently, the present study shows the importance of the individual decisions of the farmers. For the future, we need to investigate in a very detailed way those milk farms which succeeded in all environmental impacts, in order to clearly understand the rationale behind the observed success, rather than try to find better correlations to explain respectively to justify the good or bad environmental results of milk farms.

Gaillard, Gerard; Alig, Martina; Mieleitner, Johanna [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon ART, Zurich (Switzerland)

2011-07-01

254

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material. [Site Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

255

Phytotoxicity assessment of diclofenac and its phototransformation products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is an emerging issue. Several studies observed that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is ubiquitously present in most of the surveyed surface waters, worldwide. Phototransformation of diclofenac was reported from laboratory assays as well as in natural water systems, raising the question of possible adverse effects of the phototransformation products of diclofenac to aquatic organisms. In this study the phytotoxicity of diclofenac exposed to natural sunlight was evaluated using synchronized cultures of the unicellular chlorophyte Scenedesmus vacuolatus. Diclofenac dissolved in ultra-pure water at 50 mg L(-1) was exposed to natural midsummer sunlight for a maximum of 145 h. Twice a day subsamples were taken for chromatography and parallel phytotoxicity assessment. Inhibition of algal reproduction of the initial diclofenac solution was in the mg L(-1) range indicating no specific toxicity of diclofenac towards S. vacuolatus. Fast degradation of diclofenac was observed with half lives between 3.3 and 6.4 h during the first and the third day of exposure, respectively. Phytotoxicity increased after 3.5 h of exposure of diclofenac to sunlight and showed a maximum of sixfold enhanced toxicity after 53 h of exposure to sunlight. Several phototransformation products were found during the experiment. The time courses of the relative concentration of three transformation products significantly correlated with enhanced phytotoxicity during the experiment. This indicates a high toxicity potential of phototransformation products of diclofenac at concentration levels that may come close to environmental concentrations of residual diclofenac after degradation. We conclude that toxicity assessment of phototransformation products should be included in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the environment. PMID:17031619

Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Bartels, Peter; Adler, Nicole; Altenburger, Rolf

2007-02-01

256

Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

2015-02-01

257

Review of central exclusive production of the Higgs boson beyond the Standard Model  

Science.gov (United States)

We review activities in the field of theoretical, phenomenological and experimental studies related to the production of the Higgs boson in central exclusive processes at LHC in models beyond Standard Model. Prospects in the context of the Higgs boson discovery at LHC in 2012 and of proposals to build forward proton detectors at ATLAS and CMS side are summarized.

Taševský, Marek

2014-11-01

258

Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

Figy, Terrance [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Palmer, Sophy [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). IThP; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2010-12-15

259

W / Z + heavy flavor production and the standard model Higgs searches at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Searches for the Standard Model Higgs in WH and H {yields} WW channels by CDF and D0 collaborations are presented. The preliminary results are based on < 180 pb{sup -1} of data analyzed by each experiment. Important backgrounds to Higgs searches, such as heavy flavor production in association with massive vector bosons (W and Z) are studied in the process.

Choi, S.Y.; /UC, Riverside

2004-08-01

260

Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM  

Science.gov (United States)

Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region.

Figy, Terrance; Palmer, Sophy; Weiglein, Georg

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Production and decay of the standard model Higgs boson at LEP200  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collect and update theoretical predictions for the production rate and decay branching fractions of the Standard Model Higgs boson that will be relevant for the Higgs search at LEP200. We make full use of the present knowledge of radiative corrections. We estimate the systematics arising from theoretical and experimental uncertainties. (orig.)

262

Online Assessment of Satellite-Derived Global Precipitation Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Precipitation is difficult to measure and predict. Each year droughts and floods cause severe property damages and human casualties around the world. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for mitigation and preparedness efforts. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite precipitation product development. In particular, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability have been improved by blended techniques. Their resulting products are widely used in various research and applications. However biases and uncertainties are common among precipitation products and an obstacle exists in quickly gaining knowledge of product quality, biases and behavior at a local or regional scale, namely user defined areas or points of interest. Current online inter-comparison and validation services have not addressed this issue adequately. To address this issue, we have developed a prototype to inter-compare satellite derived daily products in the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS). Despite its limited functionality and datasets, users can use this tool to generate customized plots within the United States for 2005. In addition, users can download customized data for further analysis, e.g. comparing their gauge data. To meet increasing demands, we plan to increase the temporal coverage and expanded the spatial coverage from the United States to the globe. More products have been added as well. In this poster, we present two new tools: Inter-comparison of 3B42RT and 3B42 Inter-comparison of V6 and V7 TRMM L-3 monthly products The future plans include integrating IPWG (International Precipitation Working Group) Validation Algorithms/statistics, allowing users to generate customized plots and data. In addition, we will expand the current daily products to monthly and their climatology products. Whenever the TRMM science team changes their product version number, users would like to know the differences by inter-comparing both versions of TRMM products in their areas of interest. Making this service available to users will help them to better understand associated changes. We plan to implement this inter-comparison in TRMM standard monthly products with the IPWG algorithms. The plans outlined above will complement and accelerate the existing and ongoing validation activities in the community as well as enhance data services for TRMM and the future Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

2012-01-01

263

Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s. It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish a reference standard of children’s competence to consent, combined with validation of an assessment instrument. Results can facilitate responsible involvement of children in clinical trials by further development of guidelines, health-care policies and legal policies.

Hein Irma M

2012-09-01

264

Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

265

Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories to include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques. It illustrates a Danish example of establishing data of such reference systems. Finally, it provides an overview of approaches used to estimate emissions based on knowledge of manure composition throughout the stages of the livestock production system.

Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

2011-01-01

266

ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED STRAW PULP AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new, straw-based fibre manufacturing technology integrated to bioenergy and biofuels production. The process is based on a novel hot water treatment and subsequent mechanical refining, both of which are performed at a high temperature. Soda process, ethanol production, and chemical defibration based on hot water treatment and subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching were selected as references. The idea is to utilise the fibre fraction for packaging and the dissolved solids and the formed fines for energy. The investment costs of this process are significantly lower than those of a soda process. Additionally, a chemicals recovery process is unnecessary. Furthermore, the process offers an attractive alternative for biogas production. However, the assessment showed that the process could only be economical in some terms. Subsidies for investment would probably be needed to promote the acceptance of this environmentally safe process.

Anja Paula Maria Leponiemi

2011-04-01

267

Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering.

Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie

2014-01-01

268

Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

2009-12-01

269

Assessing the Accuracy of Landscape-Scale Phenology Products  

Science.gov (United States)

An International Workshop on the Validation of Satellite-Based Phenology Products; Dublin, Ireland, 18 June 2010; A 1-day international workshop on the accuracy assessment of phenology products derived from satellite observations of the land surface was held at Trinity College Dublin. This was in conjunction with the larger 4-day Phenology 2010 conference. Phenology is the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages (such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds). The workshop brought together producers of continental- to global-scale phenology products based on satellite data, as well as providers of field observations and tower-mounted near-surface imaging sensors whose data are useful for evaluating the satellite products. The meeting was held under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup. The mission of LPV is to foster quantitative validation of high-level global land products derived from remotely sensed data and relay results that are relevant to users.

Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Nightingale, Joanne; Nickeson, Jaime

2010-11-01

270

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and compeasy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

271

Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine. PMID:24706569

Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

2014-06-01

272

Trilepton production at the CERN LHC: Standard model sources and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Events with three or more isolated leptons in the final state are known to be signatures of new physics phenomena at high energy collider physics facilities. Standard model sources of isolated trilepton final states include gauge boson pair production such as WZ and W?*, and tt production. We demonstrate that leptons from heavy flavor decays, such as b?lX and c?lX, provide sources of trileptons that can be orders of magnitude larger after cuts than other standard model backgrounds to new physics processes. We explain the physical reason heavy flavor backgrounds survive isolation cuts. We propose new cuts to control the backgrounds in the specific case of chargino plus neutralino pair production in supersymmetric models. After these cuts are imposed, we show that it should be possible to find at least a 4? excess for supersymmetry parameter space point LM9 with 30 fb-1 of integrated luminosity.

273

Radiation safety of the population and agroindustrial production (on the problem of standardization of the radionuclide content in agricultural products)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper studies the important problems of the standardization of radionuclide content in foodstuffs and of the radionuclide content of the agricultural industry (soils, feeds, other subjects of the environment). The paper presents data on the annual dose equivalents of irradiation of a human being living at the contaminated territory. The basic concept provisions are substantiated to determine the permissible levels of the activity of feed stuffs and the contamination control levels for agricultural lands and products

274

Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn

2009-05-29

275

Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

Majerus Steve

2009-07-01

276

Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. Depending on the chosen criterion, one or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs

277

Driving Blind: Why We Need Standardized Performance Assessment In Teacher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we argue that standardized teaching performance assessments (TPAs offer a uniquely valuable resource for learning and improvement of practice in teacher education. The affordances of TPAs as opportunities for learning are identified at four levels, including those for teacher candidates, individual faculty, organizational learning at the program level, and organizational networks that span program boundaries. We conclude that TPAs can provide motivation and direction for continuous program improvement efforts, contribute to the development of a common and concrete language of practice, and accelerate the professionalization of teaching.

Charles A. Peck

2014-05-01

278

Factors determining milk quality and implications for production structure under somatic cell count standard modification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer and processor demand for high-quality milk has placed increasing pressure on US milk producers to achieve higher product standards. International standards for somatic cell count (SCC) are becoming more stringent, but in May 2011, the United States National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments chose to retain the 750,000 cells/mL standard. Using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions on US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Management Survey Dairy Costs and Returns Report data for 2005, we model producer and farm-level characteristics associated with SCC. Quantile regression analysis allows for a more parsed inquiry into statistical associations. Dairy Costs and Returns Report data provide cross-sectional information on the physical structure, input expenses, demographics, and outputs for farms in selected states. Location outside the Southeast, lower herd age, full-time farming status, use of biosecurity guidelines, good milking facilities and operations management, and application of related quality tests are all associated with lower SCC levels. Size of operation had little effect on SCC levels after controlling for other factors. Many of the operations that did not attain a more demanding SCC standard of 400,000 cells/mL had older operators, operators who expressed intention to exit within 10 yr, smaller size, and location in the Southeast when compared with those meeting the tighter standard. The results suggest that the stricter scheme favors larger farms that are more committed to production and are less likely to be sole or family proprietorships. PMID:22981577

Dong, F; Hennessy, D A; Jensen, H H

2012-11-01

279

Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. PMID:20153167

Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

2010-06-01

280

A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of these studies was twofold: - firstly to check the safety level of the French units in the international context. - secondly, and considerably more importantly, to develop an additional resource for help in decision-making, allowing assessment of the relative impact of modifications to installations or procedures and to detect, once again in relative terms, any weak points. The importance of this second objective is of course greatly increased by the fact that the French nuclear facilities are standardized. When probabilistic safety studies are mentioned, emphasis is frequently placed on the first objective. Although it may be reassuring to find that the French power plants are well placed internationally, the absolute values indicated by the different probabilistic assessments are too dependent on the domain covered, the techniques implemented and the data used for it to be possible to make comparisons of safety levels on the basis of global results alone. On the other hand, the use of probabilistic safety assessments can provide interesting insights towards relative comparison approaches offering the greatest improvements in safety. In this respect, it is encouraging to find that the design of the 1300 MWe series represents an overall improvement over that of the 900 MWe series. The two studies which have been carried out must not be seen as an end, but as a way forward. Furthermore, it is possible to improve and add to them. This opens up two lines of action for the French safety organizations in the field of probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, the latter plan to use the probabilistic safety assessments to help in the following fields: - grading safety problems and identifying any weak points; for instance, in carrying out the two assessments, two outage accident sequences were revealed whose relative importance had been underestimated. The international community has been kept well informed about them, - making periodic safety reassessments (earned out every ten years in France): this essentially consists of making a more quantitative assessment of the

 
 
 
 
281

40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?  

