WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard assessment products

  1. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  2. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  3. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  4. Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).

    Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

    2007-06-12

    This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

  5. Scientific and regulatory standards for assessing product performance using the similarity factor, f2.

    Stevens, Ruth E; Gray, Vivian; Dorantes, Angelica; Gold, Lynn; Pham, Loan

    2015-03-01

    The similarity factor, f2, measures the sameness of dissolution profiles. The following commentary is an overview of discussions and presentations from a group of industry and US regulatory experts that have integrated the science and regulatory research and practice for assessing product performance, particularly for modified-release (MR) dosage forms, using f2. For a drug development sponsor or applicant with an orally complex dosage formulation, it is critical to understand dissolution methods and the similarity factor and how and/or when to apply it in their NDA, ANDA, or PMA submission. As part of any regulatory submission, it is critical to justify that the product performance has not been impacted by any change in the manufacturing process and/or the delayed and/or prolonged drug release characteristics compared to a similar conventional or another orally complex dosage form. The purposes of this document are (1) to provide a description of appropriate dissolution methods, how is the f2 calculated and how it can be used to justify product performance similarity, or not; (2) to provide an overview of alternative methods available for dissolution profile comparisons, and (3) to illustrate how applying these concepts in a focused way supports approval of submissions and regulatory dossiers and aligns them with on-going science and regulatory initiatives. A case study will be used as an example to demonstrate how dissolution testing and the f2 calculation results can impact regulatory outcomes from an NDA (505(b)(1)), NDA (505(b)(2)), ANDA (505(j)), supplemental NDAs/ANDAs, or PMA perspective. PMID:25669756

  6. Standardizing neurological assessments.

    Iacono, Laura A; Wells, Celia; Mann-Finnerty, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    Evaluation of neurological status is imperative to patient assessment. Multiple assessment tools are readily available for clinicians to diagnose and report changes in neurological condition. Some of these tools include the Glasgow Coma Scale, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the Canadian Neurological Scale, and the Four Score. Although assessment tools are beneficial to help standardize the assessment and communication of findings, they are at times cumbersome, leaving bedside clinicians with questions concerning which tool is appropriate for a given patient population. This initiative began as a means to standardize assessments and communication for neuroscience patients. As success was met, the project was moved forward locally at our hospital campus and later extended to the entire health system. With the support of the chief of neurology, the neuroscience patient care services director, the stroke coordinator, and the neuroscience clinical educator, three different neurological examinations were developed. They were defined as the Basic Neurological Check, the Coma Neurological Check, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale/Stroke Neurological Check. The neurological examinations would address the assessment needs of patients with acute stroke, general neurosurgery/neurology patients, and patients in coma. PMID:24556660

  7. Assessment of a Standardized ROS Production Profile in Humans by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in health and disease, reliable quantitative noninvasive methods for the assessment of oxidative stress in humans are still lacking. EPR technique, coupled to a specific spin probe (CMH: 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine) is here presented as the method of choice to gain a direct measurement of ROS in biological fluids and tissues. The study aimed at demonstrating that, differently from currently available “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids) spin-trapping EPR provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of radical species in the sample and, as signal areas are proportional to the number of excited electron spins, lead to absolute concentration levels. Using a recently developed bench top continuous wave system (e-scan EPR scanner, Bruker) dealing with very low ROS concentration levels in small (50 μL) samples, we successfully monitored rapid ROS production changes in peripheral blood of athletes after controlled exercise and sedentary subjects after antioxidant supplementation. The correlation between EPR results and data obtained by various enzymatic assays (e.g., protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) was determined too. Synthetically, our method allows reliable, quick, noninvasive quantitative determination of ROS in human peripheral blood. PMID:22900129

  8. Emission- and product standards

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  9. Modularization assessment of product

    Hsuan Mikkola, Juliana

    2010-01-01

    2 Modularization assessment of product architecture by Juliana Hsuan Mikkola DRUID Dept. of Industrial Economics and Strategy Copenhagen Business School Howitzvej 60 DK-2000 Frederiksberg Denmark Tel: +45 3815 2941 Fax: +45 3815 2540 Email: Abstract Modularization refers to the opportunity for mixing-and-matching of components in a modular product design in which the standard interfaces between components are specified to allow for...

  10. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  11. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  12. Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study

    The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

  13. Development of plant assessment standards

    The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  14. GAIA Service and Standard Assessment

    Dormann, Claire; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks.......A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks....

  15. Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns

    Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for

  16. Product standards form for new radiopharmaceuticals

    The United States Pharmacopeia and the British Pharmacopoeia have not yet established standards for new radiopharmaceuticals on the market or in the literature. The radiopharmacist must therefore find some way to cope with the problem of establishing standards for radiopharmaceuticals which he may develop himself. Standards and limitations for each new radiopharmaceutical should be established in a responsible and orderly manner. In the standards, a review should be made of the pharmaceutical, radioactive, chemical, and pharmacological properties of the product. In addition, standards and methods of determining labelling efficiency, sterility, and apyrogenicity must be devised and maintained. An outline is presented to serve as a guideline for the radiopharmacist in setting up a new product standards form when developing a new radiopharmaceutical. (U.S.)

  17. Product Family Assessment

    Kvist, Morten

    dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP......) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and...... cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are...

  18. Organic fish production and the standards

    Yesim Ötles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuring animal welfare by decreasing the stocking density. This alternative model is used in many developed and developing countries in the world and the demand for this product has been the cause of increase in production amount and species variety in the market, although the model comprises 0.01% of the world aquaculture production. However, organic aquaculture production has not been developed as rapidly as organic agriculture. One of the most important reasons of this is the absence of international standards issued for organic aquaculture production. In this paper, the production principles of a number of authorized institutions certifying organic aquaculture are comparatively discussed.  

  19. Assessing Process and Product

    Bennedsen, Jens B.; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the...... question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs. The...

  20. Implementing standardized modules in the production architecture

    Gudmundsson, Agnar

    -thinking is much needed, as the concept cannot possible mean the same thing for Levi’s as for a Danish, medium-sized industrial firm. The study also uncovers a set of organizational factors inhibiting implementation all of which are related to the view of new product development applied in many organizations......There is an immense academic and managerial interest in modularization and platform-thinking within the New Product Development community these days – which has generated a lot of interesting research, a few well-documented success cases and a lot of anecdotic stories about the use of standardized...... modules in new product development. However, very few companies seem to be actually applying modularization and platform-thinking. This pegs the question “if modularization and platform-thinking is such a great idea, how come not everybody has already implemented it?” The Ph.D. research of Agnar...

  1. Assessing Process and Product

    Bennedsen, Jens B.; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques...

  2. MRI assessment of myelination: an age standardization

    777 cerebral MRI examinations of children aged 3 days to 14 years were staged for myelination to establish an age standardization. Staging was performed using a system proposed in a previous paper, separately ranking 10 different regions of the brain. Interpretation of the results led to the identification of foue clinical diagnoses that are frequently associated with delays in myelination: West syndrome, cerebral palsy, developmental retardation, and congenital anomalies. In addition, it was found that assessment of myelination in children with head injuries was not practical as alterations in MRI signal can simulate earlier stages of myelination. Age limits were therefore calculated from the case material after excluding all children with these conditions. When simplifications of the definition of the stages are applied, these age limits for the various stages of myelination of each of the 10 regions of the brain make the staging system applicable for routine assessment of myelination. (orig.)

  3. Assessing Scholarly Productivity

    Christine Hanish; John J. Horan; Bethanne Keen; Ginger Clark

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of scholarly productivity is embroiled in a controversy concerning the differential crediting of coauthors. Some researchers assign equivalent shares to each coauthor; others employ weighting systems based on authorship order. Horan and his colleagues use simple publication totals, arguing that the psychometric properties of labor-intensive alternatives are unknown, and relevant ethical guidelines for including coauthors are neither widely understood nor consistently followed....

  4. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

  5. Standard Assessments: Merits and Demerits and the Alternative Assessments

    Narjes Ghafournia

    2015-01-01

    Although standardized assessments are extensively applied for major decision making purposes in many language-teaching programs, the tests are not valid and reliable enough for many evaluation programs due to major demerits. Unfortunately, over the years, many high stakes proficiency tests have been widely applied for different educational purposes mainly due to using technically-sophisticated quantitative scoring methods as well as national and international availability. The extensive use o...

  6. 40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for consumer products. 59.203... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.203 Standards for...

  7. Standardization and Assessment of Cell Culture Media Quantities in Roller Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Bottles Employed in the Industrial Rabies Viral Vaccine Production

    S. Jagannathan; S. Chaansha; K. Rajesh; T. Santhiya; C Charles; K.N. Venkataramana

    2009-01-01

    Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain) is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-...

  8. Standardization and Assessment of Cell Culture Media Quantities in Roller Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Bottles Employed in the Industrial Rabies Viral Vaccine Production

    S. Jagannathan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-3, PTARV-4 and PTARV-5. The samples are taken in an appropriate time intervals for analysis of In Process Quality Control (IPQC tests. The collected viral harvests are further processed to rabies vaccine in a pilot level and in addition to scale up an industrial level. Based on the evaluation the PTARV-2 (250 mL show highly encouraging results for the Vero cell derived rabies vaccine production.

  9. Modularization assessment of product architecture

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2009-01-01

    Modularization refers to the opportunity for mixing-and-matching of components in a modular product design in which the standard interfaces between components are specified to allow for a range of variation in components to be substituted in a product architecture. It is through mixing-and-matching of these components, and how these components interface with one another, that new systems are created. Consequently, the degree of modularization inherent in a system is highly dependent upon the ...

  10. Cumulated energy cost in copper production and processing - an objective standard of assessment; Kumulierter Energieaufwand fuer die Kupfererzeugung und -verarbeitung - ein objektiver Massstab der Bewertung?

    Krueger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Acting on behalf of the copper producing and processing industry the German Copper Institute (DKI) in Duesseldorf started an initiative to set up an energy and material balance for copper. The entire work was planned and carried out under the leadership of DKI and with the support of the industrial association Wirtschaftsvereinigung Metalle e.V. By mid-1994 all the necessary data had been collected. The working groups of the participating companies were active throughout all the phases of the project. Discussions also developed with fitters and plant constructors. Thanks are due to all who lent their support. The balance covers the entire production process from mining to the finished product. While product behaviour during operation has been left out of consideration this time, due account has been taken of recycling. Products were selected by the following criteria: Mass-produced products; and products for special application areas such as the building trade and the automobile industry where ecological aspects play a particularly important role in materials selection. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Das Deutsche Kupfer-Institut Duesseldorf (DKI) als Vertreter der Kupferproduzenten sowie der kupferverarbeitenden Industrie hat die Initiative ergriffen, eine Energie- und Stoffbilanz fuer Kupfer zu erstellen. Unter der Federfuehrung des DKI wurden - mit Unterstuetzung der Wirtschaftsvereinigung Metalle e.V. - saemtliche Arbeiten geplant und durchgefuehrt. Bis Mitte 1994 erfolgte die Datensammlung. In allen Phasen waren Arbeitsgruppen der beteiligten Firmen mit dem IME aktiv. Weitere Diskussionen ergaben sich mit Ausruestern und Anlagenbauern. Der Dank gilt allen, die hierbei mitgeholfen haben. Die Bilanzierung beginnt mit dem Bergbau und endet mit Produkten. Das Verhalten der Produkte waehrend des Einsatzes wird noch ausgeklammert. Das Recycling wird aber wieder beruecksichtigt. Die Auswahl der Produkte erfolgte unter den Gesichtspunkten: - Produkte mit grossem Mengenbedarf - Produkte fuer spezielle Anwendungsbereiche wie Bauwesen oder Autoindustrie, in denen oekologische Aspekte bei der Werkstoffauswahl besonders diskutiert werden. (orig./HW)

  11. Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform

    Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

    2014-01-01

    This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

  12. Technological Standardization, Endogenous Productivity and Transitory Dynamics

    Baron, J; Schmidt, J.

    2014-01-01

    We uncover technological standardization as a microeconomic mechanism which is vital for the implementation of new technologies, in particular general purpose technologies. The interdependencies of these technologies require common rules (“standardization”) to ensure compatibility. Using data on standardization, we are therefore able to identify technology shocks and analyze their impact on macroeconomic variables. First, our results show that technology shocks diffuse slowly and generate a p...

  13. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  14. Standardization and Regulation of Allergen Products in the European Union.

    Zimmer, Julia; Vieths, Stefan; Kaul, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Product-specific standardization is of prime importance to ensure persistent quality, safety, and efficacy of allergen products. The regulatory framework in the EU has induced great advancements in the field in the last years although national implementation still remains heterogeneous. Scores of methods for quantification of individual allergen molecules are developed each year and also the challenging characterization of chemically modified allergen products is progressing. However, despite the unquestionable increase in knowledge and the subsequent improvements in control of quality parameters of allergen products, an important aim has not been reached yet, namely cross-product comparability. Still, comparison of allergen product potency, either based on total allergenic activity or individual allergen molecule content, is not possible due to a lack of standard reference preparations in conjunction with validated standard methods. This review aims at presenting the most recent developments in product-specific standardization as well as activities to facilitate cross-product comparability in the EU. PMID:26874849

  15. Standards development in the assessment of radiological contamination of soil

    The present standards available on sampling, measuring, analyzing, and assessing the presence of radionuclides in soil are reviewed. The review includes the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Environmental Methods Task Group's standards on soil sampling, sample preparation, and radionanalysis; US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radiological contamination at formerly utilized sites and remedial action programs; the Health Physics draft guide for assessment of radiation doses from plutonium and americium in soils; and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines for residual radiological contamination assessment. Draft standards under development and personel observations concerning the need for further standard development are also discussed

  16. 75 FR 66038 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard

    2010-10-27

    ... Regulatory Commission proposes to approve a regional Reliability Standard, BAL-502-RFC-02, Planning Resource... approve a regional Reliability Standard BAL-502-RFC-02 (Planning Resource Adequacy Analysis, Assessment... Reliability Standard BAL-502-RFC-02 if the Commission finds it is just, reasonable, not unduly...

  17. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  18. 15 CFR 12.3 - Development of voluntary product standards.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of voluntary product standards. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING § 12.3 Development of voluntary product standards. (a) Invitation to participate in...

  19. Standard Product Algebra with Involutive Negation

    Haniková, Zuzana; Savický, Petr

    Salerno : Universita di Salerno, 2006. s. 12-12. [Ordered Structures in Many Valued Logics. International Symposium. 28.05.2006-01.06.2006, Massa Lubrense] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : product t-norm * involutive negation * propositional logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. PASSING STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENTS WITH FADING PROMPTS

    Amy Marie GREENE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandates that all students perform at a level of proficient on state assessments. This includes students with learning and intellectual disabilities who are inherently performing below grade level. Given that schools are held accountable for meeting these goals and some states are not allowing students to graduate if they do not pass the assessments, this is a large concern for students, parents, teachers, and administration Method: Forty-five students with a disability in writing or an intellectual disability participated in this quasi-experimental, single-group, pretest-posttest design that evaluated the effectiveness of the Fading Prompts through Graphic Organizers method for students with learning and intellectual disabilities in written expression as measured according to the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment. Results: Data analyses were conducted through the use of four dichotomies for percent differences, which compared teacher administered pretests and posttests, pretests and the state administered PSSA, teacher administered posttests and the PSSA, and the participants’ PSSA and the average state PSSA score. All forty-five students performed at a below basic level during baseline and a proficient level on the posttest. The learned skills generalized to the PSSA with forty-three students earning a passing score of proficient, while two students advanced to basic. Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of this study, it is highly recommended that this program be utilized at least for students with learning and intellectual disabilities until further research can be done.

  1. Developing Korean Standard for Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yu, Il Je

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetic, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including the manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufact...

  2. Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments

    Robert L. Linn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

  3. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  4. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 1

    Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo

    A detailed introduction to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products, Danish acronym: UMIP) methodology on life cycle assessment (LCA) including toolbox, introduction to the use of LCA in product development and five comprehensive case studies on electromechanical products....

  5. Increased reliability through assessment of standard components with life cycle units

    Buchholz, A.; Seliger, G. [Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fabrikbetrieb, Fachgebiet Montagetechnik und Fabrikbetrieb - PTZ 2, Berlin (Germany); Middendorf, A.; Reichl, H. [Research Center for Microperipheric Technologies of the TU-Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Ray, P.

    2004-07-01

    Products and their components underlie constant devaluation by their usage which sooner or later leads to a failure. As manufacturers of complex technical products are confronted with increasing demands regarding product availability and reliability, the assessment of the product's condition is desirable. Existing microelectronic technology enables a constant supervision of standard components in their usage to initiate timely adaptation processes like maintenance and repair. The Life Cycle Unit is presented as a modular microelectronic system for product supervision and assessment. Life Cycle Units have been prototypically implemented in various application examples using SMD technology and microsystem technology. (orig.)

  6. Assessing the Assessors: JMC Administrators Critique the Nine ACEJMC Standards

    Reinardy, Scott; Crawford, Jerry, II.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly ninety years, journalism professionals and academics have attempted to develop standards by which to prepare college students for the media industry. For nearly 70 years, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) has assessed programs based on its standards. This study surveyed administers of

  7. Assessing the Assessors: JMC Administrators Critique the Nine ACEJMC Standards

    Reinardy, Scott; Crawford, Jerry, II.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly ninety years, journalism professionals and academics have attempted to develop standards by which to prepare college students for the media industry. For nearly 70 years, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) has assessed programs based on its standards. This study surveyed administers of…

  8. TDA Assessment of Recommendations for Space Data System Standards

    Posner, E. C.; Stevens, R.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is participating in the development of international standards for space data systems. Recommendations for standards thus far developed are assessed. The proposed standards for telemetry coding and packet telemetry provide worthwhile benefit to the DSN; their cost impact to the DSN should be small. Because of their advantage to the NASA space exploration program, their adoption should be supported by TDA, JPL, and OSTDS.

  9. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Standard Extract Files

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Standard Extract Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's...

  10. International standardization of radiation sterilization of health care products

    The International Standards Organizations/Technical Committee has prepared a draft International Standard (DIS 11137.2), for the radiation sterilization of health care products. The revised Draft International Standard is contained in the first 16 pages of the document. The remaining 68 pages of the document consists of informative annexes on device and materials qualification, dose-setting methods of radiation sterilization and dosimetry and equipment control. (Author)

  11. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance assessments; Performance standards. 115.206 Section 115.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.206 Performance assessments;...

  12. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    Sheaffer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their s...

  13. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    . The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore in...... the project Assessment of Chemicals in Construction Products decided to adapt an existing score method for assessing the chemicals. As the European countries had agreed on a score Method for Risk Ranking chemicals (EURAM), it was decided to use this method to assess chemicals in construction products...

  14. Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations

    Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

  15. Standard and SUSY Higgs production at the LHC

    Robert Harlander

    2006-11-01

    Recent theoretical developments concerning Higgs production at the large hadron collider are reviewed, both in the standard model and in the MSSM. Emphasis is put on the inclusive and exclusive cross-sections for gluon fusion, as well as on the associated production with bottom quarks.

  16. Harmonic aggregation techniques for power quality assessment a standard framework

    Mohammad Mahdy Share Pasand; Zahra Rahmatian

    2014-01-01

    A review on the existing methods for aggregation of harmonic currents including recommended method used in IEC 61000-3-6 standard is performed and different approaches are compared. Main advantages of each method are outlined and simulation studies are performed to assess each method. A simple technique is proposed to base future research and standardization on. The proposed technique is simple, reliable and realistic though requires experimental data to derive parameters. Keywords: Electroma...

  17. Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model

    Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

  18. Making Use of the New Student Assessment Standards To Enhance Technological Literacy.

    Russell, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Describes the student assessment standards outlined in "Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards," a companion to the "Standards for Technological Literacy." Discusses how the standards apply to everyday teaching practices. (JOW)

  19. A proposed standard on medical isotope production in fission reactors

    Authors Robert E. Sehenter, Garry Brown and Charles S. Holden argue that a Standard for 'Medical Isotope Production' is needed. Medical isotopes are becoming major components of application for the diagnosis and treatment of all the major diseases including all forms of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's, among others. Current nuclear data to perform calculations is incomplete, dated or imprecise or otherwise flawed for many isotopes that could have significant applications in medicine. Improved data files will assist computational analyses to design means and methods for improved isotope production techniques in the fission reactor systems. Initial focus of the Standard is expected to be on neutron cross section and branching data for both fast and thermal reactor systems. Evaluated and reviewed tables giving thermal capture cross sections and resonance integrals for the major target and product medical isotopes would be the expected 'first start' for the 'Standard Working Group'. (authors)

  20. Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?

    Milan Remac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal or extra-legal standards. Depending on the legal system, ombudsmen can investigate whether there is an instance of maladministration in the activities of administrative bodies, whether the administration has acted ‘properly’, whether it has acted in accordance with the law, whether administrative actions have breached the human rights of complainants or whether the actions of the administration were in accordance with anti-corruption rules etc. Regardless of the legislative standard of an ombudsman’s control, the ombudsman should consider and assess the situation described in complaints against certain criteria or against certain normative standards. A distinct set of standards which ombudsmen use during their investigation, or at least a clear statement of their assessment criteria, can increase the transparency of their procedures and the persuasiveness of their reports. Are the normative standards used by different ombudsmen the same? Do they possibly create a new normative concept? And can it possibly lead to a higher acceptance of their reports by the administration?

  1. Assessing the ecotoxicity of pesticide transformation products.

    Sinclair, Chris J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2003-10-15

    Once released to the environment, pesticides may be degraded by abiotic and biotic processes. While parent compounds are assessed in detail in many regulatory schemes, the requirements for the assessment of transformation products are less well developed. This study was therefore performed to explore the relationships between the toxicity of transformation products and their parent compounds and to develop a pragmatic approach for use in the risk assessment of transformation products. Data were obtained on the properties and ecotoxicity of transformation products arising from a wide range of pesticides. Generally, transformation products were less toxic to fish, daphnids, and algae than their parent compound. In instances where a product was more toxic, the increase in toxicity could be explained by either (1) the presence of a pesticide toxicophore; (2) the fact that the product is the active part of a propesticide; (3) the product is accumulated to a greater extent than the parent compound; or (4) the product has a more potent mode of action than the parent. On the basis of the findings, an approach has been proposed to estimate the ecotoxicity of transformation products based on chemical structure and data on the toxicity of the parent compound. The assessments can be performed at an early stage in the risk assessment process to identify those substances that require further testing. PMID:14594370

  2. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer.

    Kazak, Anne E; Abrams, Annah N; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family resources, family/social support, previous history/premorbid functioning, and family structure/function. Descriptive quantitative studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses (n = 149) were reviewed and evaluated using grading of recommendations, assessment development, and evaluation (GRADE) criteria. There is high quality evidence to support a strong recommendation for multifaceted, systematic assessments of psychosocial health care needs of youth with cancer and their families as a standard of care in pediatric oncology. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26700916

  3. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioning...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  4. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  5. Methods of production and measurement of standard sources and solutions

    In the collection of papers having presented at the symposium, results are stated of the work performed in the CMEA member - states in the field of development and application of new methods of production of standard sources and solutions as well as of measuring their activity. Some installations used for measurements have been described. Results of measurements have been stated

  6. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve success in adopting reach standards.

  7. Standards to support learning and assessment in practice.

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-01-27

    This is the first article in a series of 11 that will offer guidance to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to develop in their role and help them to gather a portfolio of evidence that meets the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). This article provides background to the development of the standards and outlines the SSLAP, including the four main stages of the framework, the eight domains and outcomes, and the five principles required for the roles of mentor, sign-off mentor and practice teacher. The requirements for maintaining the mentor and practice teacher roles are explored. PMID:26967885

  8. Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report

    ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

  9. Dose-effects relationships, risk assessments, and radiological protection standards

    The knowledge of relationship between the dose received by an individual and any particular detrimental effect induced by irradiation is one of the scientific bases of setting radiological protection standards and risk assessments. Several dose-response models, linear or non-linear, have been established in radiobiology and radiological protection. However, no conclusions can be regarded as definitive. Issues concerning the uncertainties and limitations of the risk estimation, the advantages and weakness of using a 'linear, without threshold' model for the purpose of radiological protection were discussed. Some suggestions for avoiding inappropriate assessments of the risk in radiological protection were made

  10. Standardization of code coupling for integrated safety assessment purposes

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology is a useful tool for safety assessment incorporated into licensing activities at CSN, which implies an intensive use of code coupling techniques to join typical TH analysis, severe accident and probability calculation codes. The final goal is to dynamically generate the event tree that stems from an initiating event, improving the conventional PSA static approach. The massive use of coupled codes has led to the definition of a standardized connection methodology, that allows a given code to be incorporated quickly into the overall system and to overcome difficulties derived from particular models and computational methods. With the methodology here proposed a coupled code is meant to work in cooperation with any other code meeting the standard as well, making the connection scheme more open and flexible. (author)

  11. Applying Standard Competency Assessment in Vocational Teaching Practices

    Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad; Nabilah Abu Bakar; Nor Lisa Sulaiman; Kahirol Mohd Salleh; Lai Che Sern

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in vocational education is focused on knowledge and skills. Psychomotor is an aspect that emphasized in teaching competency in vocational education. Teaching based on psychomotor is a way to provide students with the hands on skills. Teachers are the main character in the teaching session. Therefore, this paper explained the differences among teachers in teaching based Standard Competency Assessment with their expertise in particular field. Research used survey design involved 301 te...

  12. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub...) Applicable standards. (1) Plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories,...

