WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Exposure method development for risk assessment to cosmetic products using a standard composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a risk assessment of cosmetic products, it is necessary to know both qualitative and quantitative compositions. Currently, European Regulation No. 1223/2009 requires the industries to provide ingredient lists for finished cosmetic products but not their concentrations. Ingredient concentrations are available in few bibliographic references but in an incomplete and approximate way. In this study, we propose a method to qualitatively and quantitatively estimate the composition of a cosmetic product. This method has the advantages of being applicable to all cosmetic products and supplying concentration data for all ingredients. The results obtained seem quite fair compared to literature data. Applied to nail polish as an example, this method can be used to assess exposure per ingredient according to the Monte Carlo probabilistic method. It should be promising to assess the consumer risk to cosmetic product compositions. PMID:24636944

Chevillotte, G; Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Roudot, A C

2014-06-01

2

Accuracy assessment of Terra/ASTER standard land-surface temperature and spectral emissivity products  

Science.gov (United States)

The ASTER instrument onboard NASA's Terra spacecraft contains a moderate-resolution (90 m) 5-channel (8-12 ?m) thermal imager used to estimate surface emissivity ?(?) and temperature T (Standard Products AST05 and AST08). It is necessary to know ?(?) to calculate T. Although global mosaics of ASTER ?(?) have been made from which T can be calculated from many kinds of thermal data, it is necessary to quantify the uncertainties if the data are to be useful. ASTER ?(?) data were predicted to be both accurate and precise within ×0.015, and T within ×1.5 K. Careful validation over water, for which ?(?) is known, indicates that T for such scenes commonly agrees with ground data within that limit for standard atmospheric conditions. However, for land surface scenes with unknown ?(?), achieving that goal can be problematic. There are three main sources of error: instrument calibration, which changes over time, atmospheric correction, which changes over space and time, and the inherent undetermined character of the inversion of measured radiance data for ?(?) and T. Under ideal conditions, Each source of error is about the same size, but in comparing recovered ?(?) to ground data in several experiments we discovered that, even for homogeneous, ~isothermal water targets errors sometimes exceeded ×0.015, and even appeared to be a function of T. A detailed study showed that atmospheric correction was the primary source of error. Standard ASTER products use interpolated NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data (1° grid, 6 hr interval) and a 1 km DEM, and these data do not characterize the boundary layer well. Rescaling atmospheric parameters derived from MODIS atmospheric data (5 km grid) using a new water-vapor scaling (WVS) method removed the apparent T dependency and also reduced uncertainty of ?(?) for water to within the prescribed limit. However, all approaches led to artifacts in rugged terrain and for high water-vapor loadings, or clouds. In this study we further test recovered ASTER ?(?) data over natural land surfaces with known (vegetation) and unknown (rock) ?(?) values to determine their reliability there. We use bare ~homogeneous test sites for which we have measured surface ?(?) for field samples as well as SURFRAD sites, for which a wide range of thermal radiance and weather parameters are measured routinely over the continental US. We also compare the ASTER T data, with and without the improvements in atmospheric correction using WVS, to MODIS T data, after first adjusting to a common spatial scale. A remaining source of uncertainty for bare land surfaces is the reliability of the assumption used in the ASTER TES algorithm used to scale ?(?). This assumption is related to the maximum ?(?) and spectral contrast for a particular rock type, and varies from place to place. Therefore, although uncertainties in recovered ?(?) can meet the ×0.015 accuracy, they may be larger for some rock surfaces.

Gillespie, A. R.; Hulley, G. C.; Abbott, E.

2013-12-01

3

48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment...Provisions and Clauses 52.223-16 IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment...1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental...

2009-10-01

4

Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for two types of consumer products; refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers; small gas furnaces; and a proposed No standard standard for television sets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental impacts resulting from new or amended energy-efficiency standard for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, small gas furnaces, and television sets as mandated by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. A complete description of the Engineering and Economic Analysis of the proposed standards may be found elsewhere in the Technical Support Document (TSD). Four of the 14 scenarios for product design changes described in the Engineering Analysis of the TSD are chosen for environmental assessment based on their relative importance as design measures. Values for energy savings that result from product design changes are also taken from the TSD. The two main environmental concerns addressed are emissions from fossil fuel-fired electricity generation and the chlorofluorcarbons used in the production of rigid insulation foam. Each of the 12 design options for refrigerators and freezers result in decreased electricity use and and, therefore, reduced power plant emissions. Design changes that call for additional rigid foam insulation per appliance are of interest because they affect chlorofluorocarbon consumption. There is strong evidence that chlorofluorocarbons migrate to the stratosphere, break down, and catalyze the destruction of stratospheric ozone.

1988-01-01

5

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

NONE

1995-07-01

6

Development of plant assessment standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

1994-09-05

7

Product life cycle assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A product life cycle assessment (PLCA) is a simple or in-depth assessment of the total environmental impact caused by a product or chemical throughout its life time ''from cradle to grave''. It can be a comparative assessment of two or more products. It is attempted to promote a more thorough understanding of this concept, also regarding future applications, basic requirements and a commmonly agreed methodology. An overall view of the concept is given and probable demands on PLCA in different applications, related methodology and databases, a classification (impact analysis) in connection with life cycle assessments, health impacts and methods that might make it possible to include emissions from landfills are the main aspects of this subject that are dealt with. It is, amongst other things, concluded that there is a pressing need for harmonized, generally accepted and perhaps standardized terminology, structure and methods on an international level before PLCA can be used in relation to public decision-making and that generally accepted quality criteria are also lacking. Recommendations are given as to future strategies in this respect. (AB).

1992-01-01

8

Vocabulary assessment in standard tasks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on tasks carried out so far has usually neglected lexical aspects of learners’ production and it has normally dealt with English as a target language. Besides, only few studies present a native speakers’ baseline to compare the results obtained by the learners. The aim of this study is to analyse how two narrative tasks can influence lexical performance and how this performance can be assessed with intrinsic and extrinsic vocabulary measures. A total of 35 Italian native speakers...

Zuddas, Federico

2010-01-01

9

Assessment and standards for graduate outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assessment drives what students learn and standards drive industry. In this paper we link the two and describe how we developed robust, practical standards for graduate skills that can be used to design learning tasks and rubrics to assess learning tasks. They act also as a clear statement to students about expectations for their learning as well as to industry on the standard of the graduates that universities are delivering.

Leigh N Wood

2011-03-01

10

Measurement of alignment between standards and assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many educational systems of today are standards-based and aim at for alignment, i.e. consistency, among the components of the educational system: standards, teaching and assessment. To conclude whether the alignment is sufficiently high, analyses with a useful model are needed. This thesis investigates the usefulness of models for analyzing alignment between standards and assessments, with emphasis on one method: Bloom’s revised taxonomy. The thesis comprises an introduction and five articl...

Na?sstro?m, Gunilla

2008-01-01

11

New and revised standards for coke production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

12

International labour standards and product differentiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decades the interaction between labour standards and international trade has assumed new importance. We use an incentive based-approach to assess the efficiency of trade policy instruments and private schemes for the promotion of international labour standards in Southern Firms. We show that trade policy instruments may implement minimum standards. On the other hand, we find that private schemes may overcome minimum standards if and only if there is an exclusive contract between t...

2008-01-01

13

49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section 1572...SECURITY CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS Procedures and General Standards § 1572.5 Standards for security threat assessments. (a) Standards....

2010-10-01

14

Product standards form for new radiopharmaceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Pharmacopeia and the British Pharmacopoeia have not yet established standards for new radiopharmaceuticals on the market or in the literature. The radiopharmacist must therefore find some way to cope with the problem of establishing standards for radiopharmaceuticals which he may develop himself. Standards and limitations for each new radiopharmaceutical should be established in a responsible and orderly manner. In the standards, a review should be made of the pharmaceutical, radioactive, chemical, and pharmacological properties of the product. In addition, standards and methods of determining labelling efficiency, sterility, and apyrogenicity must be devised and maintained. An outline is presented to serve as a guideline for the radiopharmacist in setting up a new product standards form when developing a new radiopharmaceutical. (U.S.)

1974-01-01

15

The Development of QC Standards for ARM Data Products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the overall object of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, has not changed since the program’s inception in 1992 [1], the challenges associated with and the methods applied to ensure ARM data is of “known and reasonable” quality have evolved as the program has matured. This paper describes an effort initiated in 2005 to create standards to guide the creation, formatting, and assessment of QC in ARM Value-Added Products (VAPs). It includes background on the motivation and process for creating the standards, a description of the requirements defined to guide the development of the standards, the standards themselves, and tools created to verify VAP data products properly adhere to the standards.

Gaustad, Krista L.; Flynn, Connor J.; Beus, Sherman J.; Ermold, Brian D.

2010-06-20

16

Draft Standard Rules and Risk Assessments  

…can download the draft standard rules and draft risk assessments using the links below. All files are PDF and below 1MB. * SR2009No1: Pet cemetery * SR2009No1GRA: Pet cemetery * SR2009No2: Low impact Part A Installation * SR2009No2GRA: Low impact Part A Installation * SR2009No3: Low impact Part A Installation… Related Searches: biogas

17

Product Safety, Private Standard Setting and Information Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay deals with product safety and liability, looking in particular at the interaction between regulation, contract and civil liability. Risk definition, assessment and management in product safety has changed in the last 20 years, and a well recognised role is played by private actors both in standard setting, in monitoring and risk management concerning post sale duties. Post-market surveillance has become a crucial part of the risk management strategies, but the regula...