Science.gov (United States)

...production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1054.320 Section 1054.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my...

2010-07-01

282

40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from...not use a HAP or a HAP-based material as an equipment...

2010-07-01

283

Final Report of a Study To Assess the Validity and Reliability of the Standards of Eight Allied Health Professions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified Delphi procedure assessed the content validity of accreditation standards for cardiovascular technologists, cytotechnologists, medical sonographers, electroneurodiagnostic technologists, medical assistants, perfusionists, physician assistants, and surgical technologists. Although validity and reliability were extremely high, some…

Lyons, Kevin J.; Greening, Shirley; Robeson, Mary

2000-01-01

284

Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate ofrom the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

285

Assessment of the phototoxic potential of cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cosmetics are nontoxic or less toxic in perse but photoactivation may then sensitize and could produce additional phototoxicity. Phototoxicity assessment of ten different lipsticks and eight facial creams was conducted. Results revealed that six lipsticks and five facial creams generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced haemolysis and caused lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (in vitro) under sunlight exposure. Seven creams and one lipstick were alkaline while one cream and two lipsticks were acidic. The test lipsticks and creams showed absorption in UV/visible range. The study demonstrated synergistic action of cosmetic products and sunlight. Therefore, sunlight exposure should be avoided after the use of photosensitive cosmetics. PMID:18282649

Hans, Rajendra K; Agrawal, Neeraj; Verma, Kiran; Misra, Rajendra B; Ray, Ratan S; Farooq, Mohammad

2008-05-01

286

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

287

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

Koerber, F.; Schulze Uphoff, U.; Koerber, S.; Maintz, D. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schoenau, E.; Semler, O. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Children' s Hospital

2012-08-15

288

Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

2009-06-30

289

Bottom-strange associated production at high energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ colliders in the standard model  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the flavour changing neutral current bs V (V= gamma , Z) couplings in the production vertex for the process e/sup +/e/sup - / to bs or bs in the standard model. The precise calculations required to keep all quark masses non-zero are carried out. Production cross sections are found to be of the order of 10/sup -3/ fb at LEP II and of the order of 10/sup -1/ fb when the centre-of- mass energy is near the mass of the neutral gauge boson Z. (11 refs).

Chao Shang Huang; Shou Hua Zhu

1999-01-01

290

Bottom-Strange Associated Production at High Energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ Colliders in Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the flavor changing neutral current bsV(V=$\\gamma$,Z) couplings in the production vertex for the process $e^+e^-\\to b\\bar s or \\bar b s$ in the standard model. The precise calculations keeping all quark masses non-zero are carried out. Production cross sections are found to be the order of $10^{-3}$ fb at LEP II and the order of $10^{-1}$ fb when center-of-mass energy is near the mass of neutral gauge boson Z.

Huang, C S; Zhu, S H; Huang, Chao-Shang; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Shou-Hua

1999-01-01

291

Top-Charm Associated Production at High Energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ Colliders in Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

The flavor changing neutral current tcV (V=\\gamma,Z) couplings in the production vertex for the process $e^+e^-\\to t\\bar c$ or $\\bar t c$ in the standard model are investigated. The precise calculations keeping all quark masses non-zero are carried out. The total production cross section is found to be $1.84 \\times 10^{-9}$ fb at $\\sqrt s =200 GeV$ and $0.572 \\times 10^{-9}$ fb at $\\sqrt s =500 GeV$ respectively. The result is much smaller than that given in ref. \\cite{clwy} by a factor of $10^{-5}$.

Huang, C S; Zhu, S H; Huang, Chao-Shang; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Shou-Hua

1999-01-01

292

Top-Charm Associated Production at High Energy e^+e^- Colliders in Standard Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The flavor changing neutral current tcV (V=\\gamma,Z) couplings in the production vertex for the process $e^+e^-\\to t\\bar c$ or $\\bar t c$ in the standard model are investigated. The precise calculations keeping all quark masses non-zero are carried out. The total production cross section is found to be $1.84 \\times 10^{-9}$ fb at $\\sqrt s =200 GeV$ and $0.572 \\times 10^{-9}$ fb at $\\sqrt s =500 GeV$ respectively. The result is much smaller than that given in ref. \\cite{clwy}...

Huang, Chao-shang; Wu, Xiao-hong; Zhu, Shou-hua

1999-01-01

293

Clinical evaluation in advanced practice nursing education: using standardized patients in Health Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical education is critically important because competency in practice ultimately will determine the future of advanced practice nursing. Skills taught in Health Assessment, the first in a series of clinical courses, exposed students to tools that form the basis on which other competencies are built. The availability of standardized patients, people who participate in enacting a simulated but seemingly "real life" clinical encounter in a realistic clinical setting for the benefit of student learning and/or evaluation, made this instructional development project possible. The underlying assumption of this project was that clinical advanced practice nursing student education is enhanced by using an authentic clinical environment, known as a simulation center, with standardized patients and by using one or more evaluation techniques with multiple evaluators (i.e., peer, self, faculty, standardized patient). The student clinical experience was expected to improve and overall learning to increase by this method. This improvement was reflected at the end-of-course evaluations and in the quality of the final videotaped physical examination, which was superior to previous years. Student and faculty satisfaction with this teaching-learning process exceeded all expectations. PMID:12025865

Gibbons, Susanne W; Adamo, Graceanne; Padden, Diane; Ricciardi, Richard; Graziano, Marjorie; Levine, Eugene; Hawkins, Richard

2002-05-01

294

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

Burgoyne Louise

2010-03-01

295

A Total Productivity PCA Model for Assessment and Improvement of Electrical Manufacturing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a framework for assessment of electrical manufacturing systems based on a total machine productivity approach and multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the total model is developed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA and validated and verified by Numerical Taxonomy (NT and non-parametric correlation methods, namely, Spearman correlation experiment and Kendall Tau. To achieve the objectives of this study, a comprehensive study was conducted to locate the most important economic and technical indicators which influence machine performance. These indicators are related to machine productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and profitability. Six major electrical machinery sectors are selected according to the format of International Standard for Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC. Then, a comparative study is conducted through PCA among the electrical machinery sectors by considering the six sectors. This in turn shows the weak and strong points of electrical machinery and apparatus manufacturing sectors with respect to machine productivity. Furthermore, PCA identified which machine indicators have the major impacts on the performance of electrical machinery sectors. The modeling approach of this study could be used for ranking and analysis of other electrical sectors. This study is the first to introduce a total productivity model for assessment and improvement of total machine performance in electrical manufacturing sectors.

Ali Azadeh

2005-01-01

296

Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

1996-03-01

297

Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

2010-01-01

298

The Effect of Modern Standard Arabic Orthography on Speech Production by Arab Children With Hearing Loss  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examined the effect of Modern Standard Arabic orthography on speech production quality (syllable stress and vowels) by 23 Arabic-speaking children with severe or profound hearing loss aged 8–12 years. Children produced 15 one-syllable minimal pairs of words that differed in vowel length (short vs. long) and 20 two-syllable minimal pairs differing in stress pattern. Each word was produced in three tasks: reading partially or fully vowelized words and imitation of aural stimuli. ...

Most, Tova; Levin, Iris; Sarsour, Marwa

2008-01-01

299

A set of standardized metrics for the product fulfillment process of a bank  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ovations is a business solutions provider, it has a reoccurring problem with its clients in the banking industry. They tend to measure their performance by metrics that are convenient for them, instead of what is necessary. The objective of this project is to develop a set standardized metrics for the product fulfilment process of one of their clients, in addition to this it is required that employee motivation driver metrics be considered. The clients name and name of the process which will ...

Mosala, Boitsholo

2013-01-01

300

Ready-For-Use-module full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Currently, the somatostatin imaging using DOTA conjugated peptides like DOTA-TOC, -NOC and -TATE are the common applications. Different 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and synthesis modules are described separately. We describe a new full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC. Methods: The module has to fit with components like the pre-conditioned C18 purifications cartridge and the DOTATOC precursor solute in HEPES buffer. The generator was fractionally eluted in ti...

Stephan Maus; Mathias Schreckenberger

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A) and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B). For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process ...

Le?i? Danica

2005-01-01

302

77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product...announcing that we have accepted the revised ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer...Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will become a mandatory...

2012-02-22

303

ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

SECAN Cristina

2014-05-01

304

Development and Quality Assessment of Date Chocolate Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Date chocolate products were produced by processing cocoa bean into cocoa powder (fermentation, milling, alkalization, press cake to cocoa butter, grinding, sifting and cocoa powder and Date fruit into date powder (cleaning, sorting, drying, milling and sifting. The powders (Cocoa and Date were used in the formulation of four different samples of chocolate mixes. The chemical analysis of the Date chocolates showed that sample C had the highest pH value, this was followed by sample B, while sample A had the lowest value. Sample B had high moisture content, with sample D having the highest. The four samples contained trace amount of fat; the carbohydrate contents of the samples were high, with sample B having the highest, while the protein contents were a bit close with sample D having the highest. Microbiological analysis showed the mesophilic aerobic bacteria plate count and the yeast and mould count are within the range of the standard. The sensory evaluation showed that samples A and B significantly differed (p<0.05 in taste, while samples A and D differed in texture significantly (p<0.05. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in flavor, color, firmness and overall acceptability for the 4 samples. The use of Date-palm in chocolate production improved the taste and flavor of the product. The use of Date palm with or without sugar produces chocolate with a different texture and sweetness.

