WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

None

1980-06-01

2

Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

1980-05-23

3

Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

M. J. Russell

2006-06-01

4

Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

2007-06-12

5

Multilevel Assessments of Science Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The Multilevel Assessment of Science Standards (MASS) project is creating a new generation of technology-enhanced formative assessments that bring the best formative assessment practices into classrooms to transform what, how, when, and where science learning is assessed. The project is investigating the feasibility, utility, technical quality,…

Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.

2011-01-01

6

DOE limited standard: Operations assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

NONE

1996-05-01

7

Development of plant assessment standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful apnts. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

8

Subsea production equipment standardization initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines Shell Expro`s work in simplifying and standardizing its subsea production systems on 10,000 psi, 300 F rated equipment through the use of proven technology and configured to meet common interface requirements. A modular ``building block`` approach to design was adopted, whereby trees are easily converted from one style to another (oil, water or gas lift) by the addition or removal of bolt-on, pre-engineered packages. Standardization of associated control systems has also been applied, together with series hook-up of trees for small developments. A common top-of-tree interface enables vendor interchangeability of tooling. The use of ROV compatible designs for choke and control module change out are expected to provide significant operational cost savings. Common interfaces allow cross-sharing of tooling systems between projects and potentially other operators, and are the catalyst for vendors to develop rental tooling pools.

George, N.

1996-12-31

9

Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content, performance, and…

IDRA Newsletter, 1997

1997-01-01

10

Product Family Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

Kvist, Morten

2010-01-01

11

Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns  

Science.gov (United States)

The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for…

Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

2011-01-01

12

Radioisotope production and radioactivity standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pretoria cyclotron was closed down as planned on 16 November 1988, and the routine production of some medical radioisotopes was transferred without interruption to the Faure facilities. The switch-over took place smoothly apart from some inevitable teething problems. The main aim during the past year has been to get the new equipment, facilities and production procedures ready for the routine production programme. The control systems, target-preparation and target-handling facilities, cooling systems and hot cells were completed and commissioned. The chemical processing and radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities were also established. Routine production of 67Ga-citrate, 81Rb/81mKr generators and 123I-sodium iodide was started. Studies and development work were carried out on the production of 67Ga, 81Rb using a gaseous target, 111In, 123I-labelled compounds such as 123I-hippurate, 123I-MIBG, 123I-IAMP and 123I-IPPA as well as 201Tl. Further bio-evaluation studies were performed on 123I-hippurate and 123I-MIBG, and liason with the Medicines Control Council concerning registration of new radioisotope products as medicines was continued. 6 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

13

DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

L. Kovalev

2012-10-01

14

Assessment of the quality of fused products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our work deals with the synthesis of multispectral images at a better spatial resolution by the means of another image having such a resolution. We show the lack of standard procedure to assess the expected benefits of fused products. We discuss the case of the reference that is missing in most cases. We discuss the principles of the assessment protocol. One principle is that the constructed synthetic images should be close to reality. The second principle is that the fused products should of...

Thomas, Claire; Wald, Lucien

2005-01-01

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A new pathway to product standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the benefits of product standardization become more evident in improved financial, managerial, and clinical outcomes, tools to make the process easier will be in demand. Once a standardization program is established, e-commerce offers tools to keep it on track. PMID:11010311

Whitcomb, J

2000-06-01

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Standards for product safety design: a framework for their production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident reduction can be achieved through improved standards of product design and associated safety performance standards. Although many problems exist in terms of data production, reporting, collection and dissemination, it is suggested that a useful design data bank could be contructed and applied. The discussion of data requirements, classification and application is oriented particularly towards the problem of child safety. PMID:15676520

Wilson, J R

1984-09-01

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40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Standards for consumer products. 59.203 Section 59.203 ...STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.203 Standards for...

2010-07-01

18

State Skill Standards: Digital Video & Broadcast Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The standards in this document are for digital video and broadcast production programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. Digital Video and Broadcast Production is a program that consists of the initial fundamentals and sequential courses that prepare…

Bullard, Susan; Tanner, Robin; Reedy, Brian; Grabavoi, Daphne; Ertman, James; Olson, Mark; Vaughan, Karen; Espinola, Ron

2007-01-01

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NUSS safety standards: A critical assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NUSS safety standards are based on systematic review of safety criteria of many countries in a process carefully defined to assure completeness of coverage. They represent an international consensus of accepted safety principles and practices for regulation and for the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants. They are a codification of principles and practices already in use by some Member States. Thus, they are not standards which describe methodologies at their present state of evolution as a result of more recent experience and improvements in technological understanding. The NUSS standards assume an underlying body of national standards and a defined technological base. Detailed design and industrial practices vary between countries and the implementation of basic safety standards within countries has taken approaches that conform with national industrial practices. Thus, application of the NUSS standards requires reconciliation with the standards of the country where the reactor will be built as well as with the country from which procurement takes place. Experience in making that reconciliation will undoubtedly suggest areas of needed improvement. After the TMI accident a reassessment of the NUSS programme was made and it was concluded that, given the information at that time and the then level of technology, the basic approach was sound; the NUSS programme should be continued to completion, and the standards should be brought into use. It was also recognized, however, that in areas such as probabilistic risk assessment, human factors methodology, and consideration of detailed accident sequences, more advanced technology was emerging. As these technologies develop, and become more amenable to practical application, it is anticipated that the NUSS standards will need revision. Ideally those future revisions will also flow from experience in their use

20

48 CFR 23.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

...with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT...IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal...with guidance from the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive encouraging...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for eight types of consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent ballasts, and televisions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Assessment (EA) presents the results of the associated environmental impacts from a range of new candidate energy conservation standards for eight types of household appliances. The results are presented for each potential standard level for each of the eight appliance types. Each measure of possible environmental change is an alternative action, and it is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for each product were finalized, i.e., the ``no action`` alternative. The main environmental concern addressed is emissions from fossil-fueled electricity generation. Most of the design options for the eight appliances result in decreased electricity use and, therefore, a reduction of power plant emissions. The proposed efficiency standards will generally decrease air pollution by decreasing future energy demand. The greatest decreases in air pollution will be for sulfur oxides, listed in equivalent weight of sulfur dioxide, or SO{sub 2}. Reductions of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide also occur and are listed by weight of NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Although the quantity of raw materials used per appliance will remain relatively constant, in most scenarios increased initial cost is expected to decrease slightly the number of appliances sold, resulting in small decreases in raw materials used. The main effect of decreased appliance production is the SO{sub 2} emitted in steel production.

1993-07-01

22

Organic fish production and the standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuring animal welfare by decreasing the stocking density. This alternative model is used in many developed and developing countries in the world and the demand for this product has been the cause of increase in production amount and species variety in the market, although the model comprises 0.01% of the world aquaculture production. However, organic aquaculture production has not been developed as rapidly as organic agriculture. One of the most important reasons of this is the absence of international standards issued for organic aquaculture production. In this paper, the production principles of a number of authorized institutions certifying organic aquaculture are comparatively discussed.  

Yesim Ötles

2010-06-01

23

Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

24

Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors.

1990-06-01

25

Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors.

1990-06-01

26

Quality Control of Reference Standard Source Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The preparation techniques of sealed I-131 sources for calibrating gamma ray spectrometry were developed by gravimetric dispensing the reference I-131 solution. Following the production techniques and quality control according to IAEA-TECDOC-1512, four methods including wipe test, impact test, leakage and homogeneity test were employed to demonstrate sealed radioactive sources. The half-life was determined by imaging plate system and found to be 8.10 ± 0.02 days in agreement with the decay theory. The techniques may be useful for quality control of reference standard source production

27

Standard Model Vector Boson pair productions  

CERN Document Server

This is a report at the conference Physics In Collision 2013. The experimental results on physics of diboson production are reviewed. The measurements use $pp$ collision at the LHC with center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 and 8 ~TeV, and $p\\bar{p}$ collision at the Tevatron with $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96~TeV. These include measurements of W$\\gamma$, Z$\\gamma$, WW, WZ and ZZ production. The results are compared with Standard Model predictions, and are interpreted in terms of constraints on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings.

Wang, Jian

2013-01-01

28

16 CFR 1115.8 - Compliance with product safety standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards and considers, where appropriate, compliance or non-compliance with such standards in exercising its authorities...consumer product safety standards, compliance or non-compliance with applicable mandatory safety standards...

2010-01-01

29

Standards &  

...common mission to bring credibly greener products to the marketplace Sustainable Minds, TOTO USA and NSF International have introduced a new product for ...Designers, Green Economy, Innovation, Life cycle assessment, Manufacturing, Marketing, Standards & regulations, Webcast TOTO Is The First Plumbing Manufacturer To Validate Its Products' Environmental Performance ... 20, 2013 /PRNewswire/ TOTO announced today that it is introducing an innovative, new way to report product transparency that enables customers to earn LEED ... Committed to environmental leadership that exceeds compliance, TOTO discovered that it was unable to comply with LEED v4's disclosure option to provide Environmental ...

30

Implementing standardized modules in the production architecture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is an immense academic and managerial interest in modularization and platform-thinking within the New Product Development community these days – which has generated a lot of interesting research, a few well-documented success cases and a lot of anecdotic stories about the use of standardized modules in new product development. However, very few companies seem to be actually applying modularization and platform-thinking. This pegs the question “if modularization and platform-thinking is such a great idea, how come not everybody has already implemented it?” The Ph.D. research of Agnar Gudmundsson investigates and points towards part of the answer to this puzzle. The research is focused on the implementation of standardized modules in an organization and has followed the implementation process of a determined and convinced Danish company. The study points towards several factors inhibiting implementation of modularization and platform-thinking. On a general level, the very concepts related to modularization, platform, platform-thinking, and so on are often far from clearly defined. This makes the use of existing knowledge difficult. Furthermore, a contingent view of modularization and platform-thinking is much needed, as the concept cannot possible mean the same thing for Levi’s as for a Danish, medium-sized industrial firm. The study also uncovers a set of organizational factors inhibiting implementation all of which are related to the view of new product development applied in many organizations today. Hence, as its final normative contribution the research of Agnar Gudmundsson calls for a new view of new product development to be developed.

Gudmundsson, Agnar

2003-01-01

31

75 FR 66038 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...BAL-502-RFC-02 addresses the assessment of resource adequacy...Standard that addresses assessment of resource adequacy in...namely, providing a common framework for resource adequacy analysis, assessment, and...

2010-10-27

32

Standardization and Assessment of Cell Culture Media Quantities in Roller Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Bottles Employed in the Industrial Rabies Viral Vaccine Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-3, PTARV-4 and PTARV-5. The samples are taken in an appropriate time intervals for analysis of In Process Quality Control (IPQC tests. The collected viral harvests are further processed to rabies vaccine in a pilot level and in addition to scale up an industrial level. Based on the evaluation the PTARV-2 (250 mL show highly encouraging results for the Vero cell derived rabies vaccine production.

S. Jagannathan

2009-01-01

33

Technology assessment of RDX production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The known processes for producing RDX were assessed with the goal of identifying the process that would generate the least waste and pollution. It was concluded that the Bachman process employed at Holston AAP is the most economical process for producing RDX and that it probably produces less waste than any other process. It was generally agreed that the entire Holston operation is a very clean one that complies with all federal and state emission standards. In addition, a number of opportunities in which Holston could reduce their wastes were identified. Preliminary assessments of waste and pollution profiles for alternate materials, with emphasis on dual-use materials, were performed.

Coburn, M.D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

34

Educational Standards, Assessment, and the Search for Consensus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the nature of the "consensus" reflected in educational standards used to orient high-stakes assessment programs and considers the discourse of standards creation and how standards are used to orient assessment development and performance judgments. Discusses the theoretical perspectives of J. Habermas and H. Gadamer. (Author/SLD)

Moss, Pamela A.; Schutz, Aaron

2001-01-01

35

Web Service Oriented Standard Product Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using standard components or modules is vital in product design, development and manufacturing. The current book type catalogues and those, in the form of electronic files together with CAD drawings distributed on disks or via web-based publication systems, can not meet industry requirements for collaborative engineering. Ideally, users could source competitive offers from different vendors and use their information over the Internet. The drawbacks in the current catalogues are platform dependency, and difficulties in version management, CAD file translation, and catalogue content updating. In this research, a novel “Web Service” oriented approach is proposed to address these limitations. Based on an in-house standard component and assembly library, a new method is proposed to engage a CAD modeler with Java Web Service technology. With such an approach, all the aforementioned drawbacks are eliminated. Moreover, the new method avoids hard coding of catalogues within CAD systems, facilitates the catalogue vendors to update their databases at any time. Taking injection molding design as an example, the authors discussed key mechanisms in its implementation and the feasibility of industrial applications.

Y. S. Ma

2007-06-01

36

Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact ...

Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

2009-01-01

37

Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact statement. Thus, the aim of this research was the accomplishment of a proposal including the development of procedures to apply in EIA issues surrounding the formulation, application and interpretation of significance criteria, conclusions and recommendations relevant to respect the aim of EIA that in provide environmental viability of men activities.Key-words: impact significance, methods of environmental impact assessment.

Maitê de Souza Sandoval

2009-08-01

38

Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

Robert L. Linn

2003-09-01

39

Alternative Bench Standards: Sample Production Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The INL has prepared four standards representing krypton concentrations of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X the reported atmospheric value of 70 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C (ie. 1.1X is 1.1 x 70, or 77 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C). A t-zero date and time of January 1, 2012 at 1200 Zulu was used for all standards. The Alternative Bench Standards (ABS) of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X, are designated by titles of ABS-A, ABS-B, ABS C and ABS-D, respectively. The concentration of Kr in air is 1.14 ppm.

N. R. Mann; T. P. Houghton; M. G. Watrous; J. G. Eisenmenger; R. K. Hague

2012-09-01

40

CIABUSCOLO: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available in this study, samples of “Ciabuscolo”, a raw fermented meat product listed among the traditional products of the Marche Region, were collected from four meat processing plants and analysed to evaluate microbiological process and product’s standards.

G. Pezzotti

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Natural and agglomerated stone durability assessment according to technical standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The assessment of rock behaviour and durability plays an important role in the use of rocks and similar materials for all building purposes. Durability is a complex term, therefore the paper deals with the terminology and aspects related to the evaluation and prediction possibilities of stone durability. Technical standards offer some laboratory procedures suitable for stone durability assessment. The paper presents the results of the application of some standard laboratory methods on select ...

Ivana Šimková; Tatiana Durmeková

2010-01-01

42

Farmers Involved in the Production of Agricultural Standardization Factors Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper, uses the survey data of 104 households in the city of Sichuan by the method of Logistic regression analysis, has analysised factors of the farmers who involved in agricultural standardization of production or not. Research shows that the cognitive level of standardization, awareness of pesticides’ hazards, their own age and family numbers have significantly influenced on the famers who involved in standardization of agricultural production. Then there are some recommends for solving.

Qin Luo

2011-09-01

43

Autonomic Standards Assessment Form for Spinal Cord Injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury are defined to document impairments in sensory and motor functions in patients with spinal cord injury. Since autonomic dysfunctions are also common in these patients, Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is developed to define the autonomic functions and it is recommended to be completed in all patients as a part of the clinical evaluation. The aim of this report was to present the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form. Turk J Phys Med Re?hab 2012;58 Suppl 1: 38-41.

Berrin GÜNDÜZ

2012-04-01

44

Progress of Validation of GOSAT Standard Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Isamu Morino, Tomoaki Tanaka, Yuki Miyamoto, Yukio Yoshida, Tatsuya Yokota, Toshinobu Machida National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Debra Wunch, Paul Wennberg Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA Geoffrey Toon Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany David Griffith, Nicholas Deutscher Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong New South Wales, Australia Vanessa Sherlock National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Lauder, Central Otago, New Zealand Hidekazu Matsueda, Yousuke Sawa Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan Colm Sweeney, Pieter Tans Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, USA The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), launched on 23 January 2009, is the world's first satellite dedicated to measuring the concentrations of the two major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), from space. The data measured with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) are processed into several types of data products. Column abundances of CO2 and CH4 (TANSO-FTS SWIR L2 data product) are retrieved from the FTS L1B spectral data. Validation of the FTS Level 2 data product is critical since the data is used for generating the FTS Level 3 (global distributions of column-averaged mixing ratio data of XCO2 and XCH4) and the FTS Level 4 (regional CO2 fluxes and three dimensional distribution of CO2 calculated from the estimated fluxes) products. The reference data to be used for validating abundances are required to have uncertainties of less than 1.0 % (0.3 % or 1 ppm is desirable) for CO2 and 2.0 % for CH4. Ground-based high-resolution FTSs that measure direct solar light are known to have the highest precision in observing column abundances of CO2 and CH4. Data provided from TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) have been used for the GOSAT data validation. The major error factors in the retrieval of the Level 2 column abundances of CO2 and CH4 are interferences by aerosols and thin cirrus clouds. To elucidate their influences on the column abundance retrieval, we measure aerosols and cirrus clouds using lidars and/or sky-radiometers at selected FTS sites. Concentrations of CO2 and CH4 measured by CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by AIrLiner) are also of great importance in validating the Level 2 data product. In the CONTRAIL project, vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations are obtained during the take-off and landing periods at uncertainties of 0.2 ppm. These profiles are used to calculate XCO2. Furthermore airborne data prepared by NOAA and NIES are utilized in the validation work. We will present recent results of the validation activity in which we compare the Level 2 column concentrations against the reference data provided from TCCON, CONTRAIL, NOAA, and NIES.

Uchino, Osamu

2010-05-01

45

Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

2009-01-01

46

Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

2010-01-29

47

Linking Classroom Instruction and Assessment to Standardized Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Is it possible to "teach to the test" and still include inquiry-based science in your classroom? Yes! By using the model presented in this article that shows how inquiry-based instruction and creative classroom assessment can be used to teach concepts and principles on which standardized test items are based.

Hammerman, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

48

Designing Standardized Patient Assessments to Measure SBIRT Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Resident physicians report insufficient experience caring for patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). Resident training in Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) has been recommended. We describe the development of a standardized patient (SP) assessment to measure SBIRT skills, resident perceptions of…

Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satterfield, Jason M.; Satre, Derek D.; McCance-Katz, Elinore; Batki, Steven L.

2013-01-01

49

A proposed standard on medical isotope production in fission reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors Robert E. Sehenter, Garry Brown and Charles S. Holden argue that a Standard for 'Medical Isotope Production' is needed. Medical isotopes are becoming major components of application for the diagnosis and treatment of all the major diseases including all forms of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's, among others. Current nuclear data to perform calculations is incomplete, dated or imprecise or otherwise flawed for many isotopes that could have significant applications in medicine. Improved data files will assist computational analyses to design means and methods for improved isotope production techniques in the fission reactor systems. Initial focus of the Standard is expected to be on neutron cross section and branching data for both fast and thermal reactor systems. Evaluated and reviewed tables giving thermal capture cross sections and resonance integrals for the major target and product medical isotopes would be the expected 'first start' for the 'Standard Working Group'. (authors)

50

Harmonic aggregation techniques for power quality assessment a standard framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review on the existing methods for aggregation of harmonic currents including recommended method used in IEC 61000-3-6 standard is performed and different approaches are compared. Main advantages of each method are outlined and simulation studies are performed to assess each method. A simple technique is proposed to base future research and standardization on. The proposed technique is simple, reliable and realistic though requires experimental data to derive parameters. Keywords: Electromagnetic Compatibility; Harmonic Distortion; Harmonic Aggregation; Power Quality; Current Harmonics.

Mohammad Mahdy Share Pasand

2014-06-01

51

Standards for psychological assessment of nuclear facility personnel. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of this study was the development of standards for the assessment of emotional instability in applicants for nuclear facility positions. The investigation covered all positions associated with a nuclear facility. Conclusions reached in this investigation focused on the ingredients of an integrated selection system including the use of personality tests, situational simulations, and the clinical interview; the need for professional standards to ensure quality control; the need for a uniform selection system as organizations vary considerably in terms of instruments presently used; and the need for an on-the-job behavioral observation program

52

30 CFR 6.30 - MSHA listing of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...product safety standards. MSHA evaluated...non-MSHA product safety standards and determined...standards for Electrical Apparatus...modifications. The IEC standards may be inspected...Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Electrical Safety...

2010-07-01

53

Software Productivity: Harmonization in ISO/IEEE Software Engineering Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The software productivity is an important key of software quality factors. The productivity measure has become a tool for managers since it is used to compare the performance between different companies (benchmarking and to compare the efficiency of different developers in the same company. Therefore, it allows doing strategic planning and decision making based on such measurement. A variety of international standardization bodies such as IEEE and ISO as well as software engineering researchers have proposed a set of factors which influence the software productivity attribute, and also a set of measures to evaluate it. However, there is no unique model that integrates all the software productivity best practices. The aim of this paper is to survey the available international standards and research work on software productivity and figure out the key differences in order to propose a standards-based model. Such model will include the set of quality attributes that could be used to reflect the software productivity, and a set of measures that allows evaluating the software developer’s productivity.

Laila Cheikhi

2012-02-01

54

25 CFR 36.50 - Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment. 36.50 Section 36.50 Indians...Standards § 36.50 Standard XVII—School program evaluation and needs assessment. Each school shall...

2010-04-01

55

Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve success in adopting reach standards.

Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

2007-03-01

56

Standardization of Service Delivery in Industrial Product-Service Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²) provide the best value in use for the customer. The high demand for this product model in the future, will lead to a high number of service deliveries. These service deliveries need to be executed in a service network in industry, but are planned and organized by a central intelligence hosted by the OEM of the IPS². This article will describe the possibility to minimize the derivation of execution time by the standardization of the bo...

Meier, H.; Krug, C. M.

2009-01-01

57

Pragmatic risk assessment approach for product development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper proposes a practical assessment approach to estimate duration of the product development process incorporating risk management principles. Risk assessment, as a crucial part of risk management process, is a systematic process for estimating the risk level of previously identified and recognized risks. Currently, the best-known relationship in risk assessment is that risk level equals the product of two factors – likelihood and impact. The proposed approach treats these factors as random variables with triangular probability distributions in order to mitigate biases due to subjective risk estimation. Based on a literature review, the approach considers probability functions assigned to estimated values which together with Monte Carlo simulation avoid fixed single-point estimations and deterministic simulation issues. Relating this kind of assessment with previously established risk mapping on the product development process broadens insight about the influence of risk on the process metrics. Since, risk assessment is still mostly approached in terms of individual reasoning, intuition or previous experience, providing a practical method for assessing risks can enhance and facilitate the usability of risk management principles in product development companies. The proposed approach is illustrated using an example, which involves an automated car washing facility product development process.

Skec, S.; Stankovic, T.

2012-01-01

58

Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

59

A revised ANS standard for decay heat from fission products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The draft ANS 5.1 standard on decay heat was published in 1971 and given minor revision in 1973. Its basis was the best estimate working curve developed by K. Shure in 1961. Liberal uncertainties were assigned to the standard values because of lack of data for short cooling times and large discrepancies among experimental data. Research carried out over the past few years has greatly improved the knowledge of this phenomenon and a major revision of the standard has been completed. Very accurate determination of the decay heat is now possible, expecially within the first 104 seconds, where the influence of neutron capture in fission products may be treated as a small correction to the idealized zero capture case. The new standard accounts for differences among fuel nuclides. It covers cooling time to 109 seconds, but provides only an ''upper bound'' on the capture correction in the interval 104 9 seconds. (author)

60

Reliability of standardized assessment for adults who are deafblind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of the interRAI Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA and Deafblind Supplement (DbS. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a multidimensional, standardized assessment instrument for use with adults (18 and older who are deafblind. The interrater reliability of the instrument was tested through the completion of dual assessments with 44 individuals who were deafblind in the province of Ontario, Canada. Overall, nearly 50% of items had a kappa value of at least 0.60, indicating fair to substantial agreement for these items. Several items related to psychosocial well-being, mood, and sense of involvement had kappa scores of less than 0.40. However, among these items with low kappa values, most (78% showed at least 70% agreement between the two assessors. The internal consistency of several health subscales, embedded within the assessment, was also very good and ranged from 0.63 to 0.93. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a reliable instrument for assessing adults with deafblindness to better understand their needs, abilities, and preferences.