Cafaggi, Fabrizio

2008-01-01

18

Organic fish production and the standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuring animal welfare by decreasing the stocking density. This alternative model is used in many developed and developing countries in the world and the demand for this product has been the cause of increase in production amount and species variety in the market, although the model comprises 0.01% of the world aquaculture production. However, organic aquaculture production has not been developed as rapidly as organic agriculture. One of the most important reasons of this is the absence of international standards issued for organic aquaculture production. In this paper, the production principles of a number of authorized institutions certifying organic aquaculture are comparatively discussed.  

Yesim Ötles

2010-06-01

19

Standardizing products for the international NSSS market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

1980-01-01

20

Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors.

1990-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Technical Standards Products Informing NASA Quality Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewgraph presentation includes formal definitions of standards (external and internal), as well as discussions of the importance of standards to NASA, current technical standards issues, the NASA technical standards program, and provides technical standards resources.

Oberhettinger, David

2006-01-01

22

Standardization and Assessment of Cell Culture Media Quantities in Roller Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Bottles Employed in the Industrial Rabies Viral Vaccine Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain) is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-...

Jagannathan, S.; Chaansha, S.; Rajesh, K.; Santhiya, T.; Charles, C.; Venkataramana, K. N.

2009-01-01

23

Standardization and assessment of cell culture media quantities in roller poly ethylene terephthalate bottles employed in the industrial rabies viral vaccine production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain) is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-3, PTARV-4 and PTARV-5). The samples are taken in an appropriate time intervals for analysis of In Process Quality Control (IPQC) tests. The collected viral harvests are further processed to rabies vaccine in a pilot level and in addition to scale up an industrial level. Based on the evaluation the PTARV-2 (250 mL) show highly encouraging results for the Vero cell derived rabies vaccine production. PMID:20384277

Jagannathan, S; Chaansha, S; Rajesh, K; Santhiya, T; Charles, C; Venkataramana, K N

2009-09-15

24

Web Service Oriented Standard Product Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using standard components or modules is vital in product design, development and manufacturing. The current book type catalogues and those, in the form of electronic files together with CAD drawings distributed on disks or via web-based publication systems, can not meet industry requirements for collaborative engineering. Ideally, users could source competitive offers from different vendors and use their information over the Internet. The drawbacks in the current catalogues are platform dependency, and difficulties in version management, CAD file translation, and catalogue content updating. In this research, a novel “Web Service” oriented approach is proposed to address these limitations. Based on an in-house standard component and assembly library, a new method is proposed to engage a CAD modeler with Java Web Service technology. With such an approach, all the aforementioned drawbacks are eliminated. Moreover, the new method avoids hard coding of catalogues within CAD systems, facilitates the catalogue vendors to update their databases at any time. Taking injection molding design as an example, the authors discussed key mechanisms in its implementation and the feasibility of industrial applications.

Y. S. Ma

2007-06-01

25

CIABUSCOLO: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

in this study, samples of “Ciabuscolo”, a raw fermented meat product listed among the traditional products of the Marche Region, were collected from four meat processing plants and analysed to evaluate microbiological process and product’s standards.

Blasi, G.; Lanciotti, M.; Nardi, S.; Palombo, B.; Ferretti, E.; Di Giacomo, L.; Verdecchia, E.; Finazzi, G.; Pezzotti, G.

2008-01-01

26

CIABUSCOLO: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

in this study, samples of “Ciabuscolo”, a raw fermented meat product listed among the traditional products of the Marche Region, were collected from four meat processing plants and analysed to evaluate microbiological process and product’s standards.

Blasi, G.; Lanciotti, M.; Nardi, S.; Palombo, B.; Ferretti, E.; Di Giacomo, L.; Verdecchia, E.; Finazzi, G.; Pezzotti, G.

2013-01-01

27

Improving standardization of production reserves of material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems of improving standardization of production reserves of material resources are examined and proposals are developed for creating a scientifically justified technique for rating the standards of production reserves.

Rozov, V.N.; Karchenko, O.F.; Khalilov, K.G.

1984-01-01

28

ukrofs standards for organic food production  

CHAPTER II C. FEED MATERIALS WHICH MAY BE USED IN. ORGANIC \\LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION BUT WHICH ARE .... Packaging and transport of \\products to other production/preparation units or premises. ..... Revisions to \\Chapter VI C..

29

Technology assessment of RDX production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The known processes for producing RDX were assessed with the goal of identifying the process that would generate the least waste and pollution. It was concluded that the Bachman process employed at Holston AAP is the most economical process for producing RDX and that it probably produces less waste than any other process. It was generally agreed that the entire Holston operation is a very clean one that complies with all federal and state emission standards. In addition, a number of opportunities in which Holston could reduce their wastes were identified. Preliminary assessments of waste and pollution profiles for alternate materials, with emphasis on dual-use materials, were performed.

Coburn, M.D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

30

Draft Standard Rules and Risk Assessments  

…SR2009No2GRA: Low impact Part A Installation * SR2009No3: Low impact Part A Installation for the production of Biodiesel * SR2009No3GRA: Low impact Part A Installation for the production of Biodiesel * SR2009No4: Combustion of biogas in engines at a sewage treatment works * SR2009No4GRA: Combustion of biogas… Related Searches: biogas

31

Consumer products efficiency standards engineering analysis document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technical and economic analysis was completed for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, water heaters, furnaces and boilers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, central and room air conditioners. The relationship between the cost of a consumer product and its efficiency was estimated for each product class based on engineering analyses. The engineering basis for these relationships is reported. The general methodology used in making these estimates is described and details of the analysis by product type are given. (MCW)

1982-03-01

32

Organic fish production and the standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuri...

Yesim Ötles; Osman Ozden; Semih Ötles

2010-01-01

33

Draft Standard Rules and Risk Assessments  

…Biodiesel * SR2009No3GRA: Low impact Part A Installation for the production of Biodiesel * SR2009No4: Combustion of biogas in engines at a sewage treatment works * SR2009No4GRA: Combustion of biogas in engines at a sewage treatment works * SR2009No5_250kte: Inert and excavation waste transfer station

34

Alternative Bench Standards: Sample Production Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The INL has prepared four standards representing krypton concentrations of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X the reported atmospheric value of 70 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C (ie. 1.1X is 1.1 x 70, or 77 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C). A t-zero date and time of January 1, 2012 at 1200 Zulu was used for all standards. The Alternative Bench Standards (ABS) of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X, are designated by titles of ABS-A, ABS-B, ABS C and ABS-D, respectively. The concentration of Kr in air is 1.14 ppm.

N. R. Mann; T. P. Houghton; M. G. Watrous; J. G. Eisenmenger; R. K. Hague

2012-09-01

35

Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

Robert L. Linn

2003-09-01

36

CIABUSCOLO: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available in this study, samples of “Ciabuscolo”, a raw fermented meat product listed among the traditional products of the Marche Region, were collected from four meat processing plants and analysed to evaluate microbiological process and product’s standards.

M Lanciotti

2013-02-01

37

Assessment of fluctuating asymmetry on the basis of standard deviation ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical application of newly introduced indicator and integrated index of fluctuating asymmetry, based on standard deviation, is discussed. The calculating mechanism of proposed assessment is discussed in detail.??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????.

Zorina Anastasia

2013-04-01

38

SAP [Standard Assessment Procedure] - a tool for management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SAP is an acronym for the government`s Standard Assessment Procedure to determine energy ratings of dwellings. It is a rating related to energy costs; ranging on a scale from 1, which represents a poor standard, to 100, which represents a very high standard. As a management tool, SAP should help anyone concerned with improving energy efficiency in the home. This includes housing managers, housing associations and builders, as well as tenants and home owners themselves. (author)

Walker, R.

1995-06-01

39

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Row Crop Production Cluster.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the row crop production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

40

Product Standards and Margins of Trade: Firm Level Evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We address the trade effect of restrictive product standards on the margins of trade, by matching a detailed panel of French firm exports with a new database compiling the list of Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary regulatory measures that have been raised as a concern in dedicated committees of the WTO. By using specific trade concerns to capture the degree of restrictiveness of product standards we focus only on standards that are perceived as a barrier to trade. We analyse their effects on three ...

Fontagne?, Lionel Ge?rard; Orefice, Gianluca; Piermartini, Roberta; Rocha, Nadia

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal or extra-legal standards. Depending on the legal system, ombudsmen can investigate whether there is an instance of maladministration in the activities of administrative bodies, whether the administration has acted ‘properly’, whether it has acted in accordance with the law, whether administrative actions have breached the human rights of complainants or whether the actions of the administration were in accordance with anti-corruption rules etc. Regardless of the legislative standard of an ombudsman’s control, the ombudsman should consider and assess the situation described in complaints against certain criteria or against certain normative standards. A distinct set of standards which ombudsmen use during their investigation, or at least a clear statement of their assessment criteria, can increase the transparency of their procedures and the persuasiveness of their reports. Are the normative standards used by different ombudsmen the same? Do they possibly create a new normative concept? And can it possibly lead to a higher acceptance of their reports by the administration?