T.I. Egagah

2010-01-01

305

Visualization of GPM Standard Products at the Precipitation Processing System (PPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the standard data products for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites will be generated at and distributed by the Precipitation Processing System (PPS) at NASA Goddard. PPS will provide several means to visualize these data products. These visualization tools will be used internally by PPS analysts to investigate potential anomalies in the data files, and these tools will also be made available to researchers. Currently, a free data viewer called THOR, the Tool for High-resolution Observation Review, can be downloaded and installed on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems. THOR can display swath and grid products, and to a limited degree, the low-level data packets that the satellite itself transmits to the ground system. Observations collected since the 1997 launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite can be downloaded from the PPS FTP archive, and in the future, many of the GPM standard products will also be available from this FTP site. To provide easy access to this 80 terabyte and growing archive, PPS currently operates an on-line ordering tool called STORM that provides geographic and time searches, browse-image display, and the ability to order user-specified subsets of standard data files. Prior to the anticipated 2013 launch of the GPM core satellite, PPS will expand its visualization tools by integrating an on-line version of THOR within STORM to provide on-the-fly image creation of any portion of an archived data file at a user-specified degree of magnification. PPS will also provide OpenDAP access to the data archive and OGC WMS image creation of both swath and gridded data products. During the GPM era, PPS will continue to provide realtime globally-gridded 3-hour rainfall estimates to the public in a compact binary format (3B42RT) and in a GIS format (2-byte TIFF images + ESRI WorldFiles).

Kelley, O.

2010-12-01

306

Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy aled LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation associations. One central aim of such a criteria is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy resources. Increased use of renewable energy resources is considered to be an essential mean to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The liberalisation of energy markets makes it possible to reinforce and enlarge incentives, which improve the environmental quality of energy products, covering both renewable and non-renewable components. This requires the production of as comparative, transparent, modular and updateable information as possible. Such information promotes effectively the communication between energy producers and their customers and other interest groups and would thus also promote a more even distribution of environmental responsibility of choices and decision-making among different parties. (orig.)

307

Teachers' Use of a Self-Assessment Procedure: The Role of Criteria, Standards, Feedback and Reflection  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the way teachers assess their own coaching competencies regarding the development of vocational education students' reflection skills. The participating teachers used a self-assessment procedure in which they had to judge themselves with the help of criteria and standards, received feedback from a colleague based on…

van Diggelen, Migchiel; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe

2013-01-01

308

The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

Fullmer, Patricia

2009-01-01

309

A Report of a Standard Setting Method for Alternate Assessments for Students with Significant Disabilities. Synthesis Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes one approach toward setting standards to determine performance level cut scores for an alternative assessment for students with disabilities. First, it considers requirements for inclusion of students with disabilities in educational assessments under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The proposed methodology…

Olson, Barbara; Mead, Ronald; Payne, David

310

The Turkish Standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The article present results of standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students (Meadow, 1983), school-age version, for use in Turkey. The SEAI is a 59-item measure for assessing socioemotional adjustment of school-age deaf and hearing impaired students. A sample of 1,097 deaf…

Polat, Filiz

2006-01-01

311

Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team. UPSAT. An international peer review service for uranium production facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to improve the safe operation of uranium production facilities. This programme facilitates the exchange of knowledge and experience between team members and industry personnel. An UPSAT mission is an international expert review, conducted outside of any regulatory framework. The programme is implemented in the spirit of voluntary co-operation to contribute to the enhancement of operational safety and practices where it is most effective, at the facility itself. An UPSAT review supplements other facility and regulatory efforts which may have the same objective

312

29 CFR 70.40 - Charges assessed for the production of records.  

Science.gov (United States)

...MATERIALS Costs for Production of Records § 70...Charges assessed for the production of records. (a...connection with the production of records in response...Reproducing such records (reproduction costs), and...

2010-07-01

313

Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

314

Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

Steele, Philp; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

2012-02-01

315

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of electroweak interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs-boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements presented in this note are based on approximately 5 fb-1 of data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 with the ATLAS detector based at the CERN Laboratory. (authors)

316

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of electroweak interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs-boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements presented in this note are based on approximately 5 fb-1 of data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 with the ATLAS detector based at the CERN Laboratory.

Vincter Manuella G.

2013-11-01

317

Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with unwanted impurities. All in all, more insight should be gained into the magnitude of iLUC impacts associated with energy crops. Their quantification is the key factor determining a beneficial or detrimental GHG performance of bioenergy systems based on energy crops. If energy crops are introduced, combined heat and power production should be prioritized based on the results of this research. Production of liquid biofuels for transport should be limited as the overall energy conversion efficiency is significantly lower thereby leading to decreased GHG performances. On this basis, recovery of energy, materials and resources from waste such as residual agricultural/forestry biomass and municipal/commercial/industrial waste should be seen as the way ahead. Highly-efficient combustion and incineration offer robust energy and environmental performances. Innovative waste refineries may achieve si

Tonini, D.

2013-02-15

318

Standardization of laboratory performance. Approaches to the design of external quality assessment schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Special Programme for Research in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization sponsors clinical trials involving immunoassay measurements by laboratories in different countries. These trials present significant problems of standardization of results. The performance of different laboratories is monitored by means of external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). The design of appropriate EQAS for differing analytes is affected by the number of participating centres, and whether the analyte is measured on a regular basis. Three different EQAS designs are discussed: The first is the WHO EQAS for reproductive hormones, which is intended for analytes measured on a regular basis by a large number of centres. The second design is for unusual analytes that are measured infrequently and at irregular intervals. The third design is for studies where small differences between treatments or subject groups are expected. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

319

Compliance assessment of an uranium hexafluoride package 30B with overpack to the IAEA standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Dipartimento di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari (DCMN) of the Pisa University a research program was carried out in order to assess the compliance to the updated IAEA standards of the UF6 30B container, complete with its sandwich phenolic foam filled external overpack. The research program, performed in collaboration with ENEA and several interested Italian firms, included 9 mt free drop, perforation, thermal and leaktightness tests, on two complete packages with dummy load. The heat transfer conditions, with the UF6 real contents, were simulated by means of numerical analyses with the TRUMP computer code and calculation procedures set up using the available experimental data. The attained results seem to be useful from the point of view of the foreseen purposes

320

Standardization of natural phenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 references, 3 figures

 
 
 
 
321

The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

Mäder Maria Joana

2004-01-01

322

Life cycle assessment of production in the control system of the environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The control system of the environment and the inventory analysis on the basis of Standard ISO of the series 14000 are considered. The International Standards Organization establishes the international quality standards (series ISO 9000 for production at the interethnic level. Series ISO 14000 sets itself as an object is to establish ecological standards for products and services at the interethnic level, first of all, for those that are used in international trade.

?.?. ?????????

2005-04-01

323

Life cycle assessment of production in the control system of the environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 The control system of the environment and the inventory analysis on the basis of Standard ISO of the series 14000 are considered. The International Standards Organization establishes the international quality standards (series ISO 9000) for production at the interethnic level. Series ISO 14000 sets itself as an object is to establish ecological standards for products and services at the interethnic level, first of all, for those that are used in international trade.

?????????, ?. ?. ???

2005-01-01

324

Towards improving the NASA standard soil moisture retrieval algorithm and product  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil moisture mapping using passive-based microwave remote sensing techniques has proven to be one of the most effective ways of acquiring reliable global soil moisture information on a routine basis. An important step in this direction was made by the launch of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the NASA's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (AMSR-E). Along with the standard NASA algorithm and operational AMSR-E product, the easy access and availability of the AMSR-E data promoted the development and distribution of alternative retrieval algorithms and products. Several evaluation studies have demonstrated issues with the standard NASA AMSR-E product such as dampened temporal response and limited range of the final retrievals and noted that the available global passive-based algorithms, even though based on the same electromagnetic principles, produce different results in terms of accuracy and temporal dynamics. Our goal is to identify the theoretical causes that determine the reduced sensitivity of the NASA AMSR-E product and outline ways to improve the operational NASA algorithm, if possible. Properly identifying the underlying reasons that cause the above mentioned features of the NASA AMSR-E product and differences between the alternative algorithms requires a careful examination of the theoretical basis of each approach. Specifically, the simplifying assumptions and parametrization approaches adopted by each algorithm to reduce the dimensionality of unknowns and characterize the observing system. Statistically-based error analyses, which are useful and necessary, provide information on the relative accuracy of each product but give very little information on the theoretical causes, knowledge that is essential for algorithm improvement. Thus, we are currently examining the possibility of improving the standard NASA AMSR-E global soil moisture product by conducting a thorough theoretically-based review of and inter-comparisons between several well established global retrieval techniques. A detailed discussion focused on the theoretical basis of each approach and algorithms sensitivity to assumptions and parametrization approaches will be presented. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Mladenova, I. E.; Jackson, T. J.; Njoku, E. G.; Bindlish, R.; Cosh, M. H.; Chan, S.

2013-12-01

325

Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. PMID:22595076

Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

2012-09-30

326

Assessment of Acetylcholinesterase Activity Using Indoxylacetate and Comparison with the Standard Ellman’s Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity plays an important role in diagnostic, detection of pesticides and nerve agents, in vitro characterization of toxins and drugs including potential treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. These experiments were done in order to determine whether indoxylacetate could be an adequate chromogenic reactant for AChE assay evaluation. Moreover, the results were compared to the standard Ellman’s method. We calculated Michaelis constant Km (2.06 × 10?4 mol/L for acetylthiocholine and 3.21 × 10?3 mol/L for indoxylacetate maximum reaction velocity Vmax (4.97 × 10?7 kat for acetylcholine and 7.71 × 10?8 kat for indoxylacetate for electric eel AChE. In a second part, inhibition values were plotted for paraoxon, and reactivation efficacy was measured for some standard oxime reactivators: obidoxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM and HI-6. Though indoxylacetate is split with lower turnover rate, this compound appears as a very attractive reactant since it does not show any chemical reactivity with oxime antidots and thiol used for the Ellman’s method. Thus it can be advantageously used for accurate measurement of AChE activity. Suitability of assay for butyrylcholinesterase activity assessment is also discussed.

Kamil Kuca

2011-04-01

327

Assessment of quantities for radiation protection in the ICRU standard tissue sphere for intermediate energy neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the fluctuating cross section structure in the energy range of 0.4 to 10.0 MeV on the responses of neutrons in the ICRU standard tissue sphere is analyzed. The point-energy, coupled neutron-secondary particles Monte Carlo method was used in the direct estimation of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent. A new approach was adopted where energy band-averaged responses were calculated instead of the previous method, which generated them as point values. By analyzing the depth-dose distributions with an improved searching method, assessments were made for the important quantities in radiation protection; the index quantities, the newly defined operational quantities, and other relevant quantities defined in the standard receptor. The energy dependencies of the resulting response functions were consistent with the cross section structure and were dominated by the oxygen content in tissue due to both the oxygen resonance cross section and the characteristic behavior of the recoil proton quality factor. The relative differences between the present index quantities and the previous values vary from -17.0 to +3.4% with respect to the present results for the deep dose equivalent, and from -19.2 to +8.6% for the shallow dose equivalent values on the principal axis, these relative differences deviate from +4.0 to 33.8%

328

System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

Jay Zarnikau

2011-10-01

329

Low Voltage Flip-flop Standard Cells with Optimum Energy Delay Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents transmission gate flip-flop standard cells with channel length and dual-threshold techniques and their low-voltage operating. The proposed transmission gate flip-flops have the same structure with the basic master-slave transmission gate one using multiplexers, but the different place is the feedback path (non-critical path. In the non-critical path, the dual-channel length flip-flop uses high threshold devices while the dual-threshold flip-flop uses gate-length modulation device. Three flip-flop standard cells are investigated from 0.5 to 1.2 V in term of Energy Delay Product (EDP with HSPICE at a SMIC 130 nm technology. The dual-threshold flip-flop standard cell achieves considerable leakage reductions and gate-length biasing flip-flop standard cell achieves the lowest total energy consumption in all the cells. The results demonstrate that scaling supply voltage using dual-threshold CMOS (low threshold and ultra high threshold and gate-length biasing are advantageous, especially in low voltage regions (800-900 mv which yield the best EDP.