Dawn M. Guthrie, PhD

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

A Consistent, Standards-Based Format for NPOESS Data Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The NPOESS program will deliver over a hundred different product combinations to its operational, scientific, and archival users. These products will originate from nine sensors on three platforms, and will include raw, sensor, and environment products. Operational users will receive products via the four existing US operational weather Centrals. Scientific, commercial, and other public users will generally receive products via the NESDIS CLASS archives. Software provided for direct readout terminals will format products in a similar manner. Early on, the program decided to use community standards to the greatest possible extent. Some common standards (e.g., GRIB and BUFR) were determined to be inadequate. Over the past year, the program has refined its proposed data delivery formats. All products will be delivered in HDF5, with included metadata guided by the FGDC Remote Sensing Extensions. Individual product profiles will be described in associated XML files. HDF5 offers the requisite flexibility to represent the wide range of products to be produced, and has a strong and growing user base in the community which uses large, complex data sets. Granules form the basic unit of processing and storage, but multiple granules can be aggregated to create larger delivery files. Balancing the competing goals of consistency, completeness, suitability for each product, storage efficiency, cost, and simplicity has been a daunting challenge. The data delivery formats are near final definition for the NPOESS Preparatory Program: NASA will launch a joint IPO-NASA risk reduction spacecraft in 2008 to prepare for the later operational NPOESS constellation. Sample data sets have been developed for internal evaluation. Experience with sample data will help users understand the tools and procedures which will be needed to best exploit NPOESS data when it becomes available.

Goldberg, A. M.; Thomas, W. M.

2005-12-01

62

Assessment of chemicals in construction products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The building sector uses a lot of products (several thousands) and many of these contain chemicals, some of which have harmful effects on human and environmental health. Due to the restricted knowledge of data, the impacts of chemicals can be overlooked e.g. in eco-profiles of building elements. The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore in the project Assessment of Chemicals in Construction Products decided to adapt an existing score method for assessing the chemicals. As the European countries had agreed on a score Method for Risk Ranking chemicals (EURAM), it was decided to use this method to assess chemicals in construction products for two LCA phases, indoor environment and disposal phase. The score method was used on two water-proofing systems. Waterproofing systems are used for making a water-impermeable layer in a bathroom wall. Results from the score method for indoor environment were compared to results from a screening method. Due to lack of data the screening method could not be used for the disposal phase.

Olsen, Stig Irving

2000-01-01

63

Natural and agglomerated stone durability assessment according to technical standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of rock behaviour and durability plays an important role in the use of rocks and similar materials for all building purposes. Durability is a complex term, therefore the paper deals with the terminology and aspects related to the evaluation and prediction possibilities of stone durability. Technical standards offer some laboratory procedures suitable for stone durability assessment. The paper presents the results of the application of some standard laboratory methods on select types of natural and agglomerated stones, from the physical properties determination and durability assessment point of view. On the basis of defined criteria of physical properties, such as the value of open porosity, uniaxial compressive strength and water absorption, was predicted the behaviour of selected stones against ageing and weathering. Results of the realised laboratory weathering tests such as the determination of resistance to frost and salt crystallisation, determination of resistance to ageing by SO2 action in the presence of humidity, and determination of resistance to thermal shock, confirmed and verified rock behaviour conditional on stone genesis, mineral composition and structural characteristics.

Ivana Šimková

2010-01-01

64

Student's Video Production as Formative Assessment  

CERN Document Server

Learning assessments are subject of discussions that envolve theoretical and practical approaches. To measure learning in physics by high school students, either qualitatively or quantitatively, is a process in which it should be possible to identify not only the concepts and contents students failed to achieve but also the reasons of the failure. We propose that students' video production offers a very effective formative assessment to teachers: as a formative assessment, it produces information that allows the understanding of where and when the learning process succeeded or failed, of identifying, as a subject or as a group, the defficiencies or misunderstandings related to the theme under analysis and their interpretation by students, and it provides also a different kind of assessment, related to some other life skills, like the ability to carry a project to its conclusion and to work cooperatively. In this paper, we describe the use of videos produced by high school students as an assessment resource. T...

Gama, Eduardo

2013-01-01

65

Risk assessment of plant protection products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides in view of the future dialogue between risk managers and risk assessors during the next steps of the revision of the ecotoxicology guidance documents.

Hardy T

2012-10-01

66

Institutional capacity for standards conformity assessment: A case study on spices in Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Local capacity for standards conformity assessment is an important component in accessing export markets. In theory, it will lead to lowered compliance costs on the part of local exporters. Moreover, it may provide local exporters with the ability to contest unfavourable foreign test results and thus avoid unnecessary losses. This is important in cases where product contamin-ation occurs outside their borders. This is however possible only where relevant local institutions are accredited and ...

Akyoo, Adam; Lazaro, Evelyne

2008-01-01

67

Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

Veskovi?-Mora?anin Slavica

2011-01-01

68

Application of spreadsheets to standardize transportation radiological risk assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the complexity, volume of data and calculations required, one preferred analytical tool to perform transportation risk assessments is the RADTRAN computer code. RADTRAN combines user-determined material, packaging, transportation, demographic and meteorological factors, with health physics data to calculate expected radiological consequences and accident risk from transporting radioactive materials by all commercial modes including truck, rail, ship, air and barge. The computer code consists of two major modules for each transport mode: the incident-free module, in which doses from normal transport are calculated; and the accident module, in which dose consequences and probabilities are evaluated to generate risk estimates. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the development of a standardized procedure to perform transportation radiological risk assessments employing conventional spreadsheet programs to automate generation of RADTRAN input files and post-processing analysis of the resulting output

69

State trends in ecological risk assessment and standard setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purposes of this paper are (1) to identify key states' activities and plans related to setting cleanup standards using the ecological risk assessment process, and (2) to discuss the impacts these actions may have on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental restoration program. This report is prepared as part of a larger task, the purpose of which is to identify and assess state regulatory trends and legal developments that may impact DOE's environmental restoration program. Results of this task are intended to provide DOE with advance notice of potentially significant regulatory developments so as to enhance DOE's ability to influence these developments and to incorporate possible regulatory and policy changes into its planning process.

Siegel, M R; Fowler, K M; Bilyard, G R

1993-02-01

70

Assessing the Productivity of Human Service Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applied an alternative strategy for assessing the extent of change clients undergo as a result of receiving human services. Used the approach in a survey of parents of 61 young children in an art program. Findings show the feasibility of the service productivity approach. Psychometric properties of the approach were promising. (SLD)

Green, Rex S.

2003-01-01

71

40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection...National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. (a) Except as provided...

2010-07-01

72

A proposed standard on medical isotope production in fission reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Authors Robert E. Sehenter, Garry Brown and Charles S. Holden argue that a Standard for 'Medical Isotope Production' is needed. Medical isotopes are becoming major components of application for the diagnosis and treatment of all the major diseases including all forms of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's, among others. Current nuclear data to perform calculations is incomplete, dated or imprecise or otherwise flawed for many isotopes that could have significant applications in medicine. Improved data files will assist computational analyses to design means and methods for improved isotope production techniques in the fission reactor systems. Initial focus of the Standard is expected to be on neutron cross section and branching data for both fast and thermal reactor systems. Evaluated and reviewed tables giving thermal capture cross sections and resonance integrals for the major target and product medical isotopes would be the expected 'first start' for the 'Standard Working Group'. (authors)

Schenter, R. E. [Smart Bullets Inc., 2521 SW Luradel Street, Portland, OR 97219 (United States); Brown, G. J. [Ozarks Medical Center, Cancer Treatment Center, Shaw Medical Building, 1111 Kentucky Avenue, West Plains, MO 65775 (United States); Holden, C. S. [Thorenco LLC, 369 Pine Street, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States)

2006-07-01

73

Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Standard Product Generation and Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

The LDCM's Landsat 8 (L8), planned for launch in February 2013, is the latest satellite in the 40 year history of the Landsat program. The satellite will have two imagers: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The data from both sensors will be processed and combined into the final Level 1 Terrain (L1T) standard product by the Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS) at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS). Landsat 8 products will nominally have 11 image bands; however, products will still be created if OLI only, or TIRS only collections are acquired. The LPGS is designed to create L1T products from Level 0 data by merging OLI and TIRS outputs and performing systematic radiometric and geometric corrections, followed by precision and terrain corrections that include Ground Control Points (GCP), and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for topographic accuracy. Scenes that have a quality score of 9 or greater and a percent cloud cover less than 40 will be automatically processed. In addition, any archived scene, regardless of cloud cover, can be requested for processing through USGS EROS clients, GloVis or Earth Explorer. While most data will be processed as Level L1T, some scenes will not have ground control or elevation data necessary for precision or terrain correction, respectively. In these cases, the best level of correction will be applied (Level 1G-systematic or Level 1Gt-systematic terrain). The standard Level 1T products will contain scaled Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data, only for OLI. The conversion between radiance and reflectance within radiometric processing (L1R) will be performed using the band specific coefficients that are proportional to the respective exoatmospheric solar irradiances and the Earth-Sun distance for the scene's acquisition day. The TIRS data will contain scaled at-sensor radiances and no at-sensor brightness temperature or emissivity conversions are planned. For users that prefer uncorrected data a Level 0 Reformatted Product (L0Rp) product will be available. The standard L1T product for L8 will be a 16-bit, north up Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, Cubic Convolution (CC) resampled, GeoTIFF file. The delivered tar file contains eight 30-meter OlI multispectral bands, one 15-meter OLI Panchromatic band, two TIRS thermal bands, a Quality Band (QB), a metadata file, and an Angle Band. The QB is a file that contains quality statistics from the image data and cloud mask for the scene. The metadata file contains information about the product ordered and is essential for the end user to know how that product was processed. The Angle Band is a binary image file that contains the solar angle information for the scene data collected. The L1T reflectance product bands will be generated with no sun angle correction applied. The angle band will enable an optional TOA reflectance calculation using the sun angles specific to each image pixel. This method was chosen to maintain continuity with Landsat products while allowing the users that require a per pixel sun angle correction to have that capability. An example of a L8 product can be downloaded from the Landsat website located at: http://landsat.usgs.gov/LDCM_DataProduct.php. The sample L8 product was created using Landsat 7 data projected onto a L8 grid and processed to LDCM data product specifications.

Micijevic, E.; Hayes, R.

2012-12-01

74

DIFFERENCES IN MANAGER ASSESSMENTS OF ISO 14000 STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the results of a survey about the improvements achieved as result of ISO 14000 Environmental Management System (EMS standard implementation and the differences of improvements with respect to firm characteristics. A survey has been conducted in order to explain the improvements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance. The survey involved sixty-six enterprises implementing ISO 14000 EMS standard in Turkey. In order to assess improvements obtained from ISO 14000 EMS implementation, statements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance indicators have been prepared. The statements in this study are relevant to previous research. A factor analysis was employed to determine the factors of the variables explaining improvements. Nine factors have been identified related to achieved improvements, such as establishment of pro-active environmental management system, effectiveness in resource utilization, effectiveness of process control, relationships with industry and government, meeting expectations of stakeholders, demonstration of social responsibility, profitability, productivity, and competitiveness. Then, a T- test was conducted to determine the differences of managers’ assessments with respect to certain firm characteristics. The findings have shown that there are differences in the assessments of improvements achieved as a result of ISO 14000 EMS standard implementation with respect to sales volume, foreign-capital possession, and ISO 14000 EMS standard implementation. On the other hand, industrial sector, age of establishment, and export orientation are not statistically significant for the differences in the assessments of improvements.

S?tk? Gözlü

2005-12-01

75

An international serum standard for application in assays to detect human complement activation products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of the complement system in clinical medicine has become evident during the last decades and complement therapeutics has now reached the clinic. Thus, there is an increased interest in and need for assays to evaluate complement activity and dysfunction. Pathologically increased complement activation can indirectly be evaluated by quantification of complement components, but in order to exactly measure such activation, assays for quantification of products formed during activation are required. Progress in this field is hampered by lack of standardization. Therefore, members of the International Complement Standardization Committee, a joint initiative of the International Complement Society and the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), prepared a defined standard for application in assays for complement activation products. We here report on the production and properties of this International Complement Standard #2 (ICS#2). ICS#2 was made from a pool of sera from healthy blood donors (ICS#1) that was activated with a combination of heat-aggregated IgG and zymosan, and subsequently stabilized by adding EDTA and nafamostat mesylate. The protocol was optimized to make the standard applicable in the following activation product assays: C1rs-C1-inhibitor complexes, C4a, C4bc, C4d, Bb, C3bBbP, C3a, C3bc, C3dg, C5a and the soluble terminal C5b-9 complement complex (SC5b-9, TCC). ICS#2 was defined as containing 1000 complement activation units (CAU)/mL for all activation products measured. All activation products were stable after 10 times thawing and freezing and most of the activation products were stable during storage at 4°C for up to 21 days. ICS#2 was produced large-scale and is considered a valuable tool for standardization, calibration and reference control for complement activation assays, providing the necessary prerequisite for quality assessments between complement laboratories. PMID:23787367

Bergseth, Grethe; Ludviksen, Judith K; Kirschfink, Michael; Giclas, Patricia C; Nilsson, Bo; Mollnes, Tom E

2013-12-15

76

Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371–9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

2014-11-01

77

Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high. PMID:25332308

Franz, A M; Schmitt, D; Seitel, A; Chatrasingh, M; Echner, G; Oelfke, U; Nill, S; Birkfellner, W; Maier-Hein, L

2014-11-21

78

Relevance of methods and standards for the assessment of measurement system performance in a High-Value Manufacturing Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements underpin the engineering decisions that allow products to be designed, manufactured, operated, and maintained. Therefore, the quality of measured data needs to be systematically assured to allow decision makers to proceed with confidence. The use of standards is one way of achieving this. This paper explores the relevance of international documentary standards to the assessment of measurement system capability in High Value Manufacturing (HVM) Industry. An internal measurement standard is presented which supplements these standards and recommendations are made for a cohesive effort to develop the international standards to provide consistency in such industrial applications.

Loftus, Pete; Giudice, Seb

2014-08-01

79

The development of an Arctic standard for floating production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry uses floating offshore structures to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store and offload the product to an export tanker or pipeline system. The floating structure can include the hull, marine systems, accommodation, hydrocarbon processing facilities, storage and offloading systems, a mooring system to hold the structure on location, the flow lines or risers connecting the unit to the well head, and the subsea installations and the flowlines that collect the hydrocarbons from the wells. This paper discussed the development of ISO 19906, a new standard for the design of floating oil and gas production facilities in the Arctic. Ice management will play a prominent role in the standard, which is due to be published in 2009. The authors presented their views on some of the rationale that went into the development of requirements for floating structures in this standard, with reference to ship-shaped hull or barge units; column stabilized and buoy type units; and, tension leg platform units. The standard deals with design principles and functional requirements applicable to the life cycle of the floating structure, such as the construction phases; transportation, installation, and move-off phases; the operating phase; and, the decommissioning phase. The same principles should be used for both steel hulled floating structures and structures fabricated from other materials. This paper also reviewed another standard which is under development for the design of floating production systems, namely ISO 19904 for materials, equipment, and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries. Ice action and hull design issues were discussed along with the requirements for the design, construction and operation of a hull with respect to the considerations of the Arctic environment. The requirements for establishing an ice management system that addresses the detection, threat evaluation and implementation of active mitigation measures to deal with hazardous ice situations, including both glacial ice features and sea ice were also reviewed. The entire production system of a floating production facility should be designed appropriately for the geographical location and environmental conditions. This could potentially involve seasonal operation, special operating procedures, ice management or even disconnection. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Makrygiannis, M. [BP Norway AS, Stavanger (Norway); McKenna, R. [R. McKenna Consultant, Wakefield, PQ (Canada); Wright, B. [B. Wright Associates, Canmore, AB (Canada); Allyn, N. [Westmar Consultants, North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sildnes, T. [Det Norske Veritas, Hovik (Norway); Jolles, W. [Agip KCO, Den Haag (Netherlands); Morland, M. [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway); Grant, R. [Grantec, Halifax, NS (Canada)

2006-11-15

80

Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

2012-01-01

82

Non-standard isotope production and applications at Washington University  

Science.gov (United States)

The positron emitting radionuclides, oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 have been produced at Washington University for many years utilizing two biomedical cyclotrons; a Cyclotron Corporation CS15 and a Japan Steel Works 16/8 cyclotron. In recent years we have become interested in the production of non-standard PET isotopes. We were initially interested in copper-64 production using the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu nuclear reaction, but now apply this technique to other positron emitting copper isotopes, copper-60 and copper-61. Copper-64 is being produced routinely and made available to other institutions. In 1999 over ten Curies of copper-64 were produced, making copper available to thirteen institutions, as well as research groups at Washington University. We are currently developing methods for the routine productions of other PET radioisotopes of interest, these include; bromine-76, bromine-77, iodine-124, gallium-66, and technetium-94m.

McCarthy, Timothy J.; McCarthy, Deborah W.; Laforest, Richard; Bigott, Heather M.; Wüst, Frank; Reichert, David E.; Lewis, Michael R.; Welch, Michael J.

2001-07-01

83

7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. ...Articles § 319.40-11 Plant pest risk assessment standards. ...APHIS will conduct the following analysis to determine the plant pest risks associated with...

2010-01-01

84

On risk assessment of energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

85

40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1293...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each...

2010-07-01

86

40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1300...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each...

2010-07-01

87

24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification...procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification...name and code identifying the plant location. (2) The certification...be described in the specific building product certification...

2010-04-01

88

24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...be described in the specific building product certification program...manufacturer's procedures at the plant at least every three...

2010-04-01

89

24 CFR 200.952 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...the manufacturer's name and plant location. (c) Periodic...be described in the specific building product certification...

2010-04-01

90

24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...the manufacturer's name, plant location, and shelf life...be described in the specific building product certification...

2010-04-01

91

24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...the manufacturer's name, plant location, and statement of...be described in the specific building product certification...

2010-04-01

92

24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...the manufacturer's name and plant location. (c) Periodic...be described in the specific building product certification...

2010-04-01

93

40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each...

2010-07-01

94

40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—diisocyanate...

2010-07-01

95

40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each...

2010-07-01

96

Consumer-products efficiency standards economic-analysis document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 30, 1980, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking proposing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. Further analysis and significant revisions have been made to the proposed rule. This document presents the economic analysis used to support the present notice of proposed rulemaking. The methodology used in the economic analysis is described and the computer models, their outputs, and primary assumptions of the analysis are summarized. Baseline forecasts were made for appliance demand, product cost, energy usage, industry development, gross national product, inflation, balance of trade, and employment. The derivation of these baseline forecasts is discussed. The efficiency levels analyzed for standards are listed and the impacts of these efficiency levels on consumers, manufacturers, and the nation are summarized. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine how changes in technical and operational parameters affected key engineering and economic indicators used in evaluation of appliance standards. Additional details of the models and data bases used in the analysis are included in appendices. (MCW)

1982-03-01

97

Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials: Recommendations for Standardization, Production, and Usage  

Science.gov (United States)

Experience gained during the Apollo program demonstrated the need for extensive testing of surface systems in relevant environments, including regolith materials similar to those encountered on the lunar surface. As NASA embarks on a return to the Moon, it is clear that the current lunar sample inventory is not only insufficient to support lunar surface technology and system development, but its scientific value is too great to be consumed by destructive studies. Every effort must be made to utilize standard simulant materials, which will allow developers to reduce the cost, development, and operational risks to surface systems. The Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials Workshop held in Huntsville, AL, on January 24 26, 2005, identified the need for widely accepted standard reference lunar simulant materials to perform research and development of technologies required for lunar operations. The workshop also established a need for a common, traceable, and repeatable process regarding the standardization, characterization, and distribution of lunar simulants. This document presents recommendations for the standardization, production and usage of lunar regolith simulant materials.

Sibille, L.; Carpenter, P.; Schlagheck, R.; French, R. A.

2006-01-01

98

Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products  

CERN Document Server

1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2013-01-01

99

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.  

CERN Multimedia

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

ATLAS, collaboration

2012-01-01

100

A travelling standard for radiopharmaceutical production centres in Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-lived radionuclides, ?, ?+ and/or ?- emitters, such as 18F, and 99mTc, particularly useful for nuclear medicine applications, both diagnostic and in radiotherapy, can be produced with high-specific activity in a small biomedical cyclotron or by a radionuclide generator. While [18F]Fludeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) is a widely used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography, the development of innovative diagnostic techniques and therapies involves the use of new radio-labelled molecules and emerging radionuclides, such as 64Cu and 124I. During the last 3 years, an extensive supply of [18F]FDG was started by many production sites in Italy, and new radiopharmaceuticals are being studied for future nuclear medical applications. Therefore, a special nuclear medicine research programme for primary standard development and transferral to the end-users has been carried out by the ENEA-INMRI. Because of the short half-lives of these nuclides, a portable well-type ionisation chamber was established as a secondary travelling standard. This device has been calibrated and transported to the radiopharmaceutical production centres in Italy where the local instrumentation, typically radionuclide calibrators, has been calibrated by a simple comparison, with an uncertainty level lower than 2%.

Capogni, M.; de Felice, P.; Fazio, A.

 
 
 
 
101

Standardizing Limits for Cost of Production in Commercial Egg Operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken in Chakwal during 2000-2001 while collecting data from 109 flocks to predict standard limits for various cost components in commercial egg production enterprise. Net profit per bird was taken as response variable and the cost components one by one were standardized using quadratic functions. Maximum critical limit for total predicted cost of production per bird, cost of: feed, labor, day-old chick, building and equipment, immunization, medication, transportation, miscellaneous items, bedding and electricity was Rs. 343.41, Rs. 22.97, Rs. 21.63, Rs. 17.39, Rs. 9.08, Rs. 7.80, Rs. 3.32, Rs. 3.30, Rs. 2.05, Rs. 2.03, respectively. The critical maximum limits were the indicators suggesting that any increase beyond those limits would render the enterprise uneconomical. The information provided may serve a useful purpose for the commercial layer farms in improving net profit from commercial layers in Chakwal.

Farooq. M.

2002-01-01

102

25 CFR 36.12 - Standard III-Program needs assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DORMITORY SITUATIONS Educational Management § 36...Standard III—Program needs assessment. ...on an assessment of educational needs. This needs assessment...c) A statement of educational needs which identifies...

2010-04-01

103

Assessing product image quality for online shopping  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

2012-01-01

104

The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also set values for and recommended four quantifiable parameters, and the testing methodology associated with each, to help consumers and states evaluate absorbent products (medium adult size): Maximum Rewet Rate: 250 g for standard briefs or underwear and >400 g for premium briefs or underwear; and Breathability of Zones: Minimum of >100 cubic feet per minute. As these recommendations are implemented, research is needed to evaluate the impact on both cost and quality of care for further refinement and modifications, particularly as technology and knowledge is advanced. PMID:24018391

Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

2013-09-01

105

Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflection and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals with what-questions and that the portfolio is expected to handle a number of challenges with regard to the documentation of learning processes and achievements as well as the conditioning of learning activities. Furthermore, is becomes clear that descriptions of how the portfolio works are sparse. Based on systems theory, the paper adopts a how-perspective: How does the portfolio re-describe learning? How does it scaffold and organise communication? The conclusion is that systems theory allows us to re-describe the portfolio as a teaching technology, which, by scaffolding both reflection and reflexivity, produces unique conditions for the stimulation and observation of learning, thus increasing the complexity of learning observation.

Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

2014-01-01

106

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

2011-10-31

107

24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for carpet...requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for carpet...Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source;...

2010-04-01

108

24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification...procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification...identifying the manufacturing plant location; and (ii) Manufacturer's...quality shall be taken from the plant annually. Of these,...

2010-04-01

109

Pursuing Credibility Through Standardization: The Potential for Canadian Product Category Rules to Enhance the Comparability of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Claims of Alberta's Oil Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy, transparency, and comparability of life cycle estimates are central to the controversy over the use of life cycle assessment to support policy. This thesis examines the potential for a Canadian formal voluntary standard to create product category rules for crude oil products. Such a standard would be developed at the Canadian Standards Association, and may enhance the credibility and improve the comparability of greenhouse gas emissions claims of Alberta's oil sands products. A case study is developed as a narrative of key stakeholders in the proposed standard's development, and interview findings are compared with hypotheses derived from standards literature. Challenges facing consensus in life cycle assessment were found to parallel those facing standards development organizations. Novel findings indicate widespread disagreement with the use of life cycle assessment to support regulation, substantial differences in the desired prescriptiveness of the standard, and a heavy focus placed on its revision post-implementation.