  13. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies

    Caldwell, Zachary R.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Williams, Gareth J.; Sandin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods–belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal) and region of study, but was related to the researcher’s home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%), their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data. PMID:27111085

  14. Standardized and flexible batteries in neuropsychology: an assessment update.

    Kane, R L

    1991-12-01

    This article summarizes current literature relevant to commonly used tests and test batteries in clinical neuropsychology. The first section contains a discussion of the philosophy and relative advantages of standardized and flexible battery approaches in neuropsychology. The second contains historical background and a literature review of the two major standardized test batteries: the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska. The third section includes reviews of tests that are frequently used in the flexible battery approach. Various tests of intellectual functioning, attention, memory, language, and spatial analyses are critiqued in this section. Contributions of the process approach are noted. The article ends by underscoring the need for continued research into the nature of neuropsychological measures and the abilities they assess. PMID:1844714

  15. Application of spreadsheets to standardize transportation radiological risk assessments

    McClure, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, J.D. [Southwest Engineering Assoc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Because of the complexity, volume of data and calculations required, one preferred analytical tool to perform transportation risk assessments is the RADTRAN computer code. RADTRAN combines user-determined material, packaging, transportation, demographic and meteorological factors, with health physics data to calculate expected radiological consequences and accident risk from transporting radioactive materials by all commercial modes including truck, rail, ship, air and barge. The computer code consists of two major modules for each transport mode: the incident-free module, in which doses from normal transport are calculated; and the accident module, in which dose consequences and probabilities are evaluated to generate risk estimates. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the development of a standardized procedure to perform transportation radiological risk assessments employing conventional spreadsheet programs to automate generation of RADTRAN input files and post-processing analysis of the resulting output.

  16. Application of spreadsheets to standardize transportation radiological risk assessments

    Because of the complexity, volume of data and calculations required, one preferred analytical tool to perform transportation risk assessments is the RADTRAN computer code. RADTRAN combines user-determined material, packaging, transportation, demographic and meteorological factors, with health physics data to calculate expected radiological consequences and accident risk from transporting radioactive materials by all commercial modes including truck, rail, ship, air and barge. The computer code consists of two major modules for each transport mode: the incident-free module, in which doses from normal transport are calculated; and the accident module, in which dose consequences and probabilities are evaluated to generate risk estimates. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the development of a standardized procedure to perform transportation radiological risk assessments employing conventional spreadsheet programs to automate generation of RADTRAN input files and post-processing analysis of the resulting output

  17. Student's Video Production as Formative Assessment

    Gama, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learning assessments are subject of discussions that envolve theoretical and practical approaches. To measure learning in physics by high school students, either qualitatively or quantitatively, is a process in which it should be possible to identify not only the concepts and contents students failed to achieve but also the reasons of the failure. We propose that students' video production offers a very effective formative assessment to teachers: as a formative assessment, it produces information that allows the understanding of where and when the learning process succeeded or failed, of identifying, as a subject or as a group, the defficiencies or misunderstandings related to the theme under analysis and their interpretation by students, and it provides also a different kind of assessment, related to some other life skills, like the ability to carry a project to its conclusion and to work cooperatively. In this paper, we describe the use of videos produced by high school students as an assessment resource. T...

  18. Risk assessment of plant protection products

    Hardy T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides in view of the future dialogue between risk managers and risk assessors during the next steps of the revision of the ecotoxicology guidance documents.

  19. Institutional capacity for standards conformity assessment: A case study on spices in Tanzania

    Akyoo, Adam; Lazaro, Evelyne

    2008-01-01

    Local capacity for standards conformity assessment is an important component in accessing export markets. In theory, it will lead to lowered compliance costs on the part of local exporters. Moreover, it may provide local exporters with the ability to contest unfavourable foreign test results and thus avoid unnecessary losses. This is important in cases where product contamin-ation occurs outside their borders. This is however possible only where relevant local institutions are accredited and ...

  20. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  1. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

  2. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371–9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high. (paper)

  3. Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

  4. [Ergonomic assessment of main activities in grana padano cheese production].

    Santini, M; Buratti, G; Dellera, L; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this work is to describe results obtained by risk assessment of biomechanical overload for workers involved in grana padano cheese production: from breeding to obtain milk to the finished product in dairy. To analyze operation tasks authors used video recordings, interviewed operators and visited workplaces in order to proceed with evaluation instruments, using internationally recognized technical standards ISO 11228, such as OCRA, NIOSH and Snook and Ciriello's studies. The results show significant risk of biomechanical overload for spine and upper limbs both in breeding and in dairy. PMID:23405598

  5. Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance

    In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

  6. Exergetic assessment of solar hydrogen production methods

    Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. Its eco-friendly production is really crucial for better environment and sustainable development. In this paper, various types of hydrogen production methods namely solar thermal (high temperature and low temperature), photovoltaic, photoelectrolysis, biophotolysis etc are discussed. A brief study of various hydrogen production processes have been carried out. Various solar-based hydrogen production processes are assessed and compared for their merits and demerits in terms of exergy efficiency and sustainability factor. For a case study the exergy efficiency of hydrogen production process and the hydrogen system is discussed in terms of sustainability. (author)

  7. Operational CryoSat Product Quality Assessment

    Mannan, Rubinder; Webb, Erica; Hall, Amanda; Bouzinac, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The performance and quality of the CryoSat data products are routinely assessed by the Instrument Data quality Evaluation and Analysis Service (IDEAS). This information is then conveyed to the scientific and user community in order to allow them to utilise CryoSat data with confidence. This paper presents details of the Quality Control (QC) activities performed for CryoSat products under the IDEAS contract. Details of the different QC procedures and tools deployed by IDEAS to assess the quality of operational data are presented. The latest updates to the Instrument Processing Facility (IPF) for the Fast Delivery Marine (FDM) products and the future update to Baseline-C are discussed.

  8. An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing

    Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure

  9. Curvaton decay by resonant production of the Standard Model higgs

    We investigate in detail a model where the curvaton is coupled to the Standard Model higgs. Parametric resonance might be expected to cause a fast decay of the curvaton, so that it would not have time to build up the curvature perturbation. However, we show that this is not the case, and that the resonant decay of the curvaton may be delayed even down to electroweak symmetry breaking. This delay is due to the coupling of the higgs to the thermal background, which is formed by the Standard Model degrees of freedom created from the inflaton decay. We establish the occurrence of the delay by considering the curvaton evolution and the structure of the higgs resonances. We then provide analytical expressions for the delay time, and for the subsequent resonant production of the higgs, which ultimately leads to the curvaton effective decay width. Contrary to expectations, it is possible to obtain the observed curvature perturbation for values of the curvaton-higgs coupling as large as 10?1. Our calculations also apply in the general case of curvaton decay into any non Standard Model species coupled to the thermal background

  10. 75 FR 66734 - Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood

    2010-10-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural... on a proposed revision to Voluntary Product Standard (PS) 2-04, Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels. This revised standard, PS 2-10, was prepared by the Standing Committee for PS 2...

  11. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

  12. DIFFERENCES IN MANAGER ASSESSMENTS OF ISO 14000 STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY

    Sıtkı Gözlü

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of a survey about the improvements achieved as result of ISO 14000 Environmental Management System (EMS standard implementation and the differences of improvements with respect to firm characteristics. A survey has been conducted in order to explain the improvements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance. The survey involved sixty-six enterprises implementing ISO 14000 EMS standard in Turkey. In order to assess improvements obtained from ISO 14000 EMS implementation, statements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance indicators have been prepared. The statements in this study are relevant to previous research. A factor analysis was employed to determine the factors of the variables explaining improvements. Nine factors have been identified related to achieved improvements, such as establishment of pro-active environmental management system, effectiveness in resource utilization, effectiveness of process control, relationships with industry and government, meeting expectations of stakeholders, demonstration of social responsibility, profitability, productivity, and competitiveness. Then, a T- test was conducted to determine the differences of managers’ assessments with respect to certain firm characteristics. The findings have shown that there are differences in the assessments of improvements achieved as a result of ISO 14000 EMS standard implementation with respect to sales volume, foreign-capital possession, and ISO 14000 EMS standard implementation. On the other hand, industrial sector, age of establishment, and export orientation are not statistically significant for the differences in the assessments of improvements.

  13. Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to...... have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflexivity and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals...... with what-questions and that the portfolio is expected to handle a number of challenges with regard to the documentation of learning processes and achievements as well as the conditioning of learning activities. Furthermore, is becomes clear that descriptions of how the portfolio works are sparse...

  14. Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks

    Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of a new School Building designed according to the Passive House Standard

    Spiegel, Rachel Elizabeth Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Two life cycle assessments are conducted for the comparison of the construction and use of a school built after the Norwegian building code, TEK10, and a passive school built after the Norwegian Standard NS 3701.Data from Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) and ecoinvent is used. The NORDEL electricity mix is used for Norwegian production and electricity consumption. SimaPro 8.0 is used to process the data, and the ReCiPe method, hierarchist midpoint version 1.06 is used for the impact ...

  16. On risk assessment of energy production

    Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

  17. Enhancing the usability of safety and quality standards in product creation processes

    Leskinen, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Safety and quality standards are part of the production process of adidas Group, and are part of product risk management. The responsibility of applying the standards in the production lies on the hands of product creation teams, within the company. In practice, the standards are used in the factories. The product safety and quality management team noticed that the standards were not familiar for the users and their existence was ignored. Deficiencies were found in the information of both the...

  18. 78 FR 69553 - Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    2013-11-20

    ... 111 Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... certain competitive products. DATES: Effective: January 26, 2014. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... rule describes new prices and product features for competitive products, by class of mail,...

  19. Dual Feed Support Assembly Standard Product for Telecommunications Antennas

    Castro, O.; Liminana, C.; Martinez, R.; Garcia, E.; Santiago Prowal, J.

    2012-07-01

    As a result of demanding a high number of dual FSA’s installed in S/C, EADS CASA Espacio is carrying out a new development from the currently optimized design of the Dual FSA. This means a second step from the first development (FSA current design), which implies a complete standardization of this product, and consequently a high level of industrialization and important reduction of risk, planning and costs. This development has been carried out with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), and is taking into account an envelope of the main customer requirements in order to define a FSA which complies with the most demanding requirements defined for the most demanding telecom operators. The new structure has the capability to accommodate two heavy Feed Chain Assemblies (FCA’s) (up to 15kg for each one) and a large range of different positions of subreflector dishes. All these have been possible due to the improved design of the structure, and the analysis of different configurations of Feed Chain Assemblies (FCA’s) and subreflectors based in long CASA experience in this kind of structures. The new design improves the manufacturing process, making it easier, faster and minimizing risks from the definition of the structure up to the manufacturing and assembly processes. Structure definition is covered by the standard design, what implies a high reduction in cost and planning related with the design and manufacturing documentation. Manufacturing processes have been improved by using high quality technologies like Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) and Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) parts. On the other hand, performances have been improved achieving a good behaviour compliant with a severe stiffness requirement, first mode above 60 Hz including the air effect, showing a very comfortable MOS in dynamic analyses. Even the subreflectors thermo-elastic behaviour has been hard improved in terms of RMS. All these performances have been obtained with significant reduction of mass, compared with the current FSA design for Feed Chain Assemblies (FCA’s) above 14 Kg. In this paper, the main improvements will be present for a standard Dual FSA product for Ku & Ka Band applications.

  20. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    2013-12-03

    ...-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products AGENCY... energy conservation standards enacted through the American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act, among which were a revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct...

  1. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the...... opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of...... possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  2. 9 CFR 319.1 - Labeling and preparation of standardized products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling and preparation of standardized products. 319.1 Section 319.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... General § 319.1 Labeling and preparation of standardized products. (a) Labels for products for...

  3. Standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (CRP) is an advanced and modern facility that encompasses two essential components: radioisotope research, and radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing. Radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program is not only quite unique, but also an essential component of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) in providing quality patient care for the population of the Kingdom. Accurate diagnosis and therapy with medical imaging equipment requires quality radiopharmaceuticals that are available readily and with reliability. The CRP Department provides that quality and reliability. Research activities of the CRP Department are focused on developing new radiotracers with potential usefulness in biomedical research and clinical applications. Research projects consist of: developing cyclotron targetry for radioisotope production; developing synthesis methods for radiolabeling biomolecules; and developing analytical methods for quality control. The CRP Department operates a semi-commercial radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program that supplies the diagnostic radioactive products to several hospitals in the Kingdom and neighboring countries. These products for clinical applications are produced according to the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices of quality and efficacy. At the heart of the radioisotope program is a medium energy cyclotron capable of accelerating a number of particles for transformation of non-radioactive atoms into radionuclides that are the primary sources for research and development activities, and for preparing radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to having the only cyclotron facility in the region, KFSH and RC also has the only Positron Emission Tomography Center (PET) in this part of the world. This combination of cyclotron and the ultra modern PET facility translates into advanced and specialized care for the patients at KFSH and RC

  4. Energy Saving Recommended: Delivering improved product standards, market presence and quality

    Lock, Tom; Galvanoni, Frances [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the home equate to 27 % of UK total emissions. In order for consumers to use less energy, and reduce their environmental impact, the Energy Saving Recommended (ESR) voluntary product labelling scheme for domestic energy saving products was established to direct the consumer to choose better products and make smarter choices. With over 2000 certified products, ESR is present across 5 sectors and covers 24 product categories; 9 sets of standards were reviewed and revised in 2005/6 and a further 13 were delivered in 2006/7. ESR is now implementing existing and developing new standards in consumer electronics - from integrated digital televisions and recorders, to intelligent mains sockets and set-top-boxes, as well as assessing the feasibility of endorsing domestic ICT equipment. The Energy Saving Trust, through its marketing activities, acts as an enabler to make energy saving action simpler, easier and cheaper for the consumer to undertake. Using a variety of communication strategies the trade is engaged through the provision of value added member benefits; a holistic approach is taken with key partners to integrate energy efficiency throughout their businesses. Merchandising support helps product standards to be implemented in the market place; evaluation and research work demonstrates that markets can be changed and shows a 1 in 3 label recognition rate. The credibility and integrity of the label are reinforced through compliance testing, in-store and online label monitoring and legal enforcement, frequent data checks and the integration of ISO best practice standards through the certification system.

  5. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

  6. Towards standardized assessment of endoscope optical performance: geometric distortion

    Wang, Quanzeng; Desai, Viraj N.; Ngo, Ying Z.; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Pfefer, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Technological advances in endoscopes, such as capsule, ultrathin and disposable devices, promise significant improvements in safety, clinical effectiveness and patient acceptance. Unfortunately, the industry lacks test methods for preclinical evaluation of key optical performance characteristics (OPCs) of endoscopic devices that are quantitative, objective and well-validated. As a result, it is difficult for researchers and developers to compare image quality and evaluate equivalence to, or improvement upon, prior technologies. While endoscope OPCs include resolution, field of view, and depth of field, among others, our focus in this paper is geometric image distortion. We reviewed specific test methods for distortion and then developed an objective, quantitative test method based on well-defined experimental and data processing steps to evaluate radial distortion in the full field of view of an endoscopic imaging system. Our measurements and analyses showed that a second-degree polynomial equation could well describe the radial distortion curve of a traditional endoscope. The distortion evaluation method was effective for correcting the image and can be used to explain other widely accepted evaluation methods such as picture height distortion. Development of consensus standards based on promising test methods for image quality assessment, such as the method studied here, will facilitate clinical implementation of innovative endoscopic devices.

  7. Assessment of fluctuating asymmetry on the basis of standard deviation

    Zorina Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The practical application of newly introduced indicator and integrated index of fluctuating asymmetry, based on standard deviation, is discussed. The calculating mechanism of proposed assessment is discussed in detail.Обсуждается вопрос по практическому применению недавно введенного показателя и интегрального индекса флуктуирующей асимметрии на основе нормированного отклонения. Подробно рассматривается механизм вычисления предложенной оценки....

  8. Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variatio...

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela; Longin, Eric; Welton, Carole; Villanueva, Alejandro; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... personal choice. What the danish consumer should be aware of is that no big difference has been found between sugar from sugar cane and sugar from sugar beet with regard to environmental impacts and resource consumption....

  10. Assessment and Next Generation Standards: An Interview with Olivia Gude

    Sweeny, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of an interview with Olivia Gude, member of the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards Writing Team. In the interview, Gude provides an overview of the process for writing the new visual arts standards.

  11. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  12. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Langniss, Ole

    2001-11-01

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance.

  13. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment; TOPICAL

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

  14. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: an early assessment

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas were well exceeded by the end of 2001, with 915 MW of wind installed in that year alone. RPS compliance costs appear negligible with new wind projects reportedly contracted for well under 3(US) cents/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US) cents/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

  15. Formative Assessment for the Common Core Literacy Standards

    Calfee, Robert; Wilson, Kathleen M.; Flannery, Brian; Kapinus, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: As implementation of the Common Core Literacy Standards moves ahead, teachers, students, and schools are discovering that the standards demand a great deal of them in order to achieve the vision of college, career, and citizenship in the global-digital world outlined in the standards. To accomplish the goals and high

  16. Formative Assessment for the Common Core Literacy Standards

    Calfee, Robert; Wilson, Kathleen M.; Flannery, Brian; Kapinus, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: As implementation of the Common Core Literacy Standards moves ahead, teachers, students, and schools are discovering that the standards demand a great deal of them in order to achieve the vision of college, career, and citizenship in the global-digital world outlined in the standards. To accomplish the goals and high…

  17. Using Digital Video Production to Meet the Common Core Standards

    Nichols, Maura

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core Standards has just begun and these standards will impact a generation that communicates with technology more than anything else. Texting, cell phones, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, etc. are the ways they speak with their friends and the world. The Common Core Standards recognize this. According to the Common Core…

  18. Product unconformable in the light of legal regulations and the ISO 9001:2000 standards

    Justyna Górna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.

  19. NPP instrumentation and control systems safety standardization and assessment (2): principles of standardization

    It is the second article in the set devoted to NPP instrumentation and control systems (I and C). The article contains: statement of the task of I and C safety standardization; methodology of I and C safety standardization; definition of the status of elaborated standards; criteria of the regulatory requirements chose; systematization of input data; description of the procedure of I and C safety standardization

  20. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24C and 28C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

  1. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  2. Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.

    Ottiger, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

  3. Design and logistics IT federation through Product Lifecycle Support standard

    Paviot, Thomas; Cheutet, Vincent; Lamouri, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Wide diffusion of methodologies and software relevant to Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) in industrial companies faces heterogeneity of IT systems. Especially, the lack of interoperability between Product Data Management (PDM) systems, that drive virtual product development, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), which manages real product, cannot lead to a coherent description of the product development process. We show that a "mediator" approach is pertinent for the coordination of thes...

  4. Social Moderation, Assessment and Assuring Standards for Accounting Graduates

    Watty, Kim; Freeman, Mark; Howieson, Bryan; Hancock, Phil; O'Connell, Brendan; de Lange, Paul; Abraham, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidencing student achievement of standards is a growing imperative worldwide. Key stakeholders (including current and prospective students, government, regulators and employers) want confidence that threshold learning standards in an accounting degree have been assured. Australia's new higher education regulatory environment requires that

  5. Tying Together the Common Core of Standards, Instruction, and Assessments

    Phillips, Vicki; Wong, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Clear, high standards will enable us to develop an education system that ensures that high school graduates are ready for college. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has been working with other organizations to develop a Common Core of Standards. The partners working with the foundation are developing tools that will show teachers what is…

  6. Couplings and beyond the Standard Model Higgs production at LHC

    The large centre-of-mass energy and luminosity provided by the Large Hadron Collider will provide a unique opportunity to search for evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. This talk will focus on the potential to discover and measure the properties of the Higgs bosons expected in models, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

  7. SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium Common Core State Standards Analysis: Eligible Content for the Summative Assessment. Final Report

    Sato, Edynn; Lagunoff, Rachel; Worth, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report is a descriptive analysis of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), intended to determine which content is eligible for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium's end-of-year summative assessment for English language arts (ELA) and mathematics in grades 3-8 and high school. The high school standards analyzed were those in grades

  8. Effects of plant standardization on investment and production costs

    The value of standardization for nuclear power plants construction and operation has long been recognized in the USA and in France. The major benefits of standardization are the reduction of construction lead times and engineering costs, the control and reduction of total plant capital costs, the efficient structuring of the design, manufacturing and construction industries around a small number of projects, the feedback process from the construction to the operation personnel and the achievement of high availability factors and reduced units operating costs. All these benefits were realized, to a limited extent, in various US nuclear power projects, as described in this paper. The fragmented nature of the US electric utility and nuclear supply industries has precluded the realization of standardization benefits on an overall national level. The French national nuclear programme is unique in that the entire standardized power plants system was planned and executed under a unified and centralized multi-year plan. The benefits realized have been substantial in all programme aspects described here, and have established a yardstick against which to compare other standardization programmes. In the future, the US programme will be geared towards developing uniform plant design requirements and realizing the benefits of standardized unit construction, on a larger scale than so far attempted. The French programme, with a very large plant inventory already in commercial operation, is gearing towards maintaining and improving the operating performance of all units, and realizing further standardization benefits mostly in the area of plant operations. (author). 25 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  9. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  11. Linking land use and ecosystem services. Development of a Life Cycle Impact Assessment method to improve evaluation of biobased products

    Knoester, L.

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used standardized method to assess all environmental impacts of products or processes. However, LCA cannot fully assess the impacts of land use, which leads to an incomplete assessment of biobased products. To date, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods evaluate land use impacts on biodiversity and soil quality, but do not include impacts on ecosystem services. Hence, the objective of this research was to develop an LCIA method to evaluate potenti...

  12. Determinants and Functions of Standardized Assessment Use Among School Mental Health Clinicians: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Lyon, Aaron R; Ludwig, Kristy; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Bergstrom, Alex; Hendrix, Ethan; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated why and how school mental health clinicians use standardized assessment tools in their work with youth and families. Quantitative and qualitative (focus group) data were collected prior to and following a training and consultation sequence as part of a trial program to assess school clinician's (n=15) experiences administering standardized tools to youth on their caseloads (n=191). Findings indicated that, although assessment use was initially somewhat low, clinicians used measures to conduct initial assessments with the bulk of their caseloads (average=62.2%) during the implementation period. Clinicians also reported on factors influencing their use of assessments at the client, provider, and system levels; perceived functions of assessment; student responses to assessment use; and use of additional sources of clinically-relevant information (primarily educational data) for the purposes of assessment and progress monitoring. Implications for the contextual appropriateness of standardized assessment and training in assessment tools are discussed. PMID:25875325

  13. Assessment of sustainability in Austrian wine production

    Rosner Franz Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to find out whether environmental sustainability can be measured not only with regard to climate change and carbon consumption but also as to other criteria concerning material consumption, energy, soil, biodiversity and water. We investigated which measures in the vineyard and wine cellar can lead to better sustainability while ensuring a high quality standard. 343 activities were identified to fulfill 61 quality objectives. Of the 2,191 sustainability assessments that were determined the measurements of the individual sustainability criteria vary and are in some cases even negatively correlated. Nevertheless, it was still possible to differentiate sustainably managed wineries from others in all of the Austrian wine producing areas. In our approach, a specifically developed online tool can calculate the expression of ecological, economic and social sustainability and show the effects in a spider diagram in the form of a traffic light rating system. Moreover, an algorithm suggests adequately which quality improvements can be achieved. If part of the management system is changed the online tool will show the positive and negative sustainability effects.

  14. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production such as erosion, biodiversity, or water quality impacts worldwide and thereby complement existing metrics assessing global EIs such as GHG emissions.

  15. Assessing changes in drought characteristics with standardized indices

    Vidal, J.P.; Najac, J.; E. Martin; Franchistéguy, L.; Soubeyroux, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized drought indices like the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are more and more frequently adopted for drought reconstruction, monitoring and forecasting, and the SPI has been recently recommended by the World Meteorological Organization to characterize meteorological droughts. Such indices are based on the statistical distribution of a hydrometeorological variable (e.g., precipitation) in a given reference climate, and a drought event is defined as a period with continuously n...

  16. Standards Initiatives for Software Product Line Engineering and Management within the International Organization for Standardization

    Kkl, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Software product line engineering is an established methodology for fast and effective development of software-intensive systems and services. To reap maximum benefits from the methodology, businesses typically need to implement coordinated changes in development methodologies, tools, product architectures, organizational designs, and business models. Product lines are developed in complex international software ecosystems, but there is no coordinated set of interna...

  17. Environmental life cycle assessment of garment production at a company in India

    Verdenius, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a record amount of apparel fibres was consumed, with increasing demand from developing nations. Over the life cycle of textile production and consumption however, numerous environmental impacts occur. Since the International Organisation for Standardization developed the first methodological framework, environmental life cycle assessment has become an important tool to comprehensively evaluate impacts of production and consumption. By conducting an environmental life cycle assessment...

  18. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

  19. Commentary on Values and Standards in Performance Assessment.

    Guion, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    This commentary discusses three essential themes in performance assessment and its scoring. First, scores should mean something. Second, performance scores should permit fair and meaningful comparisons. Third, validity-reducing errors should be minimal. Increased attention to performance assessment may overcome these problems. (SLD)

  20. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

  1. Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. CDER Risk Assessment Exercise to Evaluate Potential Risks from the Use of Nanomaterials in Drug Products

    Cruz, Celia N.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Velazquez, Lydia; Hyams, Kenneth C.; Jacobs, Abigail; Shaw, Arthur B.; Jiang, Wenlei; Lionberger, Robert; Hinderling, Peter; Kong, Yoon; Brown, Paul C.; Ghosh, Tapash; Strasinger, Caroline; Suarez-Sharp, Sandra; Henry, Don

    2013-01-01

    The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration was established to assess the possible impact of nanotechnology on drug products. The group is in the process of performing risk assessment and management exercises. The task of the working group is to identify areas where CDER may need to optimize its review practices and to develop standards to ensure review consistency for drug applica...

  3. 77 FR 23250 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    2012-04-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee.... SUMMARY: Section 3003(b)(3) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule for the assessment of policy recommendations developed by the...