Yang Dan

2013-01-01

330

Qualification of an automated device to objectively assess the effect of hair care products on hair shine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors developed and qualified an automated routine screening tool to quantify hair shine. This tool is able to separately record individual properties of hair shine such as specular reflection and multiple reflection, as well as additional features such as sparkle, parallelism of hair fibers, and hair color, which strongly affect the subjective ranking by individual readers. A side-by-side comparison of different hair care and styling products with regard to hair shine using the automated screening tool in parallel with standard panel assessment showed that the automated system provides an almost identical ranking and the same statistical significances as the panel assessment. Provided stringent stratification of hair fibers for color and parallelism, the automated tool competes favorably with panel assessments of hair shine. In this case, data generated with the opsira Shine-Box are clearly superior over data generated by panel assessment in terms of reliability and repeatability, workload and time consumption, and sensitivity and specificity to detect differences after shampoo, conditioner, and leave-in treatment. The automated tool is therefore well suited to replace standard panel assessments in claim support, at least as a screening tool. A further advantage of the automated system over panel assessments is the fact that absolute numeric values are generated for a given hair care product, whereas panel assessments can only give rankings of a series of hair care products included in the same study. Thus, the absolute numeric data generated with the automated system allow comparison of hair care products between studies or at different time points after treatment. PMID:22152491

Hagens, Ralf; Wiersbinski, Tim; Becker, Michael E; Weisshaar, Jürgen; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst

2011-01-01

331

Food Standards Agency (UK): role and responsibilities in radiological protection, dose assessment and research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Food Standards Agency (FSA), created by an Act of Parliament in April 2000, is charged with protecting the public's health and consumers' interests in relation to food. The Radiological Protection and Research Management Division is responsible for monitoring radionuclides in the food chain, producing prospective dose assessments for future discharges, planning and taking part in nuclear emergency exercises and commissioning and supervising research related to the pathways of radioactive contamination in food and the environment. This paper will focus on the methods employed by the FSA for the calculation of prospective doses to a critical group living close to a nuclear establishment, and will describe how the WAT/ADO models for Individual Doses for Discharges of Liquid Effluents to Sea were developed. The use of Community Food Intervention Levels (CFILs), established by the European Community for regulating foodstuffs following a nuclear accident, in the FSA approach to radiological protection of the public will also be discussed. The paper will also give examples of research projects sponsored by the Agency, in order to improve prospective dose assessment and modelling

332

Assessment standards, Van Hiele levels, and grade seven learners’ understandings of geometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of researchers in mathematical education assert that the instruction in geometry offered in South African schools is inadequate and that traditional teaching strategies do little to promote teachers understandings of their learners’ levels of mathematical thought. Van Hiele specifically states that the inability of many teachers to match instruction with their learners’ levels of geometrical understanding is a contributing factor to their failure to promote meaningful understandings in this topic.  This study investigated whether a sample of grade seven learners in previously disadvantaged primary schools met both the assessment criteria for geometry as stated by the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement and the implied Van Hiele thinking levels.  The data generated suggest that none of the 30 learners who participated in this study had attained these requirements and that language competency in general is a barrier to the attainment of higher levels of understanding amongst this group of second-language learners. It is suggested that not only Van Hiele Levels and Assessment Standards, but also learners’ cultural background and their specific use of words in the vernacular context, need to be taken into consideration by teachers when developing learning programmes. Possible strategies to meet these requirements are suggested.

Nosisi Feza

2011-10-01

333

Standard penetration test-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents'new correlations for assessment of the likelihood of initiation (or triggering) of soil liquefaction. These new correlations eliminate several sources of bias intrinsic to previous, similar correlations, and provide greatly reduced overall uncertainty and variance. Key elements in the development of these new correlations are (1) accumulation of a significantly expanded database of field performance case histories; (2) use of improved knowledge and understanding of factors affecting interpretation of standard penetration test data; (3) incorporation of improved understanding of factors affecting site-specific earthquake ground motions (including directivity effects, site-specific response, etc.); (4) use of improved methods for assessment of in situ cyclic shear stress ratio; (5) screening of field data case histories on a quality/uncertainty basis; and (6) use of high-order probabilistic tools (Bayesian updating). The resulting relationships not only provide greatly reduced uncertainty, they also help to resolve a number of corollary issues that have long been difficult and controversial including: (1) magnitude-correlated duration weighting factors, (2) adjustments for fines content, and (3) corrections for overburden stress. ?? ASCE.

Cetin, K.O.; Seed, R.B.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tokimatsu, K.; Harder, L.F., Jr.; Kayen, R.E.; Moss, R.E.S.

2004-01-01

334

Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B. For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process by UML class diagram and standardized model of document Working Order for technological process in the form of OAGI BOD XML document. Based on it, from an example, model of technological process is presented by activity diagram (DA in XML form and an appearance of document Working Order. Just as well, rules of transformation DA to XML are presented.

Le?i? Danica

2005-01-01

335

A quantitative assessment of standard vs. customized midline shield construction for invasive cervical carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: An individualized midline shield (MLS) has been advocated for delivering homogeneous radiotherapy for patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Yet, many radiation oncologists continue to employ a standard block. In the latter instance, any deviation of the cranial-caudal central axis of the tandem from the patient's midline could result in dose inhomogeneity to tumor. A retrospective review of a single university medical center's experience with constructing the MLS was initiated to determine the outcome of using a standard block vs. a customized block that conforms to the 'Point A' isodose line. In addition, participating radiation oncologists associated with the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) were polled to assess if there exists a consensus regarding midline block utilization in the management of cervical cancer patients which could be compared to the institutional study. Methods and Materials: From January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1992, 32 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma who underwent low dose rate brachytherapy at a single institution were identified. Patients were grouped as having a standard block (18 cases), customized block (5 cases), or no block (9 cases). The 'Point A' isodose distribution from the implant was superimposed onto the whole pelvic simulation film and quantitatively compared to the actual or a hypothetical standard block outlined on the same radiograph. In September of 1995, 56 member and affiliated institutions in th6 member and affiliated institutions in the GOG were surveyed concerning their use of a MLS, and the results were tabulated in December of 1995. Results: Approximately 72% of all cases 923 out of 32) at the single institution had tandem deviation ranging from 0-230 with a median of 50. This translated into a median percent overdosage to 'Point A' Right of 15% and 'Point A' Left of 12.5%. Although overall survival and incidence of chronic complications have not been affected by type of shielding, patient follow-up is limited with a median of 17.7 months (range: 4.2-58.9 months). Of the 56 surveyed radiation facilities in the GOG, 34 (61%) responded. One center was subsequently excluded as it performs only high dose rate brachytherapy. Of the evaluable respondents, 88% (29 out of 33) utilize a MLS in treating their patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Of the latter group, 76% (22 out of 29), 21% (6 out of 29), and 3% (1 out of 29) employ a standard block, customized block, and a 'step-wedge', respectively. For those using a standard block, 77% (17 out of 22) align the central cranial-caudal axis of the MLS along the corresponding midplane of the patient's pelvis on an anteroposterior radiograph rather than along the superior-inferior central axis of the tandem. Conclusions: This study suggests that the use of a standard midline shield could result in potential tumor dose inhomogeneity and should be avoided. A national survey of major academic centers further suggests that the majority of these facilities also utilize a rectangular central block that is not positioned with respect to possible tandem deviation. Further investigation concerning the techniques of midline shield construction should be considered

336

40 CFR 1042.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet...standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final...1042.225). (c) For catalyst-equipped engines,...

2010-07-01

337

40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels...Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards...flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA storage vessels...this section, or a carbon adsorption system meeting...displaced vapors through activated carbon before...

2010-07-01

338

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

2009-04-01

339

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction ble noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

340

Higgs Pair-Production in the Standard Model at Next Generation Linear $e^+e^-$ Colliders  

CERN Document Server

We study the Higgs pair-production in the Standard Model of the strong and electroweak interactions at future $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider energies, with the reaction $e^{+}e^{-}\\to t \\bar t HH$. We evaluated the total cross section of $t\\bar tHH$ and calculate the number total of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at tree-level. The numerical computation is done for the energy which is expected to be available at a possible Next Linear $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collider: with center-of-mass energy $800, 1600$ $GeV$ and luminosity 1000 $fb^{-1}$.

Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Sampayo, O A

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Higgs pair production in the standard model at next generation linear e+e- colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the Higgs pair production in the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions at future e+e- collider energies, with the reaction e+e-?tt-barHH. We evaluate the total cross section of tt-barHH and calculate the total number of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at the tree level. The numerical computation is done for an energy which is expected to be available at a possible Next Linear e+e- Collider with a center-of-mass energy 800, 1600 GeV and a luminosity of 1000 fb-1

342

Standard SANC modules for NLO QCD Radiative Corrections to Single-top Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It this paper we present the results obtained with the newly created Standard SANC modules for calculation of the NLO QCD corrections to single top production processes in s and t channels at the partonic level, as well as top-decays. The main aim of these results is to prove the correct work of modules. A comprehensive comparison with results of the CompHEP system is given, where possible. These modules are intended to be used in Monte Carlo generators for single top produc...

Bardin, D.; Bondarenko, S.; Christova, P.; Kalinovskaya, L.; Kolesnikov, V.; Von Schlippe, W.; Yordanova, K.

2011-01-01

343

Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: ? We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. ? Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. ? Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. ? Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

344

Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

Hanssen, Ole Joergen

1997-12-31

345

24 CFR 200.947 - Building product standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board.  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board. 200...standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All polystyrene foam insulation board...

2010-04-01

346

Standard-model predictions for W-pair production in electron-positron collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the status of the theoretical predictions for W-pair production in e+e- collisions within the electroweak standard model (SM). We first consider for on-shell W-bosons the lowest-order cross-section within the SM, the general effects of anomalous couplings, the radiative corrections within the SM, and approximations for them. Then we discuss the inclusion of finite-width effects in lowest order and the existing results for radiative corrections to off-shell W-pair production, and we outline the general strategy to calculate radiative corrections within the pole scheme. We summarize the theoretical predictions for the total and partial W-boson widths including radiative corrections and discuss the quality of an improved Born approximation. Finally we provide a general discussion of the structure-function method to calculate large logarithmic higher-order corrections associated with collinear photon radiation. (orig.)