Rainville, Anne Marie

110

Curvaton Decay by Resonant Production of the Standard Model Higgs  

CERN Document Server

We investigate in detail a model where the curvaton is coupled to the Standard Model higgs. Parametric resonance might be expected to cause a fast decay of the curvaton, so that it would not have time to build up the curvature perturbation. However, we show that this is not the case, and that the resonant decay of the curvaton may be delayed even down to electroweak symmetry breaking. This delay is due to the coupling of the higgs to the thermal background, which is formed by the Standard Model degrees of freedom created from the inflaton decay. We establish the occurrence of the delay by considering the curvaton evolution and the structure of the higgs resonances. We then provide analytical expressions for the delay time, and for the subsequent resonant production of the higgs, which ultimately leads to the curvaton effective decay width. Contrary to expectations, it is possible to obtain the observed curvature perturbation for values of the curvaton-higgs coupling as large as 0.1. Our calculations also appl...

Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N

2012-01-01

111

75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...Institute of Standards and Technology [Document Number: 090306279-0146-02...Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice...Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces voluntary...comments, and provided the history of the revision....

2010-04-02

112

Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production  

Science.gov (United States)

Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

2009-04-01

113

The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

114

The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: an early assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas were well exceeded by the end of 2001, with 915 MW of wind installed in that year alone. RPS compliance costs appear negligible with new wind projects reportedly contracted for well under 3(US) cents/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US) cents/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

115

Physical Education Standards: Making Assessment Manageable in the Urban High School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Documents the development of a system of assessment in physical education that is practical for implementation in a large, urban school system, focusing on: conditions affecting student assessment and record keeping; course-related assessment; and documenting the assessment process. The paper emphasizes that assessment of progress toward standards

Grosse, Susan J.; Gotts, Sheryl L.; Rath, Carol; Cummings, Mike

2001-01-01

116

Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

Ormond, Barbara

2011-01-01

117

Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

Ottiger, Hans-Peter

2010-05-01

118

Product unconformable in the light of legal regulations and the ISO 9001:2000 standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.

Justyna Górna

2009-01-01

119

RE/H2 Production Micro-System Based on Standard Alkaline Electrolytic Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first task of a more comprehensive research project focused on the development of micro-scale (1-20 kW) Renewable Hydrogen (RE/H2) production systems oriented to carry on a wide campaign of educational and demonstration projects. The paper proposes to rely on low-cost and rugged 'standard' alkaline electrolytic technology, well suited for decentralized hydrogen production, but requiring a certain R and D effort to get technical competitiveness. An electrolyser test facility has been designed and carried out. Then performance assessment of a commercial electrolyser and its sub-systems has been accomplished. First experimental results stated that the unit under test gets an average production efficiency of 51%, versus a stack (cell) efficiency of about 62%, while the aged AC/DC power converter, to be removed or replaced to adapt the unit to DC link with renewables, requires more than 16% of the incoming power. (authors)

120

Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains : Reflections on the “Dark Side” of Impact Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing countries. However, much less attention has been paid to the “dark side” of impact assessment – the ethical and political dilemmas that arise in the process of carrying out impact studies. This paper addresses this gap in literature, arguing that impact assessments of CSR standards may do more harm than good to the intended beneficiaries - developing country firms, farmers, workers, and communities - unless these ethical and political dilemmas are given serious consideration.

Lund-Thomsen, Peter

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The impact of national standards assessment in New Zealand, and national testing protocols in Norway on indigenous schooling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper first provides a critic of the implementation of compulsory national assessment protocols internationally, and then nationally through a review of the implementation process used for the introduction of National Standards in New Zealand, and National Testing in Norwegian mainstream schools. It then reviews the impact of these two assessment regimes on indigenous Mãori and Sámi -medium schools in the context of historic policies of marginalisation and assimilation. Finally, it notes the crucial role of each national government in securing funding for the production of culturally responsive National Standards and National Testing in the effort of both indigenous groups to protect their languages and cultures.

Kamil ÖZERK

2012-01-01

122

AN ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high performing East Asian development model sparked controversies in the academia: its success was ascribed alternatively to nation-states, markets, and sociocultural factors. This paper undertakes a comparative assessment of the last two generations of submodels, i.e. ASEAN-4 and China, by quantifying and interpreting their total factor productivity (TFP using the Solow Model. Results show that capital accumulation was their major growth driver before the beginning of the millennium. Subsequently growth is led by technical change in ASEAN-32, and capital inputs respectively in late industrialising economies, i.e., China and the Philippines. The main differences between the two submodels consist in levels in growth rates and technical progress contributions, which are strongly sped up in China by transition and integration in global production networks. For ASEAN-4 average null or negligible TFP values in the 1990s point to structural vulnerabilities that surface during the Asian financial crisis. ASEAN-3’s recovery is led by technical change though.

Dana GÂRDU

2011-10-01

123

Social Moderation, Assessment and Assuring Standards for Accounting Graduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidencing student achievement of standards is a growing imperative worldwide. Key stakeholders (including current and prospective students, government, regulators and employers) want confidence that threshold learning standards in an accounting degree have been assured. Australia's new higher education regulatory environment requires that…

Watty, Kim; Freeman, Mark; Howieson, Bryan; Hancock, Phil; O'Connell, Brendan; de Lange, Paul; Abraham, Anne

2014-01-01

124

Tying Together the Common Core of Standards, Instruction, and Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear, high standards will enable us to develop an education system that ensures that high school graduates are ready for college. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has been working with other organizations to develop a Common Core of Standards. The partners working with the foundation are developing tools that will show teachers what is…

Phillips, Vicki; Wong, Carina

2010-01-01

125

Using Digital Video Production to Meet the Common Core Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The implementation of the Common Core Standards has just begun and these standards will impact a generation that communicates with technology more than anything else. Texting, cell phones, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, etc. are the ways they speak with their friends and the world. The Common Core Standards recognize this. According to the Common Core…

Nichols, Maura

2012-01-01

126

Guidelines and pharmacopoeial standards for pharmaceutical impurities: overview and critical assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

ICH/regional guidances and agency scrutiny provide the regulatory framework for safety assessment and control of impurities in small-molecule drug substances and drug products. We provide a critical assessment of the principal impurity guidances and, in particular, focus on deficiencies in the derivation of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) as applied to genotoxic impurities and the many toxicological anomalies generated by following the current guidelines on impurities. In terms of pharmacopoeial standards, we aim to highlight the fact that strictly controlling numerous impurities, especially those that are minor structural variants of the active substance, is likely to produce minimal improvements in drug safety. It is believed that, wherever possible, there is a need to simplify and rebalance the current impurity paradigm, moving away from standards derived largely from batch analytical data towards structure-based qualification thresholds and risk assessments using readily available safety data. Such changes should also lead to a minimization of in vivo testing for toxicological qualification purposes. Recent improvements in analytical techniques and performance have enabled the detection of ever smaller amounts of impurities with increased confidence. The temptation to translate this information directly to the regulatory sphere without any kind of safety evaluation should be resisted. PMID:22507740

Snodin, David J; McCrossen, Sean D

2012-07-01

127

Branch standard centre for radionuclide metrology and isotope production standardization in Czechoslovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks are described of the branch standardization centre. The principal information sources are listed in the field of technical standardization as are the methods of the processing and use of these sources for the compilation of technical standards. (M.D.)

128

Standardization of Test for Assessment and Comparing of Students’ Measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study Standardized Economics Achievement Test for senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The standardized test in Economics was first constructed by an expert as a valid and reliable instrument. The test was then used for standardization in this study. That is, ensuring that the Economics achievement test is standardized. It was administered to 3,000 students using the same guidelines with no case of malpractice. The sex, location and school-type norm of students were considered for standardization. The measurement of students in form of Percentile rank, Z-score, T-score and Stanine statistics were used as derived scores to normalize the students’ raw scores, using the knowledge of the normal curve as the theoretical base. This completed the process that made the test a Standardized Economics Achievement Test. The result shows that the test scores were normally distributed through the use of Percentile rank, Z-score, T-score and Stanine. Recommendations were made that the standardized test could be used to asses and compare the measurement of students from year to year.

Patrick U. Osadebe

2014-04-01

129

Production of fractional atomic layer standards of niobium and vanadium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To produce such standards a modified Pierce-type electron-beam-gun evaporation system with a thickness monitor was used. An ''accurate'' Nb standard of 0.1 monolayer deposit thickness was prepared by evaporation under controlled conditions. Nb standards of 1.1 q, 0.11, and 0.011 monolayers were produced in a single evaporation. These standards were then calibrated to the ''accurate'' standard. The errors quoted do not include those associated with the monitor itself. The relative accuracy of the standards was verified by Rutherford backscattering and ion micro-probe measurements. Standards of Nb and V on single-crystal Si substrates were produced. The very thin fractional-atomic-layer targets were used in an experiment which yielded valuable information for the fusion power program. This experiment is briefly described. The method of fabrication of the targets, and the techniques used to determine the target thicknesses are described

130

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

131

Measurement and standardization of eye safety for optical radiation of LED products  

Science.gov (United States)

The blue light hazard (BLH) to human eye's retina is now a new issue emerging in applications of artificial light sources. Especially for solid state lighting sources based on the blue chip-LED(GaN), the photons with their energy more than 2.4 eV show photochemical effects on the retina significantly, raising damage both in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The photobiological safety of artificial light sources emitting optical radiation has gained more and more attention worldwide and addressed by international standards IEC 62471-2006(CIE S009/E: 2002). Meanwhile, it is involved in IEC safety specifications of LED lighting products and covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to artificial optical radiation. In practical applications of the safety standards, the measuring methods of optical radiation from LED products to eyes are important in establishment of executable methods in the industry. In 2011, a new project to develop the international standard of IEC TR62471-4,that is "Measuring methods of optical radiation related to photobiological safety", was approved and are now under way. This paper presents the concerned methods for the assessment of optical radiation hazards in the standards. Furthermore, a retina radiance meter simulating eye's optical geometry is also described, which is a potential tool for blue light hazard assessment of retinal exposure to optical radiation. The spectroradiometric method integrated with charge-coupled device(CCD) imaging system is introduced to provide more reliable results.

Mou, Tongsheng; Peng, Zhenjian

2013-06-01

132

Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

2010-05-01

133

Location Knowledge: Assessment, Spatial Thinking, and New National Geography Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Location knowledge is typically assessed using outline maps. A new set of questions reflect spatial thinking research and helps to assess student location knowledge. A small group (145) of first-year college students helped to refine the items. Question styles include: open-response, multiple-choice, listing, labeling, and sketching. Topics…

Dunn, James M.

2011-01-01

134

Authentication of human cell-based products: the role of a new consensus standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Authentication of human tissues, cell lines and primary cell cultures (including stem cell preparations) used as therapeutic modalities is often performed using phenotyping and technologies capable of assessing identity to the species level (e.g., isoenzyme analysis and/or karyotyping). This authentication paradigm alone cannot provide assurance that the correct human cell preparation is administered, so careful labeling and tracking of cells from the donor, during manufacture and as part of the final product are also employed. Precise, accurate identification of human cells to the individual donor level could, however, significantly reduce the risks of exposing human subjects to misidentified cells. The availability of a standardized method for achieving this will provide a way to improve the safety profile of human cell-based products by providing assurance that a given lot of cells originated from the intended donor and were not inadvertently mixed or replaced with cells from other donors. In support of this goal, an international team of scientists has prepared a consensus standard on authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat profiling. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public database of short tandem repeat profiles for commonly used cell lines. PMID:21391858

Kerrigan, Liz; Nims, Raymond W

2011-03-01

135

78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\2\\ The period of review is May 1...Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15,...

2013-06-07

136

Design and logistics IT federation through Product Lifecycle Support standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wide diffusion of methodologies and software relevant to Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) in industrial companies faces heterogeneity of IT systems. Especially, the lack of interoperability between Product Data Management (PDM) systems, that drive virtual product development, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), which manages real product, cannot lead to a coherent description of the product development process. We show that a "mediator" approach is pertinent for the coordination of thes...

Paviot, Thomas; Cheutet, Vincent; Lamouri, Samir

2009-01-01

137

Assessment of technologies to meet a low carbon fuel standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper investigates the potential for cost-effective GHG reductions from electrification and expanded use of biofuels. The analysis indicates that fuel providers could meetthe standard using a portfolio approach that employs both biofuels and electricity, which would reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with the progress of cellulosic and battery technologies, feedstock prices, land availability, and the sustainability of the various compliance approaches. Our analysis is based on the details of California's development of an LCFS; however, this research approach could be generalizable to a national U.S. standard and to similar programs in Europe and Canada. PMID:19806719

Yeh, Sonia; Lutsey, Nicholas P; Parker, Nathan C

2009-09-15

138

Quality assessment of Landsat surface reflectance products using MODIS data  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric F.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

2012-01-01

139

Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

2012-01-01

140

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

 
 
 
 
141

Social Studies: Grades 4, 8, & 11. Content Specifications for Statewide Assessment by Standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

This state of Missouri guide to content specifications for social studies assessment is designed to give teachers direction for assessment at the benchmark levels of grades 4, 8, and 11 for each standard that is appropriate for a statewide assessment. The guide includes specifications of what students are expected to know at the benchmark levels…

Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

142

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: New Mexico and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 011  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the New Mexico Standards Based Assessment (NMSBA) standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be based. Applying…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

143

Risk Management and Assessment of Upgrading and Standardizing Guardrail  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has installed guardrail systems on interstate highways and other highways in accordance with a variety of standards throughout the years. Traffic volume has increased and the posted speeds have been raised on most INDOT’s interstate highways. Consequently, the characteristics of run-off-the-road (ROR) crashes may have changed. In the meantime, material prices have increased considerably and the guardrail maintenance and crash repair costs hav...

Zhu, Karen; Li, Shuo

2009-01-01

144

Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education  

Science.gov (United States)

This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

Gassant, Lunes

145

Regional Occupational Program (ROP) Office Occupations Entry Standards Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this skills assessment instrument is to determine if a student has the basic mathematics, reading, writing, and listening skills needed in training for office occupations. The instrument contains 29 items which test mathematical computation skills; reading comprehension; understanding of percentages and fractions; ability to read…

Burgenbauch, Susan; Cooney, Joe

146

A Standardized Tool for Assessing the Quality of Classroom-Based Shared Reading: Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR)  

Science.gov (United States)

Participation in shared-reading experiences is associated with children's language and literacy outcomes, yet few standardized assessments of shared-reading quality exist. The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric characteristics of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR), an observational tool designed to characterize…

Pentimonti, Jill M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

2012-01-01

147

Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

2014-01-01

148

Assessment of Usability Benchmarks: Combining Standardized Scales with Specific Questions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The usability of Web sites and online services is of rising importance. When creating a completely new Web site, qualitative data are adequate for identifying the most usability problems. However, changes of an existing Web site should be evaluated by a quantitative benchmarking process. The proposed paper describes the creation of a questionnaire that allows a quantitative usability benchmarking, i.e. a direct comparison of the different versions of a Web site and an orientation on general standards of usability. The questionnaire is also open for qualitative data. The methodology will be explained by the digital library services of the ZBW.

Stephanie Bettina Linek

2011-12-01

149

Biology Needs a Modern Assessment System for Professional Productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulated in large part by the advent of the Internet, research productivity in many academic disciplines has changed dramatically over the last two decades. However, the assessment system that governs professional success has not kept pace, creating a mismatch between modes of scholarly productivity and academic assessment criteria. In this…

McDade, Lucinda A.; Maddison, David R.; Guralnick, Robert; Piwowar, Heather A.; Jameson, Mary Liz; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Hill, Andrew; Vis, Morgan L.

2011-01-01

150

Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported to Saudi Arabia in order to curtail their excess and safeguard consumer health. PMID:19250956

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

2009-07-01

151

24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems...  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Building product standards and certification...Standards § 200.946 Building product standards and certification...Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ...(x) Council of American Building Officials, Model Energy...

2010-04-01

152

Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01

153

Production of radioactive gas standards for testing release monitoring equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive gas standards intended for checking the efficiency of release monitoring equipment require certain characteristics: first, they must be sufficiently varied to permit exact calibration as a function of the type of radiation emitted and its energy; second, their physical form and bulk activity must be such as to allow easy handling, so that calibration errors can be avoided. The research described was geared to these two aims. The authors have developed techniques for measuring and preparing 3H2, 85Kr, 133Xe, 37Ar and 14Co2, and, more recently, 131Xesup(m) and CH3 131I. The gas standards are contained in glass ampoules for users working in the laboratory; for gamma-emitting radionuclides a metal container permitting direct comparison of the standard and sample in an identical container has been devised. The stability of compressed tritium and nitrogen mixtures in metal flasks has also been studied: expansion of the mixture allows the user to produce a stream of gas in an instrument to be calibrated (mixtures of 85Kr with nitrogen having the same bulk activity as the 85Kr/tritium mixtures are to be produced very soon). Finally, studies aimed at producing a 129I gas standard, first in a glass ampoule and later in the form of a gas stream of known activity, are underway. (author)

154

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Texas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 007  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the alignment between the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

155

Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

1989-06-01

156

Particle production and decay in the minimal supersymmetric standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study pair production and decay of supersymmetric particles in e+e- collisions at ?s = 500 GeV, exploring the relevant supersymmetry parameter space. We give numerical predictions for cross sections and important signatures. (authors)

157

77 FR 45242 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full...  

Science.gov (United States)

...1219 Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full-Size Cribs AGENCY: Consumer...consumer product safety standards for numerous durable infant or toddler products, including infant bath...

2012-07-31

158

40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—source-wide...

2010-07-01

160

40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions...

2010-07-01

162

40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

163

40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment...Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

164

Developing Student Understanding of Assessment Standards: A Nested Hierarchy of Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a framework of approaches to sharing meaningful knowledge of assessment standards amongst an academic community, particularly students. Presented as a nested hierarchy, these approaches encompass: a "laissez faire" approach in which students' knowledge of standards is acquired in ad hoc and serendipitous ways; an "explicit"…

O'Donovan, Berry; Price, Margaret; Rust, Chris

2008-01-01

165

INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

Qahir, Katayon

2007-01-01

166

Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From November 1993 to August 1994, 55 patients with localized prostate carcinoma had three gold seeds placed in the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance prior to the start of radiotherapy in order to track prostate motion. Patients had a planning CT scan before initial simulation and again at about 40 Gy, just prior to simulation of a field reduction. Seed position relative to fixed bony landmarks (pubic symphysis and both ischial tuberosities) was digitized from each pair of orthogonal films from the initial and boost simulation using the Nucletron brachytherapy planning system. Vector analysis was performed to rule out the possibility of independent seed migration within the prostate between the time of initial and boost simulation. Prostate motion was seen in the posterior (mean: 0.56 cm; SD: 0.41 cm) and inferior directions (mean: 0.59 cm; SD: 0.45 cm). The base of the prostate was displaced more than 1 cm posteriorly in 30% of patients and in 11% in the inferior direction. Prostate position is related to rectal and bladder filling. Distension of these organs displaces the prostate in an anterosuperior direction, with lesser degrees of filling allowing the prostate to move posteriorly and inferiorly. Conformal therapy planning must take this motion into consideration. Changes in prostate position of this magnitude preclude the use of standard margins

167

Standardization and Assessment of Preformulation Parameters of Rasayana Tablet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rasayana tablet is a polyherbal preparation recommended as a tonic. It contains Amla, Gokhru and Galo in equal proportion. This preparation is generally marketed in the form of churna and tablet with several problems in weight hardness, disintegration time and friability. The present work is based on the Standardization of individual ingredients and formulation of Rasayana tablets with improved formulation parameters in order to compare it with the marketed formulation. Pharmacognostical parameters were also checked for individual crude drugs and marketed tablets like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying and powder microscopy. The preformulation parameters like bulk density, tap density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose were also checked for laboratory granules. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using sucrose (55 % solution and starch (20 % solution as binder. The designed formulations were evaluated for thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The designed formulation was in conformity to the properties evaluated for the tablets and is discussed in detail.

Shah V. K.

2010-01-01

168

Assessing Methanol Production in China for Methanex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methanex is the world leader in methanol production and marketing. China is an important market; by 2014 it is forecasted to account for 50% of global demand. The purpose of this project is to determine whether Methanex should invest in methanol production in China. The project approach uses a multi-goal analysis focusing on three goals: (1) Consistent with Corporate Vision, (2) Sustainment of Existing Competitive Advantages, and (3) Profitability. Based on the analysis, the project concludes...

Wong, Gabriel

2010-01-01

169

Patients’ vs. Physicians’ Assessments of Emergencies: The Prudent Layperson Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare perception of the need for emergency care by emergency department (ED patients vs. emergency physicians (EPs. Methods: Mailed survey to EPs and a convenience sample of ED patients. Survey rated urgency of acute sore throat, ankle injury, abdominal pain, and hemiparesis, as well as the best definition of “emergency.” Responses were compared with chi-square (p < .05. Results: 119/140 (85% of EPs and 1453 ED patients responded. EPs were more likely to judge acute abdominal pain (79.8% vs. 43.4%, p < 0.001, odds ratio (OR 5.16, 95% confidence interval (CI 3.19-8.40 and hemiparesis (100% vs. 82.6%, p < 0.001, OR 24.9, 95% CI 3.75-94.4 as an emergency. Similar proportions of ED patients and EPs considered sore throat (12.2% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.18, OR 0.59, CI 0.27-1.23 and ankle injury (46.9% vs. 38.6%, p = 0.10, OR 0.71, CI 0.48-1.06 an emergency. EPs (35% and ED patients (40% agreed to a similar degree with the “prudent layperson” definition, “a condition that may result in death, permanent disability, or severe pain.” (p = .36, OR 1.22, CI 0.81-1.84. EPs were more likely to add, “the condition prevented work,” (27% vs. 16%, p = 0.003, OR 0.51, CI 0.33-0.81. Patients more often added, “occurred outside business hours” (15% vs. 4%, p = 0.002, OR 4.0, CI = 1.5-11.3. Conclusion: For serious complaints, ED patients’ thresholds for seeking care are higher than judged appropriate by EPs. Stroke is not uniformly recognized as an emergency. Absent consensus for the “correct” threshold, the prudent layperson standard is appropriate.

Langdorf, Mark I

2003-01-01

170

Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA, a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157 was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran. The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

M Afshari

2012-05-01

171

Agricultural dust production in standard and conservation tillage systems in the San Joaquin Valley.  

Science.gov (United States)

The negative health effects of repeated dust exposure have been well documented. In California's San Joaquin Valley, agricultural operations may contribute substantially to airborne particulates. We evaluated four management systems to assess impacts on dust production and soil properties for a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) rotation: standard tillage with (STCC) and without (STNO) cover crop, and conservation tillage with (CTCC) and without (CTNO) cover crop. Gravimetric analysis of total dust (TD, production for STNO and STCC was comparable, whereas the CTCC system produced about twice as much TD and RD as CTNO. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed absolute increases of 8 and 39% organic fragments in STCC and CTCC over STNO and CTNO, respectively, while organic fragments in the TD increased by 6% in both cover crop treatments. Soil C content was positively correlated with clay content and increased by an average of 0.12 and 0.07% in the cover crop and non-cover crop treatments, respectively, although soil C for each treatment showed a distinct response to a field texture gradient. While dust emissions show an immediate decrease due to fewer field operations for the conservation tillage treatments, long-term sampling is necessary to determine the effects that increased aggregation through organic matter additions may have on dust production. PMID:15998847

Baker, J B; Southard, R J; Mitchell, J P

2005-01-01

172

Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

173

The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated

174

The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated.

Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

2013-11-15

175

Some comments on forest resource assessments according to international standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La conoscenza della notevole dipendenza dell’uomo dalle foreste è ormai nota: esse non offrono soltanto legno e altri prodotti, ma assumono un ruolo multifunzionale fondamentale. E’ purtroppo noto che numerosi paesi sfruttano le proprie risorse forestali in modo accelerato ed è preoccupante che tra questi ci siano grandi nazioni, con gli ambiti forestali più considerevoli in relazione alla superficie forestale mondiale. Diviene quindi fondamentale il reperimento di informazioni attendibili sulla consistenza e lo stato delle foreste e per verificare i cambiamenti nel tempo della loro estensione. Il monitoraggio su ampia scala consente di valutare lo stato dell’ambiente naturale e le condizioni degli habitat forestali. E’ quindi trattata la storia delle rilevazioni delle risorse forestali negli ultimi 60 anni, realizzate in particolare dalla FAO, che ha recentemente pubblicato i primi risultati dell’ultimo Forest Resource Assessment (FRA 2005, per fornire informazioni aggiornate e comparabili sul settore forestale a politici, scienziati ed opinione pubblica. Il rapporto FRA 2005 ha anche fornito una descrizione sulla situazione delle risorse forestali a scala nazionale, delineando l’immagine che l’Italia offre al mondo del proprio patrimonio boschivo. Anche a livello europeo si registra un interesse crescente per una migliore conoscenza quantitativa e qualitativa dei patrimoni forestali, divenendo fondamentale allineare le politiche forestali ai reciproci impegni internazionali assunti dai Paesi membri e dalla stessa UE, come dimostra la MCPFE, processo sul reporting a mezzo di indicatori di gestione sostenibile delle foreste. D’altro canto, in Europa sono in corso una serie di azioni di supporto agli obiettivi della gestione forestale sostenibile, tra cui l’EU Forest Action Plan, che si pone l’obiettivo di rivisitare le esistenti regolamentazioni in ambito comunitario per facilitare il coordinamento, la comunicazione e la cooperazione tra i diversi settori politici che influenzano le attività forestali.

Marchetti M

2006-01-01

176

Safety and efficacy assessment of standardized herbal formula PM012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m, and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group at doses of 0 (vehicle control, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups, but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects.

Sohn Sung-Hwa

2012-03-01

177

Assessment of Wind Energy Production Software  

Science.gov (United States)

An examination of two computer programs used for estimating wind energy, RETScreen and System Advisor Model (SAM), are examined and compared to measured data from a wind farm. Wind speed and electrical production estimated by these programs are examined and compared to the measured data. Both programs assume no losses and predict data for an ideal wind farm. Measured data on the other hand includes losses within the farm (e.g. array loss, airfoil loss and availability loss). According to results, RETScreen underestimates the electrical production by 35% and SAM overestimates it by 26%.

Hermannsson, Hermann Reynir

178

Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)


This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china) to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate enviro...

Yang, Li-li; Zhang, Shao-jie; Gao, Ge

2006-01-01

179

Product Standards, Exports and Employment An Analytical Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through the process of globalization, trade dependence and interdependence of the developing countries have increased phenomenally than ever before. The characteristic of this late twentieth-century globalization process has been the new technological revolution that has led to a high rate of world exports of electronics and other high-technology products. This has marginalized most of the developing countries exporting largely the low quality and low value-addition manufacturing and primary ...

Acharyya, Rajat

2004-01-01

180

Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. PMID:24657525

Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

2014-05-16

 
 
 
 
181

Light-water-reactor fission-product data assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This assessment seeks (1) to determine the most probable chemical compounds formed between fission products and actinides in urania fuels under normal and accident conditions and (2) to identify gaps in knowledge of these fission-product compounds. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop predictive capability about the behavior of fission products under normal and acident conditions. The relevant thermochemical data have been organized by compound type, the chemical stability of resultant compounds determined, and data uncertainty evaluated. The assessment focused on fission-product and actinide oxides, halides, tellurides, and hydroxides. Free energy equations are given for those compounds for which data were available

182

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Arkansas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 008  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the current alignment between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability Program (ACTAAP) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

183

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Louisiana and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 009  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) and Graduation Exit Examination (GEE) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

184

DOE [Department of Energy]-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

185

Standard model Higgs boson pair production in the ()() final state  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring the Higgs boson couplings as precisely as possible is one of the major goals of the High Luminosity LHC. We show that the ()() final state in Higgs boson pair production can be exploited in the boosted regime to give constraints on the trilinear Higgs boson self-coupling. In these exclusive phase space regions, novel jet substructure techniques can be used to separate the signal from the large QCD and electroweak backgrounds. New developments on trigger and b-tagging strategies for the upcoming LHC runs are necessary in order to reconstruct the Higgs bosons in boosted final states, where the trilinear self-coupling sensitivity is reduced. We find that using our approach one can set a limit for ? ? 1 .2 at 95% CL after 3000 fb-1. As the signal-to-background ratio is small, we propose a data-driven side-band analysis to improve on the coupling measurement.

de Lima, Danilo Enoque Ferreira; Papaefstathiou, Andreas; Spannowsky, Michael

2014-08-01

186

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01

187

Standard Farming Installation Rules for Poultry Production V4 Draft March 04  

June 2009 Version 3 Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Northern Ireland Standard Farming Installation Rules and Guidance for Poultry Production [ Final Draft ] [Subject to any further changes required under ...

188

Standard Farming Installation Rules for Poultry Production V4 Draft March 04  

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Northern Ireland Standard Farming Installation Rules and Guidance for Poultry Production Version 2 May 2006 [ Final Draft ] [Subject to any further changes required under ...

189

Oil company profitability: observations on the use of oil product price assessments and associated errors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil companies often report the exact price obtained for crude oil sales. Furthermore, crude oil prices may be linked to the price of Brent crude oil which is actively and very transparently traded on the International Petroleum Exchange. Brent crude oil prices are reported worldwide electronically and in many newspapers on a daily basis. Gas oil (No. 2 Fuel oil in the USA) is actively traded on the IPE and on NYMEX and the prices are also reported worldwide almost instantaneously. One grade of unleaded gasoline is traded on NYMEX but all other oil products do not have regulated and transparent markets. The prices of these products are assessed by price reporters following daily discussions with active oil traders. Two prices are assessed and reported, the bid (low) and offer (high) even if no trade has taken place. The oil industry itself and oil products consumers make much use of these assessed prices. The object of this paper is to provide some statistical detail on the differences between various product price assessments made through 2000. From these differences, it is possible to provide an indication of the precision of oil product price assessments However, it is doubtful if precision data based on a simple determination of the standard deviation of the differences between the assessment made by the various price reporting services would be of practical use. (Author)

190

Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO3), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

191

Risk assessment of topically applied products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken skin associated with various skin disorders. BADGE and derivatives had a tendency to permeate pig skin membranes in vitro with higher fluxes in the tape stripped membranes compared to the non-treated membranes. Data from the in vitro skin permeation study and from the literature were used as input parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was foundto be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC. Both UV filters are endocrine disrupting compounds with 3-BC being the more potent. UV filters in sunscreen are often present in high concentrations, which potentially may lead to high systemic exposure dosages. Thus, the risk associated with use of 3-BC and 4-MBC containing sunscreen with regards to endocrine disrupting effects was found to be high and more data is urgently needed in order to fully assess the human risk of 3-BC and 4-MBC in commercial sunscreen.

SØborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen

2007-01-01

192

Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational work environments. This paper gives an overview of the 174 international ISO and European CEN standards in this field, and discusses their applicability in design processes. The available standards include genera...

Dul, J.; Vries, H. J.; Verschoof, S.; Eveleens, W.; Feilzer, A.

2004-01-01

193

Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

2008-07-01

194

Recent advances in environmental risk assessment of transformation products.  

Science.gov (United States)

When micropollutants degrade in the environment, they may form persistent and toxic transformation products, which should be accounted for in the environmental risk assessment of the parent compounds. Transformation products have become a topic of interest not only with regard to their formation in the environment, but also during advanced water treatment processes, where disinfection byproducts can form from benign precursors. In addition, environmental risk assessment of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals requires inclusion of human metabolites as most pharmaceuticals are not excreted into wastewater in their original form, but are extensively metabolized. All three areas have developed their independent approaches to assess the risk associated with transformation product formation including hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard assessment including dose-response characterization, and risk characterization. This review provides an overview and defines a link among those areas, emphasizing commonalities and encouraging a common approach. We distinguish among approaches to assess transformation products of individual pollutants that are undergoing a particular transformation process, e.g., biotransformation or (photo)oxidation, and approaches with the goal of prioritizing transformation products in terms of their contribution to environmental risk. We classify existing approaches for transformation product assessment in degradation studies as exposure- or effect-driven. In the exposure-driven approach, transformation products are identified and quantified by chemical analysis followed by effect assessment. In the effect-driven approach, a reaction mixture undergoes toxicity testing. If the decrease in toxicity parallels the decrease of parent compound concentration, the transformation products are considered to be irrelevant, and only when toxicity increases or the decrease is not proportional to the parent compound concentration are the TPs identified. For prioritization of transformation products in terms of their contribution to overall environmental risk, we integrate existing research into a coherent model-based, risk-driven framework. In the proposed framework, read-across from data of the parent compound to the transformation products is emphasized, but limitations to this approach are also discussed. Most prominently, we demonstrate how effect data for parent compounds can be used in combination with analysis of toxicophore structures and bioconcentration potential to facilitate transformation product effect assessment. PMID:21473617

Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin

2011-05-01

195

The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: To assess the extent and nature of claims regarding improved sports performance made by advertisers for a broad range of sports-related products, and the quality of the evidence on which these claims are based. METHODS: The authors analysed magazine adverts and associated websites of a broad range of sports products. The authors searched for references supporting the performance and/or recovery claims of these products. The authors critically appraised the methods in the retrieved...

Heneghan, C.; Howick, J.; O Neill, B.; Gill, Pj; Lasserson, Ds; Cohen, D.; Davis, R.; Ward, A.; Smith, A.; Jones, G.; Thompson, M.

2012-01-01

196

Assessing output and productivity growth in the banking industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assesses the evolution of output and productivity in the Greek banking industry for the period 1990-2006. Three main categories of bank output were estimated based on modern theoretical approaches, while for the aggregation and estimation of output and inputs and the estimation of productivity (partial and total factor) we relied on the index number method (Tornqvist index). Additionally, we considered the effect of labor quality on banks’ productivity and using a...

Athanasoglou, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Evangelia; Staikouras, Christos

2008-01-01

197

Homogeneous Fedosov Star Products on Cotangent Bundles; 1, Weyl and Standard Ordering with Differential Operator Representation  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we construct homogeneous star products of Weyl type on every cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ by means of the Fedosov procedure using a symplectic torsion-free connection on $T^*Q$ homogeneous of degree zero with respect to the Liouville vector field. By a fibrewise equivalence transformation we construct a homogeneous Fedosov star product of standard ordered type equivalent to the homogeneous Fedosov star product of Weyl type. Representations for both star product algebras by differential operators on functions on $Q$ are constructed leading in the case of the standard ordered product to the usual standard ordering prescription for smooth complex-valued functions on $T^*Q$ polynomial in the momenta (where an arbitrary fixed torsion-free connection $\

Bordemann, Martin; Waldmann, S; Bordemann, Martin; Neumaier, Nikolai; Waldmann, Stefan

1997-01-01

198

16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115...with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the...

2010-01-01

199

The Oversight of State Standards and Assessment Programs: Perspectives from a Former State Assessment Director  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to provide information and insight into how state assessment programs are governed, how individual state and state-consortium assessment programs actually operate, and how key policy and technical decisions on these programs are made. To address these issues, this paper is divided into three sections: First, the New…

DeVito, Pasquale J.

2010-01-01

200

24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems...  

Science.gov (United States)

...product standards and certification program for exterior... § 200.946 Building product standards and certification program for exterior...Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures...Officials, Model Energy Code, 1993...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Assessing Quality of Data Standards: Framework and Illustration Using XBRL GAAP Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of data standards or metadata schemas is to improve the interoperability of data created by multiple standard users. Given the high cost of developing data standards, it is desirable to assess the quality of data standards. We develop a set of metrics and a framework for assessing data standard quality. The metrics include completeness and relevancy. Standard quality can also be indirectly measured by assessing interoperability of data instances. We evaluate the framework using data from the financial sector: the XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) taxonomy and US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings produced using the taxonomy by approximately 500 companies. The results show that the framework is useful and effective. Our analysis also reveals quality issues of the GAAP taxonomy and provides useful feedback to taxonomy users. The SEC has mandated that all publicly listed companies must submit their filings using XBRL. Our findings are timely and have practical implications that will ultimately help improve the quality of financial data.

Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Harris

202

Leading North American programs in clinical assessment research: an assessment of productivity and impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify doctoral programs with strong concentrations in clinical assessment, I measured productivity and impact of faculty at North American institutions with American Psychological Association accredited clinical programs. Publications, citations, and h-indexes derived from 4 top assessment journals were calculated over a 10-year period (1999-2009). I identified a total of 42 leading programs that collectively accounted for more than half of the publications and citations in these journals. I found a moderate relationship between assessment productivity and both US News & World Report program rankings as well as general productivity rankings of clinical programs reported in an earlier study. PMID:20408020

Morey, Leslie C

2010-05-01

203

66 FR 12590 - Performance Standards for the Production of Processed Meat and Poultry Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...RTE meat and poultry products (or drop out of production altogether). This...certain RTE meat and poultry products or drop out of the industry entirely (Table...investments, their only option is to drop out of production. This may involve...

2001-02-27

204

Economic analysis technical support document for the proposed energy performance standards for consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criteria required to design standards to achieve maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified for consumer products are given. The approach of the economic analysis is described in Chapter 2. The chapter details how the alternative levels of standards were decided upon and then summarizes the procedures utilized to calculate and evaluate the impacts of regulation on the consumer, producer, and nation. Chapter 3 lists the proposed standard levels by product class and summarizes the estimated impacts of regulation on consumers, manufacturers, and the nation as a whole. Economic conditions which would be likely to prevail if no standards were enacted were forecast in Chapter 4 and the development of baseline forecasts is summarized. Economic impacts of energy performance standards and program alternatives are discussed in Chapter 5.

1980-06-01

205

Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

2014-06-01

206

An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether…

Cox, Christopher

2006-01-01

207

Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

208

Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

K. Hollenstein

2005-01-01

209

[Standardized geriatric assessment or comprehensive gerontological assessment: where do we stand?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of comprehensive gerontological assessment is a foundation of modern geriatrics. Our focus was to try to clarify the underlying concepts, assess the level of evidence and clarify the issues still under debate. The concept implies the definition of an interdisciplinary process for a multidimensional assessment in order to produce a coordinated plan. The central notion is that the systematization of this multidimensionality and interdisciplinarity needs the establishment of dedicated process (meeting tools, clinical information system, etc.). Following dimensions should be covered: health, social, economic, environmental and psychological. Any assessment process that could lead to forgetting one of its dimensions cannot be viewed as a comprehensive gerontological assessment. The level of evidence is higher in hospital acute inpatient unit but it is still low in all other areas of health care but the scattered data in the literature argues for qualitative benefits (improved quality of care or quality of life). The questions that remain are numerous including the choice of strategy for initial evaluation (maximum versus minimum; from the outset by many professionals versus graduated based on the minimum initial evaluation), the choice of tool, the optimal location, the required intensity of monitoring and the ideal target population. PMID:23154109

Somme, D; Rousseau, C

2013-02-01

210

Setting Proficiency Standards for School Leadership Assessment: An Examination of Cut Score Decision Making  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Performance evaluation informs professional development and helps school personnel improve student learning. Although psychometric literature indicates that a rational, sound, and coherent standard-setting process adds to the credibility of an assessment, few studies have empirically examined the decision-making process. This article…

Cravens, Xiu Chen; Goldring, Ellen B.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.

2013-01-01

211

Standard setting in complex performance assessments: An approach aligned with cognitive diagnostic models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increased interest in student-level diagnostic information from multiple performance assessments, it becomes possible to create multivariate classifications of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs. In this paper, a systematic, multivariate and non-compensating standard setting approach, called the cognitive analytical approach (CAA, is proposed for performance assessment with complex tasks. CAA is based on the framework of evidence-centered design (Mislevy, Steinberg, & Almond, 2003 that supports a chain of reasoning from design and development to delivery of an assessment. In CAA, the performance standards are established simultaneously with domain-modeling, test specifications, and item writing rather than after the assessment has been completed; the cut scores are evaluated iteratively along with the test design and development phases. CAA has the benefits of ensuring the validity of the performance standards, reducing the cognitive load of standard setting, including the complexity of the tasks, and facilitating the vertical articulation of KSAs. In this paper, we elucidate the theoretical and practical rationale of CAA and demonstrate its proce-dures and results with an illustrative example.

Robert W. Lissitz

2011-12-01

212

Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

LaBelle, S. J.

1978-10-01

213

Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

2012-02-01

214

Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment. PMID:18289760

Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

2008-05-01

215

Adherence of pain assessment to the German national standard for pain management in 12 nursing homes  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Pain is very common among nursing home residents. The assessment of pain is a prerequisite for effective multiprofessional pain management. Within the framework of the German health services research project, ‘Action Alliance Pain-Free City Muenster’, the authors investigated pain assessment adherence according to the German national Expert Standard for Pain Management in Nursing, which is a general standard applicable to all chronic/acute pain-affected persons and highly recommended for practice. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the state of pain assessment and to identify need for improvement in 12 nursing homes in a German city. METHODS: In the present study, the authors used an ex-post-facto design (survey methodology). Available written policies for routine pain assessment in residents ?65 years of age were reviewed and a standardized online survey completed by 151 of 349 nurses in 12 nursing home facilities was conducted between September 2010 and April 2011. RESULTS: Most of the included nursing homes provided written policies for pain assessment, and the majority of nurses reported that they assess and regularly reassess pain. However, observational tools for residents with severe cognitive impairment and written reassessment schedules were lacking in many facilities or were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Essentially, pain assessment appeared to be feasible in the majority of the German nursing homes studied. However, the absence or inconsistency of reassessment schedules indicate that pain management guidelines should include a detailed and explicit reassessment schedule for the heterogenic needs of nursing home residents. For residents with severe cognitive impairment, assessment tools are needed that are simple to use and clearly indicate the presence or absence of pain. PMID:24851238

Osterbrink, Jurgen; Bauer, Zsuzsa; Mitterlehner, Barbara; Gnass, Irmela; Kutschar, Patrick

2014-01-01

216

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

217

Agroecological zones and the assessment of crop production potential  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapidly growing world population puts considerable pressure on the scarce natural resources, and there is an urgent need to develop more efficient and sustainable agricultural production systems to feed the growing population. This should be based on an initial assessment of the physical and biological potential of natural resources, which can vary greatly. The agroecological zonation (AEZ) approach presents a useful preliminary evaluation of this potential, and ensures that representation is maintained at an appropriate biogeographic scale for regional sustainable development planning. The principal AEZs of the world, as described by the Technical Advisory Committee of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, are presented along with their extent and characteristics. Net primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation can be assessed from weather data, and it varies from 1 t dry matter ha-1 yr-1 in high latitude zones and dry regions to 29 t ha-1 yr-1 in tropical wet regions, depending on the climatic conditions. To assess the crop production potential, length of the growing period zones, a concept introduced by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, is very useful as it describes an area within which rainfall and temperature conditions are suitable for crop growth for a given number of days in the year. These data, combined with the information on soils and known requirements of different food crops, can be used to assess the potential crop productivity. Some perspectives on AEZs and crop production potential are presented by describing the manner in which production potential can be integrated with present constraints. Efforts to intensify production should place emphasis on methods appropriate to the socio-economic conditions in a given AEZ, and on promotion of conservation-effective and sustainable production systems to meet the food, fodder and fuel needs for the future.

Sivakumar, M. V. K.; Valentin, C.

1997-01-01

218

Assessing sperm chromatin and DNA damage: clinical importance and development of standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 20 years, numerous new methods have been developed to identify changes in the organization and composition of sperm chromatin as well as to determine the extent of DNA damage in the nuclei of spermatozoa. Although these methods are being used effectively in assessing how toxicants act on sperm chromatin quality in agricultural settings, their use as complementary biomarkers of sperm quality in assessing male fertility remains controversial. We review some key aspects of the assessment of sperm chromatin quality and DNA damage and identify some of the most widely used tests to monitor these endpoints. An approach to validate three tests by standardizing methodology and determining interlaboratory variation for each test using a standard set of samples is outlined. PMID:24520005

Zini, A; Albert, O; Robaire, B

2014-05-01

219

Middle school assessment and the nature of science as related to the National Science Education Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Scope and method of study. The purpose of this descriptive study was to provide information by identifying many of the good science teaching behaviors and assessment practices of middle school teachers in Oklahoma City as related to assessment behaviors expressed in the National Science Education Standard B, Part 1. Participants were thirty Oklahoma City middle school teachers who responded to a two-part interview. The demographic survey and research questionnaire responses were classified into fifty-four basic themes from which a data base was compiled to demonstrate science teaching behaviors that could be identified as the nature of science and as assessment practices for evaluating the nature of science in the National Science Education Standards. Findings and conclusions. Teachers have continued to teach science in the way that they experienced science or were trained. Few of these teachers have used the true concept of portfolios, rubric assessment, and performance assessment much less lab activities. Yet, through participation in a traditional competition such as science fair, the majority of teachers provided students (usually at their own expense) with some laboratory experiences and techniques. The research also indicated that teachers who had science endorsement reported using fewer of those process skills associated with teaching the nature of science (also called the process skills). It also indicated that teachers who have entered the field of teaching from private industry demonstrated great background in knowledge yet demonstrated little participation in inquiry oriented activities. The research also indicated that those teachers who had been exposed to the National Science Education Standards did describe assessment practices from the standards.

Eskridge, Rosemary Horn

1998-10-01

220

Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. Materials and methods: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants’ ALS- competence was assessed using the Advanced Life Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is con- ducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding resuscitation teaching issued by the university. Results: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of theparticipants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites.

Jensen, Morten Lind; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency (LFA). The Evaluation and Assessment (E ampersand A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E ampersand A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC (with emphasis on the E ampersand A Division) is presented. The contents of the E ampersand A manual are briefly described as are future plans for expansion of this work

222

Assessment of Progressive Product Innovation on Key Environmental Indicators: Pampers® Baby Wipes from 2007–2013  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Companies are increasingly conducting life cycle assessments (LCA of their products to understand potential product impacts on the environment, prioritize areas of innovation to create more sustainable products, and determine valid claims. This case study shows the results of product innovation by comparing an older (2007 and new (2013 version of a common hygiene product in Europe and the U.S. The standard methodology follows the ISO 14040/44 Guidelines for LCA. Results are reported for the impact indicators with high relevance for the product category: primary energy, global warming, particulates, agricultural land occupation, fossil fuel depletion, and solid waste generation. Generally, raw material supply chains for product and packaging contribute most (up to 82% to the calculated environmental impact indicators. Improvements vs. the 2007 baby wipe range between 4% and 14% in Europe and between 15% and 36% in the U.S. The improvement is driven by a new substrate technology that provides more surface area for cleaning, which results in lower use of resources. This case study illustrates three key environmental drivers behind this innovation: the corporate focus on R&D capability to design for environmentally improved products, the increased interest from retailers and consumers requiring accurate and relevant information on the performance and sustainability of products, and the company’s interest in deeper technical understanding of contributions from upstream material and process innovations on a product’s environmental profile.

Gert Van Hoof

2014-08-01

223

Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristics to the ISO 12207 activities and vers versa. Results: This study presented a set of comments and suggestions to improve the ISO 9126. Conclusion: The weaknesses of the cross-references between the two ISO standards had been highlighted. In addition, this study provided a number of comments and suggestions to be taken into account on the next version of the ISO 9126 international standard.

Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

2009-01-01

224

Draft Regulatory Analysis. Technical support document No. 1: energy efficiency standards for consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Draft Regulatory Analysis is presented that describes the analyses performed by DOE to arrive at proposed energy efficiency standards for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling only), and furnaces. Standards for dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiders are required to be published in the Federal Register no later than December 1981. Standards for central air conditioners (heat pumps) and home heating equipment are to be published in the Federal Register no later than January 1982. Accordingly, these products are not discussed in this Draft Regulatory Analysis.