  4. 76 FR 25355 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    2011-05-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee.... SUMMARY: Section 3003(b)(3) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule for the assessment of policy recommendations developed by the...

  5. 78 FR 29134 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    2013-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee.... SUMMARY: Section 3003(b)(3) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule for the assessment of policy recommendations developed by the...

  6. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  7. Alignment of Standards, Assessment and Instruction: Implications for English Language Learners in Ohio

    Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic

  8. Assessing Conformity to Standards for Treatment Foster Care.

    Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Burns, Barbara J.; Dubs, Melanie S.; Thompson, Shealy

    2002-01-01

    This study examined conformity to the Program Standards for Treatment Foster Care among 42 statewide programs. Findings suggest fair to good overall conformity, with considerable variation among programs. A discussion of methodological and substantive considerations for future research and evaluation using this approach is included. (Contains…

  9. 75 FR 79354 - Assessment Technology Standards Request for Information (RFI)

    2010-12-20

    ... Department will not pay for any information or administrative costs that a person or entity may incur in... Federal Register ( http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/ ) Web site (in the case of grants, or other awards). It is... broadly? 3.2.10 Security and Access. In what ways do technology standards provide for core security...

  10. Associated Production for the Standard Model Higgs at CDF

    CDF Collaboration; Bortoletto, D.

    2007-01-01

    We report the latest result for the search for the standard model higgs produced in association with a W and a Z boson at CDF. The results include about 1 to 1.7 fb-1 of data collected by CDF in run II of the Tevatron. Novel analysis techniques have been developed to enhance the sensitivity of these searches.

  11. HOW LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT ENCOURAGE LOCAL FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

    OANA BRINZAN; EUGENIA ŢIGAN

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is an evaluation that will give useful information about successive stages alongside product full life cycle, from the purchase of the raw materials, production, consumption and waste recycling or elimination. This assessment will emphasize that the locally food production and consumption has the lowest environmental impact and is the most sustainable one.

  12. NODC Standard Product: World ocean database 2005 (NODC Accession 0099241)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database 2005 (WOD05) DVD contains data, documentation, programs, and utilities for the latest release of this product. Data include 7.9 million...

  13. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    Bialous, S.; YACH, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODSAnalysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliverie...

  14. Product standardization by multinational corporations in a regional multicultural market

    Ngouem, Alain Claude

    2008-01-01

    The product policy becomes complex as soon as the company goes international. European companies are confronted with this complexity of the international product policy since they want to gain the market share on the various European markets, which remain heterogeneous, taking into account the cultural differences. Nevertheless, European unification causes additional marketing interactions between companies. These interactions are influenced not only by law or norms, but also by firm intern a...

  15. Toward the use of a standardized assessment for young children with autism: current assessment practices in the UK.

    Martin, Neil T; Bibby, Peter; Mudford, Oliver C; Eikeseth, Svein

    2003-09-01

    Little is known about the progress of autistic children following specific interventions in England. Nor do we know how frequently standardized assessments are used to monitor progress or to evaluate specific educational interventions. The reports of 75 children with autism, for whom special educational provision had been determined by a local education authority, were reviewed. Parents were interviewed and educational psychologists were contacted for details of any norm-referenced assessments. Of these children, 39 percent had no standardized assessments before education authorities determined their provision, and only 9 percent had follow-up assessments that could be used to evaluate progress. Children with autism in the UK rarely have sufficient assessments to allow an objective evaluation of their progress. There is currently no standardized assessment protocol to prescribe a specific educational intervention, to evaluate the progress of children or to make comparisons between interventions. We recommend the development of such a protocol. PMID:14516063

  16. Probabilistic safety assessment and development of international standards

    The questions discussed are taken from Section 5 of Topical Issue Paper: Risk Informed Decision Making. Is there sufficient guidance for the preparation of high quality PSAs? Is there a need for an international standard for PSAs? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to support 'risk informed' regulation, e.g. treatment of rare events, modelling of human failure, severe accident management, organizational factors? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to model new reactor designs that are more dependent on passive safety features? How is it possible to ensure that operators are in a position to develop, use and maintain living PSAs and risk/safety monitors to support risk informed' decisions? What actions should be taken by the IAEA to support the introduction of 'risk informed' decision making, e.g. as related to the areas of the development of international standards, harmonization of criteria, compilation and dissemination of experience, and education and training?

  17. Deriving air quality standards on the basis of risk assessments

    A concept is proposed for deriving air quality standards on the basis of risk-dose-relationships. Five different risks are shown to be a part of any decision on the value of a definite standard. Three of these arise from the generalisation of statements on samples of objects, effects, boundary and state conditions of objects to those valid for the respective populations. These risks cannot be quantified. The remaining two risks are the risk of the incidence of effects and the risk of wrong measurements. The former risk has to be fixed by the administration while the latter results from the quality of the measurement technique. The consequences of combining these risks to a total risk are discussed. (orig.) 891 HP

  18. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 2

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    Reviews the scientific background for the impact assessment phase of the EDIP methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) covering the impact categories: Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, photochemical ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, human toxicity...

  19. Biodegradability assessment of aliphatic polyesters using standard methods

    Moura, I. (Iaci); Machado, A.V.; Duarte, F. M.; A. G. Brito; Nogueira, R.

    2008-01-01

    Important information concerning polymer’s final fate in the environment can be achieved in biodegradation studies performed in the aquatic environment. In this context, the focus of the present work was to evaluate the biodegradability level of blends containing aliphatic polyesters using standard methods. Blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and five biodegradable polymers (poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and Mater-Bi (thermoplastic starch with PLA or PCL)) were...

  20. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

  1. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  2. Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization with standard and non-standard inner product: rounding error analysis

    Rozložník, Miroslav; Kopal, J.; Smoktunowicz, A.; Tůma, Miroslav

    Valencia : Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, 2012. s. 42. [SIAM Conference on Applied Linear Algebra . 18.06.2012-22.06.2012, Valencia] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : orthogonalization process * nonstandard inner product * approximate inverse preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. 2. Expert seminar 'Procedural and product standards in non-destructive testing'

    This CD-ROM contains 15 papers (PowerPoint slides and manuscripts) presented at the conference. Contents are newly published standards and draft standards in non-destructive testing, the new product standards project of the Lenkungsausschuss Normung, and a survey of legal regulations pertaining to non-destructive testing

  4. Semi Quantitative Risk Assessment of a Hydrogen Production Unit

    MOHAMMADJAVAD JAFARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The safety of hydrogen generation facilities is the main concern in their process operation. This study was conducted to identify the hazards and evaluate the risks of a hydrogen generation plant. For this purpose, PrHA (Process Hazard Analysis was applied for hazard identification while LOPA (Layer of Protection Analysis was used for risk assessment. The study was conducted in the hydrogen production unit of Behshahr Industrial Complex, Iran in 2011 and 2012. In the process of risk assessment, the records of the accidents and plant flow diagrams were studied. Then, the knowledge of the experts and operators were used through brainstorming prior to the application of LOPA technique. LOPA standard template was applied using PHA-Pro6 software. The initiating events, consequences, independent protection layers and probability of failure were determined for 16 scenarios in 7 nodes. The results showed that without the application of IPLs, the risks of 2 scenarios needed immediate action, 9 scenarios required action at next opportunity and 5 scenarios were operational. The application of IPLs would significantly decrease the risks. The study concluded that LOPA has sufficient credibility for semi quantitative risk assessment of high potentially hazardous plants. 

  5. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    None

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  6. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    2010-03-15

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will hold a public meeting to discuss and receive comments on the product classes that DOE plans to analyze for purposes of amending energy conservation standards for certain residential furnaces, and the analytical approach, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended standards for these products. DOE also encourages written comments on these......

  7. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  8. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    2011-02-17

    ... ore processing and production. See 75 FR 22471. Because EPA lacked emissions information on mercury... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category; and... and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine...

  9. Assessment of Usability Benchmarks: Combining Standardized Scales with Specific Questions

    Stephanie Bettina Linek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usability of Web sites and online services is of rising importance. When creating a completely new Web site, qualitative data are adequate for identifying the most usability problems. However, changes of an existing Web site should be evaluated by a quantitative benchmarking process. The proposed paper describes the creation of a questionnaire that allows a quantitative usability benchmarking, i.e. a direct comparison of the different versions of a Web site and an orientation on general standards of usability. The questionnaire is also open for qualitative data. The methodology will be explained by the digital library services of the ZBW.

  10. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  11. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    2013-06-10

    ... use of profanity or personal threats. viii. Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period... finished good product bill of lading or invoice. Like manufacturers, distributors, importers, fabricators... particleboard in the United States, whether in the form of a panel or incorporated into a finished good....

  12. Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas

    Rosalia Filippini; Elisa Marraccini; Sylvie Lardon; Enrico Bonari

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (b...

  13. Setting Performance Standards for the VAL-ED: Assessment of Principal Leadership

    Porter, Andrew; Goldring, Ellen; Elliott, Stephen; Murphy, Joseph; Polikoff, Morgan; Cravens, Xiu

    2008-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360 assessment of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. The instrument was designed to provide formative and summative assessment to principals on the leadership behaviors most important to student learning. The purpose of this report is to describe the standard-setting

  14. Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?

    Milan Remac

    2013-01-01

    Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal...

  15. An overview of failure assessment methods in codes and standards

    This volume provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the assessment of the integrity of engineering structures containing crack-like flaws, in the absence of effects of creep at elevated temperatures (see volume 5) and of environment (see volume 6). Key methods are extensively reviewed and background information as well as validation is given. However, it should be kept in mind that for actual detailed assessments the relevant documents have to be consulted. In classical engineering design, an applied stress is compared with the appropriate material resistance expressed in terms of a limit stress, such as the yield strength or fatigue endurance limit. As long as the material resistance exceeds the applied stress, integrity of the component is assured. It is implicitly assumed that the component is defect-free but design margins provide some protection against defects. Modern design and operation philosophies, however, take explicit account of the possible presence of defects in engineering components. Such defects may arise from fabrication, e.g., during casting, welding, or forming processes, or may develop during operation. They may extend during operation and eventually lead to failure, which in the ideal case occurs beyond the design life of the component. Failure assessment methods are based upon the behavior of sharp cracks in structures, and for this reason all flaws or defects found in structures have to be treated as if they are sharp planar cracks. Hence the terms flaw or defect should be regarded as being interchangeable with the term crack throughout this volume. (orig.)

  16. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method ANoninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method BInvasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method CInvasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  17. Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum

    M Afshari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA, a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157 was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran. The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide

  19. Biology Needs a Modern Assessment System for Professional Productivity

    McDade, Lucinda A.; Maddison, David R.; Guralnick, Robert; Piwowar, Heather A.; Jameson, Mary Liz; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Hill, Andrew; Vis, Morgan L.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated in large part by the advent of the Internet, research productivity in many academic disciplines has changed dramatically over the last two decades. However, the assessment system that governs professional success has not kept pace, creating a mismatch between modes of scholarly productivity and academic assessment criteria. In this…

  20. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  1. Standardization and Assessment of Preformulation Parameters of Rasayana Tablet

    Shah V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasayana tablet is a polyherbal preparation recommended as a tonic. It contains Amla, Gokhru and Galo in equal proportion. This preparation is generally marketed in the form of churna and tablet with several problems in weight hardness, disintegration time and friability. The present work is based on the Standardization of individual ingredients and formulation of Rasayana tablets with improved formulation parameters in order to compare it with the marketed formulation. Pharmacognostical parameters were also checked for individual crude drugs and marketed tablets like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying and powder microscopy. The preformulation parameters like bulk density, tap density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose were also checked for laboratory granules. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using sucrose (55 % solution and starch (20 % solution as binder. The designed formulations were evaluated for thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The designed formulation was in conformity to the properties evaluated for the tablets and is discussed in detail.

  2. Needs assessment of enteral nutrition support products.

    Josephson, R V; Rupp, J W; Chambers, J F

    1985-11-01

    An opinion survey of San Diego hospital health care professionals who use enteral nutrition products for patient care identified cost as an important factor but indicated that quality control, special nutrition features, and wide application of use were even more important product characteristics considered prior to purchase. There was general agreement that customer service, along with volume discounts, was a crucial aspect of successful marketing. The need for local availability of products was also stressed repeatedly. The importance of high-cost product promotions by vendors was downplayed. Health professionals want more nutrition products with specialized compositional profiles (e.g., low or high protein, low sodium, and gluten- and lactose-free), improved flavor, and convenient single-serving packaging. PMID:3932503

  3. Assessing Forest Production Using Terrestrial Monitoring Data

    Hubert Hasenauer; Eastaugh, Chris S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessments of forest biomass are becoming an increasingly important aspect of natural resource management. Besides their use in sustainable resource usage decisions, a growing focus on the carbon sequestration potential of forests means that assessment issues are becoming important beyond the forest sector. Broad scale inventories provide much-needed information, but interpretation of growth from successive measurements is not trivial. Even using the same data, various interpretatio...

  4. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  5. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  6. Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks

    This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

  7. Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?

    Stephen Agnew

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students), and low socio-economi...

  8. Development and Validation of a Landscape Metrics Based Approach for Standardized Landscape Assessment Considering Spatial Patterns

    Frank, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The presented dissertation entitled „Development and Validation of a Landscape Metrics Based Approach for Standardized Landscape Assessment Considering Spatial Patterns” addresses three main questions: I. Which ecosystem services depend on landscape structure? II. How can landscape metrics be used to achieve a standardized routine for assessing the impact of landscape structure on the hereon dependent ecosystem services? III. How can regional planning benefit from the consideration o...

  9. Assessing Methanol Production in China for Methanex

    Wong, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Methanex is the world leader in methanol production and marketing. China is an important market; by 2014 it is forecasted to account for 50% of global demand. The purpose of this project is to determine whether Methanex should invest in methanol production in China. The project approach uses a multi-goal analysis focusing on three goals: (1) Consistent with Corporate Vision, (2) Sustainment of Existing Competitive Advantages, and (3) Profitability. Based on the analysis, the project concludes...

  10. INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan

    Qahir, Katayon

    2007-01-01

    This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

  11. 42 CFR 493.1239 - Standard: General laboratory systems quality assessment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: General laboratory systems quality... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System... quality assessment. (a) The laboratory must establish and follow written policies and procedures for...

  12. Validation of the Standard Method for Assessing Flicker From Wind Turbines

    Barahona Garzon, Braulio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Christensen, L.; Sørensen, T.; Nielsen, H.K.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the validity of the standard method in IEC 61400-21 for assessing the flicker emission from multiple wind turbines. The standard method is based on testing a single wind turbine and then using the results of this test to assess the flicker emission from a number of wind turbines....... This study is based on the data from two wind farms, one with fixed-speed wind turbines and one with variable-speed wind turbines. The data are: a type test at the terminals of a wind turbine, and measurements at the connection of a collection line to the substation. The type test data are used to...... assess the flicker emission at the collection line; this assessment is then compared to the actual measurements in order to study the accuracy of the estimation. It was observed in both wind farms, that the assessment based on the standard method is statistically conservative compared to the measurements...

  13. “CASCIOTTA D’URBINO”: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION - PRELIMINARY STUDY

    F. Tonucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Casciotta d’Urbino” is a DOP cheese of the Marche region. The aim of this work, was to evaluate the microbiological process-product standards and the sanitary requisites of this typical product. In this study, three processing plants of the Pesaro-Urbino province have been selected; in each one, three batches of product, at different stages of ripening, have been sampled. The results have been elaborated through a software for the linear regression and the standard error calculation. This study has shown the respect of the sanitary requisites and allowed to identify the standard microbial populations of this product. These information are important for the characterization of this product that requires, as many other typical productions, objective evaluation criterions.

  14. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products... COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  15. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  16. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Atlas 1994 (11 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098057)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Observed and standard level profile data (along with quality control flags) used in the production of these atlases were made available in a World Ocean Atlas 1994...

  17. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...

  18. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts. PMID:26024722

  19. Domestic Product Standards and Free Trade Areas: Implications for the EU-Japan FTA

    Yanase, Akihiko; Kurata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study considers endogenous determination of domestic standards on products that cause negative consumption externalities in the presence of a preferential trade agreement (PTA) in a three-country world. In particular, we examine how a PTA affects the optimal levels of external tariffs and standards, which are chosen by each country, and national welfare. In light of recent importance of standards or regulations that may act as nontariff barriers in PTAs, several questions will arise. Do ...

  20. Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective

    Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristics to the ISO 1...

  1. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated

  2. 77 FR 26796 - Product Change-Standard Mail Saturation Flats Negotiated Service Agreement

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Standard Mail Saturation Flats Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Regulatory Commission to add a Standard Mail Saturation Flats negotiated service agreement to the...

  3. 40 CFR 63.825 - Standards: Product and packaging rotogravure and wide-web flexographic printing.

    2010-07-01

    ... rotogravure and wide-web flexographic printing. 63.825 Section 63.825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for the Printing and Publishing Industry 63.825 Standards: Product and packaging rotogravure and wide-web flexographic printing. (a)...

  4. 78 FR 64067 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    2013-10-25

    ...Pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must prescribe energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnace fans. EPCA requires DOE to determine whether such standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and......

  5. 77 FR 75362 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products

    2012-12-20

    ... Standard Mail parcels. There will be Marketing parcels, mailable at presorted (noncarrier route) prices... community as part of the ongoing dialogue with many groups. Change for Letters Commercial First-Class Mail... . ] Standard Mail Marketing Parcels, Including Product Samples Prices for marketing parcels are designed...

  6. Limitations of Certification and Supply Chain Standards for Environmental Protection in Commodity Crop Production

    Kurt B. Waldman; John M. Kerr

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent increases in water pollution in major US agricultural watersheds and by the shortcomings of government programs to control non–point source pollution, this paper examines the prospects for using product certification (ecolabeling) and business-to-business supply chain standards for environmental protection in commodity crop production. We introduce the sources of demand for certification and supply chain standards and the political and economic context in which they have e...

  7. Quality control and quality standards for the production of bone allografts in China

    There is a rapid progress of tissue banking especially Bone Banking in China, In order to strengthen the control on medical devices, Ministry of Public Health (MPH) issued the 'Regulation on Supervision of Critical Medical Devices, MPH Decree No. 54' in 1997. The SPTB was requested to submit new application for the approval of production and providing of tissue allografts. The needed documents are clinical reports, package insert, quality standards of product, Quality System Regulation (QSR) and audit report. Quality System Regulation document adopted the GMP standard for medical devices of FDA, US (21 CFR 620-1997). SPTB will amend the existed Quality Manual to suit the requirement of QSR. Referring to the AATB Standards, SPTB established 'Technical Standards' for Tissue Banking and was approved by the local government, which will be the supplement of the submitted QSR document. Considering the need of market control, MPH requested to submit a 'Quality Standard of Product' and the method of inspection. SPTB has completed such standards for final inspection of bone products, which includes the test for residual water, microbiology, bone species, colour and structure. In addition, the Tissue Bank has completed standards for in process inspection, which includes residual blood, radiation sterilization, initial bioburden, package leakage and biomechanics. In-process inspection is important for the control of non-conforming final products to assure the safety and efficacy of bone grafts. Methods of in process inspection and final inspection are described and discussed in this paper

  8. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  9. Using Standardized Clients to Train Social Workers in Intimate Partner Violence Assessment

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Gilbert, Tracey; Hansen, Johna

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment in intimate partner violence (IPV) is critical to the accurate understanding of risk and to the development of interventions that increase safety. In this study standardized clients (actors) were used to train Army civilian social workers in evidence-based assessment of IPV and in the evaluation of the curriculum's…

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment of power production facilities

    In present circumstances, the problem of satisfy the energetic needs it has to see with the survival of the population. The energy supply, no matter the means, implies risks for the community and for this reason appears the disquiet and the necessity for the study of the risks associated with the energy producer facilities. For the society in general it is important the study of risks, basically as an element for judgement for the assessment of convenience of such facilities. The purpose of this document is the presentation of general panorama of a systematic study of the risk and how the proposed methods can be used for the assessment of the risks associated with the energy producer facilities. (Author)

  11. Standardization of Penile Plethysmography Testing in Assessment of Problematic Sexual Interests.

    Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Fedoroff, J Paul; Stewart, Hannah; Dwyer, R Gregg; Burke, William

    2015-09-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is an objective measure of sexual arousal for men, commonly used to assess sexual arousal to both abnormal (i.e., paraphilic) and normal stimuli. While PPG has become a standard measure in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic interests in both Canada and the United States, there is a lack of standardization of stimulus sets and interpretation of results between sites. The current article critically reviews the current state of the art while highlighting clinical and research efforts that may be undertaken in an attempt to reduce issues arising from lack of standardization across sites. Types and themes of stimulus sets, assessment apparatuses, laboratory preparation, and testing procedures are discussed. The continued development of standardized testing protocol and procedures across multiple international sites continues to be encouraged to promote unified PPG administration and interpretation, thus further enhancing the practical utility of the measurements and decreasing inter-rater discrepancies and error. PMID:26350584

  12. Homogeneous Fedosov Star Products on Cotangent Bundles; 1, Weyl and Standard Ordering with Differential Operator Representation

    Bordemann, Martin; Waldmann, S; Bordemann, Martin; Neumaier, Nikolai; Waldmann, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we construct homogeneous star products of Weyl type on every cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ by means of the Fedosov procedure using a symplectic torsion-free connection on $T^*Q$ homogeneous of degree zero with respect to the Liouville vector field. By a fibrewise equivalence transformation we construct a homogeneous Fedosov star product of standard ordered type equivalent to the homogeneous Fedosov star product of Weyl type. Representations for both star product algebras by differential operators on functions on $Q$ are constructed leading in the case of the standard ordered product to the usual standard ordering prescription for smooth complex-valued functions on $T^*Q$ polynomial in the momenta (where an arbitrary fixed torsion-free connection $\

  13. Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China

    Yang, Li-Li; Shao-jie ZHANG; GAO, Ge

    2006-01-01


    This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china) to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate enviro...

  14. Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing...... countries. However, much less attention has been paid to the “dark side” of impact assessment – the ethical and political dilemmas that arise in the process of carrying out impact studies. This paper addresses this gap in literature, arguing that impact assessments of CSR standards may do more harm than...... good to the intended beneficiaries - developing country firms, farmers, workers, and communities - unless these ethical and political dilemmas are given serious consideration....

  15. Assessing research productivity of academic MIS departments

    Allen, Clayton R.

    1993-01-01

    This study ranks academic information systems (IS) departments according to the publishing record of their faculty members. The rankings art presented in two forms: by a per capita ranking and by a ranking in which the frequency of publication is multiplied by prestige weights for each journal. The rankings are presented in cumulative form for the 1985-92 period and are also broken down on an annual basis to track trends and changes in academic production. Recommendations are made for future ...

  16. Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.

    Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

    2014-05-16

    In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. PMID:24657525

  17. Light-water-reactor fission-product data assessment

    This assessment seeks (1) to determine the most probable chemical compounds formed between fission products and actinides in urania fuels under normal and accident conditions and (2) to identify gaps in knowledge of these fission-product compounds. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop predictive capability about the behavior of fission products under normal and acident conditions. The relevant thermochemical data have been organized by compound type, the chemical stability of resultant compounds determined, and data uncertainty evaluated. The assessment focused on fission-product and actinide oxides, halides, tellurides, and hydroxides. Free energy equations are given for those compounds for which data were available

  18. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.; Rasmussen, M.B.; Mogensen, S.S.; Frost, T.; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Muijtjens, A.; Lippert, F.; Ringsted, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and...... to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. Materials and methods: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants’ ALS- competence was assessed using the Advanced Life...... Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is con- ducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding...

  19. An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards

    Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether…

  20. 78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    2013-02-26

    ... apply to products manufactured on or after April 16, 2015. 75 FR 20112. The amended energy conservation...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC78 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  1. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    2012-05-18

    ... CFR Parts 1728 and 1755 Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural... specifications for wood poles, stubs and anchor logs, wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers and pole keys, and for quality control and inspection of timber products. The Agency also...

  2. Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production

    The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO3), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

  3. Life Cycle Assessment modeling of milk production in Iran

    Hamzeh Soltanali; Bagher Emadi; Abbas Rohani; Mehdi Khojastehpour; Amin Nikkhah

    2015-01-01

    Livestock units are known as one of the most influential sectors in the environment pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the environmental impacts of milk production in Guilan province of Iran through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The primary data were collected from 45 units of milk production through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and was estimated an acceptable ...

  4. Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides

    The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

  5. Risk assessment of topically applied products

    Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used...... parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was found to be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC....... Both UV filters are endocrine disrupting compounds with 3-BC being the more potent. UV filters in sunscreen are often present in high concentrations, which potentially may lead to high systemic exposure dosages. Thus, the risk associated with use of 3-BC and 4-MBC containing sunscreen with regards to...

  6. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M.

    2015-02-01

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel-oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel-methanol samples, respectively.

  7. 76 FR 7818 - Correction to Notice Soliciting Comments on Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10 and...

    2011-02-11

    ... Standard PS 2-10 (75 FR 66734). The title of the notice incorrectly gave the title of Proposed Voluntary... Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10 and Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: National Institute of Standards... Register requesting comments on Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10. The title of the...

  8. Assessing Different Aspects of Pretend Play within a Play Setting: Towards a Standardized Assessment of Pretend Play in Young Children

    Frahsek, Stefanie; Mack, Wolfgang; Mack, Christina; Pfalz-Blezinger, Charlotte; Knopf, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The present study suggests a method with which to assess the interrelations between different types of pretend play. In contrast to standard methods in this area, the various types of pretend play were measured within an interactive play scenario. The pretend play tasks were included in a semi-structured play sequence and presented to young…

  9. Assessing Agricultural Vulnerability in India using NDVI Data Products

    Kaushalya, R.; Praveen Kumar, V.; Shubhasmita, S.