347

Higgs Boson Production via Gluon Fusion in the Standard Model with four Generations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Higgs bosons can be produced copiously at the LHC via gluon fusion induced by top and bottom quark loops, and can be enhanced strongly if extra heavy quarks exist. We present results for Higgs+zero-, one- and two-jet production at the LHC operating at 7 and 14 TeV collision energy, in both the standard model and the 4th generation model, by evaluating the corresponding heavy quark triangle, box, and pentagon Feynman diagrams. We compare the results by using the effective Higgs-gluon interactions in the limit of heavy quarks with the cross sections including the full mass dependences. NLO effects on Higgs+zero-jet production rate with full mass dependence are presented for the first time consistently in the 4th generation model. Our results improve the theoretical basis for fourth generation effects on the Higgs boson search at the LHC.

348

A format standard for efficient interchange of high-contrast direct imaging science products  

Science.gov (United States)

The present and next few years will see the arrival of several new coronagraphic instruments dedicated to the detection and characterization of planetary systems. These ground- and space-based instruments (Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, Subaru/ CHARIS, JWST NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs among others), will provide a large number of new candidates, through multiple nearby-star surveys and will complete and extend those acquired with current generation instruments (Palomar P1640, VLT/NACO, Keck, HST). To optimize the use of the wealth of data, including non-detection results, the science products of these instruments will require to be shared among the community. In the long term such data exchange will significantly ease companion confirmations, planet characterization via different type of instruments (integral field spectrographs, polarimetric imagers, etc.), and Monte-Carlo population studies from detection and non-detection results. In this context, we initiated a collaborative effort between the teams developing the data reduction pipelines for SPHERE, GPI, and the JWST coronagraphs, and the ALICE (Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environment) collaboration, which is currently reprocessing all the HST/NICMOS coronagraphic surveys. We are developing a standard format for the science products generated by high-contrast direct imaging instruments (reduced image, sensitivity limits, noise image, candidate list, etc.), that is directly usable for astrophysical investigations. In this paper, we present first results of this work and propose a preliminary format adopted for the science product. We call for discussions in the high-contrast direct imaging community to develop this effort, reach a consensus and finalize this standard. This action will be critical to enable data interchange and combination in a consistent way between several instruments and to stiffen the scientific production in the community.

Choquet, Élodie; Vigan, Arthur; Soummer, Rémi; Chauvin, Gaël.; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hines, Dean C.

2014-07-01

349

Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

Skala Dejan U.

2004-01-01

350

Standard SANC modules for NLO QCD Radiative Corrections to Single-top Production  

CERN Document Server

It this paper we present the results obtained with the newly created Standard SANC modules for calculation of the NLO QCD corrections to single top production processes in s and t channels at the partonic level, as well as top-decays. The main aim of these results is to prove the correct work of modules. A comprehensive comparison with results of the CompHEP system is given, where possible. These modules are intended to be used in Monte Carlo generators for single top production processes at the LHC. As in our recent paper, devoted to the electroweak corrections to these processes, we study the regularization of the top-legs associated infrared divergences with aid of the complex mass of the top quark. A comparison of QCD corrections with those computed by the conventional method is presented both for top production and decays. For s channel production we give an analytic proof of equivalence of the two methods in the limit of low top width.

Bardin, D; Christova, P; Kalinovskaya, L; Kolesnikov, V; von Schlippe, W; Yordanova, K

2011-01-01

351

Standard SANC modules for NLO QCD radiative corrections to single top-quark production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the results obtained with the newly created standard SANC modules for calculation of the NLO QCD corrections to single top-quark-production processes in s and t channels at the partonic level, as well as to top-decays. The main aim of these results is to prove the correct work of modules. A comprehensive comparison with the results of the CompHEP system is given, where possible. These modules are intended to be used in Monte Carlo generators for single top-quark-production processes at the LHC. As in our recent paper, devoted to the electroweak corrections to these processes, we study the regularization of the top-legs associated infrared divergences with the aid of the complex mass of the top quark. A comparison of QCD corrections with those computed by the conventional method is presented both for top production and for decays. For s-channel production we give an analytic proof of equivalence of the two methods in the limit of low top width

352

Assessment of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Particle Size in Tablets by Raman Chemical Imaging Validated using Polystyrene Microsphere Size Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Particle size is a critical parameter for controlling pharmaceutical quality. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the micrometer-scale active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in tablets using Raman chemical imaging and to understand the effects of formulation on particle size. Model tablets containing National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable polystyrene microsphere size standards were developed to determine the binarization threshold value of Raman chemical images ...

Kuriyama, Atsushi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

353

A standardized bedside test for assessment of peripheral sympathetic nervous function using laser Doppler flowmetry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of increasing knowledge about the role of the sympathetic nervous system in autonomic disturbances like reflex sympathetic dystrophy, no functional test for the peripheral sympathetic system has been introduced into the clinical routine so far. In the development of a standardized bedside test, effects of arousal stimuli [inspiratory gasp (IG) and contralateral cooling (CC)] on blood flow in the fingertips (FTBF) were studied, using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Fifty-two healthy subjects (ages 17 to 75) and 15 patients with sympathetic reflex dystrophy (SRD) underwent the diagnostic procedure. FTBF of healthy subjects during arousal maneuvers showed a reproducible decrease, which is related to a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response. The standardized test procedure with external body heating made interindividual test results comparable. Examination trials with 4 healthy subjects on 10 subsequent days showed good reproducibility. Mathematical analysis of the LDF curves was performed to calculate the degree of FTBF decrease (SRF = (Fmean - Fmin)/Fmean, QI = integral pre/integral post). In contrast to absolute flow values like Fmean and Fmin or time-related parameters like tdecrease and tregeneration, SRF and QI values presented small coefficients of variation (IG test, SRF 25.7, QI 21.7; CC test, SRF 20.0, QI 15.3). The typical decrease of the LDF signal after sympathetic stimulation was absent or diminished in patients with SRD. SRF and QI values showed statistically highly significant differences (P < 0.001) compared to healthy subjects. The presented test appears reliable for the assessment of peripheral sympathetic nervous function. The narrow physiological range of SRF and QI values enabled the differentiation of pathological sympathetic reactions. The test procedure is easy to perform, noninvasive, and practical even in patients with injuries of the upper limbs. PMID:8901444

Schürmann, M; Gradl, G; Fürst, H

1996-09-01

354

GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40?mg for 4?weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48?hours, wireless pH metry. Methods All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ and acid exposure was determined by 48?hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO. In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40?mg q.d. for 4?weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40?mg b.i.d. Results 31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48?hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71% had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%. Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40?mg q.d. after 4?weeks (88%. Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms. Conclusions Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.

Kandulski Arne

2013-01-01

355

Assessing net community production in a glaciated Alaska fjord  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of deglaciation in Glacier Bay (GLBA) has been observed to seasonally impact the biogeochemistry of this marine system. The influence from surrounding glaciers, particularly tidewater glaciers, has the potential to greatly impact the efficiency and structure of the marine food web within GLBA. To assess the magnitude, spatial and temporal variability of net community production (NCP) in a glaciated fjord, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), inorganic macronutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO) and particulate organic carbon (POC) between July 2011 and July 2012 in Glacier Bay, AK. Seasonally-averaged data were analyzed on a regional basis to account for distinct biogeochemical differences within the Bay due to spatial variation in rates of primary production and the influence of glacial-fed stratification, particularly in the northern regions. High NCP rates were observed across the Bay (~ 54 to ~ 81 mmol C m-2 d-1) between the summer and fall of 2011. However, between the fall and winter, as well as between the winter and spring of 2012, air-sea fluxes of CO2 and organic matter respiration made NCP rates negative across most of the Bay as inorganic carbon and macronutrient concentrations returned to pre-bloom levels. The highest carbon production occurred within the lower bay between the summer and fall of 2011 with ~ 1.3 × 1010 g C season-1. Bay-wide, there was carbon production of ~ 2.6 × 1010 g C season-1 between the summer and fall. Respiration and air-sea gas exchange were the dominant drivers of carbon biogeochemistry between the fall and winter of 2012. The substantial spatial and temporal variability in our NCP estimates largely reflect glacial influences within the Bay, as melt-water is depleted in macronutrients relative to marine waters entering from the Gulf of Alaska in the middle and lower parts of the Bay. Further glacial retreat will likely lead to additional modifications in the carbon biogeochemistry of GLBA with unknown consequences for the local marine food web, which includes many species of marine mammals.

Reisdorph, S. C.; Mathis, J. T.

2014-09-01

356

Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Fleetwide Standard Underway Data Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project was recently launched with the ambitious goal of documenting “routine underway data” from the US academic research fleet and delivering those data to established national archives. Data distributions will be submitted by 18 operating institutions for 30 vessels, from hundreds of cruises per year. R2R will be responsible for digital data collected with instruments that are part of the ship’s permanent equipment and are routinely operated and recorded by the ship’s technicians. Examples include navigation, multibeam, subbottom, gravimeter, magnetics, ADCP, CTD, meteorology, etc. It is anticipated that most underway data will be promptly and publicly released. However R2R will have the ability to securely embargo any specific datasets identified in advance by the chief scientist, for a proprietary hold period of up to two years as mandated by the NSF 04-004 Division of Ocean Sciences Data and Sample Policy. It is important to note that there are data types that R2R will not address. For example, the chief scientist will continue to be responsible for the documentation and archiving of data from specific instruments brought on board by the scientific party, not part of the ship’s standard equipment. Similarly, data collected with National Facility assets including the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF), Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) and the National Marine Seismic Facility (NMSF) will continue to be submitted to the appropriate archiving facility directly by those facilities, rather than through R2R. Soon after the shipboard data is received by R2R, the entire original distribution will be safely stored in a deep archive for long-term preservation, and a cataloging process will be undertaken to assemble data sets for delivery to National Data Centers, as described more fully in the invited presentation by Robert Arko, “Rolling Deck to Repository: Technical Design - Experiences and Lessons.” A suite of R2R standard products will be generated for each cruise including (1) Basic Cruise Metadata, (2) Operations Report, and (3) Quality Controlled Navigational Products. Certified R2R navigation will be created at three levels: NavHiRes at the original raw sample rate (usually one sample per second), Nav1Min at a standard 1-minute time interval, and NavControl at a reduced rate appropriate for graphical representation of a cruise at a global or regional scale. These standard data products will be made available for automatic harvesting on www.rvdata.us by repository and data systems, and for download by individual users.

Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, P. D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.

2009-12-01

357

New semiquantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT by an anatomical standardization method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated a new semiquantitative procedure to more easily and objectively estimate the striatal uptake of 123I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET), using an anatomical standardization method, the Neurostat. Eleven patients with PS and 8 with ET were examined by clinical assessment and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were used to assess the stage and severity of the disease. The co-registered MR and SPECT images were created with fusion software included in Neurostat. On the cross section, which shows the largest area of striate, irregular shaped regions of interest corresponding to the striate and occipital cortex were drawn. Then the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(F), was calculated. Another calculation was done by VOIClassic, which is a software included in Neurostat to estimate the counts per voxel of anatomically defined regions such as caudate nucleus, putamen, occipital cortex, and total cortex. Using these count data, the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(OC), and total cortex, V3''(TC), was calculated. A fair linear correlation was observed between V3''(OC) and V3''(F) (y=1.53x+1.40; r=0.756; ps=-0.816). However, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC) correlated less with UPDRS (rs=-0.667 and -0.645, respectively). Semiquantitative parameters, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC), calculated by VOIClassic including the Neurostat system are useful and easily calculable parameters as well as V3''(F) for the differential diagnosis of PS from ET. (author)

358

System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

CERN Document Server

A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

2011-01-01

359

15 CFR 996.10 - Submission and selection of hydrographic products for the development of standards and compliance...  

Science.gov (United States)

...sponsor. (3) The names and contact information of proposed representatives...products. (4) The names and contact information of the standards setting body... (5) Information deemed relevant by the sponsor for NOAA...