None

1980-06-01

225

Influence of standardized activities on validity of Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC is an observation-based clinical tool that evaluates ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand during bimanual activities. Two validity aspects were investigated: potential bias interaction between prosthesis users and activities performed during assessment, and potential bias interaction between activities and different user characteristics (sex or prosthetic side. Six activities were standardized for the ACMC. Upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis users (47 congenital, 11 acquired; 31 male, 27 female, average age 19.9 yr performed three standardized activities, each on one occasion. Bias-interaction analysis in the many-facet Rasch model identified inconsistent patterns in the interactions of individual users and activity facets and between activities and user characteristics. The standardized activities had no significant influence on measures of user ability. The activities functioned similarly across both sexes (p-value greater than or equal to 0.12 and across both prosthetic sides in persons with upper-limb reduction deficiency (p-value greater than or equal to 0.50 and persons with acquired amputation (p-value greater than or equal to 0.13. The results provide evidence for the validity of the ACMC across the standardized activities and support use of the ACMC in prosthesis users of both sexes and prosthetic sides. The newly standardized activities are recommended for future ACMC use.

Helen Y. N. Lindner, MSc

2014-02-01

226

Establishment of quality assessment standard for mammographic equipment: evaluation of phantom and clinical images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to establish a quality standard for mammographic equipment Korea and to eventually improve mammographic quality in clinics and hospitals throughout Korea by educating technicians and clinic personnel. For the phantom test and on site assessment, we visited 37 sites and examined 43 sets of mammographic equipment. Items that were examined include phantom test, radiation dose measurement, developer assessment, etc. The phantom images were assessed visually and by optical density measurements. For the clinical image assessment, clinical images from 371 sites were examined following the new Korean standard for clinical image evaluation. The items examined include labeling, positioning, contrast, exposure, artifacts, collimation among others. Quality standard of mammographic equipment was satisfied in all equipment on site visits. Average mean glandular dose was 114.9 mRad. All phantom image test scores were over 10 points (average, 10.8 points). However, optical density measurements were below 1.2 in 9 sets of equipment (20.9%). Clinical image evaluation revealed appropriate image quality in 83.5%, while images from non-radiologist clinics were adequate in 74.6% (91/122), which was the lowest score of any group. Images were satisfactory in 59.0% (219/371) based on evaluation by specialists following the new Korean standard for clinical image evaluation. Satisfactory images had a mean score of 81.7 (1 S.D. =8.9) and unsatisfactory images had a mean score of 61.9 (1 S.D = 11). The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.93 ({rho} < 0.01) in 49 consecutive cases. The results of the phantom tests suggest that optical density measurements should be performed as part of a new quality standard for mammographic equipment. The new clinical evaluation criteria that was used in this study can be implemented with some modifications for future mammography quality control by the Korean government.

Lee, Sung Hoon; Choe, Yeon Hyeon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Soo Young [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

2005-08-15

227

Developing standards for malaria microscopy: external competency assessment for malaria microscopists in the Asia-Pacific  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years, associated with the increasing accessibility of accurate diagnosis through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and new World Health Organization guidelines recommending parasite-based diagnosis prior to anti-malarial therapy. However, light microscopy, established over 100 years ago and frequently considered the reference standard for clinical diagnosis, has been neglected in control programmes and in the malaria literature and evidence suggests field standards are commonly poor. Microscopy remains the most accessible method for parasite quantitation, for drug efficacy monitoring, and as a reference of assessing other diagnostic tools. This mismatch between quality and need highlights the importance of the establishment of reliable standards and procedures for assessing and assuring quality. This paper describes the development, function and impact of a multi-country microscopy external quality assurance network set up for this purpose in Asia. Methods Surveys were used for key informants and past participants for feedback on the quality assurance programme. Competency scores for each country from 14 participating countries were compiled for analyses using paired sample t-tests. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants including the programme facilitators and national level microscopists. Results External assessments and limited retraining through a formalized programme based on a reference slide bank has demonstrated an increase in standards of competence of senior microscopists over a relatively short period of time, at a potentially sustainable cost. The network involved in the programme now exceeds 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific, and the methods are extended to other regions. Conclusions While the impact on national programmes varies, it has translated in some instances into a strengthening of national microscopy standards and offers a possibility both for supporting revival of national microcopy programmes, and for the development of globally recognized standards of competency needed both for patient management and field research.

Ashraf Sania

2012-10-01

228

ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries’ advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries, which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.

Pierre-Yves Renard

2007-11-01

229

Do We Need a Single Standard of Value for Institutional Assessment? An Essay Response to Asao Inoue's "Community-Based Assessment Pedagogy"  

Science.gov (United States)

Inoue [Inoue, A. B. (2005). "Community-based assessment pedagogy." "Assessing Writing: An International Journal, 3", 208-238] sets up a radically experimental writing class as a kind of laboratory of assessment. He seeks to avoid the standard situation where a teacher unilaterally assesses and grades student writing, using only his or her own…

Elbow, Peter

2006-01-01

230

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

231

An assessment of an experiment in accelerating the development of nuclear standards. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of its program on regulatory experimentation, the Experimental Technology Incentives Program conducted a project with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on accelerating the standards development process. This report assesses the execution and outcomes of the project with a specific focus on whether further work is needed on the project and on how to improve future experimental designs. The report includes sections on agency and project background, project initiation, project plans, what actually happened, what was learned about the standards development process, and factors to consider in the design of other experiments

232

Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003-2007) using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01) in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Prigent, C.; Turk, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Tian, Y.; Furuzawa, F.; Masunaga, H.

2014-09-01

233

Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003–2007 using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01 in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

H. Norouzi

2014-09-01

234

Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

M. G. Pereira

2011-10-01

235

World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

2008-09-15

236

Mannequin or standardized patient: participants' assessment of two training modalities in trauma team simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple mannequins have been employed, to enable training without being dependent on expensive and advanced simulators. We wanted to assess the participants' assessment of using a standardized patient instead of a mannequin. Methods Trauma teams in five hospitals were randomly exposed to a mannequin or a standardized patient in two consecutive simulations for each team. In each hospital two teams were trained, with opposite order of simulation modality. Anonymous, written questionnaires were answered by the participants immediately after each simulation. The teams were interviewed as a focus group after the last simulation, reflecting on the difference between the two simulation modalities. Outcome measures were the participants' assessment of their own perceived educational outcome and comparison of the models, in addition to analysis of the interviews. Results Participants' assessed their educational outcome to be high, and unrelated to the order of appearance of patient model. There were no differences in assessment of realism and feeling of embarrassment. Focus groups revealed that the participants felt that the choice between educational modalities should be determined by the simulated case, with high interaction between team and patient being enhanced by a standardized patient. Conclusion Participants' assessment of the outcome of team training seems independent of the simulation modality when the educational goal is training communication, co-operation and leadership within the team.

Wisborg Torben

2009-01-01

237

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle. (author)

Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

2009-12-15

238

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle.

Bolwig, Simon

2009-01-01

239

Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

Denis Helic

2009-10-01

240

Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

Z. Mili?evi?

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Assessment of hydrogen combustion effects in the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses General Electric's study of potential hydrogen combustion effects on the Standard Mark III containment during postulated severe accidents. This study was performed as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant. The methodology of determining the accident event sequence and modeling of the Boiling Water Reactor core response, including hydrogen generation by metal-water reaction, is described. Combustion of hydrogen released to the containment is analyzed and effects on the Mark III containment system are assessed. It is concluded that even for those cases where containment integrity may be lost, the containment function (i.e., limiting offsite doses) is maintained by the drywell and suppression pool

242

Photon production assessment for the MCNP trademark data libraries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the Multispectral Neutron Logging project was to estimate minimum detection thresholds for environmental contaminants using nuclear well-logging techniques. The specific method was to identify and quantify contaminants from the discrete photons from thermal neutron capture reactions in the formation. Computer simulations using MCNP4A were used to benchmark the computer code against experimental data, and then to predict minimum detection thresholds for other contaminants. High quality photon-production data for MCNP was required for this project. The goal of this work was to assess photon production at thermal neutron energies. This work was extended to include higher energy neutron reactions, En = 1--14 MeV. Additionally, the assessment was expanded to include all nuclides and not only the contaminants of interest. This report documents the results of the assessment, and makes general recommendations for the user. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of all users to ensure that the data they are using is appropriate for their particular application. This assessment process reinforced the need for higher quality photon-production spectra for use in the Multispectral Neutron Logging project, as well as for other applications

243

Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

Figy, Terrance [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Palmer, Sophy [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). IThP; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2010-12-15

244

77 FR 75362 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...Periodicals, and Bound Printed Matter flat-size mailpieces (including...2.1c), Standard Mail Product Samples mailed at saturation...contain business-related color images, such as corporate logos, brand, trademarks and other pictorial business images. These images are known...

2012-12-20

245

Production and decay of the standard model Higgs boson at LEP200  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collect and update theoretical predictions for the production rate and decay branching fractions of the Standard Model Higgs boson that will be relevant for the Higgs search at LEP200. We make full use of the present knowledge of radiative corrections. We estimate the systematics arising from theoretical and experimental uncertainties. (orig.)

246

77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...  

Science.gov (United States)

...only on the wool fiberglass manufacturing proposed rule, and on December...only the wool fiberglass manufacturing proposed rule (76 FR 78872...Fairchild, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies...Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing NESHAP was published in...

2012-01-23

247

Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories  

Science.gov (United States)

Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

Hardré, Patricia L.

2014-01-01

248

Review of Central Exclusive Production of the Higgs Boson Beyond the Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

We review activities in the field of theoretical, phenomenological and experimental studies related to the production of the Higgs boson in central exclusive processes at LHC in models beyond Standard Model. Prospects in the context of the Higgs boson discovery at LHC in 2012 and of proposals to build forward proton detectors at ATLAS and CMS side are summarized.

Tasevsky, Marek

2014-01-01

249

W / Z + heavy flavor production and the standard model Higgs searches at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Searches for the Standard Model Higgs in WH and H {yields} WW channels by CDF and D0 collaborations are presented. The preliminary results are based on < 180 pb{sup -1} of data analyzed by each experiment. Important backgrounds to Higgs searches, such as heavy flavor production in association with massive vector bosons (W and Z) are studied in the process.

Choi, S.Y.; /UC, Riverside

2004-08-01

250

QCAL--a novel standard for assessing instrument conditions for proteome analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

If proteome datasets are to be collated, shared, and merged for higher level proteome analyses, there is a need for generally accepted strategies and reagents for optimization and standardization of instrument performance. At present, there is no single protein or peptide standard set that is capable of assessing instrument performance for peptide separation and analysis in this manner. To create such a standard, we have used the recently described QconCAT methodology to generate an artificial protein, QCAL. This protein, a concatenation of tryptic peptides that is expressed in E. coli, provides a stoichiometrically controlled mixture of peptides that are amenable to analysis by all commonly used instrumentation platforms for proteomics. PMID:18599307

Eyers, Claire E; Simpson, Deborah M; Wong, Stephen C C; Beynon, Robert J; Gaskell, Simon J

2008-09-01

251

Generalizability of Standardized Patient-Based and Written Assessments of Clinical Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perlormance-based examinations that use standardized-patient (SP) cases have been used to assess the clinical competence of senior medical students in seven classes (1986- 1992) at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Because of the length of the examinations, two or more (multiple) SPs have been used to simulate about half of the cases in each examination. An earlier study found little or no effect of using multiple SPs on the intercase reliability of checklist scores, written sc...

Vu, Nu Viet; Colliver, J. A.; Markwell, S. J.

1989-01-01

252

Comparison of photographic and visual assessment of occlusal caries with histology as the reference standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic performance for the detection of caries using photographs with an established visual examination method and histological sections as the reference standard. Methods 50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods...

Boye Uriana; Walsh Tanya; Pretty Iain A; Tickle Martin

2012-01-01

253

Towards standardization of RNA quality assessment using user-independent classifiers of microcapillary electrophoresis traces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While it is universally accepted that intact RNA constitutes the best representation of the steady-state of transcription, there is no gold standard to define RNA quality prior to gene expression analysis. In this report, we evaluated the reliability of conventional methods for RNA quality assessment including UV spectroscopy and 28S:18S area ratios, and demonstrated their inconsistency. We then used two new freely available classifiers, the Degradometer and RIN systems, to produce user-indep...

Imbeaud, Sandrine; Graudens, Esther; Boulanger, Virginie; Barlet, Xavier; Zaborski, Patrick; Eveno, Eric; Mueller, Odilo; Schroeder, Andreas; Auffray, Charles

2005-01-01

254

Comparison of Innovative Molecular Approaches and Standard Spore Assays for Assessment of Surface Cleanliness ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of culti...

Cooper, Moogega; La Duc, Myron T.; Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Stam, Christina; Benardini, James N.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2011-01-01

255

Assessing Project Suitability for Off-site Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of off-site production on construction projects isoften hindered by a number of specific process and procurementconstraints. These constraints are largely influenced by decisionswithin the control of construction clients, suggesting that theyhave a significant influence over the adoption of off-site productioninto construction projects. However, an appreciation of the effectof these constraints has been lacking. Addressing this need, anoff-site production implementation assessment instrument thatresides within a larger toolkit (IMMPREST was developed usingquestionnaire survey data and a series of industrial workshops.IMMPREST is an interactive electronic toolkit developed byLoughborough University (UK, in conjunction with eleven industrialpartners, which facilitates the evaluation of benefit arising fromuse of off-site production within construction. It identifies thefactors that need to be considered for an evaluation, the datarequired to assess the effect of these factors, and where therequired data resides within the supply chain. Development ofthe implementation assessment instrument is discussed, whilstalso making reference to the role that clients can play in creatingthe process and procurement conditions that promote rather thanconstrain the adoption of off-site production.

Nick Blismas

2012-11-01

256

Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R Nakaoka, Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan. The scope of SC7 has been specified as 'Standardization for the general requirements and performance of tissue engineered medical products with the exclusion of gene therapy, transplantation and transfusion'.

Sadami Tsutsumi

2010-01-01

257

European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

Kohoutek, Jan

2014-01-01

258

Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. -- To effectively use toxicity testing data from lab tests with oils and chemically dispersed oils, researchers must follow standardized testing protocols

259

Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students, and low socio-economic status (SESstudents. The author pays particular attention to these groups and his analysis reveals some interestingresults: in accounting, the NCEA has not met expectations for these students. From 2004 to 2008, thenumber of low SES accounting students has dropped, as has the number of accounting standards entered andthe rates of achievement. Likewise, there has been no significant improvement in the academic performanceof Maori students taking accounting standards, while Pacific Island students have experienced a significantdecrease in achievement. The author also discusses how studying high school accounting impacts on tertiarylevel study and offers some future implications of this research.

Stephen Agnew

2010-12-01

260

Is It Working? Distractor Analysis Results from the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) Assessment Instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

The Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) assessment instrument is a multiple-choice survey tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. Researchers from the Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Wyoming's Science and Math Teaching Center (UWYO SMTC) have been conducting a question-by-question distractor analysis procedure to determine the sensitivity and effectiveness of each item. In brief, the frequency each possible answer choice, known as a foil or distractor on a multiple-choice test, is determined and compared to the existing literature on the teaching and learning of astronomy. In addition to having statistical difficulty and discrimination values, a well functioning assessment item will show students selecting distractors in the relative proportions to how we expect them to respond based on known misconceptions and reasoning difficulties. In all cases, our distractor analysis suggests that all items are functioning as expected. These results add weight to the validity of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) assessment instrument, which is designed to help instructors and researchers measure the impact of course-length duration instructional strategies for undergraduate science survey courses with learning goals tightly aligned to the consensus goals of the astronomy education community.

Slater, Stephanie

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

2010-07-01

262

Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for In vitro biofilm production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 14 Escherichia coli isolates were assessed for their ability to produce biofilm in-vitro by slime production on Congo red agar medium (CRA and microtitre plate assay. Out of 14 isolates tested, 12 were slime producing on CRA as indicated by black colonies. The isolates of E.coli varied in their ability to produce biofilm on the surface of microtitre plate ranging from 0.101 to 0.543 ODm. Out of 14 isolates tested, 10 were positive for biofilm production employing criterion of blank corrected ODs9s > 0.1. Two of slime negative isolated were also negative for biofilm production where as the two slime positive isolates were found to be negative for biofilm production. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 364-366

A.I. Dadawala

263

Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering.

Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie

2014-01-01

264

Applying and extending ISO/TC42 digital camera resolution standards to mobile imaging products  

Science.gov (United States)

There are no fundamental differences between today's mobile telephone cameras and consumer digital still cameras that suggest many existing ISO imaging performance standards do not apply. To the extent that they have lenses, color filter arrays, detectors, apertures, image processing, and are hand held, there really are no operational or architectural differences. Despite this, there are currently differences in the levels of imaging performance. These are driven by physical and economic constraints, and image-capture conditions. Several ISO standards for resolution, well established for digital consumer digital cameras, require care when applied to the current generation of cell phone cameras. In particular, accommodation of optical flare, shading non-uniformity and distortion are recommended. We offer proposals for the application of existing ISO imaging resolution performance standards to mobile imaging products, and suggestions for extending performance standards to the characteristic behavior of camera phones.

Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.

2007-01-01

265

Life Cycle Assessment of Willow Production; Livscykelanalys av Salixproduktion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study is to make a life cycle assessment (LCA) of willow production (Salix) based on current cultivation practices and commercial clones. The purpose is to describe the environmental impact of the different phases in the production system and identify phases which have a significant impact on the total life cycle emissions. The production of willow is assumed to take place in southern Sweden on good agricultural soils. The results show that the production of willow is an energy efficient biomass production system which gives 20 times more energy in the form of biomass than the required energy input. In comparison with cultivation of annual energy crops, such as rape and wheat, the energy balance (energy output/energy input) of willow production is more than 3 times higher. The emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants leading to eutrophication, acidification and creation of photochemical oxidants are often 2 to 4 times lower in willow production. The phase in willow production which requires the highest energy input, some 50 %, is fertilisation. Fertilisation also causes the highest emissions, often between 50 to 80 %, of the total life cycle emissions. Thereafter comes harvesting, with about 30 % of the energy input and 7 to 15 % of the emissions (except for the emissions leading to the creation of photochemical oxidants, some 50%), followed by establishment and transportation which normally contribute to 2 to 10 % of the total life cycle emissions. A measure to efficiently reduce the life cycle emissions of willow production is through a higher efficiency in the production of commercial fertilisers including flue-gas cleaning, leading to reduced emissions, particularly of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Other alternatives are utilising nutrient-rich organic waste products, such as sewage sludge and municipal waste water as fertilisers, which are already in practice in some willow cultivations today. Changed biomass yields, transportation distances and nitrogen leaching will have a somewhat lower impact on the total life cycle emissions.

Boerjesson, Paal

2006-05-15

266

78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is...Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

2013-12-31

267

Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

268

Product Creativity Assessment of Innovations : Considering the Creative Process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in creativity research, while the role of consumer's knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing information about a complex development process could amplify consumer's perception of product creativity. Does storytelling about the process contribute to amplifying creativity ratings? What form of storytelling is needed to make an impact? Results from 134 respondents showed a small but not significant amplifying effect from the additional process information; however, an important learning can be drawn about the form of storytelling needed. An absolute minimal form was chosen here, displaying the need for investigating other, more elaborate forms. Additionally, the analysis showed that creativity was an important driver for the assessment of other product attributes such as purchasability, portraying the importance of design creativity and underlining the importance of further investigating the role of creative process information in amplifying consumer's perception of creativity in products.

Valgeirsdottir, Dagny; Onarheim, Balder

2014-01-01

269

Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (beef and lamb in the urban region of Pisa, a medium-sized Italian city. The capacity of periurban livestock farms for meat production to fulfil urban demand was assessed on the basis of meat supply and demand. We derived meat demand from statistical data, whereas we calculated meat supply on the basis of three estimates (i.e. potential, current, actual meat supply taking into account both statistical and on-farm survey data. In particular, the potential meat supply was estimated from statistical data on slaughtered livestock, the current meat supply was estimated from meat production data of on-farm surveys, while the actual meat supply was estimated from the amount of meat sold by farmers on the local market from onfarm surveys. For the urban region of Pisa, we estimated that the potential meat supply met is equal to 16% of the beef demand and 62% of the lamb demand. This data could change, if the on-farm data is taken into account in the current supply, as was the case with lamb, which decreased to 37%, whereas beef remained almost unchanged (14%. The actual supply was 70% and 10% of the current supply for beef and lamb respectively. We identified some gaps between the three estimates, particularly for lamb production, suggesting that it may have some constraints in terms of production and commercialisation. Our results can contribute to assess local food systems and their drivers at the farm level. Furthermore these results also highlight the need for an agronomical approach to food systems based on the analysis of farm activities located in periurban areas in order to quantify the food supply that is actually produced for the local market. Food planning policies, as well as studies at the local level, could take advantage from this method.

Rosalia Filippini

2014-04-01

270

Capturing Tacit Knowledge for Assessing Employees' Competency and Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Organization has to evaluate the competencies of their workers to improve organizational productivity. However, this is difficult because organizations have difficulties to capture and retain knowledge especially tacit knowledge of their employees. Approach: The study reviewed selected literature on management knowledge and employers competencies. It also reviewed existing frameworks in knowledge management focusing on the capturing and storing tacit knowledge. Results: Results of this study will include theoretical concept for capturing tacit knowledge and storing them besides developing a model for measuring employee?s competencies in the organization. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study contributes in assessing knowledge workers performance to improve their productivity in an organization.

M. A. Jabar

2011-01-01

271

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

272

Towards a Quantitative Performance Measurement Framework to Assess the Impact of Geographic Information Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decennia, the use of Geographic Information (GI) has gained importance, in public as well as in private sector. But even if many spatial data and related information exist, data sets are scattered over many organizations and departments. In practice it remains difficult to find the spatial data sets needed, and to access, obtain and prepare them for using in applications. Therefore Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) haven been developed to enhance the access, the use and sharing of GI. SDIs consist of a set of technological and non-technological components to reach this goal. Since the nineties many SDI initiatives saw light. Ultimately, all these initiatives aim to enhance the flow of spatial data between organizations (users as well as producers) involved in intra- and inter-organizational and even cross-country business processes. However, the flow of information and its re-use in different business processes requires technical and semantic interoperability: the first should guarantee that system components can interoperate and use the data, while the second should guarantee that data content is understood by all users in the same way. GI-standards within the SDI are necessary to make this happen. However, it is not known if this is realized in practice. Therefore the objective of the research is to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impact of GI-standards on the performance of business processes. For that purpose, indicators are defined and tested in several cases throughout Europe. The proposed research will build upon previous work carried out in the SPATIALIST project. It analyzed the impact of different technological and non-technological factors on the SDI-performance of business processes (Dessers et al., 2011). The current research aims to apply quantitative performance measurement techniques - which are frequently used to measure performance of production processes (Anupindi et al., 2005). Key to reach the research objectives is a correct design of the test cases. The major challenge is: to set-up the analytical framework for analyzing the impact of GI-standards on the process performance, to define the appropriate indicators and to choose the right test cases. In order to do so, it is proposed to define the test cases as 8 pairs of organizations (see figure). The paper will present the state of the art of performance measurement in the context of work processes, propose a series of SMART indicators for describing the set-up and measure the performance, define the test case set-up and suggest criteria for the selection of the test cases, i.e. the organizational pairs. References Anupindi, R., Chopra, S., Deshmukh, S.D., Van Mieghem, J.A., & Zemel, E. (2006). Managing Business Process Flows: Principles of Operations Management. New-Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. Dessers, D., Crompvoets, J., Janssen, K., Vancauwenberghe, G., Vandenbroucke, D. & Vanhaverbeke, L. (2011). SDI at work: The Spatial Zoning Plans Case. Leuven, Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Vandenbroucke, D.; Van Orshoven, J.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

2012-12-01

273

Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online (13)C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of (13)C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99°C provides quantitative oxidation to (12)CO2 and (13)CO2 respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO2, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards. PMID:25172815

Cueto Díaz, Sergio; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; García Alonso, J Ignacio

2014-09-24

274

Fungi, MVOCs and dust exposure assessment in poultry production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural workers especially poultry farmers, are at increased risk of occupational respiratory diseases. In poultry production besides fungi microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) are also present due to compounds released during fungal metabolism. Dust is also one of the risk factors present in animal housing and is comprised by poultry residues, fungi and feathers. A study was developed aiming to assess occupational exposure to fungi, MVOCs and dust in seven poultry units located ...

Viegas, Susana; Sabino, Raquel; Veri?ssimo, Cristina; Monteiro, Ana; Viegas, Carla

2012-01-01

275

Assessing the productivity function of soils. A review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development and survival or disappearance of civilizations has been based on the performance of soils to provide food, fibre, and further essential goods for humans. Amongst soil functions, the capacity to produce plant biomass (productivity function) remains essential. This function is closely associated with the main global issues of the 21st century like food security, demands of energy and water, carbon balance and climate change. A standardised methodology for assessing the productiv...