    2014-11-01

    Impact of climate change on Indian rainfed agriculture was assessed using temporal NDVI data products from AVHRR and MODIS. Agricultural vulnerability was analysed using CV of Max NDVI from NOAA-AVHRR (15-day, 8 km) and MODIS-TERRA (16-day, 250 m) NDVI data products from 1982-2012. AVHRR dataset was found suitable for estimating regional vulnerability at state and agro-eco-sub-region (AESR) level while MODIS dataset was suitable for drawing district-level strategy for adaptation and mitigation. Methodology was developed to analyse NDVI variations with spatial pattern of rainfall using 10 X 10 girded data and spatially interpolating it to estimate Standard Precipitation Index. Study indicated large variations in vegetation dynamics across India owing to bio-climate and natural resource base. IPCC framework of vulnerability and exposure was used to identify vulnerable region extending from arid western India to semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions in central India and southern peninsula. This is a major agricultural region in the country with sizable human and livestock population with millions of marginal and small farm holdings. Exposure to climatic variability at local and regional levels have national implications and study indicated that over 122 districts extending over 110 mha was vulnerable to climate change that spread across 26 typical AESR in 11 states in India. Of the 74 mha under agriculture in the region, MODIS dataset indicated 47 mha as agriculturally vulnerable while coarser resolution of AVHRR dataset indicated a conservative estimate of 29 mha. First ever estimates of agricultural vulnerability for India indicates 20.4 to 33.1 % agricultural land under risk from climate change.

  10. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm...... environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized.......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the...

  11. Productivity assessment of an opencast coal mine: a case study

    Yadav, M.K.; Bhar, C. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Management Studies

    2006-07-01

    An assessment was conducted at an opencast coalmine located in Jharia coalfield. The mine is using shovel-dumper combination for winning coal. The study covers the computation of partial productivities as well as total productivity status of the mine at an aggregate level whereas partial productivities highlight the efficiency in the use of various resources. A statistical analysis among the different productivity indices has been carried out to identify the criticality of different input factors. Accordingly appropriate strategies can be devised for improving productivity of the mine. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Assessment of generalizing cost indicators volume of industrial production

    V.O. Ivanenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the state of the industry largely determines the priorities for the development of complementary and service industries, engineering, transport, social and other infrastructure, employment and standard of living of the population, then the solution to the stabilization and development of the economy in market conditions is possible only when creating a competitive industrial production. At the same time an important place among the performance indicators of industrial enterprises occupy a total production cost parameters. The article outlines the procedure for the formation of indicators of gross, product and sales as the main aggregate price indices of industrial output. The study analyzed the relationship between these parameters. The advantages of the use of the net production in the economic analysis of production and sales compared with the gross and marketable products. Out lined directions to use these indicators to analyze the production of industrial enterprises.

  13. [Risk assessment of nanoparticles in consumer products].

    Hackenberg, S

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials are not just used in various areas of scientific research, but are increasingly found in consumer products. Particularly the cosmetic and textile industries, as well as the medical branch benefit from the specific chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). However, the knowledge base concerning the potential health hazards that nanomaterials hold for humans is far from complete. NPs mainly enter the organism via the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract, where they can accumulate. Transcutaneous penetration is most unlikely in the case of healthy skin. Chronic inflammatory reactions of the airways are particularly relevant in the context of potential risks to human health. Evidence for a geno- and cytotoxic potential of some of the most frequently used NPs is available from cell culture and animal experiments. Therefore, the risk of NP-induced cancerogenesis cannot be ruled out. Currently available nanotoxicological data is partly contradictory, due to differing characteristics of the tested substances and variable experimental settings. Long-term studies using continuous NP exposure in consumer-relevant dosages are needed. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of NP-induced toxicity have to be elucidated in detail. PMID:24916351

  14. Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat under Smallholders Production System

    A Priyono; Akhmad Sodiq; Tawfik ES

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic) factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female), type of ...

  15. NPP instrumentation and control systems safety standardization and assessment (4): principles of assessment

    It is the fourth of the series articles to devoted to NPP instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. The article contains the following: basic principles of safety assessment; assessment criteria; planning and execution order; the scope and requirements to the documents grounding the safety of I and C systems and their components

  16. DIFFERENCES IN MANAGER ASSESSMENTS OF ISO 14000 STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY

    Sıtkı Gözlü; Bersam Bolat

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the results of a survey about the improvements achieved as result of ISO 14000 Environmental Management System (EMS) standard implementation and the differences of improvements with respect to firm characteristics. A survey has been conducted in order to explain the improvements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance. The survey involved sixty-six enterprises implementing ISO 14000 EMS standard in Turkey. In order to assess improvements obt...

  17. The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment

    Heneghan, Carl; Howick, Jeremy; O'Neill, Braden; Gill, Peter J; Lasserson, Daniel S; COHEN, Deborah; Davis, Ruth; Ward, Alison; Smith, Adam; Jones, Greg; Thompson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the extent and nature of claims regarding improved sports performance made by advertisers for a broad range of sports-related products, and the quality of the evidence on which these claims are based. Methods The authors analysed magazine adverts and associated websites of a broad range of sports products. The authors searched for references supporting the performance and/or recovery claims of these products. The authors critically appraised the methods in the retrieved r...

  18. Assessment of the absorbed radiation dose by gas chromatography of radiolytic products in food

    Various methods of gas chromatography provide highly accurate and reliable results in the detection of radiolytic products in food. It appears wise for any laboratory of chemical analysis to continuously adjust and redefine the relevant standard rules. The yield of radiochemical product measured for the food under examination permits an accurate assessment of the absorbed dose only in cases, where the conditions of irradiation and the food constituents are known. In the low dose ranges and the absence of data on irradiation and storage conditions, any estimations of the absorbed dose on the basis of the yield measured for one single chemical product must be approached with great caution. (orig.)

  19. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We need well-founded means of determining whether software is t for use in safety-critical applications. While software in industries such as aviation has an excellent safety record, the fact that software aws have contributed to deaths illustrates the need for justi ably high con dence in software. It is often argued that software is t for safety-critical use because it conforms to a standard for software in safety-critical systems. But little is known about whether such standards `work.' Reliance upon a standard without knowing whether it works is an experiment; without collecting data to assess the standard, this experiment is unplanned. This paper reports on a workshop intended to explore how standards could practicably be assessed. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Ecacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software (AESSCS) was held on 13 May 2014 in conjunction with the European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). We summarize and elaborate on the workshop's discussion of the topic, including both the presented positions and the dialogue that ensued.

  20. Life-Cycle Assessment of Oilseeds for Biojet Production Using Localized Cold-Press Extraction.

    Sieverding, Heidi L; Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Stone, James J

    2016-05-01

    As nonfood oilseed varieties are being rapidly developed, new varieties may affect agricultural production efficiency and life-cycle assessment results. Current, detailed feedstock production information is necessary to accurately assess impacts of the biofuel life-cycle. The life-cycle impacts of four nonfood oilseeds (carinata [ L. Braun], camelina [ L. Crantz], canola or rapeseed [ L.], and sunflower [ L.]) were modeled using Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model to compare feedstocks for renewable biojet production using cold-press oil extraction. Only feedstock-related inputs were varied, allowing isolation of feedstock influence. Carinata and camelina performed slightly better than other oilseed crops at most product stages and impact categories as a result of current, low-input agricultural information and new feedstock varieties. Between 40 to 50% of SO and NO emissions, ∼25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ∼40% of total energy consumption for the biojet production impact occurred during feedstock production. Within the first standard deviation, total well-to-tank emissions varied between ∼13% (GHG) and ∼35% (SO) for all feedstocks emphasizing the importance of accurate agricultural production information. Nonfood oilseed feedstock properties (e.g., oil content, density) and agricultural management (e.g., fertilization, yield) affect life-cycle assessment results. Using biofuels in feedstock production and focusing on low-impact management would assist producers in improving overall product sustainability. PMID:27136164

  1. Developing Product Quality Control for Standardization of Tsetse Mass Production. Working Material

    The recent Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) provides a mechanism within which SIT will be one of the major components of an integrated areawide approach to the establishment of tsetse fly-free areas. Currently world-wide tsetse production is 1/40 of the projected requirement in 2006. To achieve this objective it is essential that quality control (QC) measures suitable for the expanded production be in place. Therefore, improved QC methodology has become a top priority. Improvements in QC methodology will help to ensure the attainment of these production goals and improve quality of rearing, minimize production costs and generate trained QC and production staff required to successfully produce flies and monitor their quality and suitability for release. The proposed CRP is designed to address these issues.

  2. Animal welfare in poultry production systems: impact of EU standards on world trade

    Horne, van, P.; Achterbosch, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Animal welfare receives more legislative attention in the European Union (EU) than in many other regions of the world. Animal welfare standards for poultry are generally taken to be higher in the EU than in producing countries exporting to the EU, particularly developing countries. The recent action plan for animal welfare introduced by the European Commission aims to further expand the body of regulatory standards. In broiler production worldwide, birds are mainly kept on litter. Recently th...

  3. Regional drought assessment using a distributed hydrological model coupled with Standardized Runoff Index

    Shen, H.; Yuan, F.; Ren, L; Ma, M.; Kong, H.; Tong, R.

    2015-01-01

    Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) was coupled with a modified standardized runoff ind...

  4. Influence of standardized activities on validity of Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control

    Helen Y. N. Lindner, MSc; Ann-Christin Eliasson, PhD; Liselotte M. N. Hermansson, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC) is an observation-based clinical tool that evaluates ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand during bimanual activities. Two validity aspects were investigated: potential bias interaction between prosthesis users and activities performed during assessment, and potential bias interaction between activities and different user characteristics (sex or prosthetic side). Six activities were standardized for the ACMC. Upper-limb myoe...

  5. Validity, Reliability and Standardization Study of the Language Assessment Test for Aphasia

    Bülent Toğram; İlknur Maviş

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aphasia assessment is the first step towards a well- founded language therapy. Language tests need to consider cultural as well as typological linguistic aspects of a given language. This study was designed to determine the standardization, validity and reliability of Language Assessment Test for Aphasia, which consists of eight subtests including spontaneous speech and language, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, grammar, speech acts, and writing. METHODS: The...

  6. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    Dvila, Javier A; Hernndez, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

  7. Inventory of standards and conventions used for the generation of IAG/GGOS products

    Angermann, D.; Gruber, T.; Gerstl, M.; Hugentobler, U.; Sanchez, L.; Heinkelmann, R.; Steigenberger, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Products and Standards (BPS), a redefinition of the former Bureau for Standards and Conventions (BSC), supports the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) in its goal to obtain geodetic products of highest accuracy and consistency. In order to fully benefit from the ongoing technological improvements of the observing systems contributing to GGOS, it is essential that the analysis of the precise space geodetic observations is based on the definition of common standards and conventions and a unique representation and parameterization of the relevant quantities. This is of crucial importance for the establishment of highly accurate and consistent geodetic reference frames, as the basis for a reliable monitoring of the time-varying shape, rotation and gravity field of the Earth.A major focus was on the compilation of an inventory based on the evaluation of the standards and conventions currently in use by the IAG Services and their contributing analysis centres and for the generation of geometric and gravimetric products, such as geodetic reference frames, Earth orientation parameters, gravity field models and satellite orbits. This product-based inventory presents the current status concerning standards and conventions, indicating that there are several inconsistencies. As a major outcome of this inventory, the BPS will provide recommendations on how to resolve inconsistencies and gaps. In this presention we will briefly report on the mentioned activities and we summarize the most important findings.

  8. The Total Arsenic Concentrations of Aquatic Products and the Assessment of Arsenic Intake from Aquatic Products in Guangzhou, China

    Yu Guang-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of aquatic products consumed by the resident to the daily dietary arsenic intakes of the residents of Guangzhou of Guangdong province in China. All aquatic products were sampled from supermarkets and terminal markets. Accuracy was assured using standard reference material (GBW08551 and recovery experiments. Total arsenic concentrations of aquatic products were determined after acid digestion by hydride generation atomic fluorescent spectrometry. A wide range of arsenic concentration (0.0075-1.2017 mg/kg was found among the various aquatic products, the mean arsenic concentration in aquatic production was 0.2022 mg/kg. The arsenic concentrations of various aquatic products groups were as follows: Crustacean (0.3176±0.2324 mg/kg >Mollusk fish (0.1979±0.2013 mg/k >Saltwater fish (0.1558±0.1119 mg/kg >Freshwater fish (0.1374±0.0970 mg/kg. The range of daily dietary arsenic intake of various residents through the consumption of aquatic products was 5.96-11.85 µg/day. The freshwater fish had the largest contribution to the daily dietary arsenic intakes from aquatic products in all type aquatic products, accounted for around 50%.

  9. Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment

    K. Hollenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

  10. Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

  11. A visitor-focused assessment of new product launch

    Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, F.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the needs and wants of consumers in the process of new product development has been recognized as an essential aspect of preparing effective marketing strategies for the success of business. The new product development strategy has now moved into Consumer-Driven Innovation (CDI......), which not only asks consumers about their needs and wants but actually involves them in the product design, promotion, and even assessment processes. Informed by the new concept of CDI, this study aims at identifying to what extent visitors as tourism product consumers and co-producers can be involved...

  12. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the

  13. Setting Proficiency Standards for School Leadership Assessment: An Examination of Cut Score Decision Making

    Cravens, Xiu Chen; Goldring, Ellen B.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation informs professional development and helps school personnel improve student learning. Although psychometric literature indicates that a rational, sound, and coherent standard-setting process adds to the credibility of an assessment, few studies have empirically examined the decision-making process. This article

  14. Standard setting in complex performance assessments: An approach aligned with cognitive diagnostic models

    Robert W. Lissitz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increased interest in student-level diagnostic information from multiple performance assessments, it becomes possible to create multivariate classifications of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs. In this paper, a systematic, multivariate and non-compensating standard setting approach, called the cognitive analytical approach (CAA, is proposed for performance assessment with complex tasks. CAA is based on the framework of evidence-centered design (Mislevy, Steinberg, & Almond, 2003 that supports a chain of reasoning from design and development to delivery of an assessment. In CAA, the performance standards are established simultaneously with domain-modeling, test specifications, and item writing rather than after the assessment has been completed; the cut scores are evaluated iteratively along with the test design and development phases. CAA has the benefits of ensuring the validity of the performance standards, reducing the cognitive load of standard setting, including the complexity of the tasks, and facilitating the vertical articulation of KSAs. In this paper, we elucidate the theoretical and practical rationale of CAA and demonstrate its proce-dures and results with an illustrative example.

  15. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  16. Study on Design and Implementation of JAVA Programming Procedural Assessment Standard

    Tingting, Xu; Hua, Ma; Xiujuan, Wang; Jing, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional JAVA course examination is just a list of questions from which we cannot know students' skills of programming. According to the eight abilities in curriculum objectives, we designed an assessment standard of JAVA programming course that is based on employment orientation and apply it to practical teaching to check the teaching…

  17. 7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. 319.40-11 Section 319.40-11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and...

  18. Checklist Content on a Standardized Patient Assessment: An Ex Post Facto Review

    Boulet, John R.; van Zanten, Marta; de Champlain, Andre; Hawkins, Richard E.; Peitzman, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    While checklists are often used to score standardized patient based clinical assessments, little research has focused on issues related to their development or the level of agreement with respect to the importance of specific items. Five physicians independently reviewed checklists from 11 simulation scenarios that were part of the former…

  19. Development and Psychometric Properties of a Standardized Assessment for Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody

    2009-01-01

    The internal consistency and validity of the interRAI Community Health Assessment and Deafblind Supplement were tested with 182 persons with deaf-blindness. All subscales demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency, and expected associations provided evidence of convergent validity. This instrument can facilitate standardized service…

  20. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels in a...... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...... standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model. Keywords: Vertical product differentiation; horizontal product differentiation; market integration; duopoly; minimum quality standard. JEL: F12, F13, F14....

  1. Phase 3 process overview and the ESO Science Data Products Standard

    Mascetti, L.; Arnaboldi, M.; Delmotte, N.; Micol, A.; Retzlaff, J.

    2015-12-01

    The ESO Phase 3 infrastructure provides a channel to submit reduced data products for publication to the astronomical community at large and long-term data preservation in the ESO science archive facility. The ESO archive serves as the central collection point for data reduced by ESO users but also for the products of in-house pipeline data processing. One unique standard data format is associated to each type of product like image, spectrum, IFU cube, etc. Here we present an overview of the Phase 3 process and its key features, the data types supported by the the ESO Science Data Products Standard and the data collections already served by the Phase 3 service.

  2. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  3. Assessment of the microbial parameters along the production phases at a dairy plant

    Angelovski Ljupco; Jankuloski Dean; Ratkova Marija; Prodanov Mirko; Mojsova Sandra; Sekulovski Pavle

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to detect the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) in raw milk, to assess the hygiene parameters during the milk processing and to evaluate the safety of the fi nal dairy products using standard ISO methods. Staphylococcus aureus showed highest prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms (85%), followed by Escherichia coli (46%) and Listeria monocytogenes (...

  4. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible ...

  5. Bioequivalence for Locally Acting Nasal Spray and Nasal Aerosol Products: Standard Development and Generic Approval

    Li, Bing V.; Jin, Feiyan; Lee, Sau L.; Bai, Tao; Chowdhury, Badrul; Caramenico, Hoainhon T.; Conner, Dale P.

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for nasal spray/aerosol products for local action has been very challenging because the relationship between the drug in systemic circulation and the drug reaching the nasal site of action has not been well established. Thus, the current BE standard for these drug/device combination products is based on a weight-of-evidence approach, which contains three major elements: equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delive...

  6. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well......-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. LCA Center Denmark was presented at the SETAC Europe conference in Hamburg in 2003 where it had just been launched. This presentation will follow up on the progress and activities of the center and report from an independent...

  7. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle...... assessment (LCA), which main objective is determining the eco-efficiency of a product system with limited focus on its structure. The question is whether a product system which structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will result in being not only inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when...... assessed by means of LCA. This study proposes a theoretical modelling approach to compare vulnerable and resilient product systems within the framework of LCA, consisting of assessment of disturbance and system expansion. Examples are provided where the theory is made operational. The structure of a...

  8. Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.

    2012-02-01

    Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

  9. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  10. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

    2009-12-15

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle. (author)

  11. Multidimensional sustainability assessment of solar products: Educating engineers and designers:

    Flipsen, S.F.J.; Bakker, C.A.; Verwaal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008 the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at the TU Delft hosts the minor Sustainable Design Engineering. The minor has been highly useful as a platform to pilot new ways of teaching engineering for sustainable development. Instead of having students make life cycle assessments and introduce them to straightforward checklists to improve their product designs, we challenge our students to develop a critical understanding of sustainability and use multidimensional assessments. Sus...

  12. Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment of Large Scale Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Strmman, Anders Hammer; Hertwich, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    An environmental assessment of three designs for a large-scale hydrogen production facility is performed using a Hybrid Life Cycle Assesment approach. The operational adaption of the hybrid framework for this case is shown in detail. The inventory establishment and assembly is explained. The impact assessment is performed by applying midpoint environmental theme indicators. The resulting impact potentials and their origins are presented and discussed for all three cases and for each impact ca...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella; Fusi, Alessandra; Ioppolo, Giuseppe; Niero, Monia; Proto, Maria; Salomone, Roberta; Sica, Daniela; Supino, Stefania

    This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from their...... widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall...... environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from the...

  14. Summative and Formative Assessments in Mathematics Supporting the Goals of the Common Core Standards

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Being proficient in mathematics involves having rich and connected mathematical knowledge, being a strategic and reflective thinker and problem solver, and having productive mathematical beliefs and dispositions. This broad set of mathematics goals is central to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. High-stakes testing often drives

  15. 78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    2013-12-24

    ... (78 FR 64067) to make available and invite comments on the proposed rule regarding energy conservation... conservation standards for residential furnace fans published on October 25, 2013 (78 FR 64067) is extended to... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy...

  16. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Hardr, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional

  17. Review of central exclusive production of the Higgs boson beyond the Standard Model

    Taševský, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 28 (2014), "1446012-1"-"1446012-21". ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LHC * Higgs boson * central exclusive production * beyond Standard Model * forward detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.699, year: 2014

  18. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  19. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    2010-04-28

    ...EPA is proposing to add the gold mine ore processing and production area source category to the list of source categories subject to regulation under the hazardous air pollutant section of the Clean Air Act (CAA) due to their mercury emissions. EPA is also proposing national mercury emission standards for this category based on the emissions level of the best performing facilities which are......

  20. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    2013-12-09

    ... December 2, 2013. Kathleen B. Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AD09 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  1. Production and decay of neutralinos in the nonminimal supersymmetric standard model

    In this thesis after a presentation of the nonminimal supersymmetric standard model the lower mass limits for neutralinos and Higgs bosons are calculated. Then some typical scenarios for the study of the neutralino production and decay at LEP2 are constructed, for which the cross sections are calculated. (HSI)

  2. An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Van Rikxoort, Henk; Zrust, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and implemented to maximize benefits for biodiversity conservation. PMID:25363833

  3. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  4. United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual

    Kerns, K.C.; Smith, J.M.; Blanchard, R.L.; Burson, Z.G. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Remote Sensing Lab.]|[National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Montgomery, AL (United States)]|[Sanford Cohen and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency (LFA). The Evaluation and Assessment (E&A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E&A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC (with emphasis on the E&A Division) is presented. The contents of the E&A manual are briefly described as are future plans for expansion of this work.

  5. United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency (LFA). The Evaluation and Assessment (E ampersand A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E ampersand A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC (with emphasis on the E ampersand A Division) is presented. The contents of the E ampersand A manual are briefly described as are future plans for expansion of this work

  6. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  7. Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie; Seppala, Susanna; Christensen, Ulla; Riisberg, Lone; Harrison, Scott James; Mller, Birger Lindberg; Nrholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable......Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization...... also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to...

  8. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  9. Vegetation Health and Productivity Indicators for Sustained National Climate Assessments

    Jones, M. O.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment process is developing a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public. Implementing a 14 year record of Gross and Net Primary Productivity (GPP/NPP) derived from the NASA EOS MODIS satellite sensor we demonstrate how these products can serve as Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health National Climate Indicators for implementation in sustained National Climate Assessments. The NPP product combines MODIS vegetation data with daily global meteorology to calculate annual growth of all plant material at 1 sq. km resolution. NPP anomalies identify regions with above or below average plant growth that may result from climate fluctuations and can inform carbon source/sink dynamics, agricultural and forestry yield measures, and response to wildfire or drought conditions. The GPP product provides a high temporal resolution (8-day) metric of vegetation growth which can be used to monitor short-term vegetation response to extreme events and implemented to derive vegetation phenology metrics; growing season start, end, and length, which can elucidate land cover and regionally specific vegetation responses to a changing climate. The high spatial resolution GPP and NPP indicators can also inform and clarify responses seen from other proposed Pilot Indicators such as forest growth/productivity, land cover, crop production, and phenology. The GPP and NPP data are in continuous production and will be sustained into the future with the next generation satellite missions. The long-term Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health Indicators are ideal for use in sustained National Climate Assessments, providing regionally specific responses to a changing climate and complete coverage at the national scale.

  10. Influence of standardized activities on validity of Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control

    Helen Y. N. Lindner, MSc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC is an observation-based clinical tool that evaluates ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand during bimanual activities. Two validity aspects were investigated: potential bias interaction between prosthesis users and activities performed during assessment, and potential bias interaction between activities and different user characteristics (sex or prosthetic side. Six activities were standardized for the ACMC. Upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis users (47 congenital, 11 acquired; 31 male, 27 female, average age 19.9 yr performed three standardized activities, each on one occasion. Bias-interaction analysis in the many-facet Rasch model identified inconsistent patterns in the interactions of individual users and activity facets and between activities and user characteristics. The standardized activities had no significant influence on measures of user ability. The activities functioned similarly across both sexes (p-value greater than or equal to 0.12 and across both prosthetic sides in persons with upper-limb reduction deficiency (p-value greater than or equal to 0.50 and persons with acquired amputation (p-value greater than or equal to 0.13. The results provide evidence for the validity of the ACMC across the standardized activities and support use of the ACMC in prosthesis users of both sexes and prosthetic sides. The newly standardized activities are recommended for future ACMC use.

  11. Improving pest risk assessment and management through the aid of geospatial information technology standards

    Trond Rafoss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of geospatial information over the Internet for the management of risks from invasive alien species is an increasingly important service. The evolution of information technology standards for geospatial data is a key factor to simplify network publishing and exchange of maps and data. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C-geolocation specification is a recent addition that may prove useful for pest risk management. In this article we implement the W3C-geolocation specification and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC mapping standards in a Web browser application for smartphones and tablet computers to improve field surveys for alien invasive species. We report our first season field experiences using this tool for online mapping of plant disease outbreaks and host plant occurrence. It is expected that the improved field data collection tools will result in increased data availability and thereby new opportunities for risk assessment, because data-needs and availability are crucial for species distribution modelling and model-based forecasts of pest establishment potential. Finally, we close with a comment on the future potential of geospatial information standards to enhance the translation from data to decisions regarding pest risks, which should enable earlier detection of emerging risks as well as more robust projections of pest risks in novel areas. The forthcoming standard for processing of geospatial information, the Web Processing Standard (WPS, should open new technological capabilities both for automatic initiation and updating of risk assessment models based on new incoming data, and subsequent early warning.

  12. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in reports

  13. ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process

    Pierre-Yves Renard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries, which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.