2010-01-01

360

40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA equipment...determines that emissions of purged material resulting from immediate repair...repair, and (ii) The purged material is collected and destroyed or...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Concept of Assessment of Demand on the Products of the Catering Industry Companies ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the author’s concept of assessment of demand on products (services) of the catering industry companies. A specific feature of this concept is the vision of assessment of demand on products (services) of the catering industry companies under modern conditions of development of the national economy with consideration of specific features of demand in the domestic market of culinary products through the prism of the aggregate of goals of assessment. In accordance with the ...

Chorna Maryna V.; Chatchenko Olga E.

2013-01-01

362

High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.

Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

1996-09-30

363

Normative price for a manufactured product: the SAMICS methodology. Volume I. Executive summary. [Solar array manufacturing industry costing standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for determining the price a hypothetical solar array manufacturer would have to be able to obtain in the market to realize a specified after-tax rate of return on equity for a specified level of production. This document summarizes the methodology and its theoretical background. It is contended that the model is sufficiently general to be used in any production-line manufacturing environment.

Chamberlain, R.G.

1979-01-15

364

NMR analysis of cracking products of asphalt and assessment of catalyst performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of some crackates obtained from asphalt cracking in a micro autoclave under a pool of nitrogen. The cracking was carried out in the presence of Zeolite Socony Mobil 5 (HZSM-5) and locally cheap and readily available clay i.e. Utimanzai Clay (UTIMAC) as catalysts. The crackates obtained in case of each run was analyzed by {sup 13}C NMR spectrophotometer using CDCl{sub 3} as dissolving solvent and tetramethyl silane (TMS) as internal standard. The {sup 13}C NMR data was used to assess the extent of hydrocracking and degree of branching in crackates from asphalt.The results indicate that the cheap local catalyst used has comparable suitability with the conventional expensive catalyst in terms of asphalt cracking and its conversion to light products enriched with bulk n-alkane configurations. (author)

Ahmad, Imtiaz; Shakirullah, Mohammad; Rehman, Habib ur; Ishaq, Mohammad; Shah, Amjad Ali [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, 25120, N.W.F.P (Pakistan); Khan, Mohammad Arsala [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu Al Sinayah, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

2009-02-15

365

NMR analysis of cracking products of asphalt and assessment of catalyst performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of some crackates obtained from asphalt cracking in a micro autoclave under a pool of nitrogen. The cracking was carried out in the presence of Zeolite Socony Mobil no. 5 (HZSM-5) and locally cheap and readily available clay i.e. Utimanzai Clay (UTIMAC) as catalysts. The crackates obtained in case of each run was analyzed by 13C NMR spectrophotometer using CDCl3 as dissolving solvent and tetramethyl silane (TMS) as internal standard. The 13C NMR data was used to assess the extent of hydrocracking and degree of branching in crackates from asphalt .The results indicate that the cheap local catalyst used has comparable suitability with the conventional expensive catalyst in terms of asphalt cracking and its conversion to light products enriched with bulk n-alkane configurations

366

Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

2011-04-01

367

Standardized assessment of strategy use and working memory in early mental arithmetic performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although children's use of a variety of strategies to solve arithmetic problems has been well documented, there is no agreed on standardized and validated method for assessing this mix. We examined the convergent validity of typically achieving (TA, N = 39) and low achieving (LA, N = 20) second and third grade children's strategy choices in simple addition using three different methods: child self-report, observer-report, and response time (RT). The high concordance between child and observer reports (Kappa = .948) in both groups suggests that the participants were aware of, and could accurately report, the strategies they used. The Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that RT accurately differentiated between retrieval and counting (AUC = 82%). The specificity and sensitivity of the ROC profiles were significantly greater for the TA group than for LA group, even though the groups did not differ in the overall strategy mix. Our findings suggest that ROC analysis is more sensitive to group differences in the mechanisms governing strategy choice than observation or child report. Children's use of retrieval strategies as well as accuracy during both retrieval and counting trials were all related to the central executive, but not the phonological and visuospatial sketchpad, component of working memory. We discuss the implication of these findings for early mathematical learning. PMID:18473204

Wu, Sarah S; Meyer, Meghan L; Maeda, Uta; Salimpoor, Valorie; Tomiyama, Sylvia; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

2008-01-01

368

Optimal Allocation of Gold Standard Testing under Constrained Availability: Application to Assessment of HIV Treatment Failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for monitoring the effectiveness of HIV treatment in resource-limited settings (RLS) are mostly based on clinical and immunological markers (e.g., CD4 cell counts). Recent research indicates that the guidelines are inadequate and can result in high error rates. Viral load (VL) is considered the "gold standard", yet its widespread use is limited by cost and infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a diagnostic algorithm that uses information from routinely-collected clinical and immunological markers to guide a selective use of VL testing for diagnosing HIV treatment failure, under the assumption that VL testing is available only at a certain portion of patient visits. Our algorithm identifies the patient sub-population, such that the use of limited VL testing on them minimizes a pre-defined risk (e.g., misdiagnosis error rate). Diagnostic properties of our proposal algorithm are assessed by simulations. For illustration, data from the Miriam Hospital Immunology Clinic (RI, USA) are analyzed. PMID:24672142

Liu, Tao; Hogan, Joseph W; Wang, Lisa; Zhang, Shangxuan; Kantor, Rami

2013-01-01

369

Standardization of the neutron probe for the assessment of masonry deterioration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repair of the infrastructure will require nondestructive methods to assess the condition of existing buildings and other structures, many of which are constructed of masonry. One possible technology is the neutron probe, a prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) technique that can perform non- destructive elemental analyses in the field. It is based on a very low intensity 252Cf neutron source and a high-purity germanium detector for the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture within the material. The thermal neutron capture cross sections for hydrogen and chlorine are very large, and in masonry, these elements are found primarily in moisture and chlorides. These are major causes of deterioration in porous materials such as brick masonry. The moisture damages the material through expansive stresses during freeze-thaw cycles. Chlorides also generate expansive stresses through periodic cycles of dissolution and recrystallization in response to relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere. Similar problems also occur in reinforced concrete, where chlorides cause additional damage through corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The sensitivity of the neutron probe to hydrogen and chlorine thus means it can be used to map the distribution of these agents of deterioration. Preliminary field work at Colonial Williamsburg and Venice, Italy, showed that the technique could yield useful qualitative information. However, to be a quantitative method, the neutron probe had tantitative method, the neutron probe had to be standardized in the laboratory on materials of known composition and specified moisture and chloride content

370

Perceptual video quality assessment in H.264 video coding standard using objective modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since usage of digital video is wide spread nowadays, quality considerations have become essential, and industry demand for video quality measurement is rising. This proposal provides a method of perceptual quality assessment in H.264 standard encoder using objective modeling. For this purpose, quality impairments are calculated and a model is developed to compute the perceptual video quality metric based on no reference method. Because of the shuttle difference between the original video and the encoded video the quality of the encoded picture gets degraded, this quality difference is introduced by the encoding process like Intra and Inter prediction. The proposed model takes into account of the artifacts introduced by these spatial and temporal activities in the hybrid block based coding methods and an objective modeling of these artifacts into subjective quality estimation is proposed. The proposed model calculates the objective quality metric using subjective impairments; blockiness, blur and jerkiness compared to the existing bitrate only calculation defined in the ITU G 1070 model. The accuracy of the proposed perceptual video quality metrics is compared against popular full reference objective methods as defined by VQEG. PMID:24790819

Karthikeyan, Ramasamy; Sainarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Deepa, Subramaniam Nachimuthu

2014-01-01

371

Proposal of managerial standards for new product portfolio management in Brazilian pharmaceutical companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A gestão de portfólio de projetos de novos produtos visa a auxiliar os tomadores de decisão a selecionar projetos de novos produtos considerando critérios importantes para a organização. A indústria farmacêutica brasileira tem passado por transformações devido ao aumento das exigências sanitárias ap [...] ós a Lei de Genéricos, de 1999. O objetivo deste trabalho foi entender como as indústrias farmacêuticas brasileiras selecionam seus projetos de desenvolvimento de novos produtos e propor uma estrutura que possa auxiliar estas empresas a selecionar seus projetos de produtos. Foi utilizada a metodologia de estudo de caso e uma mostra de quatro organizações foi investigada. Os resultados indicam que essas empresas apresentam um desenvolvimento de produtos não estruturado e que a seleção de projetos de novos produtos é realizada de forma não-sistemática. Critérios importantes para a seleção de projetos de novos produtos foram identificados e utilizados para elaboração de um padrão gerencial para aplicação da gestão de portfólio de projetos de novos produtos. Abstract in english New Product Portfolio Management is aimed at helping decision-makers better select projects for new products based on key criteria for the manufacturer. The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry has been undergoing change due to stricter sanitary requirements following the enactment of the Generic Law i [...] n 1999. This paper presents the results of a research study aimed at clarifying the rationale employed by national pharmaceutical companies in selecting and prioritizing their new product development projects. Consequently, proposals for an analytical structure that could help these companies better select their products were produced. The research was carried out using case study methodology in which four different companies were investigated. The results of the field study confirmed that these companies had a non-structured Product Development System and that the selection of new product development projects was made on a non-systematic basis. The research also identified key criteria for the selection of projects of new pharmaceutical products, which provided the basis for the preparation of a proposal for a managerial standard for application of New Product Portfolio Management.

Raquel Assis, Moreira; Lin Chih, Cheng.

2010-03-01

372

Bio-SNG production - concepts and their assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major goal of today's energy policy is to establish an energy system with less greenhouse gas emissions (cf. ''Renewable energy roadmap'' [1]). The energetic use of biomass seems to be a very promising option to contribute to this goal: biomass can be used demand-oriented and to produce different energy carriers (e.g. power, heat and biofuels) needed within the energy system. Due to high overall efficiencies, especially the thermo-chemical conversion of solid biofuels to the natural gas substitute Bio-SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas) seems to be very promising. Therefore, it is the goal of this paper to analyse Bio-SNG production processes as a part of integrated polygeneration processes. Different Bio-SNG concepts using a gas slip stream in a gas engine or a gas turbine and process heat in an organic rankine cycle or conventional steam cycle are assessed. Based on mass and energy balances these concepts are discussed from an energetic, economic and environmental point of view. The analysis shows increasing exergetic efficiencies as well as improved economic and environmental process characteristics with increasingly integrated processes. However, the economic competitiveness still remains a bottleneck for a Bio-SNG market implementation. Therefore, two possible options to improve this competitiveness are discussed in detail. (orig.)