Milan Remac

2013-07-01

42

NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Credibility Assessment Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of its many responses to the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA decided to develop a formal standard for models and simulations (M&S). Work commenced in May 2005. An interim version was issued in late 2006. This interim version underwent considerable revision following an extensive Agency-wide review in 2007 along with some additional revisions as a result of the review by the NASA Engineering Management Board (EMB) in the first half of 2008. Issuance of the revised, permanent version, hereafter referred to as the M&S Standard or just the Standard, occurred in July 2008. Bertch, Zang and Steeleiv provided a summary review of the development process of this standard up through the start of the review by the EMB. A thorough recount of the entire development process, major issues, key decisions, and all review processes are available in Ref. v. This is the second of a pair of papers providing a summary of the final version of the Standard. Its focus is the Credibility Assessment Scale, a key feature of the Standard, including an example of its application to a real-world M&S problem for the James Webb Space Telescope. The companion paper summarizes the overall philosophy of the Standard and an overview of the requirements. Verbatim quotes from the Standard are integrated into the text of this paper, and are indicated by quotation marks.

Babula, Maria; Bertch, William J.; Green, Lawrence L.; Hale, Joseph P.; Mosier, Gary E.; Steele, Martin J.; Woods, Jody

2009-01-01

43

Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978

Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

2014-01-01

44

Usable Assessments for Teaching Science Content and Inquiry Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter reports on an approach to developing middle school science assessments using a learning-goals-driven design model. The design process for creating usable assessments that are aligned with curriculum and important science content and inquiry learning standards is described, as is the use of rubrics as an assessment tool. Evidence from the enactment of a middle school chemistry unit shows the initial success of the work reported on, as well as lessons learned from the real-world environment of an urban science classroom.

Harris, Christopher J.; Lizotte, David J.; Krajcik, Joseph; Mcneill, Katherine L.; Marx, Ronald W.

2006-01-01

45

Verification of the new CSA (Canadian Standards Association) standards for fixed offshore production structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study proposes methods for the verification of Canadian Standard Association (CSA) offshore standards, to be issued as draft standards for the design of offshore production structures late in 1987. The verification program is designed to overcome the problems associated with the lack of precedent structures and predecessor codes. A peer review of comparative designs is recommended as a way to establish credibility of unprecedented designs. Thirteen separate verification projects are suggested and time and cost estimates for these are provided. 47 figs. 1 tab.

Sexsmith, R.G

1987-06-01

46

Software Productivity: Harmonization in ISO/IEEE Software Engineering Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The software productivity is an important key of software quality factors. The productivity measure has become a tool for managers since it is used to compare the performance between different companies (benchmarking and to compare the efficiency of different developers in the same company. Therefore, it allows doing strategic planning and decision making based on such measurement. A variety of international standardization bodies such as IEEE and ISO as well as software engineering researchers have proposed a set of factors which influence the software productivity attribute, and also a set of measures to evaluate it. However, there is no unique model that integrates all the software productivity best practices. The aim of this paper is to survey the available international standards and research work on software productivity and figure out the key differences in order to propose a standards-based model. Such model will include the set of quality attributes that could be used to reflect the software productivity, and a set of measures that allows evaluating the software developer’s productivity.

Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

2012-02-01

47

Standards for psychological assessment of nuclear facility personnel. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of this study was the development of standards for the assessment of emotional instability in applicants for nuclear facility positions. The investigation covered all positions associated with a nuclear facility. Conclusions reached in this investigation focused on the ingredients of an integrated selection system including the use of personality tests, situational simulations, and the clinical interview; the need for professional standards to ensure quality control; the need for a uniform selection system as organizations vary considerably in terms of instruments presently used; and the need for an on-the-job behavioral observation program

1981-01-01

48

Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

NONE

1996-01-01

49

Environmental product assessment. The Rapid Environmental Assessment lab REAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motorola operates the Rapid Environmental Assessment Lab in Taunusstein, Germany as center of competence for environmental product assessment. The lab service is provided internally to Motorola businesses and to external customers. The REAL assesses the performance of electronic products according to the requirements of the EU directives on the restriction of the use of hazardous substances (RoHS) and of the Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). The lab determines: material composition data, disassembly properties and, recyclability. (orig.)

Riess, M.; Smirnow, J.; Mueller, K.; Stutz, M. [Motorola GmbH, Physical Realization Research Center - Europe, Taunusstein (Germany)

2004-07-01

50

Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve success in adopting reach standards.

Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

2007-03-01

51

Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolutionefficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on.

Norrby, N. E. Sverker

1995-11-01

52

Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

1982-01-01

53

40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

2010-07-01

54

Reliability of standardized assessment for adults who are deafblind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of the interRAI Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA and Deafblind Supplement (DbS. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a multidimensional, standardized assessment instrument for use with adults (18 and older who are deafblind. The interrater reliability of the instrument was tested through the completion of dual assessments with 44 individuals who were deafblind in the province of Ontario, Canada. Overall, nearly 50% of items had a kappa value of at least 0.60, indicating fair to substantial agreement for these items. Several items related to psychosocial well-being, mood, and sense of involvement had kappa scores of less than 0.40. However, among these items with low kappa values, most (78% showed at least 70% agreement between the two assessors. The internal consistency of several health subscales, embedded within the assessment, was also very good and ranged from 0.63 to 0.93. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a reliable instrument for assessing adults with deafblindness to better understand their needs, abilities, and preferences.

Dawn M. Guthrie, PhD

2011-05-01

55

Reliability of standardized assessment for adults who are deafblind.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the reliability of the interRAI Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA) and Deafblind Supplement (DbS). The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a multidimensional, standardized assessment instrument for use with adults (18 and older) who are deafblind. The interrater reliability of the instrument was tested through the completion of dual assessments with 44 individuals who were deafblind in the province of Ontario, Canada. Overall, nearly 50% of items had a kappa value of at least 0.60, indicating fair to substantial agreement for these items. Several items related to psychosocial well-being, mood, and sense of involvement had kappa scores of less than 0.40. However, among these items with low kappa values, most (78%) showed at least 70% agreement between the two assessors. The internal consistency of several health subscales, embedded within the assessment, was also very good and ranged from 0.63 to 0.93. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a reliable instrument for assessing adults with deafblindness to better understand their needs, abilities, and preferences. PMID:21674404

Guthrie, Dawn M; Pitman, Robyn; Stolee, Paul; Strong, Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody; Hirdes, John P

2011-01-01

56

24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and doors). 200.955 Section 200...HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and doors). (a) Applicable...

2010-04-01

57

Natural and agglomerated stone durability assessment according to technical standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of rock behaviour and durability plays an important role in the use of rocks and similar materials for all building purposes. Durability is a complex term, therefore the paper deals with the terminology and aspects related to the evaluation and prediction possibilities of stone durability. Technical standards offer some laboratory procedures suitable for stone durability assessment. The paper presents the results of the application of some standard laboratory methods on select types of natural and agglomerated stones, from the physical properties determination and durability assessment point of view. On the basis of defined criteria of physical properties, such as the value of open porosity, uniaxial compressive strength and water absorption, was predicted the behaviour of selected stones against ageing and weathering. Results of the realised laboratory weathering tests such as the determination of resistance to frost and salt crystallisation, determination of resistance to ageing by SO2 action in the presence of humidity, and determination of resistance to thermal shock, confirmed and verified rock behaviour conditional on stone genesis, mineral composition and structural characteristics.

Ivana Šimková

2010-01-01

58

Standard cost accounting and productivity systems--an integrated approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's hospital managers require management systems that provide better operational and financial information. The standard response to meeting this need for more sophisticated management information has been the implementation of a fragmented set of information systems products. The result of this has been that managers are getting inconsistent information on the performance of their operations. This article describes the approach taken to respond to the need for better information through the development and implementation of an integrated productivity management, cost accounting, and flexible budgeting system. PMID:2519106

Kingsley, D B; Wivell, J E

1989-11-01

59

State trends in ecological risk assessment and standard setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purposes of this paper are (1) to identify key states' activities and plans related to setting cleanup standards using the ecological risk assessment process, and (2) to discuss the impacts these actions may have on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental restoration program. This report is prepared as part of a larger task, the purpose of which is to identify and assess state regulatory trends and legal developments that may impact DOE's environmental restoration program. Results of this task are intended to provide DOE with advance notice of potentially significant regulatory developments so as to enhance DOE's ability to influence these developments and to incorporate possible regulatory and policy changes into its planning process.