  14. Single top production at next-to-leading order in the Standard Model effective field theory

    Zhang, Cen

    2016-01-01

    Single top production processes at hadron collider provide information on the relation between the top quark and the electroweak sector of the standard model. We compute the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the three main production channels: $t$-channel, $s$-channel and $tW$ associated production, in the standard model including operators up to dimension-six. The calculation can be matched to parton shower programs and can therefore be directly used in experimental analyses. The QCD corrections are found to significantly impact the extraction of the current limits on the operators, because both of an improved accuracy and a better precision of the theoretical predictions. In addition, the distributions of some of the key discriminating observables are modified in a nontrivial way, which could change the interpretation of measurements in terms of UV complete models.

  15. Single Top Production at Next-to-Leading Order in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Zhang, Cen

    2016-04-01

    Single top production processes at hadron colliders provide information on the relation between the top quark and the electroweak sector of the standard model. We compute the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the three main production channels: t -channel, s -channel, and t W associated production, in the standard model including operators up to dimension six. The calculation can be matched to parton shower programs and can therefore be directly used in experimental analyses. The QCD corrections are found to significantly impact the extraction of the current limits on the operators, because both of an improved accuracy and a better precision of the theoretical predictions. In addition, the distributions of some of the key discriminating observables are modified in a nontrivial way, which could change the interpretation of measurements in terms of UV complete models.

  16. Product creativity assessment of innovations: considering the creative process

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in...... creativity research, while the role of consumer’s knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing information about a complex development process could amplify consumer’s perception of product creativity...

  17. Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure

    Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors)

  18. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  19. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health. PMID:26753435

  20. How to Assess and Document Endoscopies in IBD Patients by Including Standard Scoring Systems.

    Buchner, Anna M; Lichtenstein, Gary R

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopy has become an essential tool for effective management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The endoscopic management of inflammatory bowel disease ranges from diagnosing the disease, assessing the disease's extent, and activity to monitor the responses to various medical therapies with assessment of mucosal healing, serving as a predictor of disease course and response to therapy to finally treating the disease's complications. In general, the use of endoscopic scoring systems has been recommended for assessing the activity of the disease, and the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatment. However, many of currently available endoscopic scoring systems are often too complicated for their routine use in clinical practice, lacking adequate interobserver agreement and formal validation. In this review, we will discuss how we should be assessing and documenting endoscopies in inflammatory bowel disease patients and incorporating standard scoring systems into patients' care. PMID:26963565

  1. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2013-01-01

    risk reduction equalling a number needed to treat of 180. Sample size estimation is adjusted for the study design and based on standards for randomization on cluster-level. With an average cluster size of 2,500 patients, 70,000 patients will be enrolled over a 1-year trial period. The database is...... examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non......-specific assessment. Data from patients' pre-operative airway assessment are registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database. Objective scores for intubation and mask ventilation grade the severity of airway managements. The accuracy of predicting difficult intubation and mask ventilation is measured for each group...

  2. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula honey for assessing quality standards and commercialization

    Amada B Pucciarelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the interest in the production and trading of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula honey in the province of Misiones, Argentina, in this work we assessed microbiological and physicochemical parameters in order to contribute to the elaboration of standards for quality control and promote commercialization. Results showed that yateí honey samples had significantly different microbiological and physicochemical characteristics in comparison to established quality standards for Apis mellifera honey. Thus, we observed that values for pH (3.72, glucose (19.01 g/100 g and fructose (23.74 g/100 g were lower than A. mellifera quality standards, while acidity (79.42 meq/kg, moisture (24%, and mould and yeast count (MY (3.02 log CFU/g were higher. The acid content was correlated with glucose (R²=0.75 and fructose (R²=0.68 content, and also with mould and yeast counts (R²=0.45 to a lesser extent. The incidence of microorganisms in yateí honey samples reached 42.85% and 39% for Clostridium sulfite-reducers and Bacillus spp., respectively. No C. botulinum or B. cereus cells were detected. Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. incidence was similar (ca. 7.14%, whereas Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected. We conclude that the microbiological and physicochemical properties of yateí honey are different from those of A. mellifera honey; hence, different quality standards could be implemented to promote its commercialization.

  3. Contribution to Risk Analysis of a Standard Brewery: Application of a Hygiene Assessment System Survey

    Raposo, Antnio; Salazar, Jairo; Prez, Esteban; Sanjun, Esther; Carrascosa, Conrado; Saavedra, Pedro; Milln, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    "Beer is a food product with a high consumption in Gran Canaria and the brewery industry is also present in this island. In order to carry out this study, it was designed a survey to assist in the assessment of risks from the facilities and infrastructures of the brewery, the raw materials used in the beer production and the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plan.

  4. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    M. G. Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  5. Assessing business transaction standards and their adoption: A cross case analysis between the SETU and Vektis standards

    Berends, W.; Folmer, E.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays businesses increasingly want to be interoperable so that they can collaborate with other organizations. Interoperability can be achieved through the use of business transaction standards, by which the organizations that use the standards collectively form a value added network. However the effectivity of these standards is largely dependant on the number of organizations that have adopted it, and thus it is very important that the standard conforms to the conditions that organization...

  6. Comparison of photographic and visual assessment of occlusal caries with histology as the reference standard

    Boye Uriana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic performance for the detection of caries using photographs with an established visual examination method and histological sections as the reference standard. Methods 50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods, diagnoses were made at caries into dentine level. The teeth were histologically sectioned and the diagnostic decisions using visual and photographic assessment were compared to the histological reference standard. Inter- and intra- examiner reliability for the methods was assessed and weighted kappa values were calculated. Results The visual examination method had a median sensitivity value of 65.6% and a median specificity value of 82.4%. The photographic assessments method had a median sensitivity of 81.3% and a median specificity of 82.4%. Conclusions The photographic assessments method had a higher sensitivity for caries detection than the visual examination. The two methods had comparable specificities and good intra- and inter- examiner reliability.

  7. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. PMID:21651724

  8. Food and sustainability: do consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information on production standards?

    Hoogland, Carolien T; de Boer, Joop; Boersema, Jan J

    2007-07-01

    We tested how consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information about food production methods that may contribute to a more sustainable agriculture. Nine copy tests were formed, each containing one out of three products and one out of three panels of information. The products were (1) fillet of chicken, (2) semi-skimmed milk and (3) fillet of salmon. The panels of information were (a) a certified organic logo and details about the animal welfare standards of organic products, (b) just the logo, or (c) a statement in which the product was attributed to the world market. About 371 customers of a supermarket in the city of Amsterdam filled in a questionnaire, which included a subset of three copy tests. The results showed that many consumers did not realize that the organic logo already covers all the standards. They were inclined to underestimate the distinctive advantage of the logo; products with logo and details got higher ratings of positive attributes but were also considered more expensive. As a consequence, the detailed information panels enabled consumers to choose more in agreement with their personal values but the net impacts on purchase intentions were small. PMID:17303285

  9. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Z. Miličević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  10. Methods and considerations for the analysis and standardization of assessing muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.

    White, Daniel W; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Raven, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    The technique of microneurography and the assessment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are used in laboratories throughout the world. The variables used to describe MSNA, and the criteria by which these variables are quantified from the integrated neurogram, vary among studies and laboratories and, therefore, can become confusing to those starting to learn the technique. Therefore, the purpose of this educational review is to discuss guidelines and standards for the assessment of sympathetic nervous activity through the collection and analysis of MSNA. This review will reiterate common practices in the collection of MSNA, but will also introduce considerations for the evaluation and physiological inference using MSNA. PMID:26299824

  11. Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products

    H. Norouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003–2007 using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01 in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

  12. Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Prigent, C.; Turk, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Tian, Y.; Furuzawa, F. A.; Masunaga, H.

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to intercompare four global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. The intercompared land emissivity products were generated over a 5-year period (2003-2007) using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), and WindSat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and a satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to changes in land surface conditions. Results show the existence of systematic differences among the products. Also, it was noticed that emissivity values in each product have similar frequency dependency over different land-cover types. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower than the rest of the products across various land-cover conditions which may be attributed to the 01:30/13:30 LT overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analyzed products was lowest (less than 0.01) in rain forest regions for all products and highest at northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed similar spatial distribution across the products, with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

  13. Standards in biological dosimetry: A requirement to perform an appropriate dose assessment.

    Voisin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Every year, many countries perform a significant number of investigations based on biological radiation dose assessment to check suspected or true overexposure by irradiation of radiation workers and individuals of the general population. The scoring of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes has gradually become the "gold standard" for the biodosimetry-based assessment of accidental situations. Nevertheless, other "classical" biodosimetric methods such as micronuclei, prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) and FISH translocations are relevant in some exposure situations, also for surveillance of groups of populations at risk. Historical international intercomparison studies have shown discrepancies among dose-effect curves used to estimate doses from blood samples irradiated between 0 and 4Gy. Recent experimental work performed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has shown the impact of some blood harvesting parameters on the mitotic index, and consequently on the quality of dose assessment. Therefore, it was relevant to define the best Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) criteria to harmonize protocols among biodosimetry laboratories. Complementary with several editions of an IAEA technical manual, ISO standards were written with the view of considering the most used chromosome aberrations assays: dicentrics and micronuclei. An important feature of these standards is to address the organization of population triage and laboratories networking that would be required in case of a large nuclear event or malicious act involving radioactive material. These ISO standards are relevant and helpful to implement a coordinated response of several biodosimetry networks in Europe, Japan, Canada, and to support European programs such as MULTIBIODOSE and RENEB. A new important ISO standard on the use of FISH translocations in retrospective dosimetry is now being drafted. PMID:26520381

  14. Qualitative risk assessment from gluten in dairy products for population with celiac disease

    Lea Pollak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available People with celiac disease represent susceptible population that can be cured only by “gluten-free” diet, while dairy products have been recognized as exceptionally recommended. Therefore, it is very important for dairy products not to contain gluten in concentrations that could be harmful for them. The aim of this research was to investigate risk exposure to gluten from dairy products for the population with celiac disease in the Republic of Croatia by usage of referent analytical methods and scientifically based methods of risk assessment. Total number of 19 subgroups of standard dairy products (n=40 and four subgroups of “gluten-free” dairy products (n=53 labelled with crossed cereal or quotation “glutenfree” and without quantity of gluten labelled were analysed by ELISA-R5 method. Adult population with celiac disease (n=57 was interweaved on eating habits, while intake of dairy products for infants and children was calculated based on recommended intakes and menus. The results have shown that number of standard dairy products that according to their nature should not contain gluten, as well as “gluten-free” dairy products contain certain amount of gluten that can be estimated in certain unfavourable scenarios and in susceptible subpopulations as risky to sick individuals. Dairy products represent very low risk to adult population with celiac disease and can be consumed in quantities that do not differ from the recommended quantities for healthy population. On the other side, dairy products for infants in the age from 6 to 12 months represent increased risk for infants with celiac disease and require implementation of risk management activities in order to reduce risk. Dairy products for infants and children from 1 to 6 years represent moderate risk depending on eating habits. The obtained results point out neediness of risk management methods implementation through information and education of population with celiac disease, as well as producers of dairy products.

  15. A model standardized risk assessment protocol for use with hazardous waste sites.

    Marsh, G. M.; Day, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a model standardized risk assessment protocol (SRAP) for use with hazardous waste sites. The proposed SRAP focuses on the degree and patterns of evidence that exist for a significant risk to human populations from exposure to a hazardous waste site. The SRAP was designed with at least four specific goals in mind: to organize the available scientific data on a specific site and to highlight important gaps in this knowledge; to facilitate rational, cost-effective decision ma...

  16. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students

    Burgoyne Louise; Shanks Andrew; Gaffney Robert; Walshe Nuala; Ryan C Anthony; Wiskin Connie M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in...

  17. Development of Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Caterson, Stephanie A.; Singh, Mansher; Orgill, Dennis; Ghazinouri, Roya; Ciociolo, George; Laskowski, Karl; Greenberg, Jeffery O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: With rising cost of healthcare, there is an urgent need for developing effective and economical streamlined care. In clinical situations with limited data or conflicting evidence-based data, there is significant institutional and individual practice variation. Quality improvement with the use of Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) might be beneficial in such scenarios. The SCAMPs method has never before been reported to be utilized in plastic surgery. Me...

  18. Process Assessment Issues of the ISO/IEC 29110 emerging standard

    Ribaud, Vincent; Saliou, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The emerging ISO/IEC 29110 standard "Software Engineering - Lifecycle Profiles for Very Small Entities (VSE)" is an ISO initiative to provide Very Small Entities (VSE) with a suitable set of profiles for Process Assessment and Process Improvement. The approach is conforming to ISO 15504 2-D model of process capability: a process dimension based on a Process Reference Model (PRM), and a capability dimension with a set of process attributes grouped into capability levels. The ISO/IEC 29110 stan...

  19. Assessment of Medical Students’ Shared Decision-Making in Standardized Patient Encounters

    Karen E. Hauer; Fernandez, Alicia; Teherani, Arianne; Boscardin, Christy K.; Saba, George W

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Shared decision-making, in which physicians and patients openly explore beliefs, exchange information, and reach explicit closure, may represent optimal physician–patient communication. There are currently no universally accepted methods to assess medical students’ competence in shared decision-making. OBJECTIVE To characterize medical students’ shared decision-making with standardized patients (SPs) and determine if students’ use of shared decision-making correlates with SP rating...

  20. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Mäder Maria Joana; Romano Bellkiss Wilma; Paola Luciano de; Silvado Carlos Eduardo Soares

    2004-01-01

    The Wada Test (WT) is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedur...

  1. Standardized Handwriting to Assess Bradykinesia, Micrographia and Tremor in Parkinson's Disease

    Smits, Esther J.; Tolonen, Antti J.; Cluitmans, Luc; van Gils, Mark; Conway, Bernard A; Zietsma, Rutger C.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether standardized handwriting can provide quantitative measures to distinguish patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease from age- and gender-matched healthy control participants. Design Exploratory study. Pen tip trajectories were recorded during circle, spiral and line drawing and repeated character ‘elelelel’ and sentence writing, performed by Parkinson patients and healthy control participants. Parkinson patients were tested after overnight withdrawal of anti-Park...

  2. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martnez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. -- To effectively use toxicity testing data from lab tests with oils and chemically dispersed oils, researchers must follow standardized testing protocols

  3. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online 13C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online 13C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of 13C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to 12CO2 and 13CO2 respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO2, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards

  4. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Daz, Sergio Cueto; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es; Garca Alonso, J. Ignacio, E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. Online {sup 13}C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online {sup 13}C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of {sup 13}C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 C provides quantitative oxidation to {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO{sub 2}, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards.

  5. OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS OF ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS OF ENTERPRISES

    A. Pushkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions addressed to the definition of the objectives and methodology for assessing the quality of information systems (IS have been considered. The ​​basic justification motives of assessing the quality of IS at the enterprise have been made. On the basis of analysis of existing metho­do­logies of IS monitoring and control the main aims and objectives of assessing the quality of IS have been defined. The structural model of the quality of IS, based on all IS support subsystems used at an enterprise has been deve­loped. To assess the quality of the exploited or the newly acquired information systems it is proposed to use a methodology, based on the standards, because they enable a comprehensive assessment of the status of all IT-enterprise resources, including personnel, application software, computer equipment, information. The results of the research and the comparative analysis of existing methodologies for monitoring and management of information systems and technologies at an enterprise has shown that the most effective and appropriate methodology for monitoring and evaluating the quality of IS is Cobit methodology, which the authors of this work assumed as a basis for the research. The structure and characteristics of the functional components of the information system, which most accurately describe the actual state of automation of information processing and traditionally used at many enterprises for management purposes have been described. The resulting structure is used to develop a model of assessing the quality of IS. Having determined the quality of each component, one can talk about the quality of IS in general. Thus, it is possible to obtain the adequate data on the state of an enterprise information system to determine its level of compliance with the standards and to evaluate its quality. The results of this work can be used to develop practical methods based on experts estimates, which will adapt the Cobit standard to Ukrainian reality and will allow more objective and fair evaluation of the quality of enterprises' IS. On the ground of the methodology based on standards it is expected to develop a model of information systems quality management at an enterprise, providing two control loops: for the executive director and director of infor­mation technology. This approach will improve the theoretical developments in the field of quality assessment of enterprise information systems and develop a practical methodology for evaluating the quality of IS.

  6. Categorical data model for cylindricity consistent with geometrical product specifications standard system

    Lu, Wenlong; Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Xiangqian; Qi, Qunfen; Scott, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Geometrical Product Specifications is an international standard system regarding standardization of dimensional, tolerancing, surface texture and related metrological principles and practices in the charge of ISO/TC213. Integrated information system is necessary to encapsulate the knowledge in GPS to extend its application in digital manufacturing. Establishing a suitable data structure for GPS data is one of the main works in building the integrated information system. This paper is focused on cylindricity and the main points are as follows: proposes the complete verification operator and the complete drawing indication for cylindricity consistent with GPS standard system; models the inter/intra relationships between the elements of operations involved in cylindricity and integrates them by category theory; solves the storage format and closure of query for the categorical data model by the pull-back structure and functor transform in category theory respectively.

  7. Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for In vitro biofilm production

    A.I. Dadawala

    Full Text Available A total of 14 Escherichia coli isolates were assessed for their ability to produce biofilm in-vitro by slime production on Congo red agar medium (CRA and microtitre plate assay. Out of 14 isolates tested, 12 were slime producing on CRA as indicated by black colonies. The isolates of E.coli varied in their ability to produce biofilm on the surface of microtitre plate ranging from 0.101 to 0.543 ODm. Out of 14 isolates tested, 10 were positive for biofilm production employing criterion of blank corrected ODs9s > 0.1. Two of slime negative isolated were also negative for biofilm production where as the two slime positive isolates were found to be negative for biofilm production. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 364-366

  8. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  9. DEVELOPING USABLE SOFTWARE PRODUCT USING USABILITY RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Jayaletchumi T. Sambantha Moorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Usability is an important factor in ensuring development of quality and usable software product. Ignorance and unawareness about the concept of usability and failure to address usability during software development process has led to usability problems in software product. Many efforts has been suggested in literature to overcome usability problem in software products but current practices faces challenges in reducing these usability problems. Alternatively, the concept of risk management can be used to control usability problems even though these problems cannot be eliminated totally. The concept of risk management is important to deal with usability problem before it occurs. Unfortunately, there is still lack of proper definition of usability risk and a proper model to identify, analyze and prioritize potential usability risk during Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC. This paper presents comprehensive study on the need for Usability Risk Assessment Model to reduce usability problems in software products.

  10. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  11. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  12. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of algal biofuel production.

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; Ralph, Peter J; Tamburic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this work is to establish whether algal bio-crude production is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. To this end, an economic multi-regional input-output model of Australia was complemented with engineering process data on algal bio-crude production. This model was used to undertake hybrid life-cycle assessment for measuring the direct, as well as indirect impacts of producing bio-crude. Overall, the supply chain of bio-crude is more sustainable than that of conventional crude oil. The results indicate that producing 1 million tonnes of bio-crude will generate almost 13,000 new jobs and 4 billion dollars' worth of economic stimulus. Furthermore, bio-crude production will offer carbon sequestration opportunities as the production process is net carbon-negative. PMID:25465782

  13. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Hauschild, M.

    2003-01-01

    opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of......The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the...... environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the...

  14. Wireless networks. Standard ZigBee (on the example of products of Atmel Corp.

    O. M. Lyashuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The situation and prospects of wireless radio receivers and radio transmitters which use standard ZigBee is examined in this work. The specification of ZigBee is developed on the base of international standard of IEEE 802.15.4 for creation inexpensive wireless networks for transmission small amount of information with low-power consumption. Main feature of ZigBee is support of not only simple topologies of wireless connection but also difficult wireless networks at relatively low energy consumption. Products of company Atmel have the best support of ZigBee technology. ZigBee is used in the industrial monitoring systems, in a medical equipment, can be integrated in the systems of production process automation.

  15. Neutral Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative standard model

    We study the Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative extension of the standard model using the Seiberg-Witten map of this to the first order of the noncommutative parameter Θμν. Unlike the standard model (where the process is forbidden) here the Higgs boson pair directly interacts with the photon. We find that the pair production cross section can be quite significant for the noncommutative scale Λ lying in the range 0.5 TeV to 1.0 TeV. Using the experimental (LEP 2, Tevatron, and global electroweak fit) bound on the Higgs mass, we obtain 626 GeV≤Λ≤974 GeV.

  16. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon...... footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF...... operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon...

  17. Assessment of the quality of durum wheat products by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence video image analysis

    Novales, Bruno; Abecassis, Joel; Bertrand, Dominique; Devaux, Marie-Francoise; Robert, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Because assessment of Durum wheat semolina purity by standard ash-test has been widely criticized, we attempted to characterize products of a semolina mill by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging. A collection of milled wheat products ranging from very pure semolina to brans were chosen for this study. Multidimensional statistical analyses (Principal component analyses) were applied to the spectral and image data. Maps showing a classification of the products according to purity were obtained without biochemical calibration. Principal component regression was applied to the data in order to test the relationship of aleurone fluorescence to ash content. Both spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging gave similar results with good determination coefficients (r2 equals 0.97 and 0.92) for the study of a single wheat variety. Products obtained from different wheat varieties were more difficult to compare.

  18. Establishing a standard guideline for new product launch process in Kärcher Oy.

    Havikari, Olli-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to define a standard guideline for the launch of new products in Kärcher Oy. The need for such a guideline is evident as no agreed process exists, resulting in miscommunication and lost synergies within the organization as new products are launched on the market. This research is written from the point of view of the sales department, and pin-points any missing or non-value added activities specifically related to this group of people. Theoretical, academic...

  19. GM-free private standards, public regulation of GM products and mass media

    M. Vigani; A. Olper

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors inducing retailers to adopt genetically modified (GM)-free private standards, using information on 44 retailers operating in 54 countries. Retailers are distinguished between those not using GM ingredients and those using ingredientswhich are potentiallyGMin their private label products. Results from a binary response model show that many of the drivers highlighted in the empirical literature, such as historical factors, communication infrastructure and sectori...

  20. Advertising in a Competitive Market: The Role of Product Standards, Customer Learning, and Switching Costs

    Anderson, Eric T.; Simester, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Standard models of competition predict that firms will sell less when competitors target their customers with advertising. This is particularly true in mature markets with many competitors that sell relatively undifferentiated products. However, the authors present findings from a large-scale randomized field experiment that contrast sharply with this prediction. The field experiment measures the impact of competitors' advertising on sales at a private label apparel retailer. Surprisingly, fo...

  1. Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents

    Lečić Danica

    2005-01-01

    Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A) and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B). For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process ...

  2. Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings

    Denis Helic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

  3. Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production

    NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

  4. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events. PMID:25976848

  5. Regional drought assessment using a distributed hydrological model coupled with Standardized Runoff Index

    Shen, H.; Yuan, F.; Ren, L.; Ma, M.; Kong, H.; Tong, R.

    2015-05-01

    Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) was coupled with a modified standardized runoff index (SRI) for drought assessment in the Weihe River basin, northwest China. The result indicates that the coupled model is capable of reasonably reproducing the spatial distribution of drought occurrence. It reflected the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improved the physical mechanism of SRI. This model also has potential for drought forecasting, early warning and mitigation, given that accurate meteorological forcing data are available.

  6. Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas

    Rosalia Filippini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (beef and lamb in the urban region of Pisa, a medium-sized Italian city. The capacity of periurban livestock farms for meat production to fulfil urban demand was assessed on the basis of meat supply and demand. We derived meat demand from statistical data, whereas we calculated meat supply on the basis of three estimates (i.e. potential, current, actual meat supply taking into account both statistical and on-farm survey data. In particular, the potential meat supply was estimated from statistical data on slaughtered livestock, the current meat supply was estimated from meat production data of on-farm surveys, while the actual meat supply was estimated from the amount of meat sold by farmers on the local market from onfarm surveys. For the urban region of Pisa, we estimated that the potential meat supply met is equal to 16% of the beef demand and 62% of the lamb demand. This data could change, if the on-farm data is taken into account in the current supply, as was the case with lamb, which decreased to 37%, whereas beef remained almost unchanged (14%. The actual supply was 70% and 10% of the current supply for beef and lamb respectively. We identified some gaps between the three estimates, particularly for lamb production, suggesting that it may have some constraints in terms of production and commercialisation. Our results can contribute to assess local food systems and their drivers at the farm level. Furthermore these results also highlight the need for an agronomical approach to food systems based on the analysis of farm activities located in periurban areas in order to quantify the food supply that is actually produced for the local market. Food planning policies, as well as studies at the local level, could take advantage from this method.

  7. Capturing Tacit Knowledge for Assessing Employees' Competency and Productivity

    M. A. Jabar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Organization has to evaluate the competencies of their workers to improve organizational productivity. However, this is difficult because organizations have difficulties to capture and retain knowledge especially tacit knowledge of their employees. Approach: The study reviewed selected literature on management knowledge and employers competencies. It also reviewed existing frameworks in knowledge management focusing on the capturing and storing tacit knowledge. Results: Results of this study will include theoretical concept for capturing tacit knowledge and storing them besides developing a model for measuring employee’s competencies in the organization. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study contributes in assessing knowledge workers performance to improve their productivity in an organization.

  8. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS

    SECAN Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

  10. Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories to...... include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques...

  11. Assessing the productivity function of soils. A review

    Mueller, Lothar; Schindler, Uwe; Mirschel, Wilfried; Graham Shepherd, T.; Bruce C. Ball; HELMING Katharina; Rogasik, Jutta; Eulenstein, Frank; Wiggering, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The development and survival or disappearance of civilizations has been based on the performance of soils to provide food, fibre, and further essential goods for humans. Amongst soil functions, the capacity to produce plant biomass (productivity function) remains essential. This function is closely associated with the main global issues of the 21st century like food security, demands of energy and water, carbon balance and climate change. A standardised methodology for assessing the productiv...

  12. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  13. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment.