Roensch, Stefan [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics (IUE), Hamburg (Germany)

2012-12-15

373

Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development. PMID:23238338

Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

2013-02-01

374

Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated P?eiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carlà, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

2014-10-01

375

PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We aimed to compare the standardized central review of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUVmax and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ?3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

376

Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed studies were found that assessed the impact of production of pork, chicken, beef, milk, and eggs using life cycle analysis (LCA). Only 16 of these studies were reviewed, based on five criteria: stud...

Vries, M.; Boer, I. J. M.

2010-01-01

377

Indirect water management through Life Cycle Assessment: Fostering sustainable production in developing countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) represents a methodological framework for analyzing the total environmental impact of any product or service of our daily life. After tracking all associated emissions and the consumption of resources, this impact is expressed with respect to a few common impact categories. These are supposed to reflect major societal and environmental priorities. However, despite their central role in environmental processes, to date hydrological as well as hydrogeological aspects are only rarely considered in LCA. Compared with standard impact categories within LCA, water is special. In contrast to other abiotic resources such as crude oil, it can be replenished. Total freshwater resources are immense, but not evenly distributed and often scarce in regions of high demand. Consequently, threads to natural water bodies have immense spatial dependency. Setting up functional relationships in order to derive a generally valid and practicable evaluation is tedious due to the complex, insufficiently understood, and uncertain natural processes involved. LCA that includes the environmental effects of water consumption means global indirect water resource management. It supports goal-directed consumer behaviour that aims to reduce pressure on natural water systems. By developing a hydrologically-based assessment of potential impacts from human interaction with natural water bodies, "greener" products can be prioritised. More sustainable and environmentally friendly water management is the result. The proposed contribution presents an operational assessment method of global surface water consumption for impacts on human health and ecosystem quality within a LCA framework. A major focus is the issue of how such global assessment helps to quantify potential impacts from water-intensive production in developing countries, where the means for proper water management are often limited. We depict a compensation scheme for impacts related to water consumption that allows agriculture-dependent regions to produce and export crops while customers can compensate the related environmental impacts and/or improving the integrated water resource management by paying a premium. This allows for efficient international food production, strengthening sustainability regarding social, environmental and economic issues related to water and trade.

Pfister, S.; Bayer, P.; Koehler, A.; Hellweg, S.

2009-04-01

378

Standards-Based Assessment, Grading, and Reporting in Classrooms: Can District Training and Support Change Teacher Practice?  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether school district support and training in standards-based assessment, grading, and reporting in classrooms can change teacher practice in these areas was studied in a Florida school district. This district, Bay District Schools of Panama City, has been working with the SERVE Regional Educational Laboratory on a project that involves teachers…

McMunn, Nancy; Schenck, Patricia; McColskey, Wendy

379

Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve

380

E Pluribus Unum in Education? Governance Models for National Standards and Assessments: Looking beyond the World of K-12 Schooling  

Science.gov (United States)

The attempt to create common standards and assessments in education obliges individuals to revisit some longstanding debates about the capacity of the American intergovernmental system to adapt to new policy demands. Some observers remain skeptical that states have the political will or administrative capacity to develop and adopt higher policy…

McGuinn, Patrick

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Proposal on ''standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Center for the Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals - National Nuclear Energy Agency (P2RR-BATAN) has one Cyclotron type CS-30 with maximum 30 MeV proton energy. It is used since 1990 for 201Tl production. The main use of 201Tl in Indonesia is for diagnosis and assessment of myocardial ischaemia, especially diagnosis of coronary artery disease, viability of the heart muscle and forecasting the outcome for patients with coronary disease. The Cyclotron facility is supported with a solid target station, two hot cells and the chemical equipment for electroplating. The yield of 201Tl production currently achieved around 40-50%. The irradiation technique and chemical separation should be improved. We are also very interested in the development of the production of 103Pd via 103Rh (p,n) 103Pd reaction. The objective of this proposal will support the main program of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) in enhancement of health care and in providing Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals for hospitals

382

Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali  

Science.gov (United States)

In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have been released from the primary kimberlites in the region. Therefore, the total estimated diamond resources in the Kenieba region are thought to be nearly 1,300,000 carats. The Bougouni zones are estimated to have 1,000,000 carats with more than half, 630,000 carats, contained in concentrated deposits. When combined, the Kenieba and Bougouni regions of Mali are estimated to be host to 2,300,000 carats of diamonds.

Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

2010-01-01

383

Fission product chain yields and delayed neutrons: ANS standards 5.2 and 5.8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chain yields are the addition of the direct values along constant (Z + N) paths. The addition must also account for decay branching, especially for delayed neutrons that couple the mass chains. The result is the familiar double-humped plot of yield per fission versus mass number. The lines of stable nuclides and most probable yield are shown in the (Z,N) plane. Some modern measurements provide direct yields; other provide cumulative values for long-lived or stable products. Yield evaluations must account for each type of measurement and the degree of decay coupling, beginning with direct yields. For some fissioning nuclides at thermal or fast neutron incident energies, the amount of data is enormous; and for other nuclide-energy combinations, the data must be developed from systematics. Many applications of chain yields can use the same systematics to estimate independent values. The ANS 5.2 standard is currently in rough draft form for comment from working group members

384

A epidemiologia na avaliação da qualidade: uma proposta Epidemiological standards for assessing quality: a proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma estratégia de definição de indicadores para avaliar a qualidade do processo de assistência, baseada na identificação dos objetivos dessa assistência e na verificação da existência de normas técnicas que a norteiem. Simultaneamente, aplica esta metodologia ao processo de assistência ao nascimento e parto, adotando enfoque de risco, tanto para a saúde individual, como para a coletiva. Utiliza para tal um banco de dados de 4.558 Histórias Clínicas Perinatais Simplificadas de 12 hospitais. Os indicadores selecionados foram: sorologia para sífilis, tipagem sanguínea Rh, vacinação antitetânica, taxa de cesáreas, recepção do bebê por pediatra na sala de partos, boletim de Apgar, avaliação de idade gestacional por exame físico, alojamento conjunto, aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta, encaminhamento para consulta de puerpério. Para classificação dos hospitais, foram utilizadas a soma simples, padrão-ouro, e hierarquização. A metodologia proposta permitiu identificar um hospital com qualidade excelente, cinco com qualidade boa, dois com qualidade regular e quatro com desempenho completamente insatisfatório.This paper proposes a strategy for defining indicators to assess the quality of the process of health care, based on the identification of the objectives of the care being delivered and on the verification of whether the technical guidelines for the procedures are being enforced. The article goes on to apply the proposed methodology to the process of health care during childbirth, based on a perspective of comprehensive care and adopting both an individual and collective risk approach. It uses a data bank of 4,558 Simplified Perinatal Clinical Histories (CLAP/PAHO/WHO from 12 hospitals.The indicators selected were: V.D.R.L., Rh blood typing, antitetanus vaccination, rate of cesarean sections, reception of the baby by a pediatrician at birth, Apgar score, evaluation of the gestational age by physical exam, rooming-in, exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge, and referral for a puerperal consultation. Methods for classification of hospitals were the sum of their scores for each indicator, gold standard, and ranking. This methodology warranted identification of one hospital with excellent quality of care, five with good care, two with fair care, and four whose performances were completely unsatisfactory. Finally, some remarks on the assessment of quality of health care are made and future developments are proposed.

Daphne Rattner

1996-01-01

385

Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in associated production with w boson at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron is presented in this dissertation. The process of interest is the associated production of W boson and Higgs boson, with the W boson decaying leptonically and the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of bottom quarks. The dataset in the analysis is accumulated by the D0 detector from April 2002 to April 2008 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}. The events are reconstructed and selected following the criteria of an isolated lepton, missing transverse energy and two jets. The D0 Neural Network b-jet identification algorithm is further used to discriminate b jets from light jets. A multivariate analysis combining Matrix Element and Neural Network methods is explored to improve the Higgs boson signal significance. No evidence of the Higgs boson is observed in this analysis. In consequence, an observed (expected) limit on the ratio of {sigma} (p{bar p} {yields} WH) x Br (H {yields} b{bar b}) to the Standard Model prediction is set to be 6.7 (6.4) at 95% C.L. for the Higgs boson with a mass of 115 GeV.

Chun, Xu; /Michigan U.

2009-11-01

386

Assessment of Potential Milk Production of Chinese Hesitan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess a potentiality of milk production for a recently established dairy farm. A total of 201 Chinese Hesitan cows and 21 calves were raised in stall feeding system. The cows were respectively divided into area A (lactating only, B (late pregnant only, C (early pregnant only and D (calves only. The study period lasted for 60 days which initially involved only 19 lactating cows and ended with 102 lactating cows. Physical observation of daily milk collection (twice daily; routine feeding and management operations had been maintained throughout the period of the study. Purposive or judgment sampling technique was employed. Sample of milk was collected for laboratory analysis at the beginning, middle and end of the study to determine its composition in terms of milk fat and solid not fat percentage. Data collected were collated and analyzed using Microsoft Excels 2007 for simple descriptive statistics and application of computer packages SSPS 17 for analysis. The total milk yield for the period of 60 days for the study was 43177.7 kg. The average milk yield was 719.63 kg while the milk sold was 38,578 kg. The relationship between the daily milk production and the number of lactating cows showed that the observed data values have strong relationship with the quadratic model-predicted value. The study result revealed that the BW average was 482 kg and BCS means for lactating and dry cows was 2.98 while calving weights for calf male and female were 37.69 and 33.60, respectively. Milk nutrients composition of milk fat, milk protein, lactose and DM means were 3.85, 3.59, 4.54 and 12.57, respectively. The correlation between the concentrate, the forage fed to the lactating cows and the feed efficiency dry matter intake indicated that there was a significant relationship (p<0.01. It was recommended that silage should be included in the feeding system because it contains qualitative nutrients.

A.Y. Abdullahi

2012-01-01

387

24 CFR 200.948 - Building product standards and certification program for carpet cushion.  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards and certification program for carpet cushion. 200.948 Section 200.948...standards and certification program for carpet cushion. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All carpet cushion shall be designed,...