Siegel, M R; Fowler, K M; Bilyard, G R

1993-02-01

60

Application of spreadsheets to standardize transportation radiological risk assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the complexity, volume of data and calculations required, one preferred analytical tool to perform transportation risk assessments is the RADTRAN computer code. RADTRAN combines user-determined material, packaging, transportation, demographic and meteorological factors, with health physics data to calculate expected radiological consequences and accident risk from transporting radioactive materials by all commercial modes including truck, rail, ship, air and barge. The computer code consists of two major modules for each transport mode: the incident-free module, in which doses from normal transport are calculated; and the accident module, in which dose consequences and probabilities are evaluated to generate risk estimates. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the development of a standardized procedure to perform transportation radiological risk assessments employing conventional spreadsheet programs to automate generation of RADTRAN input files and post-processing analysis of the resulting output

1995-12-03

 
 
 
 
61

Application of spreadsheets to standardize transportation radiological risk assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the complexity, volume of data and calculations required, one preferred analytical tool to perform transportation risk assessments is the RADTRAN computer code. RADTRAN combines user-determined material, packaging, transportation, demographic and meteorological factors, with health physics data to calculate expected radiological consequences and accident risk from transporting radioactive materials by all commercial modes including truck, rail, ship, air and barge. The computer code consists of two major modules for each transport mode: the incident-free module, in which doses from normal transport are calculated; and the accident module, in which dose consequences and probabilities are evaluated to generate risk estimates. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the development of a standardized procedure to perform transportation radiological risk assessments employing conventional spreadsheet programs to automate generation of RADTRAN input files and post-processing analysis of the resulting output.

McClure, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, J.D. [Southwest Engineering Assoc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

62

A risk assessment for a Korean standard nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Level 3 PSA being termed accident consequence analysis is defined to assess effects on health and environment caused by radioisotopes released from severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In this study consequence analysis on health effects depending on release characteristics of radioisotopes has been performed using the MACCS code in severe accidents. The results of this study may contribute to identifying the relative importance of various parameters occurred in consequence analysis as well as to assessing risk reduction accident management strategies. Especially three parameters for the purpose of consequence analysis, such as the release height, the heat content, and the duration time, are used to analyze the variation of early fatalities and latent cancer fatalities. Also, in this study risk assessment using the concept, 'products of uncertainty and consequences', has been performed using consequence of MACCS and frequency on source term category 19 scenarios from IPE (Individual Plant Examination) analysis

2003-09-01

63

Institutional capacity for standards conformity assessment: A case study on spices in Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Local capacity for standards conformity assessment is an important component in accessing export markets. In theory, it will lead to lowered compliance costs on the part of local exporters. Moreover, it may provide local exporters with the ability to contest unfavourable foreign test results and thus avoid unnecessary losses. This is important in cases where product contamin-ation occurs outside their borders. This is however possible only where relevant local institutions are accredited and ...

Akyoo, Adam; Lazaro, Evelyne

2008-01-01

64

24 CFR 200.947 - Building product standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 false Building product standards and...for polystyrene foam insulation board. 200.947...Standards § 200.947 Building product standards and...for polystyrene foam insulation board. (a)...

2009-04-01

65

The development of an Arctic standard for floating production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry uses floating offshore structures to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store and offload the product to an export tanker or pipeline system. The floating structure can include the hull, marine systems, accommodation, hydrocarbon processing facilities, storage and offloading systems, a mooring system to hold the structure on location, the flow lines or risers connecting the unit to the well head, and the subsea installations and the flowlines that collect the hydrocarbons from the wells. This paper discussed the development of ISO 19906, a new standard for the design of floating oil and gas production facilities in the Arctic. Ice management will play a prominent role in the standard, which is due to be published in 2009. The authors presented their views on some of the rationale that went into the development of requirements for floating structures in this standard, with reference to ship-shaped hull or barge units; column stabilized and buoy type units; and, tension leg platform units. The standard deals with design principles and functional requirements applicable to the life cycle of the floating structure, such as the construction phases; transportation, installation, and move-off phases; the operating phase; and, the decommissioning phase. The same principles should be used for both steel hulled floating structures and structures fabricated from other materials. This paper also reviewed another standard which is under development for the design of floating production systems, namely ISO 19904 for materials, equipment, and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries. Ice action and hull design issues were discussed along with the requirements for the design, construction and operation of a hull with respect to the considerations of the Arctic environment. The requirements for establishing an ice management system that addresses the detection, threat evaluation and implementation of active mitigation measures to deal with hazardous ice situations, including both glacial ice features and sea ice were also reviewed. The entire production system of a floating production facility should be designed appropriately for the geographical location and environmental conditions. This could potentially involve seasonal operation, special operating procedures, ice management or even disconnection. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Makrygiannis, M. [BP Norway AS, Stavanger (Norway); McKenna, R. [R. McKenna Consultant, Wakefield, PQ (Canada); Wright, B. [B. Wright Associates, Canmore, AB (Canada); Allyn, N. [Westmar Consultants, North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sildnes, T. [Det Norske Veritas, Hovik (Norway); Jolles, W. [Agip KCO, Den Haag (Netherlands); Morland, M. [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway); Grant, R. [Grantec, Halifax, NS (Canada)

2006-11-15

66

Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

1992-10-05

67

Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

1996-11-10

68

Development of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) Assessment Instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable effort in the astronomy education research (AER) community over the past several years has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important in advancing the AER discipline so that researchers could establish the initial knowledge state of students as well as to attempt measure some of the impacts of innovative instructional interventions. Unfortunately, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. This was not done in oversight, but rather as a result of the relative youth of AER as a discipline. Now that several important science education reform documents exist and are generally accepted by the AER community, we are in a position to develop, validate, and disseminate a new assessment instrument which is tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. In response, researchers from the Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Wyoming's Science & Math Teaching Center (UWYO SMTC) have designed a criterion-referenced assessment tool, called the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Through iterative development, this instrument has a high degree of reliability and validity for instructors and researchers needing information on students’ initial knowledge state at the beginning of a course and can be used, in aggregate, to help measure the impact of course-length duration instructional strategies for courses with learning goals tightly aligned to the consensus goals of our community.

Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, S. J.

2008-05-01

69

40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1300...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each...

2009-07-01

70

Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

71

Desirability of a standard notation for fisheries assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The worldwide increase of the publications concerning the assessment of marine renewable living resources is highlighting long-standing problems with symbols and annotations. Starting from the symbols presented within the classic fisheries masterpieces produced, mainly in the fifty of the last century, a first “Milestone” list was organised. Thereafter, the pertinent literature was (not exhaustively browsed in order to integrate this Milestone list on the base of a set of decisional criteria. The present contribution consists in using the Latin letters as well established symbols for the corresponding parameters, leaving free to specific use (with few historical exceptions the Greek letters in view to open a discussion among all the fisheries scientists and bodies in order to move towards a common language and better communication standards.

Sergio Ragonese

2013-07-01

72

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

2011-01-01

73

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.  

CERN Multimedia

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

ATLAS, collaboration

2012-01-01

74

Standardization of in vitro macrophotography for assessment of cutaneous responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased popularity of commercially available three-dimensional human skin equivalents in recent years has allowed for assessment of melanogenesis modulated by compounds topically applied to the skin or directly incorporated from the medium. These skin equivalents provide a suitable model for elucidating the mechanisms of action of various factors that modulate skin pigmentation or other properties of the skin. As such, researchers need to objectively quantify cutaneous responses at the macroscopic level. A simple method to standardize macrophotography images is reported that can quantify cutaneous responses in human skin equivalents of Asian, Black or African American, and Caucasian or White racial/ethnic origin. Macrophotographs are analyzed using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color space system in combination with a personal computer and image editing software. Pigmentation changes monitored over a 9 day period showed a high correlation with melanin content evaluated in Fontana-Masson-stained sections. These results indicate the feasibility of using a macrophotography setup in a sterile tissue culture environment to objectively assess in vitro cutaneous responses in human skin equivalents. This serves as an adjunct tool to biochemical and morphological methods to effectively quantify changes in pigmentation over time. PMID:19320841

Coelho, Sergio G; Koo, Eubee; Hearing, Vincent J

2009-01-01

75

[Ergonomic assessment of main activities in grana padano cheese production].  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this work is to describe results obtained by risk assessment of biomechanical overload for workers involved in grana padano cheese production: from breeding to obtain milk to the finished product in dairy. To analyze operation tasks authors used video recordings, interviewed operators and visited workplaces in order to proceed with evaluation instruments, using internationally recognized technical standards ISO 11228, such as OCRA, NIOSH and Snook and Ciriello's studies. The results show significant risk of biomechanical overload for spine and upper limbs both in breeding and in dairy. PMID:23405598

Santini, M; Buratti, G; Dellera, L; Mosconi, G

2012-01-01

76

Student's Video Production as Formative Assessment  

CERN Document Server

Learning assessments are subject of discussions that envolve theoretical and practical approaches. To measure learning in physics by high school students, either qualitatively or quantitatively, is a process in which it should be possible to identify not only the concepts and contents students failed to achieve but also the reasons of the failure. We propose that students' video production offers a very effective formative assessment to teachers: as a formative assessment, it produces information that allows the understanding of where and when the learning process succeeded or failed, of identifying, as a subject or as a group, the defficiencies or misunderstandings related to the theme under analysis and their interpretation by students, and it provides also a different kind of assessment, related to some other life skills, like the ability to carry a project to its conclusion and to work cooperatively. In this paper, we describe the use of videos produced by high school students as an assessment resource. T...