    Jordan, Scott A; Cunningham, David G; Marles, Robin J

    2010-03-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines. PMID:20018204

  14. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line...

  15. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  16. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-Garca, Sara; Aroca, Germn; Moreira, Mara Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

  17. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    2010-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the standards for...

  18. 75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard”

    2010-04-02

    ... the Federal Register on April 3, 2009 (74 FR 15255) announced NIST's circulation of the revision for... National Institute of Standards and Technology Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 ``American... DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' which will supersede DOC PS 20-05. The...

  19. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  20. Aggregate Measures of Income and Output in Canada and the United States: Implications for Productivity and Living Standards

    Chris Ross; Alexander Murray

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to clarify definitions and to produce estimates of the eight aggregate measures of income and product (gross domestic product, gross domestic income, gross national product, gross national income, net domestic product, net domestic income, net national product and net national income) for Canada and the United States over the 1980-2008 period. The article also discusses the implications of the eight measures for productivity and living standards analysis. It...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  3. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  4. Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study

    Hein Irma M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s. It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish a reference standard of children’s competence to consent, combined with validation of an assessment instrument. Results can facilitate responsible involvement of children in clinical trials by further development of guidelines, health-care policies and legal policies.

  5. Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories

    In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

  6. Exposure dose assessment and discussion on radioisotope production and application

    The exposure dose status on radioisotope production on application in China has been assessed in the paper. The average annual occupational exposure dose received by workers in the radioisotope production is about one tenth of the annual dose limit in normal situation. It less than one twentieth for workers in the radioisotope applications. However, the annual collective dose for the latter is higher than the former by one oder magnitude due to the larger number of workers in the application field. Although the output of radioisotopes increased doubly in 1980's as compared with 1970's the increase on the annual collective dose was not obivous. For exposure to the public, 131I for example, the collective dose in the radioisotope production decreased by one to two orders of magnitude and the releasing factor reduced by two orders of magnitude. Therefore, the exposure dose received by workers in radioisotope production and application is lower in normal situation. However, the facts worth paying attention to are that there were many events and accidents which happened in the radioisotope applications, especially at the irradiation facilities. The probability of fatal accident was as high as 10-3 per irradiator year. In order to improve the radiation safety situation, it is imperative to conduct the safety assessment for irradiation facilities, to enhance management of the radioactive wastes and spent sources and to establish the experience feedback system. (author). 23 refs., 8 tabs

  7. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  8. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: 32P, 51Cr, 60C, and 65Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated

  9. Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services

    Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

  10. Real Options in the Assessment of New Products

    Esber, Said; Baier, Daniel

    For the evaluation of new product development (NPD) and - alternatively - research & development (R&D) projects, the consideration of technical, market, and environmental uncertainties is of highest importance. Such uncertainties often result from changes in the markets and their environment. In these cases, real options assessment can provide a better understanding of the value of a project, since this approach allows to model management actions during the products’ lifetime very flexible and allows to select best project alternatives. This paper describes the use of the real options approach in information technology (IT). The application field is the production of a new desktop video-conference system with possible product extensions to be developed during lifetime.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED STRAW PULP AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Anja Paula Maria Leponiemi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new, straw-based fibre manufacturing technology integrated to bioenergy and biofuels production. The process is based on a novel hot water treatment and subsequent mechanical refining, both of which are performed at a high temperature. Soda process, ethanol production, and chemical defibration based on hot water treatment and subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching were selected as references. The idea is to utilise the fibre fraction for packaging and the dissolved solids and the formed fines for energy. The investment costs of this process are significantly lower than those of a soda process. Additionally, a chemicals recovery process is unnecessary. Furthermore, the process offers an attractive alternative for biogas production. However, the assessment showed that the process could only be economical in some terms. Subsidies for investment would probably be needed to promote the acceptance of this environmentally safe process.

  12. Cost of construction production and feature of its assessment

    Irina Stanislavovna Ptuhina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A lot of questions about pricing is still remain operating during work in construction. It is predetermined by entry of Russia into the WTO (World Trade Organization. That fact sets before construction branch the purpose of standards development of pricing regulatory base in construction taking into account world experience and foreign economic activity. In this article features of pricing in construction and also the accounting of expenses of contract organization are considered. Budget cost – is the main aspect of pricing. It is a basis for definition of contractual price on construction production on the basis of which the size of investment means pays off.

  13. Comparative assessment of standards development for radiation and other hazardous exposures

    A fundamental question in development of standards for allowable exposure is, open-quotes What levels of safety are the standards intended to achieve?close quotes This question has clearly not received the attention it deserves. A comparative assessment of standards for radiation and other physical and chemical hazards indicates that differing concerns may have motivated their developmental process. In most cases, the organization formulating the standards stated their objective in general terms such as, open-quotes to ensure safety,close quotes open-quotes to protect worker's health,close quotes open-quotes to cause no undue stress,close quotes open-quotes to avoid adverse health effects,close quotes or to open-quotes maintain exposure levels as low as reasonably achievable.close quotes It was generally recognized that absolute safety was unachievable, and therefore, some open-quotes reasonableclose quotes level of safety would need to be determined. The problem is made even more complex with the understanding that there can be a wide range in individual sensitivity to various harmful agents

  14. Development of reliability-based design and assessment standards for onshore gas transmission pipelines

    Zhou, Joe; Rothwell, Brian [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nessim, Maher; Zhou, Wenxing [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Onshore pipelines have traditionally been designed with a deterministic stress based methodology. The changing operating environment has however imposed many challenges to the pipeline industry, including heightened public awareness of risk, more challenging natural hazards and increased economic competitiveness. To meet the societal expectation of pipeline safety and enhance the competitiveness of the pipeline industry, significant efforts have been spent for the development of reliability-based design and assessment (RBDA) methodology. This paper will briefly review the technology development in the RBDA area and the focus will be on the progresses in the past years in standard development within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) organizations. (author)

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  16. Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values

    New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. Depending on the chosen criterion, one or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment

    Majerus Steve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

  18. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. PMID:26049800

  19. Low Voltage Flip-flop Standard Cells with Optimum Energy Delay Product

    Yang Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents transmission gate flip-flop standard cells with channel length and dual-threshold techniques and their low-voltage operating. The proposed transmission gate flip-flops have the same structure with the basic master-slave transmission gate one using multiplexers, but the different place is the feedback path (non-critical path. In the non-critical path, the dual-channel length flip-flop uses high threshold devices while the dual-threshold flip-flop uses gate-length modulation device. Three flip-flop standard cells are investigated from 0.5 to 1.2 V in term of Energy Delay Product (EDP with HSPICE at a SMIC 130 nm technology. The dual-threshold flip-flop standard cell achieves considerable leakage reductions and gate-length biasing flip-flop standard cell achieves the lowest total energy consumption in all the cells. The results demonstrate that scaling supply voltage using dual-threshold CMOS (low threshold and ultra high threshold and gate-length biasing are advantageous, especially in low voltage regions (800-900 mv which yield the best EDP.

  20. System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Jay Zarnikau; Henshaw, Philip F.; Carey King

    2011-01-01

    A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined wit...

  1. Life cycle assessment in market, research, and policy: Harmonization beyond standardization.

    Zamagni, Alessandra; Cutaia, Laura

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces the special series "LCA in Market Research and Policy: Harmonization beyond standardization," which was generated from the 19th SETAC Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Case Study Symposium held November 2013, in Rome, Italy. This collection of invited articles reflects the purpose of symposium and focuses on how LCA can support the decision-making process at all levels (i.e., in industry and policy contexts) and how LCA results can be efficiently communicated and used to support market strategies. PMID:26119764

  2. Driving Blind: Why We Need Standardized Performance Assessment In Teacher Education

    Charles A. Peck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we argue that standardized teaching performance assessments (TPAs offer a uniquely valuable resource for learning and improvement of practice in teacher education. The affordances of TPAs as opportunities for learning are identified at four levels, including those for teacher candidates, individual faculty, organizational learning at the program level, and organizational networks that span program boundaries. We conclude that TPAs can provide motivation and direction for continuous program improvement efforts, contribute to the development of a common and concrete language of practice, and accelerate the professionalization of teaching.

  3. Application of dual internal standards for precise sizing of polymerase chain reaction products using capillary electrophoresis.

    Butler, J M; McCord, B R; Jung, J M; Lee, J A; Budowle, B; Allen, R O

    1995-06-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an analytical technique which provides rapid, high resolution analysis of amplified DNA fragments produced by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, two internal standards are used as size markers to bracket und precisely size PCR products. The technique is applied to typing PCR products from the short tandem repeat locus HUMTH01. HUMTH01 consists of five to seven major alleles in the size range of 179-203 bp, with each allele four bp apart. Using this genetic marker, a population containing 97 individuals was examined with both polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and CE. Identical genotypes were obtained with both techniques demonstrating the reliability of CE in DNA typing applications. The DNA analysis took place in sets of 10 with a calibration of the CE being performed between each set of samples. For the 97 samples examined, the pooled standard deviation was 0.3 bp. The observed genotype frequencies determined from the sample set did not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. From these CE results, we conclude that HUMTH01 PCR products can be accurately and precisely sized by capillary electrophoresis using the method described. PMID:7498145

  4. Towards a life cycle sustainability assessment: making informed choices on products

    Ciroth, Andreas [GreenDeltaTC, Berlin (Germany); Finkbeiner, Matthias; Traverso, Marzia [TU Berlin (Germany); Hildenbrand, Jutta [Chalmers University (United States); Kloepffer, Walter [Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (Germany); Mazijn, Bernard [Ghent University (Belgium); Prakash, Siddharth [Oeko-Institut (Germany); Sonnemann, Guido; Valdivia, Sonia [UNEP (France); Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie [Technological Federal University of Parana, ACV (Brazil); Vickery-Niederman, Gina [University of Arkansas (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In this introduction to the concept of life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), we acknowledge the foundations laid by previous works and initiatives. One such initiative has been the ISO 14040 series (Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework), which in addition to the ISO 26000: Social Responsibility Guidance Standard, and the contribution of a number of international initiatives (Appendix A) have been essential for the development of this publication. The life cycle of a product involves flows of material, energy and money. Nonetheless, the picture is not complete unless we look also at the production and consumption impacts on all actors along the 'value chain' -- workers, local communities, consumers and society itself. Different life cycle assessment techniques allow individuals and enterprises to assess the impact of their purchasing decisions and production methods along different aspects of this value chain. An (Environmental) life cycle assessment (LCA) looks at potential impacts to the environment as a result of the extraction of resources, transportation, production, use, recycling and discarding of products; life cycle costing (LCC) is used to assess the cost implications of this life cycle; and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) examines the social consequences. However, in order to get the 'whole picture', it is vital to extend current life cycle thinking to encompass all three pillars of sustainability: (i) environmental, (ii) economic and (iii) social. This means carrying out an assessment based on environmental, economic and social issues -- by conducting an overarching life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). This publication shows how all three techniques -- which all share similar methodological frameworks and aims -- can be combined to make the move towards an overarching LCSA possible. Because it is holistic, systemic and rigorous, (environmental) LCA is the preferred technique when it comes to compiling and assessing information about potential environmental impacts of a product. It has been standardized in the ISO 14040 and 14044 and is applied by practitioners globally. Life cycle costing as a technique to calculate and manage costs, especially for large investments has been used to support decision-makers in procurement for decades, with a rigorous focus on private costs. Prerequisites for better alignment with (environmental) LCA are currently being researched and will help the further development of the method. As an emerging technique, S-LCA will play a key role in complementing material- and energy-flow-related information. Since the late 1990s, the Life Cycle Initiative partnership of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has enhanced the role of life cycle based approaches and thinking in several ways. Two examples are the partnership's contributions to the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and inputs for the development of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP). This current publication, Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, expands this work by bringing the concept of LCSA methods to the fore. In doing so, it will contribute to the sustainable development discussions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Summit) in 2012 ('Rio+20'). The text will also contribute to the UNEP Green Economy Initiative -- which strives to build economies that bring improved human well-being, reduce inequalities over the long term and which keep future generations safe from environmental risk and ecological scarcity. The publication includes eight case studies to illustrate how current and emerging life cycle assessment techniques are being implemented worldwide from Asia through Europe and Latin America.

  5. Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents

    Le?i? Danica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B. For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process by UML class diagram and standardized model of document Working Order for technological process in the form of OAGI BOD XML document. Based on it, from an example, model of technological process is presented by activity diagram (DA in XML form and an appearance of document Working Order. Just as well, rules of transformation DA to XML are presented.

  6. Higgs production by gluon fusion in the standard model and in the supersymmetry

    In the second chapter the standard model is described. Beside the theoretical foundations with the two-Higgs doublet model also an extension of the SM is discussed. The third chapter deals with supersymmetry and the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The Fortran program SusHi is presented in chapter four. Chapter five treats the renormalization of the sbottom sector and the bottom mass. It is described, which renormalization schemes are maid available in SusHi. In the sixth chapter we present our results for inclusive cross sections. Thereby the most important production channels, gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation are considered and compared. Differential distributions we discuss in the seventh chapter. Thereby mainly the resummation of logarithms is discussed. Beside an analytic resummation also the POWHEG formalism is described. The results of both methods are presented and compared.

  7. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products. PMID:25249274

  8. Draft CSA standard on environmental risk assessments at class I nuclear facilities and uranium mines and mills

    The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is preparing a draft Standard on environmental risk assessments (ERAs) at Class I nuclear facilities and uranium mines and mills (CSA N288.6). It is being prepared by a technical subcommittee of the CSA N288 Technical Committee, including experts from across the nuclear industry, government and regulatory authorities, and environmental service providers, among others. It addresses the design, implementation, and management of environmental risk assessment programs, and is intended to standardize practice across the industry. This paper outlines the scope of the draft Standard and highlights key features. It is under development and subject to change. (author)

  9. Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees

    Zhi-gang JIAO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to screen for specialists. A social science survey was adopted, and 119 specialists were selected composing 98 specialists in recruitment of pilots and 21 aviation medical clinicians. A total of 359 standard items were evaluated for suitability approval, and then the reliability of evaluation results was analyzed. The final step was the formation of criteria for final judgment. The worthiness of the items was based on the specialists' opinions. When a certain item was deemed suitable by more than 80% of the specialists, it was considered as appropriate, and when a certain item was deemed suitable by less than 60% of the specialists, it was not appropriate. Results A total of 134 survey brochures were sent out, and 128 out of 134 were retrieved. The positive index of specialist participation was 0.95, and the authority index was 0.86. 271 (75.5% of the 359 items were generally accepted by specialists as appropriate, and 27 (7.5% items were not accepted. Most of these rejected items involved function evaluation, the concept and essence of which could not be easily grasped. Conclusions Although the majority of the items in the physical examination standards were deemed appropriate by the specialists, there were a few items not accepted. These standards should be revised after being applied in the future.

  10. Quality Control & Standard Compliance of the Machinery and Products Used for Vector Control

    Ahmet Kiremitçigil, Osman Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Vector control; under the main title of “public health” is a highly complicated and “know how based” process. It is based on more than a dozen of scientific disciplines. As this process is effecting public health and the future of the environment directly, it must be executed in the light of scientific integrity. How much progress could be made in 30 years? Does new regulations contribute to the improvement to the quality of the products or equipment standards? Is it possible to detect the am...

  11. Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper

    Skala Dejan U.; Glišić Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60%) and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3) in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids). Other raw materials have also bee...

  12. Single top production at HERA in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension

    The H1 Collaboration at the DESY electron-proton collider HERA has observed, in photoproduction and neutral-current deep-inelastic scattering, an unexpected excess of events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum, especially at large values of hadronic transverse momentum - a signature typical for single top-quark production. This observation is being substantiated in the HERA II run. Motivated by this, we evaluate the cross section of single top-quark photo- and electroproduction both in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, considering both minimal and non-minimal flavour-violation scenarios in the latter case. (Orig.)

  13. An integrated factor analysis model for product eco-design based on full life cycle assessment

    Zhi fang Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Among the methods of comprehensive analysis for a product or an enterprise, there exist defects and deficiencies in traditional standard cost analyses and life cycle assessment methods. For example, some methods only emphasize one dimension (such as economic or environmental factors while neglecting other relevant dimensions. This paper builds a factor analysis model of resource value flow, based on full life cycle assessment and eco-design theory, in order to expose the relevant internal logic between these two factors. Design/methodology/approach: The model considers the efficient multiplication of resources, economic efficiency, and environmental efficiency as its core objectives. The model studies the status of resource value flow during the entire life cycle of a product, and gives an in-depth analysis on the mutual logical relationship of product performance, value, resource consumption, and environmental load to reveal the symptoms and potentials in different dimensions. Originality/value: This provides comprehensive, accurate and timely decision-making information for enterprise managers regarding product eco-design, as well as production and management activities. To conclude, it verifies the availability of this evaluation and analysis model using a Chinese SUV manufacturer as an example. 

  14. Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Koerber, F.; Schulze Uphoff, U.; Koerber, S.; Maintz, D. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schoenau, E.; Semler, O. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Children' s Hospital

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

  15. Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-29

    The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

  17. Higgs Boson Production via Gluon Fusion in the Standard Model with four Generations

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Higgs bosons can be produced copiously at the LHC via gluon fusion induced by top and bottom quark loops, and can be enhanced strongly if extra heavy quarks exist. We present results for Higgs +zero-, one- and two-jet production at the LHC, in both the Standard Model and the 4th generation model, by evaluating the corresponding heavy quark triangle, box and pentagon Feynman diagrams. We compare the results by using the effective Higgs-gluon interactions in the limit of heavy quarks with the cross sections including the full mass dependences. NLO effects with full mass dependence are included in the inclusive Higgs boson production rate. Our results improve the theoretical basis for fourth generation effects on the Higgs boson search at the LHC.

  18. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals. PMID:26775851

  19. Standard-model predictions for W-pair production in electron-positron collisions

    We review the status of the theoretical predictions for W-pair production in e+e- collisions within the electroweak standard model (SM). We first consider for on-shell W-bosons the lowest-order cross-section within the SM, the general effects of anomalous couplings, the radiative corrections within the SM, and approximations for them. Then we discuss the inclusion of finite-width effects in lowest order and the existing results for radiative corrections to off-shell W-pair production, and we outline the general strategy to calculate radiative corrections within the pole scheme. We summarize the theoretical predictions for the total and partial W-boson widths including radiative corrections and discuss the quality of an improved Born approximation. Finally we provide a general discussion of the structure-function method to calculate large logarithmic higher-order corrections associated with collinear photon radiation. (orig.)

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life c...

  1. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  2. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  4. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin 4, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  5. Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact

    Dingle, A. N.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

  6. Assessing net community production in a glaciated Alaskan fjord

    Reisdorph, S. C.; Mathis, J. T.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of deglaciation in Glacier Bay has been observed to seasonally influence the biogeochemistry of this marine system. The influence from surrounding glaciers, particularly tidewater glaciers, has the potential to affect the efficiency and structure of the marine food web within Glacier Bay. To assess the magnitude and the spatial and temporal variability in net community production in a glaciated fjord, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon, inorganic macronutrients, dissolved oxygen, and particulate organic carbon between July 2011 and July 2012 in Glacier Bay, Alaska. High net community production rates were observed across the bay (~ 54 to ~ 81 mmol C m-2 d-1) between the summer and fall of 2011. However, between the fall and winter, as well as between the winter and spring of 2012, air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and organic matter respiration made net community production rates negative across most of the bay as inorganic carbon and macronutrient concentrations returned to pre-bloom levels. The highest organic carbon production occurred within the west arm between the summer and fall of 2011 with ~ 4.5 × 105 kg C d-1. Bay-wide, there was carbon production of ~ 9.2 × 105 g C d-1 between the summer and fall. Respiration and air-sea gas exchange were the dominant drivers of carbon chemistry between the fall and winter of 2012. The substantial spatial and temporal variability in our net community production estimates may reflect glacial influences within the bay, as meltwater is depleted in macronutrients relative to marine waters entering from the Gulf of Alaska in the middle and lower parts of the bay. Further glacial retreat will likely lead to additional modifications in the carbon biogeochemistry of Glacier Bay, with unknown consequences for the local marine food web, which includes many species of marine mammals.

  7. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

  8. 40 CFR 1042.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  11. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  12. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  13. Development and Quality Assessment of Date Chocolate Products

    T.I. Egagah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Date chocolate products were produced by processing cocoa bean into cocoa powder (fermentation, milling, alkalization, press cake to cocoa butter, grinding, sifting and cocoa powder and Date fruit into date powder (cleaning, sorting, drying, milling and sifting. The powders (Cocoa and Date were used in the formulation of four different samples of chocolate mixes. The chemical analysis of the Date chocolates showed that sample C had the highest pH value, this was followed by sample B, while sample A had the lowest value. Sample B had high moisture content, with sample D having the highest. The four samples contained trace amount of fat; the carbohydrate contents of the samples were high, with sample B having the highest, while the protein contents were a bit close with sample D having the highest. Microbiological analysis showed the mesophilic aerobic bacteria plate count and the yeast and mould count are within the range of the standard. The sensory evaluation showed that samples A and B significantly differed (p<0.05 in taste, while samples A and D differed in texture significantly (p<0.05. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in flavor, color, firmness and overall acceptability for the 4 samples. The use of Date-palm in chocolate production improved the taste and flavor of the product. The use of Date palm with or without sugar produces chocolate with a different texture and sweetness.

  14. Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

  15. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify conservation strategies that can avert biodiversity collapse. PMID:26785119

  16. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight

    O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A.; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H.; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R.; Willig, Michael R.; Winarni, Nurul L.; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world’s species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3–8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify conservation strategies that can avert biodiversity collapse. PMID:26785119

  17. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students

    Burgoyne Louise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

  18. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing students

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2010-03-17

    Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

  19. An empirical standardized soil moisture index for agricultural drought assessment from remotely sensed data

    Carrão, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre-Canto, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Empirical Standardized Soil Moisture Index (ESSMI) that is designed to classify soil moisture anomalies from harmonized multi-satellite surface data into categories of agricultural drought intensity. The ESSMI is computed by fitting a nonparametric empirical probability density function (ePDF) to historical time-series of soil moisture observations and then transforming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry soil conditions, whereas positive values indicate wet soil conditions. Drought intensity is defined as the number of negative standard deviations between the observed soil moisture value and the respective normal climatological conditions. To evaluate the performance of the ESSMI, we fitted the ePDF to the Essential Climate Variable Soil Moisture (ECV SM) v02.0 data values collected in the period between January 1981 and December 2010 at South-Central America, and compared the root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of residuals with those of beta and normal probability density functions (bPDF and nPDF, respectively). Goodness-of-fit results attained with time-series of ECV SM values averaged at monthly, seasonal, half-yearly and yearly timescales suggest that the ePDF provides triggers of agricultural drought onset and intensity that are more accurate and precise than the bPDF and nPDF. Furthermore, by accurately mapping the occurrence of major drought events over the last three decades, the ESSMI proved to be spatio-temporal consistent and the ECV SM data to provide a well calibrated and homogenized soil moisture climatology for the region. Maize, soybean and wheat crop yields in the region are highly correlated (r > 0.82) with cumulative ESSMI values computed during the months of critical crop growing, indicating that the nonparametric index of soil moisture anomalies can be used for agricultural drought assessment.

  20. Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a W Boson at CDF

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Albrow, M.G.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria U., Santander; Amerio, S.; /Padua U.; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab

    2008-03-01

    We present a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson in proton-antiproton collisions (p{bar p} {yields} W{sup {+-}}H {yields} {ell}{nu}b{bar b}) at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The search employs data collected with the CDF II detector which correspond to an integrated luminosity of approximately 1 fb{sup -1}. We select events consistent with a signature of a single lepton (e{sup {+-}}/{mu}{sup {+-}}), missing transverse energy, and two jets. Jets corresponding to bottom quarks are identified with a secondary vertex tagging method and a neural network filter technique. The observed number of events and the dijet mass distributions are consistent with the standard model background expectations, and we set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section times branching ratio ranging from 3.9 to 1.3 pb for Higgs boson masses from 110 to 150 GeV/c{sup 2}, respectively.