2010-04-01

388

Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f{sub p}- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of {sup 218}Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H{sub w}/P{sub p}) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the HRTM have been developed. These models form the basis of what would be required to calculate the equivalent dose to each of the rats used in the animal experiments. The main objective for the Human Studies Group was to conduct inhalation studies with human volunteers under well-defined conditions, to obtain a better experimental data base for dose calculations for inhaled radon progeny. The specific properties of the airborne radon progeny were characterised by two different modes to be studied, the unattached fraction, which has a size of about 1 nm, and the attached fraction where ambient aerosol particles are associated to radon progeny atoms. The studies included deposition patterns of the unattached fraction and the dependence of deposition on age and gender, the transfer or inhaled radon progeny to blood and the comparison of total deposition of radon progeny for adults and children in the domestic environment. In particular, the absorption half-time of unattached radon progeny from the respiratory tract to the blood was found to be shorter than the ICRP default value of 10 hours. In the Animal Studies Group, new series of experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of exposure-rate on lung cancer induction in rats at relatively low cumulative exposures. The preliminary results indicate that at relatively low cumulative exposures comparable to lifetime exposures in high-radon houses or current underground mining exposures, the risk of lung cancer in rats decreases with decreasing PAEC, i.e., exposure-rates. These data suggest that in terms of risk of induction of lung cancer, there is a complex interplay between cumulative exposure and exposure rate, resulting in an optimal exposure rate at a given exposure level. A positive dose rate response was seen for proliferating epithelial cells at relatively high exposure levels. The response of proliferating epithelial cells was found to depend on dose rate at higher doses, whereas at lower cumulative doses no significant elevations in proliferation were observed. Two techniques were developed and

Monchaux, G

1999-07-01

389

Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction fp- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of 218Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (Hw/Pp) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the HRTM have been developed. These models form the basis of what would be required to calculate the equivalent dose to each of the rats used in the animal experiments. The main objective for the Human Studies Group was to conduct inhalation studies with human volunteers under well-defined conditions, to obtain a better experimental data base for dose calculations for inhaled radon progeny. The specific properties of the airborne radon progeny were characterised by two different modes to be studied, the unattached fraction, which has a size of about 1 nm, and the attached fraction where ambient aerosol particles are associated to radon progeny atoms. The studies included deposition patterns of the unattached fraction and the dependence of deposition on age and gender, the transfer or inhaled radon progeny to blood and the comparison of total deposition of radon progeny for adults and children in the domestic environment. In particular, the absorption half-time of unattached radon progeny from the respiratory tract to the blood was found to be shorter than the ICRP default value of 10 hours. In the Animal Studies Group, new series of experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of exposure-rate on lung cancer induction in rats at relatively low cumulative exposures. The preliminary results indicate that at relatively low cumulative exposures comparable to lifetime exposures in high-radon houses or current underground mining exposures, the risk of lung cancer in rats decreases with decreasing PAEC, i.e., exposure-rates. These data suggest that in terms of risk of induction of lung cancer, there is a complex interplay between cumulative exposure and exposure rate, resulting in an optimal exposure rate at a given exposure level. A positive dose rate response was seen for proliferating epithelial cells at relatively high exposure levels. The response of proliferating epithelial cells was found to depend on dose rate at higher doses, whereas at lower cumulative doses no significant elevations in proliferation were observed. Two techniques were developed and used in dwellings by th

390

Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a "fit for purpose" approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid - did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

Gregg, Evan O; Minet, Emmanuel; McEwan, Michael

2013-09-01

391

Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

2013-02-01

392

30 CFR 6.30 - MSHA listing of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...indicated: (a) The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standards for Electrical...modifications. The IEC standards may be...may be purchased from International Electrical Commission, Central Office...

2010-07-01

393

Assessment of compliance with ground water protection standards in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In support of this development and an associated license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the DOE completed an extensive performance assessment (PA) for the proposed YM repository in 2008. This presentation describes the assessment of compliance with ground water protection standards in the 2008 YM PA. The following topics are addressed: (i) regulatory background, (ii) analysis structure including characterization of uncertainty, and (iii) analysis results for each of the ground water protection standards. The present article is part of a special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety devoted to the 2008 YM PA; additional articles in the issue describe other aspects of the 2008 YM PA. - Highlights: • Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. DOE in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. • Determination in the 2008 YM performance assessment of compliance with U.S. NRC ground water protection standards is described. • Regulatory background and the analysis structure including characterization of uncertainty are described. • Analysis results for ground water protection standards are presented. • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results based on Latin hypercube sampling and partial rank correlation coefficients are presented

394

Evaluation of a standard test method and material for low-activity waste product acceptance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution behavior of a candidate reference glass has been measured under a range of test conditions. The data base from these tests can be used to evaluate the credibility and validity of test results reported by Private Contractors as part of the acceptance process for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products for DOE wastes. The LRM-1 glass that was used in the tests was formulated to be compositionally representative of anticipated ILAW products for Hanford and other Department of Energy sites. Replicate tests with this glass were used to measure the variability in the response (i.e., the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si) under different test conditions. The glass was further evaluated for possible use as a standard material by analysis of its composition, microstructure, density, and compressive strength. In addition, the Na leachability index was measured with the ANS 16.1 test, and the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure was run. The results of those tests and analyses are summarized

395

Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish results shows that the WelFur protocol is feasible for a one-day visit and sensible enough to discriminate between farms in the same category. A stratified sample of 120 cages seems to be sufficient. It is concluded that it is possible to assess the welfare in mink using the principles developed in Welfare Quality® using a stratified sample facilitating implementation.

MØller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

2011-01-01

396

Ready-For-Use-module full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, the somatostatin imaging using DOTA conjugated peptides like DOTA-TOC, -NOC and -TATE are the common applications. Different 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and synthesis modules are described separately. We describe a new full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC. Methods: The module has to fit with components like the pre-conditioned C18 purifications cartridge and the DOTATOC precursor solute in HEPES buffer. The generator was fractionally eluted in time steps of 30 sec. An elution profile was created and the time frame of the middle fraction was adjusted with the basis software and the flow rate of the peristaltic pump. The reaction vial was charged with 30 µg DOTATOC solved in 100µl HEPES buffer (150-200mg / 0.1 ml and placed in the heating block. The generator was eluted with 0.6 N HCl and the reaction volume (~ 1ml was collected at the reaction vial after switching the valves V2 and V3 for 40 s. The labeling was performed under 95°C for 12 min at pH 3.5-4. Purification was achieved by injecting the reaction mixture onto the C18cardridge, washing with 1,5 ml H2O and 10 ml air. The 68Ga-DOTATOC was transferred over a sterile filter to the product vial by elution with 1 ml ethanol and 9 ml of saline. Results: The tin dioxide generator we used was specified with an elution yield in 5 ml not less than 80%. The rule of thumb prognosticates a durability of 200 elutions or 10 month. After ~ 70 elution the yield of our systems fall below the value of 80%. The typical overall elution, labeling and purification procedure took less than 25 min.The non-ionic buffer HEPES was most effective and the optimal amount was ~ 160 mg. Using 33 µg (23 nmol,the labeling yield was 60%-65% and their radiochemical purity was > 97%. Conclusion: The combination of a 68Ge/68Ga generator, produced under cGMP guidelines and a "Ready for use" automated module allows a standardized production with high radiochemical yields for 68Ga-DOTATOC. This combination of both will provide the user with facile and reliable package for the preparation in routine clinical applications, especially und the aspect of cGLP and cGMP

Stephan Maus

2010-10-01

397

Teaching Writing in the Shadow of Standardized Writing Assessment: An Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploratory study results from interviews with five high school English teachers regarding their writing instruction. The researcher sought to answer these questions: (1) How had the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program's (TCAP) Writing Assessment affected their teaching as gauged by the teachers' statements regarding the assessment,…

Brimi, Hunter

2012-01-01

398

Next Generation Landsat Products Delivered Using Virtual Globes and OGC Standard Services  

Science.gov (United States)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the next in the series of Landsat satellite missions and is tasked with the objective of delivering data acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI). The OLI instrument will provide data continuity to over 30 years of global multispectral data collected by the Landsat series of satellites. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS) Center has responsibility for the development and operation of the LDCM ground system. One of the mission objectives of the LDCM is to distribute OLI data products electronically over the Internet to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at no cost. To ensure the user community and general public can easily access LDCM data from multiple clients, the User Portal Element (UPE) of the LDCM ground system will use OGC standards and services such as Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Geographic encoding of Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) feeds for both access to and delivery of LDCM products. The USGS has developed and tested the capabilities of several successful UPE prototypes for delivery of Landsat metadata, full resolution browse, and orthorectified (L1T) products from clients such as Google Earth, Google Maps, ESRI ArcGIS Explorer, and Microsoft's Virtual Earth. Prototyping efforts included the following services: using virtual globes to search the historical Landsat archive by dynamic generation of KML; notification of and access to new Landsat acquisitions and L1T downloads from GeoRSS feeds; Google indexing of KML files containing links to full resolution browse and data downloads; WMS delivery of reduced resolution browse, full resolution browse, and cloud mask overlays; and custom data downloads using WCS clients. These various prototypes will be demonstrated and LDCM service implementation plans will be discussed during this session.

Neiers, M.; Dwyer, J.; Neiers, S.

2008-12-01

399

New ammonia lyases and amine transaminases: Standardization of production process and preparation of immobilized biocatalysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: New enzymes for biotransformations can be obtained by different approaches including directed mutagenesis and in vitro evolution. These mutants have to be efficiently produced for laboratory research on bioreactions as well as for process development. In the framework of a European ERA-I [...] B project, two different types of enzymes (ammonia lyases and aminotransferases) have been selected as biocatalysts for the synthesis of industrially relevant amines. New mutant enzymes have been obtained: a) aspartases able to recognize ?-amino acids; b) ?-transaminases with improved activity. The objectives are to find out a common operational strategy applicable to different mutants expressed in E. coli with the same initial genetic background, the development of an integrated process for production and the preparation of stable useful biocatalysts. Results: Mutant enzymes were expressed in E. coli BL21 under the control of isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible promoter. The microorganisms were grown in a formulated defined medium and a high-cell density culture process was set up. Fed-batch operation at constant specific growth rate, employing an exponential addition profile allowed high biomass concentrations. The same operational strategy was applied for different mutants of both aspartase and transaminase enzymes, and the results have shown a common area of satisfactory operation for maximum production at low inducer concentration, around 2 ?mol IPTG/g DCW. The operational strategy was validated with new mutants and high-cell density cultures were performed for efficient production. Suitable biocatalysts were prepared after recovery of the enzymes. The obtained aspartase was immobilized by covalent attachment on MANA-agarose, while ?-transaminase biocatalysts were prepared by entrapping whole cells and partially purified enzyme onto Lentikats (polyvinyl alcohol gel lens-shaped particles). Conclusions: The possibility of expressing different mutant enzymes under similar operation conditions has been demonstrated. The process was standardized for production of new aspartases with ?-amino acid selectivity and new ?-transaminases with improved substrate acceptance. A whole process including production, cell disruption and partial purification was set up. The partially purified enzymes were immobilized and employed as stable biocatalysts in the synthesis of chiral amines.

Antoni, Casablancas; Max, Cárdenas-Fernández; Gregorio, Álvaro; Maria Dolors, Benaiges; Glòria, Caminal; Carles de, Mas; Glòria, González; Carmen, López; Josep, López-Santín.

2013-05-15

400

Risk assessment based on current release standards for radioactive surface contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standards for uncontrolled releases of radioactive surface contamination have been in existence in the United States for about two decades. Such standards have been issued by various agencies, including the US Department of Energy. This paper reviews the technical basis of published standards, identifies areas in need of revision, provides risk interpretations based on current technical knowledge and the regulatory environment, and offers suggestions for improvements