Gama, Eduardo

2013-01-01

77

Risk assessment of plant protection products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides in view of the future dialogue between risk managers and risk assessors during the next steps of the revision of the ecotoxicology guidance documents.

Hardy T

2012-10-01

78

Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment. Operational Guide to the ISO Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1992 the Centre of Environmental Science (CML) at Leiden University, The Netherlands, published a Guide on Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, setting the standard for a long time. Since then LCA methodology has progressed enormously and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a series of Standards on LCA. These developments have now been incorporated into a new Handbook on LCA authored by CML in cooperation with a number of other important institutes in the area of LCA. The general aim of this Handbook on LCA is to provide a stepwise 'cookbook' with operational guidelines for conducting an LCA study step-by-step, justified by a scientific background document, based on the ISO Standards for LCA. The different ISO elements and requirements are made operational to the 'best available practice' for each step. CML is strongly involved in the development of a standard methodology to determine environmental impacts of products, i.e., LCA. This is done within international fora such as the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

Guinee, J.B. [Centre of Environmental Studies, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

2002-04-01

79

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

2011-10-31

80

Status of the ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) products  

Science.gov (United States)

The ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) is thus far succesfully flying and producing radiation data on Proba-1, INTEGRAL, Rosetta, Giove-B, Herschel and Planck missions, with the environments covering LEO, MEO, highly elliptical orbit, L2, and the in-terplanetary space. This presentation will outline the main SREM results to date from these various missions, and will give an overview of the present efforts taken to process the SREM data from raw particle count rates to proton and electron fluxes. Interfaces to various envi-ronment modelling activities and other higher level products are also discussed. Lessons learnt from the SREM programme will be summarised with the aim of facilitating future radiation monitor development and data processing / utilisation efforts.

Nieminen, Petteri; Anastasiadis, A.; Bühler, P.; Daglis, I.; Daly, E.; Desorgher, L.; Evans, H.; Hajdas, W.; Lyons, J.; Marinov, D.; Nieminen, P.; Sandberg, I.; Siegl, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Zadeh, A.

 
 
 
 
81

Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variatio...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

82

78 FR 51695 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period  

Science.gov (United States)

...Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period...formaldehyde emissions standards for composite wood products. After receiving requests for...recordkeeping requirements, Toxic substances, Wood. Dated: August 15, 2013. Louise...

2013-08-21

83

78 FR 44089 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period  

Science.gov (United States)

...Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period...formaldehyde emissions standards for composite wood products. This document extends the comment...recordkeeping requirements, Toxic substances, Wood. Dated: July 17, 2013. James...

2013-07-23

84

Assessment of hypoallergenicity of ten skincare products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensitive skin is a common skin complaint frequently associated with skin diseases or adverse reactions to cosmetic products. Manufacturers have produced numerous products targeted for patients with sensitive skin and frequently label these products as being hypoallergenic. This term implies that the product may be less likely to cause an allergic reaction and be better suited for those with sensitive skin. However, there is no federal regulatory definition of this term and products may not have clinical support of their claim. Patch testing ingredients is frequently done to identify potential irritants; however, patch-testing product formulations may provide more realistic expectations about potential skin sensitivity and help support claims of hypoallergenicity. Ten skincare products were assessed for their sensitizing potential and hypoallergenicity in 14 repeat insult patch test clinical studies, involving over 2,000 subjects. In these studies, the products were deemed to be hypoallergenic if there was no evidence of sensitization or allergic reactions. The results from these trials demonstrated that all ten products were well tolerated, showed no sensitization or allergic reactions, and support claims of hypoallergenicity. PMID:24595569

Brandt, Staci; Lio, Peter

2014-03-01

85

Safety standards for near surface disposal and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the safety standards for near surface disposal (ICRP guidance and IAEA standards) and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards. Special attention is paid to the recommendations for disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The requirements are based on the principle for the same level of protection of future individuals as for the current generation. Two types of exposure are considered: human intrusion and natural processes and protection measures are discussed. Safety requirements for near surface disposal are discussed including requirements for protection of human health and environment, requirements or safety assessments, waste acceptance and requirements etc

2003-12-01

86

Energy Saving Recommended: Delivering improved product standards, market presence and quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the home equate to 27 % of UK total emissions. In order for consumers to use less energy, and reduce their environmental impact, the Energy Saving Recommended (ESR) voluntary product labelling scheme for domestic energy saving products was established to direct the consumer to choose better products and make smarter choices. With over 2000 certified products, ESR is present across 5 sectors and covers 24 product categories; 9 sets of standards were reviewed and revised in 2005/6 and a further 13 were delivered in 2006/7. ESR is now implementing existing and developing new standards in consumer electronics - from integrated digital televisions and recorders, to intelligent mains sockets and set-top-boxes, as well as assessing the feasibility of endorsing domestic ICT equipment. The Energy Saving Trust, through its marketing activities, acts as an enabler to make energy saving action simpler, easier and cheaper for the consumer to undertake. Using a variety of communication strategies the trade is engaged through the provision of value added member benefits; a holistic approach is taken with key partners to integrate energy efficiency throughout their businesses. Merchandising support helps product standards to be implemented in the market place; evaluation and research work demonstrates that markets can be changed and shows a 1 in 3 label recognition rate. The credibility and integrity of the label are reinforced through compliance testing, in-store and online label monitoring and legal enforcement, frequent data checks and the integration of ISO best practice standards through the certification system.

Lock, Tom; Galvanoni, Frances [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

87

Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

2003-01-01

88

Pursuing Credibility Through Standardization: The Potential for Canadian Product Category Rules to Enhance the Comparability of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Claims of Alberta's Oil Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy, transparency, and comparability of life cycle estimates are central to the controversy over the use of life cycle assessment to support policy. This thesis examines the potential for a Canadian formal voluntary standard to create product category rules for crude oil products. Such a standard would be developed at the Canadian Standards Association, and may enhance the credibility and improve the comparability of greenhouse gas emissions claims of Alberta's oil sands products. A case study is developed as a narrative of key stakeholders in the proposed standard's development, and interview findings are compared with hypotheses derived from standards literature. Challenges facing consensus in life cycle assessment were found to parallel those facing standards development organizations. Novel findings indicate widespread disagreement with the use of life cycle assessment to support regulation, substantial differences in the desired prescriptiveness of the standard, and a heavy focus placed on its revision post-implementation.

Rainville, Anne Marie

89

1989 annual book of ASTM standards. Section 5: Petroleum products, lubricants and fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume of standards pertains to petroleum products and lubricants and to catalysts. The standards presented include: Standard test method for estimation of net and gross heat of combustion of petroleum fuels; Standard guide for generation and dissipation of static electricity in petroleum fuel systems; and Standard test method for solidification point of petroleum wax.

1989-01-01

90

77 FR 75362 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...similar to the current basic carrier route...Door) prices. Marketing parcels in general...Standard Mail--Marketing Parcel and Product...3.0 Basic Standards for Standard...Standards 6.1.1 Basic Standards and Optional...Samples are a type of Marketing parcels. See...

2012-12-20

91

Comparing Apples and Oranges: Using the National Science Education Standards as a Tool When Assessing Scientific Understandings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) present a vision where students are active learners who use inquiry and who create products to represent their emergent understandings. However, educators may find it challenging both to assess student achievement and to communicate students achievement effectively to educational stakeholders.…

Talsma, Valerie L.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

92

76 FR 25355 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations AGENCY: Office...Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule...

2011-05-04

93

78 FR 29134 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations AGENCY: Office...Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule...

2013-05-17

94

77 FR 23250 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations AGENCY: Office...Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule...

2012-04-18

95

International Financial Standards: Assessing Effectiveness from the Private Sector Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates market participants’ endorsement of international financial standards. While the most part of scholarship works has focused on market incentives for states to comply, we shift the focus of the analysis to the incentives for market participants. Why do markets participants choose to follow through the standard and to incorporate states’ compliance with international standards in their investment decisions? In answering this question, the paper develops two hypotheses...

Moschella, Manuela

2009-01-01

96

Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the sp...

Ruban, Anna

2012-01-01

97

RE/H2 Production Micro-System Based on Standard Alkaline Electrolytic Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first task of a more comprehensive research project focused on the development of micro-scale (1-20 kW) Renewable Hydrogen (RE/H2) production systems oriented to carry on a wide campaign of educational and demonstration projects. The paper proposes to rely on low-cost and rugged 'standard' alkaline electrolytic technology, well suited for decentralized hydrogen production, but requiring a certain R and D effort to get technical competitiveness. An electrolyser test facility has been designed and carried out. Then performance assessment of a commercial electrolyser and its sub-systems has been accomplished. First experimental results stated that the unit under test gets an average production efficiency of 51%, versus a stack (cell) efficiency of about 62%, while the aged AC/DC power converter, to be removed or replaced to adapt the unit to DC link with renewables, requires more than 16% of the incoming power. (authors)

2006-06-13

98

Product unconformable in the light of legal regulations and the ISO 9001:2000 standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.