  1. Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team. UPSAT. An international peer review service for uranium production facilities

    The IAEA Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to improve the safe operation of uranium production facilities. This programme facilitates the exchange of knowledge and experience between team members and industry personnel. An UPSAT mission is an international expert review, conducted outside of any regulatory framework. The programme is implemented in the spirit of voluntary co-operation to contribute to the enhancement of operational safety and practices where it is most effective, at the facility itself. An UPSAT review supplements other facility and regulatory efforts which may have the same objective

  2. TRIGA R a widely used fuel - Assessments, validation and application of criticality standards

    The TRIGA R (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics), reactor is the most widely used non-power nuclear reactor in the world. Sixty six TRIGA R reactors are running or under construction in 24 countries. These reactors are used in many diverse applications, including production of radioisotopes for medicine and industry, treatment of tumors, non destructive testing, basic research on the properties of matter, and for education and training. TRIGA R International, a joint venture company between General Atomics and CERCA, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AREVA NP, manufactures and sells TRIGA R fuel to research reactor. The CERCA Factory is currently the only Company in the world to manufacture this type of fuel. Criticality safety evaluations implement requirements to justify sufficient sub critical margins for fuel fabrication plants. Basic criticality data (i. e., criticality standards) are used to determine the sub critical margins for all processes involving enriched uranium. Safety analysis help to identify and update those standards to bound normal, abnormal and accidental conditions. The French criticality code package CRISTAL V1 was used to perform the calculations. After a brief description of the fuel design and the calculation scheme, this paper presents the results for the different types and media of TRIGA R fuel (powder, elements). Experimental benchmarks data were used for validation as well as comparative calculations with Monte-Carlo codes MORET 4 and MCNP. The criticality section of the safety analysis report supporting the actual TRIGA workshops was reviewed to ensure the update of the criticality standards does not harm the safety of the installations. (authors)

  3. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of these studies was twofold: - firstly to check the safety level of the French units in the international context. - secondly, and considerably more importantly, to develop an additional resource for help in decision-making, allowing assessment of the relative impact of modifications to installations or procedures and to detect, once again in relative terms, any weak points. The importance of this second objective is of course greatly increased by the fact that the French nuclear facilities are standardized. When probabilistic safety studies are mentioned, emphasis is frequently placed on the first objective. Although it may be reassuring to find that the French power plants are well placed internationally, the absolute values indicated by the different probabilistic assessments are too dependent on the domain covered, the techniques implemented and the data used for it to be possible to make comparisons of safety levels on the basis of global results alone. On the other hand, the use of probabilistic safety assessments can provide interesting insights towards relative comparison approaches offering the greatest improvements in safety. In this respect, it is encouraging to find that the design of the 1300 MWe series represents an overall improvement over that of the 900 MWe series. The two studies which have been carried out must not be seen as an end, but as a way forward. Furthermore, it is possible to improve and add to them. This opens up two lines of action for the French safety organizations in the field of probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, the latter plan to use the probabilistic safety assessments to help in the following fields: - grading safety problems and identifying any weak points; for instance, in carrying out the two assessments, two outage accident sequences were revealed whose relative importance had been underestimated. The international community has been kept well informed about them, - making periodic safety reassessments (earned out every ten years in France): this essentially consists of making a more quantitative assessment of the impact of any modifications made to bring equipment up to standard, - analyzing the accident situation operating procedures and the technical operating specifications, - studying the importance of the reliability of certain items of equipment or systems for safety, - analyzing the design of reactors of the N4 series and future types. As regards the evolution of the tool, the probabilistic safety assessments will be updated to allow for any modifications made to the units, the latest discoveries and the lessons derived from feedback of experience. Furthermore, the French probabilistic safety assessments may be supplemented to cover additional hazards, such as fire risks; extensions may be made to better appreciate, for various sequences leading to core meltdown, the corresponding probabilities of off-site releases, making allowance for certain modes of containment failure. This will involve overcoming a number of difficulties, essentially methodological, requiring a major analysis initiative which may well constitute a central feature of international cooperation. To conclude, it must be emphasized that although a major step has been taken with the completion of the level 1 probabilistic safety assessments of the 900 and 1300 MWe units, the making available of these tools has opened up a large additional field of study with much potential for improving the safety of these units. A major effort has been made to carry out these two studies. This effort will be maintained to ensure that they continue to bear fruit

  4. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  5. Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function

    Research highlights: ? The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. ? As the power increases, the NSEF increases. ? Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. ? It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. ? There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MWe and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MWe. So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

  6. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  7. Life Cycle Assessment modeling of milk production in Iran

    Hamzeh Soltanali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock units are known as one of the most influential sectors in the environment pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the environmental impacts of milk production in Guilan province of Iran through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The primary data were collected from 45 units of milk production through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and was estimated an acceptable value of 0.91. The consumption of resources and emissions were allocated to a functional unit (FU of one ton of milk. Impacts of emissions in five impact categories of global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and depletion of resources were investigated. The results showed that the characterization index for these impact categories were 1831 kg CO2 eq, 7.97 kg SO2 eq, 3.42 kg PO4−3 eq, 0.21 kg C2H4 eq and 838.39 MJ, respectively. Final indices for these impact categories were calculated as 0.24, 0.28, 0.076, 0.017 and 0.046, respectively. Environmental index (EcoX and resources depletion index (RDI were obtained 0.61 and 0.04, respectively. In this study, the highest potential for environmental impacts of production revealed for acidification and followed by global warming impact category.

  8. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

  9. A Total Productivity PCA Model for Assessment and Improvement of Electrical Manufacturing Systems

    Ali Azadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a framework for assessment of electrical manufacturing systems based on a total machine productivity approach and multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the total model is developed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA and validated and verified by Numerical Taxonomy (NT and non-parametric correlation methods, namely, Spearman correlation experiment and Kendall Tau. To achieve the objectives of this study, a comprehensive study was conducted to locate the most important economic and technical indicators which influence machine performance. These indicators are related to machine productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and profitability. Six major electrical machinery sectors are selected according to the format of International Standard for Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC. Then, a comparative study is conducted through PCA among the electrical machinery sectors by considering the six sectors. This in turn shows the weak and strong points of electrical machinery and apparatus manufacturing sectors with respect to machine productivity. Furthermore, PCA identified which machine indicators have the major impacts on the performance of electrical machinery sectors. The modeling approach of this study could be used for ranking and analysis of other electrical sectors. This study is the first to introduce a total productivity model for assessment and improvement of total machine performance in electrical manufacturing sectors.

  10. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  11. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative recommendations are provided and substitute materials such as aluminum alloys for stainless steel and high-density polyethylene for polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile-based polymers show promise to meet toxicity reduction, cost, and material functionality requirements. Furthermore, the TPI method, an European Union focused screening tool, is customized to reflect regulated U.S. toxicity parameters. Results show that, although it is possible to adopt U.S. parameters into the TPI method, harmonization of toxicity regulation and standards in various nations and regions is necessary to eliminate inconsistencies during hazard screening of substances used globally. As a whole, the present work helps to assimilate material hazard assessment methods into the larger framework of design for environment strategies so toxics use reduction could be achieved for the development and management of electronics and other consumer goods.

  12. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  13. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation associations. One central aim of such a criteria is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy resources. Increased use of renewable energy resources is considered to be an essential mean to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The liberalisation of energy markets makes it possible to reinforce and enlarge incentives, which improve the environmental quality of energy products, covering both renewable and non-renewable components. This requires the production of as comparative, transparent, modular and updateable information as possible. Such information promotes effectively the communication between energy producers and their customers and other interest groups and would thus also promote a more even distribution of environmental responsibility of choices and decision-making among different parties. (orig.)

  14. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  15. Status of characterization techniques for carbon nanotubes and suggestions towards standards suitable for toxicological assessment

    Nanotechnologies promise to contribute significantly to major technological challenges of the upcoming century. Despite profound scientific progress in the last decades, only minor advances have been made in the field of nanomaterial toxicology. The International Team in Nanosafety (TITNT) is an international and multidisciplinary group of scientists, which aims at better understanding the risks of nanomaterials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) account for one of the most promising nanomaterials and have therefore been chosen as representative material for nanoscaled particles. They are currently investigated by the different platforms of TITNT. As a starting point, the present report summarizes a literature-based study on the physico-chemical properties of CNT, as they are closely linked with toxicological properties. A brief introduction to synthesis, purification and material properties is given. Characterization methods for CNT are discussed with respect to their reliability and the information content on chemical properties. Recommendations for a set of standard characterizations mandatory for toxicological assessment are derived.

  16. Assessment of organ doses by standard X-ray procedures in the GDR

    A modern method has been described to assess the radiation burden by X-ray procedures with consideration of the standards of our Society for Medical Radiology in the GDR. The underlying methodology is a Monte Carlo computer technique, which simulates stochastically the energy deposition of X-ray photons in a mathematically described heterogeneous anthropomorphic phantom by Rosenstein (US Department of Health, Education and Welfare). To apply the procedure specific values for the following parameters must be determined for each dose estimation: projection and view, X-ray field size and location entrance exposure at skin surface, beam quality, source-to-image receptor distance. The base data are obtained in terms of tissue-air ratio. Organ doses were calculated for chest, urography, skull, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lymphography. Concluding possibilities have been discussed for reduction of radiation burden. 9 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (author)

  17. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamara, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed. PMID:26169605

  18. Standard criteria and methods to assess the reclamation of native vegetation on mined land

    There is currently much interest in the re-establishment of native (semi-natural) vegetation in mineral workings in the UK. It is expected that future planning consents will have conditions attached which require evidence that the proposed communities have been achieved. At present there is no standard approach. This paper describes a formal sample based method which enables assessment of plant community, species richness and species of particular interest at any point in time and their course of development. The method is illustrated by use of data collected for sown grassland on a restored opencast coal site in South Wales. Further development work is likely to be necessary and comparison with other recently recommended methods is suggested

  19. Standardization of natural phenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant

    Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 references, 3 figures

  20. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    Tonini, D.

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with unwanted impurities. All in all, more insight should be gained into the magnitude of iLUC impacts associated with energy crops. Their quantification is the key factor determining a beneficial or detrimental GHG performance of bioenergy systems based on energy crops. If energy crops are introduced, combined heat and power production should be prioritized based on the results of this research. Production of liquid biofuels for transport should be limited as the overall energy conversion efficiency is significantly lower thereby leading to decreased GHG performances. On this basis, recovery of energy, materials and resources from waste such as residual agricultural/forestry biomass and municipal/commercial/industrial waste should be seen as the way ahead. Highly-efficient combustion and incineration offer robust energy and environmental performances. Innovative waste refineries may achieve si

  1. 41 CFR 101-29.401 - Federal product descriptions listed in the GSA Index of Federal Specifications, Standards and...

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal product descriptions listed in the GSA Index of Federal Specifications, Standards and Commercial Item Descriptions. 101... listed in the GSA Index of Federal Specifications, Standards and Commercial Item Descriptions....

  2. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the standards for new and..., and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? (a) For each new and existing affected source, you must comply with...

  3. 10 CFR 170.21 - Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design...

    2010-01-01

    ..., approvals of facility standard reference designs, re-qualification and replacement examinations for reactor... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design approvals, special projects, inspections and import and...

  4. Life cycle assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects

    In the preceding project 'Life Cycle Assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects' for the first time the risks of deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment have been taken into account in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This was performed by a risk assessment in addition to a quantitative impact assessment. As from a methodological perspective this was not satisfactory, the Federal Environment Agency commissioned the C.A.U. GmbH and the Institute of Applied Ecology Freiburg to further develop the impact assessment methodology for the risks of GMOs. Any further development of the methodology of impact assessment in LCAs has to be performed on the basis of the standard EN/ISO 14042. There are 2 options for taking into account risks of deliberate release of GMOs: 1. allocation of the potential effects resulting from the genetic modification on human beings and the environment to existing categories of the impact assessment and attempt to quantify within those existing methods of characterization; 2. development of a new category, e.g. 'effects of genetically modified crop plants'. In order to asses the possibilities under option 1 various models of characterization within the categories human toxicity, ecotoxicity and land use (appropriation of environmental space) have been analyzed. The risks of GMOs identified and dealt with in the preceding study were allocated to these categories. It seemed to be impossible to integrate the risks in existing models of characterization for human toxicity and ecotoxicity, as these are based on exposure and impact factors. The development of a factor for exposure seems possible for GMOs, however a suitable impact factor is not possible to generate. In addition it was analyzed if in other impact categories which are difficult to quantify any solutions for operationalization exist. This does not seem to be the case. As a result, first steps to develop a new category, e.g. 'genetic engineering' were undertaken. This impact category shall enable to take into account the risks of the deliberate release of genetically modified crop plants in the course of agricultural production and the comparison of different genetically modified crop plants. For the calculation of a factor for characterizing a specific genetically modified crop plant, a risk number is determined on the basis of the likelihood of each risk category being realized. This depends on the likelihood of dissemination in a specific climate zone as well as on the number of transferred or modified genes. This risk number is combined with the number of the potentially affected areas of protection. The data are gained from the respective notification dossiers for the specific genetically modified plant. In the inventory analysis the agricultural production area (or the result of the area and the duration of application) of the genetically modified plant, relating to the functional unit, is determined. The resulting indicator is calculated by multiplying with the respective characterizing factor. This is shown taking the 2 model products Bt-maize 176 and herbicide tolerant winter oilseed rape as examples. The results of this study show that it is possible to operationalize the risks of the planting of genetically modified crop plants for the impact assessment in a LCA via a new category. The calculation of the characterizing factors is possible on the basis of the available data sources. (author)

  5. Mission-Driven Expected Impact: Assessing Scholarly Output for 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business Standards

    Goulet, Laurel R.; Lopes, Kevin J.; White, John Bryan

    2016-01-01

    As of the 2016-2017 academic year, all schools undergoing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accreditation will be assessed on the new standards that were ratified in 2013, which include the assessment of the impact of portfolios of intellectual contributions. The authors discuss key ideas underlying a business school's research…

  6. The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan

    Fullmer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

  7. States' Flexibility Waiver Plans for Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). Synthesis Report 96

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Edwards, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    All states have alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. For accountability purposes, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allows up to 1% of students to be counted as proficient with this assessment option. In 2011 the U.S. Department of

  8. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the

  9. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is

  10. Using GENOVA and FACETS to Set Multiple Standards on Performance Assessment for Certification in Medical Translation from Japanese into English

    Kozaki ,Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a standard-setting procedure for performance assessment in a foreign language, through which some of the major problems facing performance assessment in criterion-referenced testing can be addressed. The procedure, which was geared to revealing and accommodating inter-judge variability, employed the synergy of multiple…

  11. Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat under Smallholders Production System

    A Priyono

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female, type of birth (singles, twins, triplets and dams parity (1-7. Data were analysed statistically according to the analysis of variance procedure using the General Linear Model (GLM. Least squares analysis revealed that dams parity, birth type, and sex of kid were significant sources of variation for birth and weaning weight and pre weaning growth in Kacang kids. The average birth weight, weaning weight and pre weaning growth of males (2.070.02 kg; 10.4570.1 kg; 69.350.73 g/d were found to be higher than females (1.950.02 kg; 9.150.09 kg; 60.730.71 g/d. Kid production traits increased with parity, with the largest values at the fourth parity and then slightly decreased thereafter. The average male and female birth weight (2.18+0.03 kg; 2.02+0.03 kg, weaning weight (10.72+0.11 and 9.39+0.13 kg and pre weaning growth (71.63+0.79 and 62.21+0.96 g/d of single kids were heavier than twins, and triplets indicating the influence of the mothering ability of doe. It was recommended, the farmers should consider maternal ability for improvement of weaning weight and growth rate of Kacang kids. (Animal Production 12(2: 111-116 (2010Key Words: Kacang goat, kid production, birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate

  12. Environmental life cycle assessment of bioethanol production from wheat straw

    Ethanol produced from lignocelluloses is expected to make a major contribution on transportation fuel markets. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was carried out to assess the environmental burdens of ethanol production from wheat straw and its use as ethanol blend fuels. Two ethanol based fuel E15 (a mixture of 15% ethanol and 85% petrol by volume) and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% petrol by volume) were assessed and results were compared to those of conventional petrol (PT) in 1 km driven by an equivalent car. The environmental performance was studied using ReCiPe methodology and includes global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, water depletion and fossil depletion. The results show that, compared to petrol, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are lower for ethanol blends, with a 73% reduction for an E85-fuelled car and 13% reduction with E15. A modest savings of 40% in fossil depletion was also found when using E85 and 15% when using E15. Similar results are also observed for ozone depletion. The findings highlight a number of environmental issues such as acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity and water depletion for which areas ethanol blend use does not offer any advantages compared with petrol. A further analysis of ethanol production at well to gate level helps identify the key areas in the ethanol production life cycle. The results indicate where effort needs to be placed to improve the technology performance and process design which can help in lowering the environmental impacts in the whole life cycle. -- Highlights: ► The paper examines environmental impact of two ethanol blend fuel from wheat straw. ► Reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel can be achieved by ethanol blend fuel. ► Ethanol blend fuel has disadvantage in environmental issues such as water use. ► We show significant environmental impacts occur during the prehydrolysis phase. ► The use of sulphuric acid, steam and electricity is identified as the main source.

  13. Phenology Data Products to Support Assessment and Forecasting of Phenology on Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Gerst, K.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Moore, D. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database maintained by USA-NPN now has over 3.7 million records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2014, with the majority of these observations collected since 2008 as part of a broad, national contributory science strategy. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. While users are free to develop custom algorithms for data cleaning, winnowing and summarization prior to analysis, the National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation provides a progress report on data product development, including: (1) Quality controlled raw phenophase status data; (2) Derived phenometrics (e.g. onset, duration) at multiple scales; (3) Data visualization tools; (4) Tools to support assessment of species interactions and overlap; (5) Species responsiveness to environmental drivers; (6) Spatially gridded phenoclimatological products; and (7) Algorithms for modeling and forecasting future phenological responses. The prioritization of these data products is a direct response to stakeholder needs related to informing management and policy decisions. We anticipate that these products will contribute to broad understanding of plant and animal phenology across scientific disciplines.

  14. HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy

    In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

  15. Assessment of Acetylcholinesterase Activity Using Indoxylacetate and Comparison with the Standard Ellmans Method

    Kamil Kuca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity plays an important role in diagnostic, detection of pesticides and nerve agents, in vitro characterization of toxins and drugs including potential treatments for Alzheimers disease. These experiments were done in order to determine whether indoxylacetate could be an adequate chromogenic reactant for AChE assay evaluation. Moreover, the results were compared to the standard Ellmans method. We calculated Michaelis constant Km (2.06 10?4 mol/L for acetylthiocholine and 3.21 10?3 mol/L for indoxylacetate maximum reaction velocity Vmax (4.97 10?7 kat for acetylcholine and 7.71 10?8 kat for indoxylacetate for electric eel AChE. In a second part, inhibition values were plotted for paraoxon, and reactivation efficacy was measured for some standard oxime reactivators: obidoxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM and HI-6. Though indoxylacetate is split with lower turnover rate, this compound appears as a very attractive reactant since it does not show any chemical reactivity with oxime antidots and thiol used for the Ellmans method. Thus it can be advantageously used for accurate measurement of AChE activity. Suitability of assay for butyrylcholinesterase activity assessment is also discussed.

  16. Fission product chain yields and delayed neutrons: ANS standards 5.2 and 5.8

    Chain yields are the addition of the direct values along constant (Z + N) paths. The addition must also account for decay branching, especially for delayed neutrons that couple the mass chains. The result is the familiar double-humped plot of yield per fission versus mass number. The lines of stable nuclides and most probable yield are shown in the (Z,N) plane. Some modern measurements provide direct yields; other provide cumulative values for long-lived or stable products. Yield evaluations must account for each type of measurement and the degree of decay coupling, beginning with direct yields. For some fissioning nuclides at thermal or fast neutron incident energies, the amount of data is enormous; and for other nuclide-energy combinations, the data must be developed from systematics. Many applications of chain yields can use the same systematics to estimate independent values. The ANS 5.2 standard is currently in rough draft form for comment from working group members

  17. E-oncology and health portals: instructions and standards for the evaluation, production organisation and use.

    Cognetti, G; Cecere, L

    2003-12-01

    In 2002 the Italian Ministry of Health promoted the institution of a network and a web portal, E-oncology (2), for the seven NHS research institutions specialising in oncology (Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico-IRCCS). One of the aims was to gather and provide information on tumoral pathologies to operators and the public. For an optimum organisation of a health web site it is necessary to comply with the standards internationally used. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has developed guidelines for accessibility and usability of the sites, implemented in Italy through governmental issues. Many international organisations adopt rules and codes of conduct to validate biomedical information and have organised quality portals such as NLM, OMNI, MEDCIRCLE, HON etc. Some terminological standards, such as the MESH thesaurus and UMLS, have been produced by the libraries for a correct management and an effective information retrieval, and are currently used by the most important biomedical web sites. The Dublin Core, metadata standard for the integration of information deriving from heterogeneous archives, has also been developed by the libraries. The easy access to information dims the complex architecture necessary for the construction of a web site. The contribution of different professionals is necessary to guarantee the production of quality medical/health web sites, among them librarians have always been involved with the management of knowledge and their skills are extremely valuable. Furthermore, the libraries' network is essential in order to guarantee universal access to health information, mostly still against payment, and to contribute to overcoming the 'digital divide' and 'second-level digital divide'. PMID:15053314

  18. A quantitative assessment of standard vs. customized midline shield construction for invasive cervical carcinoma

    Purpose: An individualized midline shield (MLS) has been advocated for delivering homogeneous radiotherapy for patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Yet, many radiation oncologists continue to employ a standard block. In the latter instance, any deviation of the cranial-caudal central axis of the tandem from the patient's midline could result in dose inhomogeneity to tumor. A retrospective review of a single university medical center's experience with constructing the MLS was initiated to determine the outcome of using a standard block vs. a customized block that conforms to the 'Point A' isodose line. In addition, participating radiation oncologists associated with the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) were polled to assess if there exists a consensus regarding midline block utilization in the management of cervical cancer patients which could be compared to the institutional study. Methods and Materials: From January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1992, 32 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma who underwent low dose rate brachytherapy at a single institution were identified. Patients were grouped as having a standard block (18 cases), customized block (5 cases), or no block (9 cases). The 'Point A' isodose distribution from the implant was superimposed onto the whole pelvic simulation film and quantitatively compared to the actual or a hypothetical standard block outlined on the same radiograph. In September of 1995, 56 member and affiliated institutions in the GOG were surveyed concerning their use of a MLS, and the results were tabulated in December of 1995. Results: Approximately 72% of all cases 923 out of 32) at the single institution had tandem deviation ranging from 0-230 with a median of 50. This translated into a median percent overdosage to 'Point A' Right of 15% and 'Point A' Left of 12.5%. Although overall survival and incidence of chronic complications have not been affected by type of shielding, patient follow-up is limited with a median of 17.7 months (range: 4.2-58.9 months). Of the 56 surveyed radiation facilities in the GOG, 34 (61%) responded. One center was subsequently excluded as it performs only high dose rate brachytherapy. Of the evaluable respondents, 88% (29 out of 33) utilize a MLS in treating their patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Of the latter group, 76% (22 out of 29), 21% (6 out of 29), and 3% (1 out of 29) employ a standard block, customized block, and a 'step-wedge', respectively. For those using a standard block, 77% (17 out of 22) align the central cranial-caudal axis of the MLS along the corresponding midplane of the patient's pelvis on an anteroposterior radiograph rather than along the superior-inferior central axis of the tandem. Conclusions: This study suggests that the use of a standard midline shield could result in potential tumor dose inhomogeneity and should be avoided. A national survey of major academic centers further suggests that the majority of these facilities also utilize a rectangular central block that is not positioned with respect to possible tandem deviation. Further investigation concerning the techniques of midline shield construction should be considered

  19. Scientometric Assessment of Publication Productivity of JNTBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram

    B. Mini Devi,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the scientometric assessment of publication productivity of Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI. The data for the study was taken from the Annual report of the JNTBGRI from 2001-2010 which were then tabulated and analysed. The scientists of JNTBGRI prefer mostly Indian journals to publish their articles.Journal of Economic Taxonomic Botany tops the list with the highest number of articles 50 (9.11 %, followed by Zoos (Print Journal with 39 articles. India is the leading country with 54.67 % of total journals. The collaboration coefficient of journal article during the year 2010 is found to be 0.7541. The articles published in the journal Current Science got 45 citations and Journal of Ethnopharmacology got only 5 citations. The article tries to analyse the country-wise distribution of journals, collaboration-coefficient in research and subject areas in which research has been done.

  20. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in associated production with w boson at the Tevatron

    Chun, Xu; /Michigan U.

    2009-11-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron is presented in this dissertation. The process of interest is the associated production of W boson and Higgs boson, with the W boson decaying leptonically and the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of bottom quarks. The dataset in the analysis is accumulated by the D0 detector from April 2002 to April 2008 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}. The events are reconstructed and selected following the criteria of an isolated lepton, missing transverse energy and two jets. The D0 Neural Network b-jet identification algorithm is further used to discriminate b jets from light jets. A multivariate analysis combining Matrix Element and Neural Network methods is explored to improve the Higgs boson signal significance. No evidence of the Higgs boson is observed in this analysis. In consequence, an observed (expected) limit on the ratio of {sigma} (p{bar p} {yields} WH) x Br (H {yields} b{bar b}) to the Standard Model prediction is set to be 6.7 (6.4) at 95% C.L. for the Higgs boson with a mass of 115 GeV.

  1. ACCOUNTING ISSUES CONCERNING THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN WINE PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    Riana Iren Radu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important part of the global economy. Given the gap in the literature, the problems of legislation (in particular the lack of them, the controversies related to IAS 41 standard, we considered necessary to analyze problems and the way in which it it highlighted in the economy the production process of wines with different periods of aging. In Romania, agriculture is a sector with great potential, traditionally occupying an important role in the national economic structure. Thus, by adopting the accounting regulations imposed by Order no. 1802-29 December 2014 the national legislation was aligned with the European level, this framework being closer to regulations imposed by IAS 41. However, if we take into account large areas of forest cultures, vineyards or cultures purchased using foreign investment funds and the many foreign investments in livestock farms, it is expected that in the near future it will also be necessary to consider the application of this standard in Romania.In conclusion, this study is intended as a promoter of change that must occur in accordance with the current situation, supporting the idea of harmonizing the rules in effect worldwide.

  2. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East. PMID:21309452

  3. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  4. [Introduction, designs and assessment of a suture set for standard cardiovascular surgery].