Mueller, Lothar; Schindler, Uwe; Mirschel, Wilfried; Graham Shepherd, T.; Ball, Bruce C.; Helming, Katharina; Rogasik, Jutta; Eulenstein, Frank; Wiggering, Hubert

2010-01-01

276

Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

2013-01-01

277

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for source categories: Oil and natural gas production and natural gas transmission and storage. Background information for proposed standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The background information document provides the basic information which was used as background in the development of the two standards: (1) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities; and (2) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities. A description of the industries, control technologies available, cost of controls, modeling used in the estimation of national emission estimates and costs are included.

NONE

1997-04-01

278

Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1. promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. LCA Center Denmark was presented at the SETAC Europe conference in Hamburg in 2003 where it had just been launched. This presentation will follow up on the progress and activities of the center and report from an independent evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cyclethinking in industry will be presented.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; RØpke, Inge

2004-01-01

279

California statewide assessment of the effects of ozone on crop productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) initiated a Crop Loss Assessment Program to develop a process whereby all available information could be put into a format usable for a statewide assessment of yield losses to crops from ozone. The yield loss information was used in conjunction with economic analysis to determined the impacts of different ozone/ambient air quality standards. The results to date (using 1984 as a trial year) indicate the usefulness of the process for general assessments of the effects of ozone on crop productivity, not only for California but potentially for other areas. Modifications in these projected loss estimates will be made as new information becomes available concerning loss equations, air monitoring sites, and growth seasons on a county and crop basis, and for data collected after 1984.

Olszyk, D.M.; Cabrera, H.; Thompson, C.R.

1988-07-01

280

Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

 
 
 
 
281

Phytotoxicity assessment of diclofenac and its phototransformation products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is an emerging issue. Several studies observed that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is ubiquitously present in most of the surveyed surface waters, worldwide. Phototransformation of diclofenac was reported from laboratory assays as well as in natural water systems, raising the question of possible adverse effects of the phototransformation products of diclofenac to aquatic organisms. In this study the phytotoxicity of diclofenac exposed to natural sunlight was evaluated using synchronized cultures of the unicellular chlorophyte Scenedesmus vacuolatus. Diclofenac dissolved in ultra-pure water at 50 mg L(-1) was exposed to natural midsummer sunlight for a maximum of 145 h. Twice a day subsamples were taken for chromatography and parallel phytotoxicity assessment. Inhibition of algal reproduction of the initial diclofenac solution was in the mg L(-1) range indicating no specific toxicity of diclofenac towards S. vacuolatus. Fast degradation of diclofenac was observed with half lives between 3.3 and 6.4 h during the first and the third day of exposure, respectively. Phytotoxicity increased after 3.5 h of exposure of diclofenac to sunlight and showed a maximum of sixfold enhanced toxicity after 53 h of exposure to sunlight. Several phototransformation products were found during the experiment. The time courses of the relative concentration of three transformation products significantly correlated with enhanced phytotoxicity during the experiment. This indicates a high toxicity potential of phototransformation products of diclofenac at concentration levels that may come close to environmental concentrations of residual diclofenac after degradation. We conclude that toxicity assessment of phototransformation products should be included in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the environment. PMID:17031619

Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Bartels, Peter; Adler, Nicole; Altenburger, Rolf

2007-02-01

282

The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. PMID:21651724

Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

2011-07-01

283

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Oklahoma and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 010  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests (OCT) and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAPE) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAPE assessments will be based. Applying the methodology used by…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

284

Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

285

Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

2009-12-01

286

Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: 32P, 51Cr, 60C, and 65Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated

287

Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending. PMID:21047057

Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

2010-12-01

288

ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED STRAW PULP AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new, straw-based fibre manufacturing technology integrated to bioenergy and biofuels production. The process is based on a novel hot water treatment and subsequent mechanical refining, both of which are performed at a high temperature. Soda process, ethanol production, and chemical defibration based on hot water treatment and subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching were selected as references. The idea is to utilise the fibre fraction for packaging and the dissolved solids and the formed fines for energy. The investment costs of this process are significantly lower than those of a soda process. Additionally, a chemicals recovery process is unnecessary. Furthermore, the process offers an attractive alternative for biogas production. However, the assessment showed that the process could only be economical in some terms. Subsidies for investment would probably be needed to promote the acceptance of this environmentally safe process.

Anja Paula Maria Leponiemi

2011-04-01

289

Development of an ASTM standard guide on performing vulnerability assessment for nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes an effort undertaken by subcommittee C26.12 (Safeguards) of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop a standard guide for performing vulnerability assessments (VAs). VAs are performed to determine the effectiveness of safeguards and security systems for both domestic and international nuclear facilities. These assessments address a range of threats, including theft of nuclear material and sabotage, and use an array of methods. The approach to performing and documenting VAs is varied and is largely dependent upon the tools used to perform them. Ibis diversity can lead to tools being misused, making validation of VAs more difficult. The development of a standard guide for performing VAs would, if generally accepted, alleviate these concerns. ASTM provides a forum for developing guides that includes a high level of peer review to assure that the result is acceptable to all potential users. Additionally, the ASTM is widely recognized for setting standards, and endorsement by the Society may increase the likelihood of acceptance by the nuclear community. The goal of this work is to develop a guide that is independent of the tools being used to perform the VA and applicable to the spectrum of threats described above

290

Cost of construction production and feature of its assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lot of questions about pricing is still remain operating during work in construction. It is predetermined by entry of Russia into the WTO (World Trade Organization. That fact sets before construction branch the purpose of standards development of pricing regulatory base in construction taking into account world experience and foreign economic activity. In this article features of pricing in construction and also the accounting of expenses of contract organization are considered. Budget cost – is the main aspect of pricing. It is a basis for definition of contractual price on construction production on the basis of which the size of investment means pays off.

Irina Stanislavovna Ptuhina

2014-08-01

291

Towards a life cycle sustainability assessment: making informed choices on products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this introduction to the concept of life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), we acknowledge the foundations laid by previous works and initiatives. One such initiative has been the ISO 14040 series (Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework), which in addition to the ISO 26000: Social Responsibility Guidance Standard, and the contribution of a number of international initiatives (Appendix A) have been essential for the development of this publication. The life cycle of a product involves flows of material, energy and money. Nonetheless, the picture is not complete unless we look also at the production and consumption impacts on all actors along the 'value chain' -- workers, local communities, consumers and society itself. Different life cycle assessment techniques allow individuals and enterprises to assess the impact of their purchasing decisions and production methods along different aspects of this value chain. An (Environmental) life cycle assessment (LCA) looks at potential impacts to the environment as a result of the extraction of resources, transportation, production, use, recycling and discarding of products; life cycle costing (LCC) is used to assess the cost implications of this life cycle; and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) examines the social consequences. However, in order to get the 'whole picture', it is vital to extend current life cycle thinking to encompass all three pillars of sustainability: (i) environmental, (ii) economic and (iii) social. This means carrying out an assessment based on environmental, economic and social issues -- by conducting an overarching life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). This publication shows how all three techniques -- which all share similar methodological frameworks and aims -- can be combined to make the move towards an overarching LCSA possible. Because it is holistic, systemic and rigorous, (environmental) LCA is the preferred technique when it comes to compiling and assessing information about potential environmental impacts of a product. It has been standardized in the ISO 14040 and 14044 and is applied by practitioners globally. Life cycle costing as a technique to calculate and manage costs, especially for large investments has been used to support decision-makers in procurement for decades, with a rigorous focus on private costs. Prerequisites for better alignment with (environmental) LCA are currently being researched and will help the further development of the method. As an emerging technique, S-LCA will play a key role in complementing material- and energy-flow-related information. Since the late 1990s, the Life Cycle Initiative partnership of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has enhanced the role of life cycle based approaches and thinking in several ways. Two examples are the partnership's contributions to the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and inputs for the development of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP). This current publication, Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, expands this work by bringing the concept of LCSA methods to the fore. In doing so, it will contribute to the sustainable development discussions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Summit) in 2012 ('Rio+20'). The text will also contribute to the UNEP Green Economy Initiative -- which strives to build economies that bring improved human well-being, reduce inequalities over the long term and which keep future generations safe from environmental risk and ecological scarcity. The publication includes eight case studies to illustrate how current and emerging life cycle assessment techniques are being implemented worldwide from Asia through Europe and Latin America.

Ciroth, Andreas [GreenDeltaTC, Berlin (Germany); Finkbeiner, Matthias; Traverso, Marzia [TU Berlin (Germany); Hildenbrand, Jutta [Chalmers University (United States); Kloepffer, Walter [Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (Germany); Mazijn, Bernard [Ghent University (Belgium); Prakash, Siddharth [Oeko-Institut (Germany); Sonnemann, Guido; Valdivia, Sonia [UNEP (France); Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie [Technological Federal University of Parana, ACV (Brazil); Vickery-Niederman, Gina [University of Arkansas (United States)

2011-07-01

292

Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s. It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish a reference standard of children’s competence to consent, combined with validation of an assessment instrument. Results can facilitate responsible involvement of children in clinical trials by further development of guidelines, health-care policies and legal policies.

Hein Irma M

2012-09-01

293

40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?  

Science.gov (United States)

...What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1045...EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one...

2010-07-01

294

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and compeasy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

295

Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories to include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques. It illustrates a Danish example of establishing data of such reference systems. Finally, it provides an overview of approaches used to estimate emissions based on knowledge of manure composition throughout the stages of the livestock production system.

Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

2011-01-01

296

Selection of elite microalgae for biodiesel production in tropical conditions using a standardized platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four thermotolerant microalgae were isolated from tropical Taiwan and classified as members of Desmodesmus based on morphological and molecular studies. A platform was established to evaluate their biodiesel production-related traits, including thermotolerance, lipid productivity, lipid oxidative stability and auto-sedimentation. The findings demonstrated thermotolerance of all four species was at the same level, as all could live at 45 °C for 24 h and 50 °C for 8 h with mortality rates below 5% of cells. The lipid productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F2 reached 113 mg/L/d. Its saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 75% of the FAMEs, and it required only 3.1 h to achieve 85% sedimentation. Comparing these traits to those of the other three Desmodesmus and microalgae in the literature, Desmodesmus sp. F2 is one of the best candidates for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical areas. This platform effectively assessed traits of microalgae related to biodiesel production. PMID:23994959

Ho, Shih-hsin; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chiang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chang, Jo-Shu

2013-11-01

297

Wireless networks. Standard ZigBee (on the example of products of Atmel Corp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The situation and prospects of wireless radio receivers and radio transmitters which use standard ZigBee is examined in this work. The specification of ZigBee is developed on the base of international standard of IEEE 802.15.4 for creation inexpensive wireless networks for transmission small amount of information with low-power consumption. Main feature of ZigBee is support of not only simple topologies of wireless connection but also difficult wireless networks at relatively low energy consumption. Products of company Atmel have the best support of ZigBee technology. ZigBee is used in the industrial monitoring systems, in a medical equipment, can be integrated in the systems of production process automation.

O. M. Lyashuk

2011-03-01

298

Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are also exploring the Global Change Information System ontology, BCO-DMO Ocean Data Ontology, and other relevant published ontologies (e.g., Integrated Ocean Observing System ontology). We are also using the mapping of ISO 19115-2 Lineage to PROV-O and comparing both strategies for traceability of marine ecosystem indicators. The use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR will enable the transparency, and ultimately reproducibility, endorsed in the recent NOAA Information Quality Guidelines. Semantically enabling not only the provenance but also the data products will yield a better understanding of the connected web of relationships between marine ecosystem and ocean health assessments conducted by different stakeholder groups.

Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

2013-12-01

299

Trilepton production at the CERN LHC: Standard model sources and beyond  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Events with three or more isolated leptons in the final state are known to be signatures of new physics phenomena at high energy collider physics facilities. Standard model sources of isolated trilepton final states include gauge boson pair production such as $WZ$ and $W\\gamma^*$, and $t\\bar{t}$ production. We demonstrate that leptons from heavy flavor decays, such as $b \\to lX$ and $c \\to lX$, provide sources of trileptons that can be orders-of-magnitude larger after cuts t...

Sullivan, Zack; Berger, Edmond L.

2008-01-01

300

Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. One or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs.

Linde, L.; Sandstroem, R.

1996-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. Depending on the chosen criterion, one or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs

302

Importance of uncertainties in dose assessment to prove compliance with radiation protection standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantification of radiation protection measures is based upon prospective limitation and retrospective assessment in terms of dose, but executed often in auxiliary quantities as dose rate or activity concentration. One key issue is, however, not considered at all in standards: how to handle uncertainties resulting from assessment. Limiting quantities (as annual dose of an individual) are expressed as a single even number and hence without any explicit uncertainty and give the impression that they are most precise, although they are rounded numbers or default values. Results of measurements are mostly in terms of auxiliary quantities and have to be converted to a limiting quantity and expressed by a number and a confidence interval, which is often very large because of technical reasons. In international standards, limiting quantities and operational quantities were coined. There is a large number of possible definitions of dose, but clarity and applicability is not proportional to the number of different quantities already created. This is influenced by the fact that a quantity is defined to fulfil a certain well quantities are used to demonstrate compliance with limits, no only the number, but also the uncertainty has to be considered in an appropriate manner. The hierarchy of limiting quantities has to be taken into account in accepting a given uncertainty. The acceptable uncertainty is, however, dependent on the relation of the figure to the limit. When derived quantities are used to prove compliance, biasing optimisation by applying over conservative as well as disregarding uncertainties contributing factors. For these reasons, standards have to include information to which extent an uncertainty is acceptable in dose assessment to prove compliance with limits, where the hierarchy of limits has to be taken into account. The paper discusses some possible approaches. (Author) 10 refs.

Tschurlovits, M.

2004-07-01

303

Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

Majerus Steve

2009-07-01

304

Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 ?g/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 ?g/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 ?g/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 ?g/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 ?g/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 ?g/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 ?g/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 ?g/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 ?g/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 ?g/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 ?g/g for zinc, 2.91-155 ?g/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption

305

Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 {mu}g/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 {mu}g/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 {mu}g/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 {mu}g/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 {mu}g/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 {mu}g/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 {mu}g/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 {mu}g/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 {mu}g/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 {mu}g/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 {mu}g/g for zinc, 2.91-155 {mu}g/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr; Mendil, Durali [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

2009-04-30

306

Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption. PMID:18752893

Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

2009-04-30

307

Driving Blind: Why We Need Standardized Performance Assessment In Teacher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we argue that standardized teaching performance assessments (TPAs offer a uniquely valuable resource for learning and improvement of practice in teacher education. The affordances of TPAs as opportunities for learning are identified at four levels, including those for teacher candidates, individual faculty, organizational learning at the program level, and organizational networks that span program boundaries. We conclude that TPAs can provide motivation and direction for continuous program improvement efforts, contribute to the development of a common and concrete language of practice, and accelerate the professionalization of teaching.

Charles A. Peck

2014-05-01

308

From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP) is substantiated describing the different tools of the IPP. An overview is given on Design for Environment (DFE), presenting central findings from the latest decade of research and reviewing different DFE tools which have been developed. Describing the DFX's of Design for environment, a specific focus is devoted to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the eco-efficiency of the industry. The role of industry in meeting the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current drivers seem insufficient to create a strong move of particularly the small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of sustainability, and the need for stronger legislation and particularly for education and attitude building among future citizens and engineers is identified.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo

2005-01-01

309

Application of National Testing Standards to Simulation-Based Assessments of Clinical Palpation Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of simulation technology, several types of data acquisition methods have been used to capture hands-on clinical performance. Motion sensors, pressure sensors, and tool-tip interaction software are a few of the broad categories of approaches that have been used in simulation-based assessments. The purpose of this article is to present a focused review of 3 sensor-enabled simulations that are currently being used for patient-centered assessments of clinical palpation skills. The first part of this article provides a review of technology components, capabilities, and metrics. The second part provides a detailed discussion regarding validity evidence and implications using the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing as an organizational and evaluative framework. Special considerations are given to content domain and creation of clinical scenarios from a developer’s perspective. The broader relationship of this work to the science of touch is also considered. PMID:24084306

Pugh, Carla M.

2014-01-01

310

Alternative cooling procedures for large, intact meat products to achieve stabilization microbiological performance standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieving the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) stabilization microbiological performance standards for cooling procedures proves to be challenging for processors of large, whole-muscle meat products. This study was conducted to determine if slower cooling times than those provided by USDA-FSIS guidance will comply with the performance standard for Clostridium perfringens. Large (9 to 12 kg) cured bone-in hams (n = 110) and large (8 to 13 kg) uncured beef inside rounds (n = 100) were used. Stabilization treatments extended times to reduce internal product temperature from 54.4 to 26.7°C (hams and rounds) and from 26.7 to 7.2°C (for hams) and 26.7 to 4.4°C (for rounds). Control treatments, defined by current USDA-FSIS Appendix B guidelines, and a "worst-case scenario" treatment, in which products were cooled at room temperature (approximately 22.8°C) until internal product temperature equilibrated, were used. For both hams and rounds, stabilization showed less than 1-log growth of C. perfringens for all treatments, with the exception of the worst-case scenario for rounds. As expected for products cooled at room temperature, there was >1-log growth of C. perfringens reported for rounds, and the addition of curing ingredients to hams had an inhibitory effect on the growth of C. perfringens. The results demonstrate that industry may have increased flexibility associated with cooling large, whole-muscle cuts while still complying with the required stabilization microbiological performance standards. PMID:21219768

Haneklaus, Ashley N; Harris, Kerri B; Márquez-González, Mayra; Lucia, Lisa M; Castillo, Alejandro; Hardin, Margaret D; Osburn, Wesley N; Savell, Jeffrey W

2011-01-01

311

Visualization of GPM Standard Products at the Precipitation Processing System (PPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the standard data products for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites will be generated at and distributed by the Precipitation Processing System (PPS) at NASA Goddard. PPS will provide several means to visualize these data products. These visualization tools will be used internally by PPS analysts to investigate potential anomalies in the data files, and these tools will also be made available to researchers. Currently, a free data viewer called THOR, the Tool for High-resolution Observation Review, can be downloaded and installed on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems. THOR can display swath and grid products, and to a limited degree, the low-level data packets that the satellite itself transmits to the ground system. Observations collected since the 1997 launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite can be downloaded from the PPS FTP archive, and in the future, many of the GPM standard products will also be available from this FTP site. To provide easy access to this 80 terabyte and growing archive, PPS currently operates an on-line ordering tool called STORM that provides geographic and time searches, browse-image display, and the ability to order user-specified subsets of standard data files. Prior to the anticipated 2013 launch of the GPM core satellite, PPS will expand its visualization tools by integrating an on-line version of THOR within STORM to provide on-the-fly image creation of any portion of an archived data file at a user-specified degree of magnification. PPS will also provide OpenDAP access to the data archive and OGC WMS image creation of both swath and gridded data products. During the GPM era, PPS will continue to provide realtime globally-gridded 3-hour rainfall estimates to the public in a compact binary format (3B42RT) and in a GIS format (2-byte TIFF images + ESRI WorldFiles).

Kelley, O.

2010-12-01

312

Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods?The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to screen for specialists. A social science survey was adopted, and 119 specialists were selected composing 98 specialists in recruitment of pilots and 21 aviation medical clinicians. A total of 359 standard items were evaluated for suitability approval, and then the reliability of evaluation results was analyzed. The final step was the formation of criteria for final judgment. The worthiness of the items was based on the specialists' opinions. When a certain item was deemed suitable by more than 80% of the specialists, it was considered as appropriate, and when a certain item was deemed suitable by less than 60% of the specialists, it was not appropriate. Results?A total of 134 survey brochures were sent out, and 128 out of 134 were retrieved. The positive index of specialist participation was 0.95, and the authority index was 0.86. 271 (75.5% of the 359 items were generally accepted by specialists as appropriate, and 27 (7.5% items were not accepted. Most of these rejected items involved function evaluation, the concept and essence of which could not be easily grasped. Conclusions?Although the majority of the items in the physical examination standards were deemed appropriate by the specialists, there were a few items not accepted. These standards should be revised after being applied in the future.

Zhi-gang JIAO

2012-03-01

313

Criteria of an Advanced Assessment of the Reclamation Process Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclamation of spent moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of used moulding refractory materials, enabling a recoveryof at least one of the components - of properties similar to the ones of the fresh component - and its reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied for each type of moulding sands and reclaims. The most important criteria of the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials, which should be used, in order to determine the reclamation degree of spent moulding sands originated from the most often used foundry technologies, are presented in the hereby paper.

J. Da?ko

2010-07-01

314

ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

SECAN Cristina

2014-05-01

315

Environmental life cycle assessment of bioethanol production from wheat straw  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethanol produced from lignocelluloses is expected to make a major contribution on transportation fuel markets. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was carried out to assess the environmental burdens of ethanol production from wheat straw and its use as ethanol blend fuels. Two ethanol based fuel E15 (a mixture of 15% ethanol and 85% petrol by volume) and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% petrol by volume) were assessed and results were compared to those of conventional petrol (PT) in 1 km driven by an equivalent car. The environmental performance was studied using ReCiPe methodology and includes global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, water depletion and fossil depletion. The results show that, compared to petrol, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are lower for ethanol blends, with a 73% reduction for an E85-fuelled car and 13% reduction with E15. A modest savings of 40% in fossil depletion was also found when using E85 and 15% when using E15. Similar results are also observed for ozone depletion. The findings highlight a number of environmental issues such as acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity and water depletion for which areas ethanol blend use does not offer any advantages compared with petrol. A further analysis of ethanol production at well to gate level helps identify the key areas in the ethanol production life cycle. The results indicate where effort needs to be placed to improve the technology performance and process design which can help in lowering the environmental impacts in the whole life cycle. -- Highlights: ? The paper examines environmental impact of two ethanol blend fuel from wheat straw. ? Reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel can be achieved by ethanol blend fuel. ? Ethanol blend fuel has disadvantage in environmental issues such as water use. ? We show significant environmental impacts occur during the prehydrolysis phase. ? The use of sulphuric acid, steam and electricity is identified as the main source.

316

The broiler chicken as a model for immunotoxicity assessment. 1. Standardization of in vitro immunological assays.  