Justyna Górna

2009-01-01

99

Who will set the standards for groups that set industry product standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the stifling effects resulting from standards written and published by about 400 private groups, such as American Society for Testing Materials, Society of Automotive Engineers, American Nuclear Society, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, etc. He cites the fact that 90% of the Food and Drug Admnistration's standards set for about 1200 medical devices will be based on voluntary standards. Local and state governments also incorporate voluntary standards to the distress of any new company or inventor wanting to enter competitive marketing. The author cites examples that Congress has little power over these voluntary standard-setters. (PSB)

Singer, J.W.

1980-05-03

100

SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium Common Core State Standards Analysis: Eligible Content for the Summative Assessment. Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a descriptive analysis of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), intended to determine which content is eligible for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium's end-of-year summative assessment for English language arts (ELA) and mathematics in grades 3-8 and high school. The high school standards analyzed were those in grades…

Sato, Edynn; Lagunoff, Rachel; Worth, Peter

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The impact of national standards assessment in New Zealand, and national testing protocols in Norway on indigenous schooling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper first provides a critic of the implementation of compulsory national assessment protocols internationally, and then nationally through a review of the implementation process used for the introduction of National Standards in New Zealand, and National Testing in Norwegian mainstream schools. It then reviews the impact of these two assessment regimes on indigenous Mãori and Sámi -medium schools in the context of historic policies of marginalisation and assimilation. Finally, it notes the crucial role of each national government in securing funding for the production of culturally responsive National Standards and National Testing in the effort of both indigenous groups to protect their languages and cultures.

Kamil ÖZERK

2012-01-01

102

Standardization of Test for Assessment and Comparing of Students’ Measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study Standardized Economics Achievement Test for senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The standardized test in Economics was first constructed by an expert as a valid and reliable instrument. The test was then used for standardization in this study. That is, ensuring that the Economics achievement test is standardized. It was administered to 3,000 students using the same guidelines with no case of malpractice. The sex, location and school-type norm of students were considered for standardization. The measurement of students in form of Percentile rank, Z-score, T-score and Stanine statistics were used as derived scores to normalize the students’ raw scores, using the knowledge of the normal curve as the theoretical base. This completed the process that made the test a Standardized Economics Achievement Test. The result shows that the test scores were normally distributed through the use of Percentile rank, Z-score, T-score and Stanine. Recommendations were made that the standardized test could be used to asses and compare the measurement of students from year to year.

Patrick U. Osadebe

2014-04-01

103

Guidelines and pharmacopoeial standards for pharmaceutical impurities: overview and critical assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

ICH/regional guidances and agency scrutiny provide the regulatory framework for safety assessment and control of impurities in small-molecule drug substances and drug products. We provide a critical assessment of the principal impurity guidances and, in particular, focus on deficiencies in the derivation of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) as applied to genotoxic impurities and the many toxicological anomalies generated by following the current guidelines on impurities. In terms of pharmacopoeial standards, we aim to highlight the fact that strictly controlling numerous impurities, especially those that are minor structural variants of the active substance, is likely to produce minimal improvements in drug safety. It is believed that, wherever possible, there is a need to simplify and rebalance the current impurity paradigm, moving away from standards derived largely from batch analytical data towards structure-based qualification thresholds and risk assessments using readily available safety data. Such changes should also lead to a minimization of in vivo testing for toxicological qualification purposes. Recent improvements in analytical techniques and performance have enabled the detection of ever smaller amounts of impurities with increased confidence. The temptation to translate this information directly to the regulatory sphere without any kind of safety evaluation should be resisted. PMID:22507740

Snodin, David J; McCrossen, Sean D

2012-07-01

104

Assessing product image quality for online shopping  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

2012-01-01

105

Nationwide Adoption of the California Solids Standards for Fluid Milk Products: Issues and Impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nationwide adoption of standards similar to the current California standards for fluid milk products would result in increased retail prices for fluid milk products of about 3.5 cents per half gallon (3 percent). The change in standards would generally in...

R. Boynton R. Fallert

1984-01-01

106

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Standardized Assessment Tools in the Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia and in the Assessment of Fibromyalgia Severity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standard assessments for fibromyalgia (FM) diagnosis and core FM symptom domains are needed for biomarker development and treatment trials. Diagnostic and symptom assessments are reviewed and recommendations are made for standards. Recommendations for existing assessments include the American College of Rheumatology FM classification criteria using the manual tender point Survey for diagnosis, the brief pain inventory average pain visual analogue scale for pain intensity, the function subscal...

Boomershine, Chad S.

2012-01-01

107

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

1993-01-01

108

Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflection and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals with what-questions and that the portfolio is expected to handle a number of challenges with regard to the documentation of learning processes and achievements as well as the conditioning of learning activities. Furthermore, is becomes clear that descriptions of how the portfolio works are sparse. Based on systems theory, the paper adopts a how-perspective: How does the portfolio re-describe learning? How does it scaffold and organise communication? The conclusion is that systems theory allows us to re-describe the portfolio as a teaching technology, which, by scaffolding both reflection and reflexivity, produces unique conditions for the stimulation and observation of learning, thus increasing the complexity of learning observation.

Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

2014-01-01

109

Design and logistics IT federation through Product Lifecycle Support standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wide diffusion of methodologies and software relevant to Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) in industrial companies faces heterogeneity of IT systems. Especially, the lack of interoperability between Product Data Management (PDM) systems, that drive virtual product development, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), which manages real product, cannot lead to a coherent description of the product development process. We show that a "mediator" approach is pertinent for the coordination...

2009-01-01

110

Alignment of Standards, Assessment and Instruction: Implications for English Language Learners in Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic…

Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan

2010-01-01

111

78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...energy conservation standards for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal...

2013-05-02

112

77 FR 26796 - Product Change-Standard Mail Saturation Flats Negotiated Service Agreement  

Science.gov (United States)

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Standard Mail Saturation Flats Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a Standard Mail Saturation Flats negotiated service agreement to the...

2012-05-07

113

American Educational Reform and the Catholic High School: Standards, Assessment, Achievement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the most notable aspects of the educational reform movement are the efforts by government, corporate, and philanthropic leaders to establish academic standards. This paper addresses two questions: (1) Why is it important for the Catholic high schools of America to set standards and improve assessments? and (2) What types of standards and…

Nettles, Michael T.

114

40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

2010-07-01

115

Effects of plant standardization on investment and production costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of standardization for nuclear power plants construction and operation has long been recognized in the USA and in France. The major benefits of standardization are the reduction of construction lead times and engineering costs, the control and reduction of total plant capital costs, the efficient structuring of the design, manufacturing and construction industries around a small number of projects, the feedback process from the construction to the operation personnel and the achievement of high availability factors and reduced units operating costs. All these benefits were realized, to a limited extent, in various US nuclear power projects, as described in this paper. The fragmented nature of the US electric utility and nuclear supply industries has precluded the realization of standardization benefits on an overall national level. The French national nuclear programme is unique in that the entire standardized power plants system was planned and executed under a unified and centralized multi-year plan. The benefits realized have been substantial in all programme aspects described here, and have established a yardstick against which to compare other standardization programmes. In the future, the US programme will be geared towards developing uniform plant design requirements and realizing the benefits of standardized unit construction, on a larger scale than so far attempted. The French programme, with a very large plant inventory already in commercial operation, is gearing towards maintaining and improving the operating performance of all units, and realizing further standardization benefits mostly in the area of plant operations. (author). 25 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

1987-10-02

116

Biodegradability assessment of aliphatic polyesters using standard methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Important information concerning polymer’s final fate in the environment can be achieved in biodegradation studies performed in the aquatic environment. In this context, the focus of the present work was to evaluate the biodegradability level of blends containing aliphatic polyesters using standard methods.

Moura, I.; Machado, A. V.; Duarte, F. M.; Brito, A. G.; Nogueira, R.

2008-01-01

117

Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) operated on board the Envisat platform is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focuses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center wavelength, significantly decreasing to a few percent at 560 nm and increasing again at 665 nm. Such an underestimate at the blue center wavelengths leads to an average overestimate of the algal-1 MERIS pigment index largely exceeding 100% for the considered European seas. A comparable overestimate is also observed for the algal-2 pigment index independently determined from top-of-atmosphere radiance through the application of neural networks.

Zibordi, G.; Mélin, F.; Berthon, J.-F.; Canuti, E.

2013-05-01

118

Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS operated on board the Envisat platform is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focuses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center wavelength, significantly decreasing to a few percent at 560 nm and increasing again at 665 nm. Such an underestimate at the blue center wavelengths leads to an average overestimate of the algal-1 MERIS pigment index largely exceeding 100% for the considered European seas. A comparable overestimate is also observed for the algal-2 pigment index independently determined from top-of-atmosphere radiance through the application of neural networks.

G. Zibordi

2013-05-01

119

Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS operated onboard the Envisat platform, is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focusses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center-wavelength, significantly decreasing to a few percent at 560 nm and increasing again at 665 nm. Such an underestimate at the blue center-wavelengths leads to an average overestimate of the algal-1 MERIS pigment index largely exceeding 100% for the considered European seas. A comparable overestimate is also observed for the algal-2 pigment index independently determined from top-of-atmosphere radiance through the application of neural networks.