    Wariishi, Seiichiro; Nishimori, Hideaki; Fukutomi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2011-03-01

    A packing system for threads and needles has been introduced with the aim of efficient operations in the field of cardiovascular surgery. To provide competent and safe surgery to patients, a suture set was developed according to the standard cardiovascular surgery procedure with cooperation between doctors and nurses at Kochi University Hospital. This suture set was introduced to all surgeries for adults conducted under cardiopulmonary bypass. Herein, we describe problems before the introduction, the process of the introduction, and designs of the suture set. In addition, we assessed the present condition since the introduction of this suture set. Many positive opinions were obtained from both doctors and nurses, and the suture set thus yielded a satisfactory assessment. Psychological stability and safety provided by the suture set may lead not only to cost reduction but also to an increased level of surgery as a whole. In addition, it may now be possible to provide simpler and more efficient cardiovascular surgery with this set. This suture set will serve as a useful model for thread and needle packing systems to be developed at various facilities in the future. PMID:21404558

  5. Assessment standards, Van Hiele levels, and grade seven learners’ understandings of geometry

    Nosisi Feza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of researchers in mathematical education assert that the instruction in geometry offered in South African schools is inadequate and that traditional teaching strategies do little to promote teachers understandings of their learners’ levels of mathematical thought. Van Hiele specifically states that the inability of many teachers to match instruction with their learners’ levels of geometrical understanding is a contributing factor to their failure to promote meaningful understandings in this topic.  This study investigated whether a sample of grade seven learners in previously disadvantaged primary schools met both the assessment criteria for geometry as stated by the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement and the implied Van Hiele thinking levels.  The data generated suggest that none of the 30 learners who participated in this study had attained these requirements and that language competency in general is a barrier to the attainment of higher levels of understanding amongst this group of second-language learners. It is suggested that not only Van Hiele Levels and Assessment Standards, but also learners’ cultural background and their specific use of words in the vernacular context, need to be taken into consideration by teachers when developing learning programmes. Possible strategies to meet these requirements are suggested.

  6. Validity, Reliability and Standardization Study of the Language Assessment Test for Aphasia

    Bülent Toğram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aphasia assessment is the first step towards a well- founded language therapy. Language tests need to consider cultural as well as typological linguistic aspects of a given language. This study was designed to determine the standardization, validity and reliability of Language Assessment Test for Aphasia, which consists of eight subtests including spontaneous speech and language, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, grammar, speech acts, and writing. METHODS: The test was administered to 282 healthy participants and 92 aphasic participants in age, education and gender matched groups. The validity study of the test was investigated with analysis of content, structure and criterion-related validity. For reliability of the test, the analysis of internal consistency, stability and equivalence reliability was conducted. The influence of variables on healhty participants’ sub-test scores, test score and language score was examined. According to significant differences, norms and cut-off scores based on language score were determined. RESULTS: The group with aphasia performed highly lower than healthy participants on subtest, test and language scores. The test scores of healthy group were mostly affected by age and educational level but not affected by gender. According to significant differences, age and educational level for both groups were determined. Considering age and educational levels, the reference values for the cut-off scores were presented. CONCLUSION: The test was found to be a highly reliable and valid aphasia test for Turkish- speaking aphasic patients either in Turkey or other Turkish communities around the world.

  7. Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems

    Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

  9. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

    2009-04-07

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

  10. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products. PMID:21816537

  11. Proposal on ''standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides''

    The Center for the Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals - National Nuclear Energy Agency (P2RR-BATAN) has one Cyclotron type CS-30 with maximum 30 MeV proton energy. It is used since 1990 for 201Tl production. The main use of 201Tl in Indonesia is for diagnosis and assessment of myocardial ischaemia, especially diagnosis of coronary artery disease, viability of the heart muscle and forecasting the outcome for patients with coronary disease. The Cyclotron facility is supported with a solid target station, two hot cells and the chemical equipment for electroplating. The yield of 201Tl production currently achieved around 40-50%. The irradiation technique and chemical separation should be improved. We are also very interested in the development of the production of 103Pd via 103Rh (p,n) 103Pd reaction. The objective of this proposal will support the main program of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) in enhancement of health care and in providing Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals for hospitals

  12. Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China

    Li-li YANG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available
    This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate environmental stewardship during resource extraction, packaging. The ratings during manufacturing and refurbishment/ recycling/ disposal are both poor, and during customer use are abysmal though it have some improvement. The overall rating of 1990s is far below what might be desired. In contrast, the overall rating for the 2000s vehicle is much better than that of the earlier vehicle but still leaving plenty of room for improvement.
    Key words: AT&T matrix, environment, LCA, SLCA, automobile
    Résumé: Cet article entreprend une évaluation générale du fait que comment la performance environnementale de l’automobile a changé ces dernières années. Nous avons effectué un SLCA et utilisé la matrice de l’AT&T ainsi que le technique Delphi afin de comparer un automobile des années 1990 (fabriqué en Chine avec un autre des années 2000. A travers la comparaison, nous avons calculé 5 étapes de la production de l’automobile : préfabrication, fabricarion du produit, livraison du produit, utilisation du produit, recyclage. La comparaison montre un management environnemental modéré pendant l’extraction et l’empaquetage des ressources. Les évaluations durant la fabrication et la reconstruction /recyclage/ élimination sont toutes misérables, et pendant la période d’utilisation par les clients elle apparaît épouvantable malgré des améliorations. L’évaluation générale des années 90 est loin de répondre à notre désir. Au contraire, celle des années 2000 est bien meilleure que la précédente, mais reste beaucoup à désirer.
    Mots-Clés: matrice de l’AT&T, environnement, LCA, SLCA, automobile

  13. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. → Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

  14. Standardized large-scale H-1PV production process with efficient quality and quantity monitoring.

    Leuchs, Barbara; Roscher, Mandy; Mller, Marcus; Krschner, Kathrin; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The promising anticancer properties of rodent protoparvoviruses, notably H-1PV, have led to their clinical testing. This makes it necessary to produce highly pure, well-characterized virus batches in sufficient quantity. The present work focused on developing standardized production, purification, and characterization procedures as a basis for exploiting H-1PV both preclinically and in clinical trials for anticancer virotherapy. Two infection and two virus purification strategies were tested and the resulting virus preparations compared for their purity and full-, infectious-, and empty-particle contents. The adopted production process, which involves culturing and infecting NB-324K cells in 10-layer CellSTACK() chambers (110(3) infectious units per infected cell), is simple, scalable, and reproducible. Downstream processing to eliminate contaminating DNA and protein includes DNAse treatment, filtration, and two Iodixanol density-gradient centrifugations, the first gradient being a step gradient and the second, either a step (110(10)PFU/ml) or a continuous gradient (310(11)PFU/ml). A procedure was also developed for obtaining infectious particle-free preparations of empty virions for research purposes: cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation followed by UV irradiation (110(14)physicalparticles/ml). For quick, sensitive determination of physical particles (and hence, particle-to-infectivity ratios), a "Capsid-ELISA" was developed, based on a novel monoclonal antibody that specifically targets assembled capsids. PMID:26658622

  15. Evaluation of a standard test method and material for low-activity waste product acceptance

    The dissolution behavior of a candidate reference glass has been measured under a range of test conditions. The data base from these tests can be used to evaluate the credibility and validity of test results reported by Private Contractors as part of the acceptance process for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products for DOE wastes. The LRM-1 glass that was used in the tests was formulated to be compositionally representative of anticipated ILAW products for Hanford and other Department of Energy sites. Replicate tests with this glass were used to measure the variability in the response (i.e., the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si) under different test conditions. The glass was further evaluated for possible use as a standard material by analysis of its composition, microstructure, density, and compressive strength. In addition, the Na leachability index was measured with the ANS 16.1 test, and the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure was run. The results of those tests and analyses are summarized

  16. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section, unless a recovery device is used. Slabstock...

  18. Search for associated production of Higgs with Z boson in the noncommutative Standard Model at linear colliders

    J., Selvaganapathy; Konar, Partha

    2015-01-01

    We study the associated Higgs production with Z boson at future linear colliders in the framework of the minimal noncommutative standard model. Using the Seiberg-Witten map, we calculate the production cross-section considering all orders of the noncommutative parameter $\\Theta_{\\mu\

  19. Achieving transparency in carbon labelling for construction materials – Lessons from current assessment standards and carbon labels

    Highlights: • The evolution of international GHG standards is reviewed. • The evolution of international carbon labelling schemes is reviewed. • The transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes are revealed. • Key recommendations are provided to improve transparency in carbon labelling. - Abstract: The construction industry is one of the largest sources of carbon emissions. Manufacturing of raw materials, such as cement, steel and aluminium, is energy intensive and has considerable impact on carbon emissions level. Due to the rising recognition of global climate change, the industry is under pressure to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes are therefore developed as meaningful yardsticks to measure and compare carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes can help switch consumer-purchasing habits to low-carbon alternatives. However, such switch is dependent on a transparent scheme. The principle of transparency is highlighted in all international greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, including the newly published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products – requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication. However, there are few studies which systematically investigate the transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes. A comparison of five established carbon labelling schemes, namely the Singapore Green Labelling Scheme, the CarbonFree (the U.S.), the CO2 Measured Label and the Reducing CO2 Label (UK), the CarbonCounted (Canada), and the Hong Kong Carbon Labelling Scheme is therefore conducted to identify and investigate the transparency requirements. The results suggest that the design of current carbon labels have transparency issues relating but not limited to the use of a single sign to represent the comprehensiveness of the carbon footprint. These transparency issues are partially caused by the flexibility given to select system boundary in the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to measure GHG emissions. The primary contribution of this study to the construction industry is to reveal the transparency requirements from international GHG standards and carbon labels for construction products. The findings also offer five key strategies as practical implications for the global community to improve the performance of current carbon labelling schemes on transparency

  20. Impact of a standardized training program on midwives’ ability to assess fetal heart anatomy by ultrasound

    Studies of prenatal detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) in the UK, Italy, and Norway indicate that it should be possible to improve the prenatal detection rate of CHD in Sweden. These studies have shown that training programs, visualization of the outflow tracts and color-Doppler all can help to speed up and improve the detection rate and accuracy. We aimed to introduce a more accurate standardized fetal cardiac ultrasound screening protocol in Sweden. A novel pedagogical model for training midwives in standardized cardiac imaging was developed, a model using a think-aloud analysis during a pre- and post-course test and a subsequent group reflection. The self-estimated difficulties and knowledge gaps of two experienced and two beginner midwives were identified. A two-day course with mixed lectures, demonstrations and hands-on sessions was followed by a feedback session three months later consisting of an interview and check-up. The long-term effects were tested two years later. At the post-course test the self-assessed uncertainty was lower than at the pre-course test. The qualitative evaluation showed that the color Doppler images were difficult to interpret, but the training seems to have improved their ability to use the new technique. The ability to perform the method remained at the new level at follow-up both three months and two years later. Our results indicate that by implementing new imaging modalities and providing hands-on training, uncertainty can be reduced and examination time decreased, but they also show that continuous on-site training with clinical and technical back-up is important

  1. Product environmental footprint in policy and market decisions: Applicability and impact assessment.

    Lehmann, Annekatrin; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    In April 2013, the European Commission published the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint (PEF/OEF) methodology--a life cycle-based multicriteria measure of the environmental performance of products, services, and organizations. With its approach of "comparability over flexibility," the PEF/OEF methodology aims at harmonizing existing methods, while decreasing the flexibility provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards regarding methodological choices. Currently, a 3-y pilot phase is running, aiming at testing the methodology and developing product category and organization sector rules (PEFCR/OEFSR). Although a harmonized method is in theory a good idea, the PEF/OEF methodology presents challenges, including a risk of confusion and limitations in applicability to practice. The paper discusses the main differences between the PEF and ISO methodologies and highlights challenges regarding PEF applicability, with a focus on impact assessment. Some methodological aspects of the PEF and PEFCR Guides are found to contradict the ISO 14044 (2006) and ISO 14025 (2006). Others, such as prohibition of inventory cutoffs, are impractical. The evaluation of the impact assessment methods proposed in the PEF/OEF Guide showed that the predefined methods for water consumption, land use, and abiotic resources are not adequate because of modeling artefacts, missing inventory data, or incomplete characterization factors. However, the methods for global warming and ozone depletion perform very well. The results of this study are relevant for the PEF (and OEF) pilot phase, which aims at testing the PEF (OEF) methodology (and potentially adapting it) as well as addressing challenges and coping with them. PMID:25919189

  2. Assessing net community production in a glaciated Alaska fjord

    S. C. Reisdorph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of deglaciation in Glacier Bay (GLBA has been observed to seasonally impact the biogeochemistry of this marine system. The influence from surrounding glaciers, particularly tidewater glaciers, has the potential to greatly impact the efficiency and structure of the marine food web within GLBA. To assess the magnitude, spatial and temporal variability of net community production (NCP in a glaciated fjord, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, inorganic macronutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO and particulate organic carbon (POC between July 2011 and July 2012 in Glacier Bay, AK. Seasonally-averaged data were analyzed on a regional basis to account for distinct biogeochemical differences within the Bay due to spatial variation in rates of primary production and the influence of glacial-fed stratification, particularly in the northern regions. High NCP rates were observed across the Bay (~ 54 to ~ 81 mmol C m−2 d−1 between the summer and fall of 2011. However, between the fall and winter, as well as between the winter and spring of 2012, air–sea fluxes of CO2 and organic matter respiration made NCP rates negative across most of the Bay as inorganic carbon and macronutrient concentrations returned to pre-bloom levels. The highest carbon production occurred within the lower bay between the summer and fall of 2011 with ~ 1.3 × 1010 g C season−1. Bay-wide, there was carbon production of ~ 2.6 × 1010 g C season−1 between the summer and fall. Respiration and air–sea gas exchange were the dominant drivers of carbon biogeochemistry between the fall and winter of 2012. The substantial spatial and temporal variability in our NCP estimates largely reflect glacial influences within the Bay, as melt-water is depleted in macronutrients relative to marine waters entering from the Gulf of Alaska in the middle and lower parts of the Bay. Further glacial retreat will likely lead to additional modifications in the carbon biogeochemistry of GLBA with unknown consequences for the local marine food web, which includes many species of marine mammals.

  3. Reduced-dose chest CT with 3D automatic exposure control vs. standard chest CT: Quantitative assessment of emphysematous changes in smokers’ lung parenchyma

    Objectives: To determine the capability of reduced-dose chest CT with three-dimensional (3D) automatic exposure control (AEC) on quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in smoker’ lung parenchyma, compared to standard chest CT. Methods: Twenty consecutive smoker patients (mean age 62.8 years) underwent CT examinations using a standard protocol (150 mAs) and a protocol with 3D-AEC. In this study, the targeted standard deviations number was set to 160. For quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in lung parenchyma in each subject using the standard protocol, a percentage of voxels less than −950 HU in the lung (%LAA−950) was calculated. The 3D-AEC protocol's %LAA was computed from of voxel percentages under selected threshold CT value. The differences of radiation doses between these two protocols were evaluated, and %LAAs−950 was compared with the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. Results: Mean dose length products were 780.2 ± 145.5 mGy cm (standard protocol), and 192.0 ± 95.9 (3D-AEC protocol). There was significant difference between them (paired Student's t test, p −950 and 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. In adopting the feasible threshold CT values of the 3D-AEC protocol, the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs were significantly correlated with %LAAs−950 (r = 0.98, p < 0.001) and limits of agreement from Bland–Altman analysis was 0.52 ± 4.3%. Conclusions: Changing threshold CT values demonstrated that reduced-dose chest CT with 3D-AEC can substitute for the standard protocol in assessments of emphysematous change in smoker’ lung parenchyma.

  4. New semiquantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT by an anatomical standardization method

    We evaluated a new semiquantitative procedure to more easily and objectively estimate the striatal uptake of 123I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET), using an anatomical standardization method, the Neurostat. Eleven patients with PS and 8 with ET were examined by clinical assessment and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were used to assess the stage and severity of the disease. The co-registered MR and SPECT images were created with fusion software included in Neurostat. On the cross section, which shows the largest area of striate, irregular shaped regions of interest corresponding to the striate and occipital cortex were drawn. Then the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(F), was calculated. Another calculation was done by VOIClassic, which is a software included in Neurostat to estimate the counts per voxel of anatomically defined regions such as caudate nucleus, putamen, occipital cortex, and total cortex. Using these count data, the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(OC), and total cortex, V3''(TC), was calculated. A fair linear correlation was observed between V3''(OC) and V3''(F) (y=1.53x+1.40; r=0.756; ps=-0.816). However, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC) correlated less with UPDRS (rs=-0.667 and -0.645, respectively). Semiquantitative parameters, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC), calculated by VOIClassic including the Neurostat system are useful and easily calculable parameters as well as V3''(F) for the differential diagnosis of PS from ET. (author)

  5. System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

  6. Qualification of an automated device to objectively assess the effect of hair care products on hair shine.

    Hagens, Ralf; Wiersbinski, Tim; Becker, Michael E; Weisshaar, Jrgen; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed and qualified an automated routine screening tool to quantify hair shine. This tool is able to separately record individual properties of hair shine such as specular reflection and multiple reflection, as well as additional features such as sparkle, parallelism of hair fibers, and hair color, which strongly affect the subjective ranking by individual readers. A side-by-side comparison of different hair care and styling products with regard to hair shine using the automated screening tool in parallel with standard panel assessment showed that the automated system provides an almost identical ranking and the same statistical significances as the panel assessment. Provided stringent stratification of hair fibers for color and parallelism, the automated tool competes favorably with panel assessments of hair shine. In this case, data generated with the opsira Shine-Box are clearly superior over data generated by panel assessment in terms of reliability and repeatability, workload and time consumption, and sensitivity and specificity to detect differences after shampoo, conditioner, and leave-in treatment. The automated tool is therefore well suited to replace standard panel assessments in claim support, at least as a screening tool. A further advantage of the automated system over panel assessments is the fact that absolute numeric values are generated for a given hair care product, whereas panel assessments can only give rankings of a series of hair care products included in the same study. Thus, the absolute numeric data generated with the automated system allow comparison of hair care products between studies or at different time points after treatment. PMID:22152491

  7. Systematic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV prevention interventions: need for standardization of measures

    Virginia A Fonner; Caitlin E Kennedy; OReilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consist...

  8. Assessment of a single monomorphic ventricular ectopy from the right ventricular outflow tract in standard and high resolution electrocardiogram

    Kozłowski, Dariusz; Kosiński, Adam; Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Alicja; Lewicka-Nowak, Ewa; Dudziak, Maria; Grzybiak, Marek; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction High-resolution electrocardiography (ECG-CREM) is a method based on digital electrocardiography. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the Crem records the technique of vectorcardiography was used. In comparison the origin of the ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) could be estimated based on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. The aim of the study was to assess the point of origin of the VPCs in ECG-CREM and correlate it with standard electrocardiography (ECG-Stand)....

  9. Standards for Quantitative Assessment of Lung Structure: The Dawn of Stereopneumology

    Georgios T. Stathopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. The lungs are complex 3D structuresstudied in the clinic and the laboratory using histologic or imaging sections. Although such 2D analyses of lung structure are considered “gold standards”, the information conveyed is often insufficient and does not represent the whole organ. Stereology, the mathematical approach to the analysis of 3D structures via 2D sampling and morphometry, the practical application of stereology, provide solutions to this problem, but had until recently not been systematically adoptedin pneumology. In an effort of minimizing the above-mentioned methodological problems and of standardizing the quantitative assessment of lung structure, the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society formed a task force, which recently published its findings. The task force aimed at comprehensively reviewing current stereologic methods for lung morphometry, formulating practical guidelines for using unbiased methods for basic and translational research of lung structure, and examining the extensions of stereologic methods on non-invasive imaging of lung architecture. In the statement of the task force are included useful directives with important application in the laboratory and the clinic, the most pertinent of which are discussed in the present mini-review. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:141-152.

  10. Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays

    Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2011-04-01

    A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

  11. Examinee-centered standard setting for large-scale assessments: The prototype group method

    Thomas Eckes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prototype group method (PGM of standard setting within the context of a large-scale language assessment project. The PGM combines a Rasch measurement approach to the analysis of examinee proficiency with the concept of prototypes drawn from research on human judgment and categorization. Experts first identify learners typical of each of five levels of language proficiency as specified by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001. Based on the distributions of proficiency estimates for learner prototypes belonging to adjacent levels, cut scores are computed by means of a logistic regression procedure. These cut scores define the language proficiency level a particular examinee has achieved. Data from 39 independent samples of examinees (total N = 8,721 covering a range of German language proficiency levels are used to illustrate the PGM. Rasch analysis and logistic regression results corroborate the adequacy of this approach. The discussion focuses on the methods distinctive features, practical requirements of its implementation, and issues of cut-score validation.

  12. Standardization of the neutron probe for the assessment of masonry deterioration

    The repair of the infrastructure will require nondestructive methods to assess the condition of existing buildings and other structures, many of which are constructed of masonry. One possible technology is the neutron probe, a prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) technique that can perform non- destructive elemental analyses in the field. It is based on a very low intensity 252Cf neutron source and a high-purity germanium detector for the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture within the material. The thermal neutron capture cross sections for hydrogen and chlorine are very large, and in masonry, these elements are found primarily in moisture and chlorides. These are major causes of deterioration in porous materials such as brick masonry. The moisture damages the material through expansive stresses during freeze-thaw cycles. Chlorides also generate expansive stresses through periodic cycles of dissolution and recrystallization in response to relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere. Similar problems also occur in reinforced concrete, where chlorides cause additional damage through corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The sensitivity of the neutron probe to hydrogen and chlorine thus means it can be used to map the distribution of these agents of deterioration. Preliminary field work at Colonial Williamsburg and Venice, Italy, showed that the technique could yield useful qualitative information. However, to be a quantitative method, the neutron probe had to be standardized in the laboratory on materials of known composition and specified moisture and chloride content

  13. Metrics for the Structural Assessment of Product Line Architecture

    Rahman, Asim

    2004-01-01

    The notion of maximizing software reuse among the family of products has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Lots of research has been done on designing and managing the commonalities and variabilities between the products. However, very few metrics have been developed to assist architects in designing product line architectures. The structure of the product line holds immense importance towards increasing the life span of the product line. Since many of the product line archite...

  14. Categorization framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Michelson, Evan S.; Kamper, Anja; Borling, Pernille; Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank; Baun, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson Inte...

  15. Assessment of agricultural drought in rainfed cereal production areas of northern China

    Li, Rui; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural drought assessment is an important tool for water management in water-scarce regions such as Inner Mongolia and northeastern China. Conventional methods have difficulty of clarifying long-term influences of drought on regional agricultural production. To accurately evaluate regional agricultural drought, we assessed the performance of drought indices by constructing a new assessment framework with three components: crop model calibration and validation, drought index calculation, and index assessment (standard period setting, mean value and agreement assessments). The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model simulated well of county-level wheat and maize yields in the nine investigated counties. We calculated a major crop-specific index yield reduction caused by water stress (WSYR) in the EPIC crop model, by relating potential and rainfed yields. Using 26 agricultural drought cases, we compared WSYR with two meteorological drought indices: precipitation (P) and aridity index (AI). The results showed that WSYR had greater agreement (85 %) than either the precipitation (65 %) or aridity index (68 %). The temporal trend of the indices over the period 1962-2010 was tested using three approaches. The result via WSYR revealed a significant increase in the trend of agricultural drought in drought-prone counties, which could not be shown by the precipitation and aridity indices. Total number of dry year via WSYR from 1990s to 2000s increases more sharply than via P or AI. As shown by WSYR, the number of dry years in northeastern China and Inner Mongolia is generally increasing, particularly after the 2000s, in the western part of the study area. The study reveals the usefulness of the framework for drought index assessment and indicates the potential of WSYR and possible drought cases for drought classification.

  16. Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products

    Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carl, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

    2014-10-01

    Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated P?eiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

  17. Bio-SNG production - concepts and their assessment

    Roensch, Stefan [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics (IUE), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    A major goal of today's energy policy is to establish an energy system with less greenhouse gas emissions (cf. ''Renewable energy roadmap'' [1]). The energetic use of biomass seems to be a very promising option to contribute to this goal: biomass can be used demand-oriented and to produce different energy carriers (e.g. power, heat and biofuels) needed within the energy system. Due to high overall efficiencies, especially the thermo-chemical conversion of solid biofuels to the natural gas substitute Bio-SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas) seems to be very promising. Therefore, it is the goal of this paper to analyse Bio-SNG production processes as a part of integrated polygeneration processes. Different Bio-SNG concepts using a gas slip stream in a gas engine or a gas turbine and process heat in an organic rankine cycle or conventional steam cycle are assessed. Based on mass and energy balances these concepts are discussed from an energetic, economic and environmental point of view. The analysis shows increasing exergetic efficiencies as well as improved economic and environmental process characteristics with increasingly integrated processes. However, the economic competitiveness still remains a bottleneck for a Bio-SNG market implementation. Therefore, two possible options to improve this competitiveness are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  18. Scientometric Assessment of Publication Productivity of JNTBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram

    B. Mini Devi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the scientometric assessment of publication productivity of Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI. The data for the study was taken from the Annual report of the JNTBGRI from 2001-2010 which were then tabulated and analysed. The scientists of JNTBGRI prefer mostly Indian journals to publish their articles.Journal of Economic Taxonomic Botany tops the list with the highest number of articles 50 (9.11 %, followed by Zoos (Print Journal with 39 articles. India is the leading country with 54.67 % of total journals. The collaboration coefficient of journal article during the year 2010 is found to be 0.7541. The articles published in the journal Current Science got 45 citations and Journal of Ethnopharmacology got only 5 citations. The article tries to analyse the country-wise distribution of journals, collaboration-coefficient in research and subject areas in which research has been done.DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 2014, 34(2, pp. 147-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/djlit.34.4893

  19. PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study

    Tychyj-Pinel, Christelle [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ricard, Fabien [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Fulham, Michael [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Fournier, Marion [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, The Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation (LYSARC), Pierre-Benite (France); Meignan, Michel [CHU Henri Mondor, Medicine Nucleaire, Creteil (France); Lamy, Thierry [Service d' Hematologie, CHU, Rennes (France); Vera, Pierre [Centre Henri Becquerel, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rouen (France); Rouen University, QuantIF (Litis EA4108), Rouen (France); Salles, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Service d' Hematologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Trotman, Judith [University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Concord Hospital, Department of Haematology, Concord, NSW (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    We aimed to compare the standardized central review of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUV{sub max} and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ≥3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ≥4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ≥4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

  20. PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study

    We aimed to compare the standardized central review of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUVmax and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ≥3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ≥4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ≥4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)