Science.gov (United States)

The broiler chicken was developed as an alternative animal model to laboratory rodents for immunotoxicologic assessment. In vivo treatment with 100-200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CY) was used as a known immunosuppressive treatment to standardize the assay systems. Protocols for assessing specific immunological functions were developed in specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers to measure lymphocyte blastogenesis to T-cell (concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin) and B-cell (Staphylococcus aureus cells) mitogens, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to tuberculin, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and serum antibody titers to SRBC. CY was an effective immunosuppressant in the broiler system for assessment of lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogenic stimulation, DTH reactivity, and the antibody response to SRBC as assessed by PFC and serum antibody titers. NK cytotoxicity was not altered on a cellular level following treatment with CY at a dose that produced greater than 75% depletion of spleen cellularity. However, under these conditions, it must be assumed that the capacity of CY-treated birds to mediate NK effector functions would be reduced. These results demonstrate the applicability of the broiler chicken as an animal model for immunotoxicity testing. PMID:2787254

Baecher-Steppan, L; Nakaue, H S; Matsumoto, M; Gainer, J H; Kerkvliet, N I

1989-05-01

317

Assessment of the phototoxic potential of cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cosmetics are nontoxic or less toxic in perse but photoactivation may then sensitize and could produce additional phototoxicity. Phototoxicity assessment of ten different lipsticks and eight facial creams was conducted. Results revealed that six lipsticks and five facial creams generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced haemolysis and caused lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (in vitro) under sunlight exposure. Seven creams and one lipstick were alkaline while one cream and two lipsticks were acidic. The test lipsticks and creams showed absorption in UV/visible range. The study demonstrated synergistic action of cosmetic products and sunlight. Therefore, sunlight exposure should be avoided after the use of photosensitive cosmetics. PMID:18282649

Hans, Rajendra K; Agrawal, Neeraj; Verma, Kiran; Misra, Rajendra B; Ray, Ratan S; Farooq, Mohammad

2008-05-01

318

Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

1981-01-01

319

A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of these studies was twofold: - firstly to check the safety level of the French units in the international context. - secondly, and considerably more importantly, to develop an additional resource for help in decision-making, allowing assessment of the relative impact of modifications to installations or procedures and to detect, once again in relative terms, any weak points. The importance of this second objective is of course greatly increased by the fact that the French nuclear facilities are standardized. When probabilistic safety studies are mentioned, emphasis is frequently placed on the first objective. Although it may be reassuring to find that the French power plants are well placed internationally, the absolute values indicated by the different probabilistic assessments are too dependent on the domain covered, the techniques implemented and the data used for it to be possible to make comparisons of safety levels on the basis of global results alone. On the other hand, the use of probabilistic safety assessments can provide interesting insights towards relative comparison approaches offering the greatest improvements in safety. In this respect, it is encouraging to find that the design of the 1300 MWe series represents an overall improvement over that of the 900 MWe series. The two studies which have been carried out must not be seen as an end, but as a way forward. Furthermore, it is possible to improve and add to them. This opens up two lines of action for the French safety organizations in the field of probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, the latter plan to use the probabilistic safety assessments to help in the following fields: - grading safety problems and identifying any weak points; for instance, in carrying out the two assessments, two outage accident sequences were revealed whose relative importance had been underestimated. The international community has been kept well informed about them, - making periodic safety reassessments (earned out every ten years in France): this essentially consists of making a more quantitative assessment of the

320

Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

Dingle, A. N.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

2009-06-30

322

An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

323

An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

324

Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. ? As the power increases, the NSEF increases. ? Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. ? It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. ? There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MWe and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MWe. So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

325

Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

2010-01-01

326

Environmental assessment of cement/foundry sludge products.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work deals with the environmental assessment of products based on cement and a waste from a cast iron activity. The waste is a foundry sludge from wastewater treatment previously characterized. This industrial waste shows a high water content (62.4%) and a hazardous behavior due to its metallic content mainly Zn (16.5%), together with a low fraction of organic pollutants, mainly phenolic compounds. The feasibility of immobilizing both typs of contaminants was studied using Portland cement as binder at different cement/waste ratios. The parameters of environmental control were the ecotoxicity and mobilization of zinc and phenolic compounds, all determined on the basis of compliance leaching tests. The acid neutralization capacity of the cement/waste products was measured in order to obtain information on their buffering capacity. Experimental results from chemical analysis of leachates led to a non ecotoxic character of cement/waste products Although the metallic ions were mobilized within the cement mattices, the organic matter did not allow the formation of monolithic forms and an efficient immobilization of phenolic compounds. Concerning the acid neutralization capacity, this parameter was shown to depend mainly on the quantity of cement, although a decrease in alkalinity was observed when the amount of water in the cement/waste products increased. PMID:12803251

Ruiz, M C; Andrés, A; Irabien, A

2003-05-01

327

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

Koerber, F.; Schulze Uphoff, U.; Koerber, S.; Maintz, D. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schoenau, E.; Semler, O. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Children' s Hospital

2012-08-15

328

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

329

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of electroweak interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs-boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements presented in this note are based on approximately 5 fb-1 of data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 with the ATLAS detector based at the CERN Laboratory.

Vincter Manuella G.

2013-11-01

330

Guidelines on product liability for the hospital blood bank. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report aims to clarify the position of the hospital blood bank in the light of product liability legislation contained in the Consumer Protection Act of 1987. Blood has been defined a 'product' under this Act. The potential for the blood bank to be seen in the role of 'supplier', 'keeper' or even 'producer' in the chain of product supply to the patient is explained and advice given on the resulting implications for blood bank practice. It will be necessary to define, adopt and implement standard operating procedures (SOP) for all blood bank activities. Guidance is given on the format, preparation and content of SOPs and specimen examples offered. The fundamental importance of quality assurance is emphasized. PMID:2272161

1990-01-01

331

Creating Airborne ESDR Products for Global and Regional Model Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the early 1980s NASA and partner agencies have conducted over 30 major tropospheric airborne field campaigns to investigate atmospheric composition over a wide range of geographical regions, from the remote marine boundary layer to polluted urban centers. Compared to satellite data, airborne data provides a longer historical perspective, a more extensive suite of observed species/parameters, and higher spatial resolution both horizontally and vertically. Consequently, airborne observations are of unique value to the modeling community's ability to predict future atmospheric composition and its impact on climate change and air quality issues. Nevertheless, there are significant challenges in using airborne data for model assessment and validation, including the lack of a standardized data format or centralized data source. Furthermore, measurement uncertainties are often missing or poorly defined. Since these airborne datasets were collected using different in-situ instruments/techniques and multiple aircraft platforms, it is also imperative to assess the level of consistency among these measurements. To overcome these difficulties, NASA's MEaSUREs program funded a project entitled 'Creating a Unified Airborne Database for Assessment and Validation of Global Models of Atmospheric Compositions.' The primary objective of this project is to develop airborne Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) by creating a unified database, which will be suitable for use in global and regional model assessment and validation activities, especially those organized by the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate (AC&C), the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCOM), and the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (HTAP) communities. The Tropospheric Airborne Measurement Evaluation Panel (TAbMEP), a group of measurement and modeling experts, was assembled to address the critical issues of historical measurement uncertainty and measurement consistency. The first TAbMEP meeting (convened late summer 2008) focused on the 2004 ICARTT (Intercontinental Consortium for Atmospheric Transport and Transformation) field campaign dataset. The panel also provided guidelines for algorithms which will be used to create ESDRs by unifying the publically available datasets from airborne missions sponsored by NASA, NOAA, NSF, and international partners. To be presented are highlights of the panel assessment as well as proposed algorithms to assess measurement uncertainties and to unify airborne data sets generated from multiple instruments and/or airborne platforms.

Kleb, M.; Chen, G.; Pippin, M.; Olson, J.; Crawford, J.; Mertens, A.

2008-12-01

332

Development and Quality Assessment of Date Chocolate Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Date chocolate products were produced by processing cocoa bean into cocoa powder (fermentation, milling, alkalization, press cake to cocoa butter, grinding, sifting and cocoa powder and Date fruit into date powder (cleaning, sorting, drying, milling and sifting. The powders (Cocoa and Date were used in the formulation of four different samples of chocolate mixes. The chemical analysis of the Date chocolates showed that sample C had the highest pH value, this was followed by sample B, while sample A had the lowest value. Sample B had high moisture content, with sample D having the highest. The four samples contained trace amount of fat; the carbohydrate contents of the samples were high, with sample B having the highest, while the protein contents were a bit close with sample D having the highest. Microbiological analysis showed the mesophilic aerobic bacteria plate count and the yeast and mould count are within the range of the standard. The sensory evaluation showed that samples A and B significantly differed (p<0.05 in taste, while samples A and D differed in texture significantly (p<0.05. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in flavor, color, firmness and overall acceptability for the 4 samples. The use of Date-palm in chocolate production improved the taste and flavor of the product. The use of Date palm with or without sugar produces chocolate with a different texture and sweetness.

T.I. Egagah

2010-01-01

333

A Total Productivity PCA Model for Assessment and Improvement of Electrical Manufacturing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a framework for assessment of electrical manufacturing systems based on a total machine productivity approach and multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the total model is developed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA and validated and verified by Numerical Taxonomy (NT and non-parametric correlation methods, namely, Spearman correlation experiment and Kendall Tau. To achieve the objectives of this study, a comprehensive study was conducted to locate the most important economic and technical indicators which influence machine performance. These indicators are related to machine productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and profitability. Six major electrical machinery sectors are selected according to the format of International Standard for Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC. Then, a comparative study is conducted through PCA among the electrical machinery sectors by considering the six sectors. This in turn shows the weak and strong points of electrical machinery and apparatus manufacturing sectors with respect to machine productivity. Furthermore, PCA identified which machine indicators have the major impacts on the performance of electrical machinery sectors. The modeling approach of this study could be used for ranking and analysis of other electrical sectors. This study is the first to introduce a total productivity model for assessment and improvement of total machine performance in electrical manufacturing sectors.

Ali Azadeh

2005-01-01

334

Connecting Science Standards with Assessment: A Snapshot of Three Countries' Approaches--England, Hong Kong and Canada (Ontario)  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieve, through support from the Noyce Foundation, examined ten sets of international standards with the intent of informing the development of both the conceptual framework and new U.S. science standards. Achieve selected countries based on their strong performance on international assessments and/or their economic, political, or cultural…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

335

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing students  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

Ryan, C Anthony

2010-03-17

336

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

Burgoyne Louise

2010-03-01

337

Evaluation of a standardized sedation assessment for opioid administration in the post anesthesia care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of opioid-related sedation progressing to respiratory depression in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) can be extensive; however, there is a paucity of research on the subject of standardized assessment tools to prevent adverse events. The purposes of this study were: (1) to measure the efficacy of a standardized method of assessing sedation and administering opioids for pain management via the Pasero Opioid-Induced Sedation Scale (POSS) with interventions in the PACU; (2) to increase PACU nurses' confidence in assessing sedation associated with opioid administration for pain management and in the quality of care provided in their clinical area; and (3) to facilitate PACU and postoperative clinical unit nurses' communications during patient handoffs regarding safe opioid administration. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the POSS protocol. Two PACUs and six nursing units receiving postsurgical patients in a Midwestern inner-city hospital served as the setting for this research. Medical records were surveyed for outcome data to evaluate the efficacy of the care protocol in two patient cohorts before and after implementation of the POSS protocol. Nurses completed a written survey to identify changes in satisfaction with nurse-to-nurse communication, perceptions of quality of care, and confidence with opioid administration. The final sample included 842 PACU patients and 67 nurses from the PACU and clinical units. The intervention did not significantly change PACU length of stay or amount of administered opioids and patients were noted to be more alert at time of discharge from the PACU. Nurses reported increased perceptions of quality of care and confidence in opioid administration. The findings from this study support the use of the POSS Scale with interventions in the PACU care protocols. PMID:24461253

Kobelt, Paula; Burke, Karen; Renker, Paula

2014-09-01

338

Combining life cycle assessment and qualitative risk assessment: the case study of alumina nanofluid production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the authors propose a framework for combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) to support the sustainability assessment of emerging technologies. This proposal includes four steps of analysis: technological system definition; data collection; risk evaluation and impacts quantification; results interpretation. This scheme has been applied to a case study of nanofluid alumina production in two different pilot lines, "single-stage" and "two-stage". The study has been developed in the NanoHex project (enhanced nano-fluid heat exchange). Goals of the study were analyzing the hotspots and highlighting possible trade-off between the results of LCA, which identifies the processes having the best environmental performance, and the results of RA, which identifies the scenarios having the highest risk for workers. Indeed, due to lack of data about exposure limits, exposure-dose relationships and toxicity of alumina nanopowders (NPs) and nanofluids (NF), the workplace exposure has been evaluated by means of qualitative risk assessment, using Stoffenmanager Nano. Though having different aims, LCA and RA have a complementary role in the description of impacts of products/substances/technologies. Their combined use can overcome limits of each of them and allows a wider vision of the problems to better support the decision making process. PMID:25068795

Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

2014-10-15

339

Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team. UPSAT. An international peer review service for uranium production facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to improve the safe operation of uranium production facilities. This programme facilitates the exchange of knowledge and experience between team members and industry personnel. An UPSAT mission is an international expert review, conducted outside of any regulatory framework. The programme is implemented in the spirit of voluntary co-operation to contribute to the enhancement of operational safety and practices where it is most effective, at the facility itself. An UPSAT review supplements other facility and regulatory efforts which may have the same objective

340

Life cycle assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the preceding project 'Life Cycle Assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects' for the first time the risks of deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment have been taken into account in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This was performed by a risk assessment in addition to a quantitative impact assessment. As from a methodological perspective this was not satisfactory, the Federal Environment Agency commissioned the C.A.U. GmbH and the Institute of Applied Ecology Freiburg to further develop the impact assessment methodology for the risks of GMOs. Any further development of the methodology of impact assessment in LCAs has to be performed on the basis of the standard EN/ISO 14042. There are 2 options for taking into account risks of deliberate release of GMOs: 1. allocation of the potential effects resulting from the genetic modification on human beings and the environment to existing categories of the impact assessment and attempt to quantify within those existing methods of characterization; 2. development of a new category, e.g. 'effects of genetically modified crop plants'. In order to asses the possibilities under option 1 various models of characterization within the categories human toxicity, ecotoxicity and land use (appropriation of environmental space) have been analyzed. The risks of GMOs identified and dealt with in the preceding study were alldealt with in the preceding study were allocated to these categories. It seemed to be impossible to integrate the risks in existing models of characterization for human toxicity and ecotoxicity, as these are based on exposure and impact factors. The development of a factor for exposure seems possible for GMOs, however a suitable impact factor is not possible to generate. In addition it was analyzed if in other impact categories which are difficult to quantify any solutions for operationalization exist. This does not seem to be the case. As a result, first steps to develop a new category, e.g. 'genetic engineering' were undertaken. This impact category shall enable to take into account the risks of the deliberate release of genetically modified crop plants in the course of agricultural production and the comparison of different genetically modified crop plants. For the calculation of a factor for characterizing a specific genetically modified crop plant, a risk number is determined on the basis of the likelihood of each risk category being realized. This depends on the likelihood of dissemination in a specific climate zone as well as on the number of transferred or modified genes. This risk number is combined with the number of the potentially affected areas of protection. The data are gained from the respective notification dossiers for the specific genetically modified plant. In the inventory analysis the agricultural production area (or the result of the area and the duration of application) of the genetically modified plant, relating to the functional unit, is determined. The resulting indicator is calculated by multiplying with the respective characterizing factor. This is shown taking the 2 model products Bt-maize 176 and herbicide tolerant winter oilseed rape as examples. The results of this study show that it is possible to operationalize the risks of the planting of genetically modified crop plants for the impact assessment in a LCA via a new category. The calculation of the characterizing factors is possible on the basis of the available data sources. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Assessing of deep water exploration and production operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of deep-water oil fields such as Girassol located in offshore Angola (Block 17) has involved 'regional' baseline surveys on the continental margin of Angola, Congo and Gabon. TotalFinaElf performed these prior to launching 'on-site' baseline studies and environmental impact assessments. Little was known about this particular marine environment at the start of these development projects which spanned waters ranging from 400 m to 4 000 m deep, approximately 200 to 300 km from the coasts. To complete the logistically challenging oceanographic campaigns, several regional studies were launched in 1999. These studies were accomplished with a close partnership between TotalFinaElf and Ifremer, the French oceanographic institute within the scope of a 3-years R and D program (Zaiango and Bio-Zaire projects) and also other research centers such as Akvamiljo in Norway. The aim of this program, with the help of new investigation technologies (ROV self-contained modules, multi-tubes and USNEL coring,...) is twofold: - Acquire a thorough knowledge of marine benthic ecosystems, present at such great depth; - Develop a precise assessment of potential impacts of exploration and production activities in such an environment. This paper puts forward the interest of these scientific co-operations in understanding deep sea phenomena (gas hydrates, detritus and chemo-synthetic based ecosystems, seabed colonization...) for assessing the initial status of the marine environment prior to any industrial activities and organizing later site monitoring programs. (authors)

Vidalie, J.F.; Durrieu, J.; Mine, J. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Sibuet, M. [Institut francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer, IFREMER, 29 - Brest (France)

2002-12-01

342

A standardized reporting system for assessment of diverse public health programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

State public health agencies face challenges when monitoring the efforts and effects of public health programs that use disparate strategies and address various diseases, locations, and populations. The external evaluators of a complex portfolio of grant funding sought a standardized reporting framework and tool that could be used for all grants in the portfolio, without having to redesign it for each disease or intervention approach. Evaluators iteratively reviewed grant-funded projects to identify common project delivery strategies, then developed and implemented a common reporting framework and spreadsheet-based data capture tool. Evaluators provided training, technical assistance, and ongoing data reviews. During 2 fiscal years, 103 public health programs throughout Colorado submitted quarterly reports; agencies funded to implement these programs ranged from small community-based organizations to university- and hospital-affiliated groups in urban and rural settings. Aggregated reports supported estimates of program reach by strategy and by disease area, and the system supported production of summary descriptions of program implementation. Standardized language and expectations for reporting helped to align grant applications and work plans with reporting tools. A common language and standardized reporting tool can be used for diverse projects in a comprehensive evaluation framework. Decentralized data collection using common spreadsheet software enabled the aggregation of common data elements across multiple programs and projects. Further refinements could enable wider dissemination of common reporting criteria and expectations. PMID:22974755

Fernald, Douglas; Harris, Abigail; Deaton, Elizabeth Ann; Weister, Vicki; Pray, Shannon; Baumann, Carsten; Levinson, Arnold

2012-01-01

343

Productivity assessment of an integrated voice/data workstation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 500 management information systems are used by the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) to help keep the US Air Force's aerospace weapon systems in combat-readiness throughout the world. To accomplish its logistics mission, the AFLC helps manage and track $113 billion in assets and some 460,000 annual contracts. Major assets include 915,835 different supply items and the maintenance of 9418 aircraft. A staff of 102,600 in the AFLC handles these assets through four primary functions: Procurement, Material Management, Distribution, and Maintenance. Most of the information systems used in the massive logistics effort were designed 20 years ago for a batch-processing environment. To take advantage of new developments in automated office systems, the AFLC has established a Logistics Management System (LMS) modernization plan. Under this plan the AFLC will update and automate its functional processes, ADP hardware, software, and communication networks. As part of the program, the AFLC is studying what changes occur in human productivity through the use of an automated office information system that integrates voice and data. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was engaged to study a prototype ''Integrated Voice/Data System'' (IVDS) to assess these changes. For the prototype assessment, the survey used an off-the-shelf departmental IVDS system supporting 64 workstations. Through a ''survey/questionnaire'' method, users at AFLC's staff (management) level were asked to estimate ''work time'' saved. This report presents the results of the productivity study associated with implementation of an integrated voice and data system. These results will provide AFLC decision-makers with sample estimates of productivity improvements that may be expected by an advanced integrated voice and data system.

Banks, W.W.; Prassinos, P.G.

1987-03-01

344

Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation associations. One central aim of such a criteria is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy resources. Increased use of renewable energy resources is considered to be an essential mean to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The liberalisation of energy markets makes it possible to reinforce and enlarge incentives, which improve the environmental quality of energy products, covering both renewable and non-renewable components. This requires the production of as comparative, transparent, modular and updateable information as possible. Such information promotes effectively the communication between energy producers and their customers and other interest groups and would thus also promote a more even distribution of environmental responsibility of choices and decision-making among different parties. (orig.)

345

Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B. For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process by UML class diagram and standardized model of document Working Order for technological process in the form of OAGI BOD XML document. Based on it, from an example, model of technological process is presented by activity diagram (DA in XML form and an appearance of document Working Order. Just as well, rules of transformation DA to XML are presented.

Le?i? Danica

2005-01-01

346

Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

Steele, Philp; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

2012-02-01

347

MISR Global Aerosol Product Assessment by Comparison with AERONET  

Science.gov (United States)

Barbara J. Gaitley1, Ralph Kahn2, 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109; 818-354-0552; 2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; e-mail: barbara.gaitley@jpl.nasa.gov As a further step in validating the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol products, an extensive statistical comparison between MISR optical depth and Angstrom exponent and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals has been completed. Angstrom exponent was interpreted in terms of components and mixtures used by the retrieval algorithm. Specific examples illustrating the analysis approach will be shown. Eight years of data from 81 geographically diverse sites having good long-term measurement records were first stratified based on locations where six broad aerosol air mass type categories are likely to occur: maritime, biomass burning, desert dust, urban pollution, continental and mixed dust+smoke aerosols. The number of actual coincident measurements was constrained by requiring that the AERONET direct sun aerosol optical depth (AOD) data was obtained within a two-hour window centered on the MISR overpass time. 5156 coincident observations are included in this AOD data set. AERONET direct sun data were averaged over the measurements obtained within this window, and were then interpolated to the MISR characteristic wavelengths to facilitate comparison. All AERONET measurements are Level 2.0, Version 2 data. A previous, systematic comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depth data [Kahn, Gaitley et al., JGR 110, 2005] identified specific, suggested improvements to the early post-launch MISR Standard Aerosol retrieval algorithms. Most of these suggestions were implemented in the uniformly reprocessed MISR Version 22 aerosol products used in the current study. We documented the performance of the current MISR products based on the comparison statistics. For example, agreement between AERONET and MISR, for over-ocean retrievals, increased nearly 10% compared to the early post-launch product. The new results also provide specific suggestions for further refining the MISR aerosol products. This work appease in a new paper [Kahn, Gaitley et al., JGR doi:2010JD014601R, 2010]. An AGU abstract by Martonchik et al. discusses the MISR team efforts at upgrading the Version 22 aerosol product. This work is performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.

2010-12-01

348

Cone beam CT--anatomic assessment and legal issues: the new standards of care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until the recent introduction of cone beam computed tomography scanners, standard 2-D imaging provided a moderate contribution to overall treatment planning when considering the diagnostic potential, costs of study and risks to the patient. Cone beam computed tomography-dedicated maxillofacial imaging scanners provide broader imaging tools for anatomic assessment and have become widely available. This article discusses the uses and benefits of 3-D imaging, as well as the impact on the standard of care. Many phases of patient care involve imaging to assist with diagnosis, treatment planning, risk assessment and treatment. Techniques employing X-rays, visible light, ultrasound, lasers and magnetic fields have been used in medicine and dentistry to create images. All forms of imaging require a coupled system of emitters and sensors. For example, a cephalometric image is produced using an X-ray emitter and film sensor. Imaging systems can be categorized in many different ways based upon emitter or output type (examples; film-based, digital, 2-D and 3-D images). The resultant images can be used to evaluate the anatomy of interest, including surface and subsurface. The ultimate quest of all forms of imaging is to reveal the anatomic truth; that is, to portray the anatomy as it exists in nature. Thoughtful clinical application of image acquisition requires matching the uses and limitations of the available imaging choices to achieve the desired diagnostic information (imaging goal) while keeping the risks and costs to the patient as low as possible. Imaging data must provide a benefit at an acceptable cost and risk. Two-dimensional representation of 3-D anatomies creates images that have poor spatial accuracy, are static in space and time, and contain information voids. These 2-D measurements have propagated legacy databases of inaccurate morphometric measurements. Current development in imaging technology for dentistry includes digital imaging and improved sensor technology. Multidimensional anatomical reconstruction can be performed through software applications. The ultimate reward of technological imaging advancements is the 3-D representations (digital volume) of anatomy as it exists in nature (anatomic truth). Analysis of the accurate digital volume can provide clinically relevant spatial information or data. Visualization and analysis of 3-D information can benefit a dental practice by providing data that will improve diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment outcome and treatment efficiency, and reduce treatment complications. This article discusses the uses and benefits of 3-D imaging (cone beam CT, CBCT) for diagnosis, treatment planning and the legal issues affecting the standard of care, as well as offering risk management tips and use guidance. PMID:20860345

Curley, Arthur; Hatcher, David C

2010-01-01

349

Life cycle assessment of production in the control system of the environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The control system of the environment and the inventory analysis on the basis of Standard ISO of the series 14000 are considered. The International Standards Organization establishes the international quality standards (series ISO 9000 for production at the interethnic level. Series ISO 14000 sets itself as an object is to establish ecological standards for products and services at the interethnic level, first of all, for those that are used in international trade.

?.?. ?????????

2005-04-01

350

The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

Fullmer, Patricia

2009-01-01

351

States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75  

Science.gov (United States)

All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is…

Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

2010-01-01

352

States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71  

Science.gov (United States)

Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the…

Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.

2008-01-01

353

Executive summary of the economic analysis: technical support document for the proposed energy performance standards for consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How the general legislative requirements were transformed into a coherent economic impact analysis is outlined. The models used in conducting the analysis are described briefly. The major impacts associated with standards are summarized, and policy assessment is discussed.