G. Zibordi

2013-01-01

120

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

122

Desirability of a standard notation for fisheries assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The worldwide increase of the publications concerning the assessment of marine renewable living resources is highlighting long-standing problems with symbols and annotations. Starting from the symbols presented within the classic fisheries masterpieces produced, mainly in the fifty of the last century, a first “Milestone” list was organised. Thereafter, the pertinent literature was (not exhaustively) browsed in order to integrate this ...

Sergio Ragonese; Sergio Vitale

2013-01-01

123

Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine...

Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

2001-01-01

124

Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01

125

Assessment of Usability Benchmarks: Combining Standardized Scales with Specific Questions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The usability of Web sites and online services is of rising importance. When creating a completely new Web site, qualitative data are adequate for identifying the most usability problems. However, changes of an existing Web site should be evaluated by a quantitative benchmarking process. The proposed paper describes the creation of a questionnaire that allows a quantitative usability benchmarking, i.e. a direct comparison of the different versions of a Web site and an orientation on general standards of usability. The questionnaire is also open for qualitative data. The methodology will be explained by the digital library services of the ZBW.

Stephanie Bettina Linek

2011-12-01

126

Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

2014-01-01

127

Standardization of In vitro Macrophotography for Assessment of Cutaneous Responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increased popularity of commercially available 3-dimensional human skin equivalents in recent years has allowed for assessment of melanogenesis modulated by compounds topically applied to the skin or directly incorporated from the medium. These skin equivalents provide a suitable model for elucidating the mechanisms of action of various factors that modulate skin pigmentation or other properties of the skin. As such, researchers need to objectively quantify cutaneous responses at the macr...

Coelho, Sergio G.; Koo, Eubee; Hearing, Vincent J.

2009-01-01

128

Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01

129

Associated Production for the Standard Model Higgs at CDF  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the latest result for the search for the standard model higgs produced in association with a W and a Z boson at CDF. The results include about 1 to 1.7 fb-1 of data collected by CDF in run II of the Tevatron. Novel analysis techniques have been developed to enhance the sensitivity of these searches.

Cdf, Collaboration; Bortoletto, D.

2007-01-01

130

Associated Production for the Standard Model Higgs at CDF  

CERN Document Server

We report the latest result for the search for the standard model higgs produced in association with a W and a Z boson at CDF. The results include about 1 to 1.7 fb-1 of data collected by CDF in run II of the Tevatron. Novel analysis techniques have been developed to enhance the sensitivity of these searches.

Bortoletto, D

2008-01-01

131

Production of radioactive gas standards for testing release monitoring equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive gas standards intended for checking the efficiency of release monitoring equipment require certain characteristics: first, they must be sufficiently varied to permit exact calibration as a function of the type of radiation emitted and its energy; second, their physical form and bulk activity must be such as to allow easy handling, so that calibration errors can be avoided. The research described was geared to these two aims. The authors have developed techniques for measuring and preparing 3H2, 85Kr, 133Xe, 37Ar and 14Co2, and, more recently, 131Xesup(m) and CH3 131I. The gas standards are contained in glass ampoules for users working in the laboratory; for gamma-emitting radionuclides a metal container permitting direct comparison of the standard and sample in an identical container has been devised. The stability of compressed tritium and nitrogen mixtures in metal flasks has also been studied: expansion of the mixture allows the user to produce a stream of gas in an instrument to be calibrated (mixtures of 85Kr with nitrogen having the same bulk activity as the 85Kr/tritium mixtures are to be produced very soon). Finally, studies aimed at producing a 129I gas standard, first in a glass ampoule and later in the form of a gas stream of known activity, are underway. (author)

1977-09-09

132

A study on the implementation of the performance of electrical products standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Steering Committee on Electrical Products (SCOPEP) has developed a number of performance standards for selected electrical products and product attributes, under the direction of the Canadian Standards Association. Although the development of these standards shows that a successful standards writing process is in place, the initiation and implementation has been achieved by one or more stakeholder groups spearheading the requirement for the standard. As a result, SCOPEP has been unable to achieve its full potential in its role of developing peformance standards for electrical products. A study was undertaken with the aim of developing a strategic plan for SCOPEP which would be supported by marketing and other strategies. The major elements of the strategy include: selecting those products for which the benefits of a standards program significantly outweigh the costs; agreeing on the use of a framework which rigorously evaluates the cost-benefits of developing performance standards; producing a critical mass of products through the selection process so that revenues from label fees will ultimately balance program costs and support a full time SCOPEP secretariat; aggressively marketing the standards in all sectors, using a balanced push-and-pull strategy; and developing a protagonist attitude so that standards programs implemented are credible to all SCOPEP stakeholders. Detailed cost-benefit tables are appended. 11 figs., 18 tabs.

Berkowitz, M.A.

1984-03-01

133

Proposal of environmental quality standards for plant protection products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant protection products are used in agriculture and forestry to protect crops from weeds, pests and plant diseases. These products are developed to be toxic to target species, but they are often toxic to non-target species also. Since they are spread purposely into the environment, they may also leach to surface waters. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Parliament and Council was adopted in 2000. The purpose of this Directive is the protection of inland surface and grou...

Kontiokari, Venla; Mattsoff, Leona

2011-01-01

134

Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn; For The University Of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Donor Advocacy Team

2014-06-01

135

Assessing the Impact of Standards-based Curricula: Investigating Students’ Epistemological Conceptions of Mathematics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the advent of the NCTM Standards (1989, mathematics educators have been faced with the challenge of assessing the impact of Standards-based (or “reform” curricula. Research on the impact of Standards-based curricula has predominantly focused on student achievement; here we consider an alternative: Students’ epistemological conceptions of mathematics. 297 participants were administered a Likert-scale survey instrument, the Conceptions of Mathematics Inventory. Of these, 163 had not experienced Standards-based curricula, while the rest had used a Standards-based curriculum for over three years. Our results indicate that students at the Standards-based site expressed more sophisticated epistemological conceptions of mathematics than those of the students from the non-Standards-based site. We interpret this result to suggest that implementation of Standards-based curricula may be having an effect on students’ epistemological conceptions of mathematics.

Jon R. Star

2005-01-01

136

Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology based on International Standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd and 3rd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator, technical standard, design of evaluation model were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jung Won; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae; Ryu, Jae Soo; Ko, Han Suk; Park, Joo Hwan; Kim, Young In; So, Dong Sup

2010-04-15

137

Standardization and Assessment of Preformulation Parameters of Rasayana Tablet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rasayana tablet is a polyherbal preparation recommended as a tonic. It contains Amla, Gokhru and Galo in equal proportion. This preparation is generally marketed in the form of churna and tablet with several problems in weight hardness, disintegration time and friability. The present work is based on the Standardization of individual ingredients and formulation of Rasayana tablets with improved formulation parameters in order to compare it with the marketed formulation. Pharmacognostical parameters were also checked for individual crude drugs and marketed tablets like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying and powder microscopy. The preformulation parameters like bulk density, tap density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose were also checked for laboratory granules. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using sucrose (55 % solution and starch (20 % solution as binder. The designed formulations were evaluated for thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The designed formulation was in conformity to the properties evaluated for the tablets and is discussed in detail.

Shah V. K.

2010-01-01

138

Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

2012-06-01

139

Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

1989-06-01

140

Patients’ vs. Physicians’ Assessments of Emergencies: The Prudent Layperson Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare perception of the need for emergency care by emergency department (ED patients vs. emergency physicians (EPs. Methods: Mailed survey to EPs and a convenience sample of ED patients. Survey rated urgency of acute sore throat, ankle injury, abdominal pain, and hemiparesis, as well as the best definition of “emergency.” Responses were compared with chi-square (p < .05. Results: 119/140 (85% of EPs and 1453 ED patients responded. EPs were more likely to judge acute abdominal pain (79.8% vs. 43.4%, p < 0.001, odds ratio (OR 5.16, 95% confidence interval (CI 3.19-8.40 and hemiparesis (100% vs. 82.6%, p < 0.001, OR 24.9, 95% CI 3.75-94.4 as an emergency. Similar proportions of ED patients and EPs considered sore throat (12.2% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.18, OR 0.59, CI 0.27-1.23 and ankle injury (46.9% vs. 38.6%, p = 0.10, OR 0.71, CI 0.48-1.06 an emergency. EPs (35% and ED patients (40% agreed to a similar degree with the “prudent layperson” definition, “a condition that may result in death, permanent disability, or severe pain.” (p = .36, OR 1.22, CI 0.81-1.84. EPs were more likely to add, “the condition prevented work,” (27% vs. 16%, p = 0.003, OR 0.51, CI 0.33-0.81. Patients more often added, “occurred outside business hours” (15% vs. 4%, p = 0.002, OR 4.0, CI = 1.5-11.3. Conclusion: For serious complaints, ED patients’ thresholds for seeking care are higher than judged appropriate by EPs. Stroke is not uniformly recognized as an emergency. Absent consensus for the “correct” threshold, the prudent layperson standard is appropriate.

Langdorf, Mark I

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

HOW LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT ENCOURAGE LOCAL FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is an evaluation that will give useful information about successive stages alongside product full life cycle, from the purchase of the raw materials, production, consumption and waste recycling or elimination. This assessment will emphasize that the locally food production and consumption has the lowest environmental impact and is the most sustainable one.