1980-06-01

354

FASAL: an integrated approach for crop assessment and production forecasting  

Science.gov (United States)

India has a very well developed system for collection of crop statistics covering more than 50 crops at village level and aggregating it at different administrative levels. However, need for early and in-season crop production forecasting has been strongly felt. Remote sensing for crop assessment has been explored since very beginning of space applications in India. A nation-wide project called Crop Acreage and Production Estimation (CAPE) was launched at the behest of Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India in 1988. Major growing regions in the country for wheat, rice, cotton, groundnut, rapeseed/mustard and Rabi (winter) sorghum were covered. Production forecasts were made about a month before the harvesting using multi-band remote sensing data acquired at optimum bio-window and weather data. Ministry of Agriculture, satisfied with the performance of CAPE, came out with a request to target multiple crop production forecasts starting with crop sowing to end of season. Crop identification with remote sensing data requires using the data when crop has sufficiently grown. However, forecasting of crop at sowing stage would require use of weather data and information on economic factors controlling the farmer's response. Considering these things "Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agrometeorological and Land based observations (FASAL)" concept was devised. FASAL aims at using econometric models to forecast the area and production before the crop sowing operations. In unirrigated areas, information on amount and distribution of rainfall is being used for forecasting the crop acreage as well as yield. Remote sensing data, both optical and microwave form the core of crop area enumeration, crop condition assessment and production forecasting. Temporal remote sensing data is being used to monitor the crop through its growing period. Vegetation indices and weather parameter derived from surface and satellite observations will be used to develop the crop growth monitoring system. Components of FASAL concept have been developed, tested and implemented through a series of exercise and these are i) National wheat and winter potato production forecasting using IRS AWiFS data, ii) National Kharif rice production forecasting using Radarsat SAR data, and iii) District level FASAL implementation in Orissa state. Typically three in-season forecasts are being made. With this the FASAL concept of using the multi source data and techniques has been successfully demonstrated. FASAL implementation has been taken up to make national level multiple forecast of crops like rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, rapeseed/mustard, rabi-sorghum, winter-potato and jute. Procedure development for use of remote sensing, weather data - surface measurements as well as derived from satellite data, field and ancillary data to run the crop growth simulation models has been taken up. The programme is sponsored by Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Space Applications Centre of Indian Space Research Organisation has provided the scientific leadership to the project. A large team drawn form a number of institutions such as ISRO/Department of Space, State Remote Sensing Applications Centres, State Agricultural Universities and many other institutions are working for the project.

Parihar, Jai Singh; Oza, Markand P.

2006-12-01

355

Baby care product development: artificial urine in vitro assay is useful for cosmetic product assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of infants' inability to control urination, the skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from irritating effects of urine and prevention of diaper dermatitis such as products for cleansing and protection of the skin. Several in vitro models are currently available to assess tolerance. In vitro testing using artificial urine allows the protective effects of diaper-region cosmetics to be ascertained. Thus, a new model defined as "artificial urine in vitro assay" has been added to our traditional pre-clinical in vitro testing program. IL1-? is a highly active and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a key role in inflammation and is the biological mirror of irritation induced by diaper dermatitis. This study determines, on human skin explants, if a cosmetic formula is (1) tolerated equally as well in the presence of artificial urine as in its absence and (2) is able to decrease IL1-? production induced by artificial urine or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. 31 tests including 17 in-house formulas, 10 bench-markers and 4 combinations of products were performed and data obtained are represented on a simple four-point scale (from practically non protective to very protective). It allows determination of formula-type groups that will have predictable protective properties in subsequent clinical trials and comparison with competitors' products. It is a useful aid in the formulation stage and provides readily-useable data for the cosmetic risk assessment. PMID:23850986

Degouy, Arnaud; Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

2014-02-01

356

29 CFR 70.40 - Charges assessed for the production of records.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 true Charges assessed for the production of records. 70.40 Section 70... Office of the Secretary of Labor PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION OR MATERIALS Costs for Production of Records § 70.40 Charges...

2010-07-01

357

Standard criteria and methods to assess the reclamation of native vegetation on mined land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is currently much interest in the re-establishment of native (semi-natural) vegetation in mineral workings in the UK. It is expected that future planning consents will have conditions attached which require evidence that the proposed communities have been achieved. At present there is no standard approach. This paper describes a formal sample based method which enables assessment of plant community, species richness and species of particular interest at any point in time and their course of development. The method is illustrated by use of data collected for sown grassland on a restored opencast coal site in South Wales. Further development work is likely to be necessary and comparison with other recently recommended methods is suggested

358

Compliance assessment of an uranium hexafluoride package 30B with overpack to the IAEA standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Dipartimento di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari (DCMN) of the Pisa University a research program was carried out in order to assess the compliance to the updated IAEA standards of the UF6 30B container, complete with its sandwich phenolic foam filled external overpack. The research program, performed in collaboration with ENEA and several interested Italian firms, included 9 mt free drop, perforation, thermal and leaktightness tests, on two complete packages with dummy load. The heat transfer conditions, with the UF6 real contents, were simulated by means of numerical analyses with the TRUMP computer code and calculation procedures set up using the available experimental data. The attained results seem to be useful from the point of view of the foreseen purposes

359

Standardization of laboratory performance. Approaches to the design of external quality assessment schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Special Programme for Research in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization sponsors clinical trials involving immunoassay measurements by laboratories in different countries. These trials present significant problems of standardization of results. The performance of different laboratories is monitored by means of external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). The design of appropriate EQAS for differing analytes is affected by the number of participating centres, and whether the analyte is measured on a regular basis. Three different EQAS designs are discussed: The first is the WHO EQAS for reproductive hormones, which is intended for analytes measured on a regular basis by a large number of centres. The second design is for unusual analytes that are measured infrequently and at irregular intervals. The third design is for studies where small differences between treatments or subject groups are expected. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

360

Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat under Smallholders Production System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female, type of birth (singles, twins, triplets and dam’s parity (1-7. Data were analysed statistically according to the analysis of variance procedure using the General Linear Model (GLM. Least squares analysis revealed that dam’s parity, birth type, and sex of kid were significant sources of variation for birth and weaning weight and pre weaning growth in Kacang kids. The average birth weight, weaning weight and pre weaning growth of males (2.07±0.02 kg; 10.457±0.1 kg; 69.35±0.73 g/d were found to be higher than females (1.95±0.02 kg; 9.15±0.09 kg; 60.73±0.71 g/d. Kid production traits increased with parity, with the largest values at the fourth parity and then slightly decreased thereafter. The average male and female birth weight (2.18+0.03 kg; 2.02+0.03 kg, weaning weight (10.72+0.11 and 9.39+0.13 kg and pre weaning growth (71.63+0.79 and 62.21+0.96 g/d of single kids were heavier than twins, and triplets indicating the influence of the mothering ability of doe. It was recommended, the farmers should consider maternal ability for improvement of weaning weight and growth rate of Kacang kids. (Animal Production 12(2: 111-116 (2010Key Words: Kacang goat, kid production, birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate

A Priyono

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Higgs Boson Production via Gluon Fusion in the Standard Model with four Generations  

CERN Document Server

Higgs bosons can be produced copiously at the LHC via gluon fusion induced by top and bottom quark loops, and can be enhanced strongly if extra heavy quarks exist. We present results for Higgs +zero-, one- and two-jet production at the LHC, in both the Standard Model and the 4th generation model, by evaluating the corresponding heavy quark triangle, box and pentagon Feynman diagrams. We compare the results by using the effective Higgs-gluon interactions in the limit of heavy quarks with the cross sections including the full mass dependences. NLO effects with full mass dependence are included in the inclusive Higgs boson production rate. Our results improve the theoretical basis for fourth generation effects on the Higgs boson search at the LHC.

Li, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng

2010-01-01

362

Standard-model predictions for W-pair production in electron-positron collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the status of the theoretical predictions for W-pair production in e+e- collisions within the electroweak standard model (SM). We first consider for on-shell W-bosons the lowest-order cross-section within the SM, the general effects of anomalous couplings, the radiative corrections within the SM, and approximations for them. Then we discuss the inclusion of finite-width effects in lowest order and the existing results for radiative corrections to off-shell W-pair production, and we outline the general strategy to calculate radiative corrections within the pole scheme. We summarize the theoretical predictions for the total and partial W-boson widths including radiative corrections and discuss the quality of an improved Born approximation. Finally we provide a general discussion of the structure-function method to calculate large logarithmic higher-order corrections associated with collinear photon radiation. (orig.)

363

Offshore wind resource assessment with Standard Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT): A Rhode Island case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivated by the current Rhode Island Ocean SAMP (Special Area Management Plan) project and the growing need in the foreseeable future, analysis tools for wind resource assessment are assembled into a toolkit that can be accessed from a GIS. The analysis is demonstrated by application to the ongoing wind resource assessment of Rhode Island's offshore waters by the Ocean SAMP. The tool is called Standard Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT). SWAT utilizes a method for integrating observations from the study area or numerical model outputs to assemble the spatial distribution of the offshore wind resource. Available power is inferred from direct measurements of wind speed, but the shape of the atmospheric boundary layer or wind speed profile must be parameterized in order to extrapolate measurements to heights other than that of the measurements. The vertical wind speed profile is modeled with the basic power law assuming a 1/7 exponent parameter representing near-neutral or more accurately timeaverage conditions. As an alternate estimate from year long multi-level observations at a meteorological tower is employed. The basis for the power analysis is the 2- parameter Weibull probability distribution, recognized as standard in modeling typical wind speed distributions. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the Weibull probability density function provides the expected power densities at observation sites. Application to Rhode Island's coastal waters yields an estimated Weibull shape parameter of roughly 2 for the offshore environment and a Weibull scale parameter that increases with distance from the coast. Estimates of power in the SAMP study area range from 525 to 850 W/m² at an elevation of 80 meters based on an observed profile in the SAMP study area. Like the Weibull scale parameter, annual mean wind power increases with distance offshore.

Crosby, Alexander Robert

364

An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products. PMID:21816537

Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

2011-11-01

365

A format standard for efficient interchange of high-contrast direct imaging science products  

Science.gov (United States)

The present and next few years will see the arrival of several new coronagraphic instruments dedicated to the detection and characterization of planetary systems. These ground- and space-based instruments (Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, Subaru/ CHARIS, JWST NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs among others), will provide a large number of new candidates, through multiple nearby-star surveys and will complete and extend those acquired with current generation instruments (Palomar P1640, VLT/NACO, Keck, HST). To optimize the use of the wealth of data, including non-detection results, the science products of these instruments will require to be shared among the community. In the long term such data exchange will significantly ease companion confirmations, planet characterization via different type of instruments (integral field spectrographs, polarimetric imagers, etc.), and Monte-Carlo population studies from detection and non-detection results. In this context, we initiated a collaborative effort between the teams developing the data reduction pipelines for SPHERE, GPI, and the JWST coronagraphs, and the ALICE (Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environment) collaboration, which is currently reprocessing all the HST/NICMOS coronagraphic surveys. We are developing a standard format for the science products generated by high-contrast direct imaging instruments (reduced image, sensitivity limits, noise image, candidate list, etc.), that is directly usable for astrophysical investigations. In this paper, we present first results of this work and propose a preliminary format adopted for the science product. We call for discussions in the high-contrast direct imaging community to develop this effort, reach a consensus and finalize this standard. This action will be critical to enable data interchange and combination in a consistent way between several instruments and to stiffen the scientific production in the community.

Choquet, Élodie; Vigan, Arthur; Soummer, Rémi; Chauvin, Gaël.; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hines, Dean C.

2014-07-01

366

Assessment of Acetylcholinesterase Activity Using Indoxylacetate and Comparison with the Standard Ellman’s Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity plays an important role in diagnostic, detection of pesticides and nerve agents, in vitro characterization of toxins and drugs including potential treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. These experiments were done in order to determine whether indoxylacetate could be an adequate chromogenic reactant for AChE assay evaluation. Moreover, the results were compared to the standard Ellman’s method. We calculated Michaelis constant Km (2.06 × 10?4 mol/L for acetylthiocholine and 3.21 × 10?3 mol/L for indoxylacetate maximum reaction velocity Vmax (4.97 × 10?7 kat for acetylcholine and 7.71 × 10?8 kat for indoxylacetate for electric eel AChE. In a second part, inhibition values were plotted for paraoxon, and reactivation efficacy was measured for some standard oxime reactivators: obidoxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM and HI-6. Though indoxylacetate is split with lower turnover rate, this compound appears as a very attractive reactant since it does not show any chemical reactivity with oxime antidots and thiol used for the Ellman’s method. Thus it can be advantageously used for accurate measurement of AChE activity. Suitability of assay for butyrylcholinesterase activity assessment is also discussed.

Kamil Kuca

2011-04-01

367

Gene-TEQ--a standardized comparative assessment of effects in the comet assay using genotoxicity equivalents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing methods for the comparison of genotoxic effects in the comet assay bear considerable disadvantages such as the problem to link information about concentration dependence and severity of effects. Moreover, given the lack of standardized protocols and the use of various standards, it may be extremely difficult to compare different studies. In order to provide a method for standardized comparative assessment of genotoxic effects, the concept of genotoxicity equivalents (Gene-TEQ) was developed. As potential reference compounds for genotoxic effects, three directly acting (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methyl-methanesulfonate, and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea) and three indirectly acting (cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, and 4-nitroquinoline-oxide) genotoxic substances were compared with respect to their cytotoxic (neutral red) and genotoxic (comet assay) concentration-response profiles in the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1. For further comparison, two sediment extracts from the upper Danube River were investigated as environmental samples. Based on the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing, MNNG was selected as the reference compound. At several exposure levels and durations, genotoxic effects of both the other pure substances and the environmental samples were calculated as percentages of the maximum MNNG effect and related to the absolute MNNG effect (EC values). Thus, genotoxicity equivalent factors (Gene-TEQs) relative to MNNG could be calculated. Gene-TEQs can easily be applied to pure substances, mixtures and field samples to provide information about their toxicity relative to the reference compound. Furthermore, the Gene-TEQ concept allows a direct comparison of environmental samples from different laboratories. PMID:22441078

Fassbender, Christopher; Braunbeck, Thomas; Keiter, Steffen H

2012-05-01

368

Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. PMID:22595076

Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

2012-09-30

369

Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

Skala Dejan U.

2004-01-01

370

Food Standards Agency (UK): role and responsibilities in radiological protection, dose assessment and research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Food Standards Agency (FSA), created by an Act of Parliament in April 2000, is charged with protecting the public's health and consumers' interests in relation to food. The Radiological Protection and Research Management Division is responsible for monitoring radionuclides in the food chain, producing prospective dose assessments for future discharges, planning and taking part in nuclear emergency exercises and commissioning and supervising research related to the pathways of radioactive contamination in food and the environment. This paper will focus on the methods employed by the FSA for the calculation of prospective doses to a critical group living close to a nuclear establishment, and will describe how the WAT/ADO models for Individual Doses for Discharges of Liquid Effluents to Sea were developed. The use of Community Food Intervention Levels (CFILs), established by the European Community for regulating foodstuffs following a nuclear accident, in the FSA approach to radiological protection of the public will also be discussed. The paper will also give examples of research projects sponsored by the Agency, in order to improve prospective dose assessment and modelling

371

Evaluación de nutrición parenteral estandarizada en niños / Assessment of standard parenteral nutrition in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: En la actualidad existe un mayor consenso en el proceso de soporte nutricional con Nutrición Parenteral (NP) en pediatría, en los estándares de la prescripción, formulación, elaboración y en los requerimientos nutricionales, para mejorar la calidad del proceso y seguridad en el pacient [...] e. La utilización de soluciones estandarizadas de NP en niños es minoritaria por la dificultad de adaptación a las distintas situaciones fisiopatológicas. Para hacerlo viable, en el 2006 diseñamos y validamos un amplio rango de soluciones estandarizadas para niños mayores de 10 kg y/o mayores de 1 año. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilización e idoneidad de las soluciones de NP estandarizadas en un Hospital de Tercer Nivel desde su implantación. Método: Analizamos todas las prescripciones y formulaciones de NP de los niños desde enero de 2006 hasta junio de 2008: la frecuencia de prescripción de soluciones estándar según edad, peso e indicación y sus modificaciones. Comparamos los nutrientes aportados con las soluciones NP individualizados frente a las recomendacionesde las Guías de referencia y las NP estandarizadas. Resultados: 47 niños con un peso medio de 26,6 kg (9-50) y edad media 6,8 años (1-14) recibieron 539 unidades de NP. Las NP estandarizadas (437) fueron utilizadas en el 83% de los pacientes. Sus requerimientos totales energéticos se alcanzaron de1 a 3 días , utilizando de una a tres tipos fórmulas . De ellas solo tuvieron modificación un 4% (22), con cambios fácilmente aplicables : aumento del volumen (16), disminución de la glucosa (3), y aumento del potasio (3). El análisis de las NP individualizadas en 8 niños, muestran una misma tendencia, menor aporte calórico en un 33% al recomendado. Conclusión: Las soluciones de PN estandarizadas se adecuaron a las necesidades nutricionales de la mayoría de los pacientes, según su estado y patología, destacando su adaptabilidad y versatilidad. Su utilización, ha agilizado el circuito prescripción-validación-preparación y ha mejorado la eficiencia del proceso. Abstract in english Introduction: Nowadays, there is a stronger consensus on the proceedings of nutritional support with parenteral nutrition (PN) in paediatrics, the prescription standards, its formulation, elaboration, and nutritional requirements in order to improve the process quality and the patient's safety. The [...] use of standardized PN solutions in children is rare due to the difficulty to adapt them to every pathophysiologic condition. In order to do so, in 2006 we designed and validated a big range of standard solutions for children weighing more than 10 kg or being older than 1 year. Objective: To assess the use of standard PN solutions and their suitability in children from January of 2006 until June of 2008: the frequency of prescription of standard solutions by age, weight, and indication, as well as their modifications. We compared the nutrients given by individualized PN solutions versus the recommendations of the Reference Guidelines and standardised PN. Results: 47 children with a mean weight of 26.6 kg (9-50) and mean age 6.8 years (1-14) received 539 units of PN. Standardized PN (437) were used in 83% of the patients. Their total energy requirements were reached within 1-3 days by using one to three types of formulas. Only 4% (22) of them were modified, with easily feasible changes: volume increase (16), glucose lowering (3), and potassium increase (3). The analysis of the individualized PN in 8 children shows the same trend, with a caloric intake lower than 33% of the recommended one. Conclusion: Standardized PN meet the nutritional requirements in most of the patients according to their morbid condition, highlighting their adaptability and versatility. Their use has eased the prescription-validation-preparation circuit and has improved the efficiency of the process.

I., Caba Porras; A., Cabello Muriel; B., Oya Álvarez de Morales; J. F., Marín Pozo; J., García Aranda; C., Llácer Pérez.

372

A quantitative assessment of standard vs. customized midline shield construction for invasive cervical carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: An individualized midline shield (MLS) has been advocated for delivering homogeneous radiotherapy for patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Yet, many radiation oncologists continue to employ a standard block. In the latter instance, any deviation of the cranial-caudal central axis of the tandem from the patient's midline could result in dose inhomogeneity to tumor. A retrospective review of a single university medical center's experience with constructing the MLS was initiated to determine the outcome of using a standard block vs. a customized block that conforms to the 'Point A' isodose line. In addition, participating radiation oncologists associated with the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) were polled to assess if there exists a consensus regarding midline block utilization in the management of cervical cancer patients which could be compared to the institutional study. Methods and Materials: From January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1992, 32 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma who underwent low dose rate brachytherapy at a single institution were identified. Patients were grouped as having a standard block (18 cases), customized block (5 cases), or no block (9 cases). The 'Point A' isodose distribution from the implant was superimposed onto the whole pelvic simulation film and quantitatively compared to the actual or a hypothetical standard block outlined on the same radiograph. In September of 1995, 56 member and affiliated institutions in th6 member and affiliated institutions in the GOG were surveyed concerning their use of a MLS, and the results were tabulated in December of 1995. Results: Approximately 72% of all cases 923 out of 32) at the single institution had tandem deviation ranging from 0-230 with a median of 50. This translated into a median percent overdosage to 'Point A' Right of 15% and 'Point A' Left of 12.5%. Although overall survival and incidence of chronic complications have not been affected by type of shielding, patient follow-up is limited with a median of 17.7 months (range: 4.2-58.9 months). Of the 56 surveyed radiation facilities in the GOG, 34 (61%) responded. One center was subsequently excluded as it performs only high dose rate brachytherapy. Of the evaluable respondents, 88% (29 out of 33) utilize a MLS in treating their patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Of the latter group, 76% (22 out of 29), 21% (6 out of 29), and 3% (1 out of 29) employ a standard block, customized block, and a 'step-wedge', respectively. For those using a standard block, 77% (17 out of 22) align the central cranial-caudal axis of the MLS along the corresponding midplane of the patient's pelvis on an anteroposterior radiograph rather than along the superior-inferior central axis of the tandem. Conclusions: This study suggests that the use of a standard midline shield could result in potential tumor dose inhomogeneity and should be avoided. A national survey of major academic centers further suggests that the majority of these facilities also utilize a rectangular central block that is not positioned with respect to possible tandem deviation. Further investigation concerning the techniques of midline shield construction should be considered

373

Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

Hanssen, Ole Joergen

1997-12-31

374

Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate environmental stewardship during resource extraction, packaging. The ratings during manufacturing and refurbishment/ recycling/ disposal are both poor, and during customer use are abysmal though it have some improvement. The overall rating of 1990s is far below what might be desired. In contrast, the overall rating for the 2000s vehicle is much better than that of the earlier vehicle but still leaving plenty of room for improvement.
Key words: AT&T matrix, environment, LCA, SLCA, automobile
Résumé: Cet article entreprend une évaluation générale du fait que comment la performance environnementale de l’automobile a changé ces dernières années. Nous avons effectué un SLCA et utilisé la matrice de l’AT&T ainsi que le technique Delphi afin de comparer un automobile des années 1990 (fabriqué en Chine avec un autre des années 2000. A travers la comparaison, nous avons calculé 5 étapes de la production de l’automobile : préfabrication, fabricarion du produit, livraison du produit, utilisation du produit, recyclage. La comparaison montre un management environnemental modéré pendant l’extraction et l’empaquetage des ressources. Les évaluations durant la fabrication et la reconstruction /recyclage/ élimination sont toutes misérables, et pendant la période d’utilisation par les clients elle apparaît épouvantable malgré des améliorations. L’évaluation générale des années 90 est loin de répondre à notre désir. Au contraire, celle des années 2000 est bien meilleure que la précédente, mais reste beaucoup à désirer.
Mots-Clés: matrice de l’AT&T, environnement, LCA, SLCA, automobile

Li-li YANG

2006-12-01

375

Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: ? We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. ? Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. ? Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. ? Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

376

Biocompatibility of wound management products: standardization of and determination of cell growth rate in L929 fibroblast cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

To facilitate the development of a bioassay procedure by which the biocompatibilities of materials used in wound management may be assessed and compared, those environmental factors affecting cell growth in mouse L929 fibroblast cultures have been identified. Standardization of the initial cell number and frequency of change of medium resulted in the virtual elimination of variation of growth curves of L929 cells cultured in flasks of specified surface area. In addition, three methods for assessing fibroblast growth rate in the presence of alginate products used in wound management were evaluated. These were the haemacytometer counting chamber method, the Coulter counting method, and a liquid scintillation counting method. The first two methods determine the number of cells in a given volume of a cell suspension, whereas the third method determines the rate of synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and hence cell growth, by measuring the incorporation of [3H]thymidine. The haemacytometer method had significant advantages over the other two procedures in providing both qualitative and quantitative data on culture morphology and cell growth response. PMID:2576047

Turner, T D; Spyratou, O; Schmidt, R J

1989-11-01

377

Hanford Site Radionuclide Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Stack Source Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), is a department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government and must comply with the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1955, as amended, and the implementing regulations. On December 15, 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) the ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities'' (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H requires that the emissions of radionuclides from any DOE Facility shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem in a year. In addition, potential emissions of radionuclides from a stack or vent that exceed 0.1 mrem/year to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) require continuous monitoring. The requirement for calculating potential emissions is to compute the emissions, which could occur without control devices in place but with operations otherwise normal. In 1998, an assessment was performed of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) stacks (HNF-1974). Since then, changes have occurred in the location of the MEI, in the status of onsite facilities, in the unit dose factor in closing stacks, in the emissions, and in the addition of new stacks and vents. Because of these changes, an updated assessment was warranted. This assessment provides an update for the 44 stacks on the Hanford Site under management of Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) and BHI.

DAVIS, W.E.

2002-09-01

378

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

2009-04-07

379

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

380

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

2009-04-01