OANA BRINZAN

2009-05-01

142

Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system.

Ko, W. I.; Chang, H. L.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, J. W.; Park, J. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Ryu, J. S.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, K. W.

2012-04-15

143

Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island. PMID:16856752

Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

2006-07-01

144

Medical image registration algorithms assessment: Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grid...

Glatard, Tristan; Montagnat, Johan; Pennec, Xavier

2006-01-01

145

Safety and efficacy assessment of standardized herbal formula PM012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m, and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group at doses of 0 (vehicle control, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups, but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects.

Sohn Sung-Hwa

2012-03-01

146

Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA, a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157 was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran. The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

M Afshari

2012-05-01

147

The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated

2013-11-01

148

The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated.

Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

2013-11-15

149

Setting Standards for English Foreign Language Assessment: Methodology, Validation, and a Degree of Arbitrariness  

Science.gov (United States)

Cut-scores were set by expert judges on assessments of reading and listening comprehension of English as a foreign language (EFL), using the bookmark standard-setting method to differentiate proficiency levels defined by the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Assessments contained stratified item samples drawn from extensive item…

Tiffin-Richards, Simon P.; Pant, Hans Anand; Koller, Olaf

2013-01-01

150

Towards Remote Assessment of User Experiences of Visual Product Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding consumer experiences of products is becoming increasingly important for producers acting on the global market. This paper presents a pilot study done as part of the development of a VIPET (Visual Internet Product Experience Tool), a future tool for remote user assessment of product experiences. The aim of the tool is to provide users with a convenient and intuitive approach to assess visual representations of products by allowing respondents to place visual representations of pr...

Kristav, Per; Warell, Anders

2009-01-01

151

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01

152

Standardizing  

Science.gov (United States)

This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

2009-02-04

153

DOE (Department of Energy)-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

Williams, D.L. Jr.

1990-11-01

154

Technical Assessment of Oil Clean Up Products  

…expect. For example, a product marketed as a bioremediation product may contain organic solvents, or a product marketed as a sorbent may contain surfactants. 1. Mechanical oil removal techniques - mechanical equipment such as oil skimmers aren't described in this guidance but they're a valuable tool in…

155

76 FR 61052 - Service Standards for Market-Dominant Special Services Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...product, the Postal Service now considers it necessary to add a set of service standards for SFS...received by mail, phone, fax, or Internet at the Postal Service's SFS center in...to the variety of customer orders received...

2011-10-03

156

78 FR 69553 - Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 111 Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes AGENCY...Base\\TM\\, and Commercial Plus\\TM\\ pricing tiers. Retail prices will increase...percent price increase. Commercial Base pricing offers an average 11.0 percent...

2013-11-20

157

77 FR 64775 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...mailing of Product Sample parcels must be of...separate prices for small samples and for large samples. Targeted parcels...Offices, station or branches, that the text is...Receipts Current DMM standards permit customers...

2012-10-23

158

Towards automated compliance checking based on a formal representation of agricultural production standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production standards in the form of legal regulations or quality assurance labels are playing an increasingly important role in farming. Each farm must therefore gather information on all standards which apply, which may vary from field-to-field, and ensure that they are respected during operations. This information may be provided on paper or as electronic documents, by the standards publishers or by advisors. Together with the need to document compliance, the need to collect and process the...

Nash, Edward; Wiebensohn, Jens; Nikkila, Raimo; Vatsanidou, Anna; Fountas, Spyros; Bill, Ralf

2011-01-01

159

Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristic...

Al-qutaish, Rafa E.

2009-01-01

160

Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

Vervaeke, Marina

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported to Saudi Arabia in order to curtail their excess and safeguard consumer health. PMID:19250956

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

2009-07-01

162

Geothermal power production: impact assessments and environmental monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role that baseline and postoperational environmental monitoring plays in assessing impacts of geothermal power production is emphasized. Based on experience in the Imperial Valley, where substantial geothermal resources exist, the important characteristics of monitoring programs involving subsidence, seismicity, and air and water quality are examined. The importance of environmental monitoring for situations where predictive models either do not exist (e.g., seismicity), or are still being developed (e.g., land subsidence) are discussed. In these cases the need for acquiring and analyzing data that can provide timely information on changes caused by geothermal operations are emphasized. Monitoring is also useful in verifying predictions of air quality changes - in particular, violations of ambient standards after control technologies are implemented. Water quality can be monitored with existing sampling programs where the potential for geothermal impacts is thought to be rather small. The significant issues in these environmental areas, the status of baseline data and predictive capability that currently exists, and the need for future monitoring and modeling programs to assess the impacts of geothermal development are summarized.

Layton, D.W.; Pimentel, K.D.

1980-01-01

163

Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, emission standard indicators have been adopted by environmental regulation authorities in order to preserve the quality of a receiving water body. Such indicators are based on the frequency or magnitude of a polluted discharge that may be continuous or intermittent. In order to properly maintain the quality of receiving waters, the Water Framework Directive, following the basic ideas of British Urban Pollution Manual, has been established. The Directive has overtaken the emission-standard concept, substituting it with the stream-standard concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on the self-depurative characteristics of receiving waters. Stream-standard assessment requires the deployment of measurement campaigns that can be very expensive; furthermore, the measurement campaigns are usually not able to provide a link between the receiving water quality and the polluting sources. Therefore, it would be very useful to find a correlation between the quality status of the natural waters and the emission-based indicators. Thus, this study is aimed to finding a possible connection between the receiving water quality indicators drawn by environmental regulation authorities and emission-based indicators while considering both continuous (i.e. from the wastewater treatment plants) and intermittent pollution discharges (mainly from combined sewer overflows). Such research has been carried out by means of long-term analysis adopting a holistic modelling approach. The different parts of the integrated urban drainage system were modelled by a parsimonious integrated model. The analysis was applied to an ephemeral river bounding Bologna (Italy). The study concluded that the correlation between receiving water quality and polluting emissions cannot be generally stated. Nevertheless, specific analyses on polluting emissions were pointed out in the study highlighting cause-effect link between polluting sources and receiving water quality. PMID:20351441

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

164

The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification--Level 2, Version 9. Volume 14  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-2 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 2 standard data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. The Level 2 Standard Data Products specifically include those derived geophysical data values (i.e., ice sheet elevation, cloud height, vegetation height, etc.). Additionally, the appropriate correction elements used to transform the Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products into Level 2 Data Products are included. The data are packaged with time tags, precision orbit location coordinates, and data quality and usage flags.

Lee, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

165

Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this article was to review prospects and constraints of LCA as a tool to assess the integrated environmental impact of conventional and organic animal production. This aim was illustrated using results fro...

Boer, I. J. M.

2003-01-01

166

Technical Assessment of Oil Clean Up Products  

…pollution and cause toxic chemicals to enter the environment. It will help businesses to: select the right product type when they're carrying out routine cleaning operations; adopt good practice; satisfy the requirements of their own environmental management system. Product manufacturers should use…

167

Technical Assessment of Oil Clean Up Products  

…prevent the continued release of petrol vapour; this may reduce the fire and explosion risk. Sorbents are made of different materials such as polyethylene, clay, organic matter or recycled products. They can be applied manually or mechanically, and can come as loose product or in sheets, booms, pads…

168

40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam productionâHAP ABA...

2009-07-01

169

40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam productionâHAP...

2009-07-01

170

40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam productionâHAP ABA...

2010-07-01

171

40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam productionâHAP ABA...

2010-07-01

172

Hydrogen Production Methods. A Critical Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Old, present and new proceses for producing hydrogen are assessed critically. The emphasis throughout is placed on those processes which could be commercially viable before the turn of the century for large-scale hydrogen manufacture. Electrolysis of wate...

M. Hammerli

1982-01-01

173

Considerations for Equating Alternate Assessments: Two Case Studies of Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of alternate assessments for students with disabilities plays a pivotal role in state and national accountability systems. An important assumption in the use of alternate assessments in these accountability systems is that scores are comparable on different test forms across diverse groups of students over time. The use of test…

Wyse, Adam E.; Dean, Vincent J.; Viger, Steven G.; Vansickle, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

174

An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether…

Cox, Christopher

2006-01-01

175

Assessing Methanol Production in China for Methanex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methanex is the world leader in methanol production and marketing. China is an important market; by 2014 it is forecasted to account for 50% of global demand. The purpose of this project is to determine whether Methanex should invest in methanol production in China. The project approach uses a multi-goal analysis focusing on three goals: (1) Consistent with Corporate Vision, (2) Sustainment of Existing Competitive Advantages, and (3) Profitability. Based on the analysis, the project concludes...

Wong, Gabriel

2010-01-01

176

Assessment for Exemplary Schools: Productive School Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also known as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation, has been called the most far-reaching federal education bill in nearly four decades. The law's comprehensive assessment provisions address areas from school choice to low-performing schools and increased…

Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.

2009-01-01

177

Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)


This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china) to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate environmen...

Yang, Li-li; Zhang, Shao-jie; Gao, Ge

2006-01-01

178

Training and Validation of Standardized Patients for Unannounced Assessment of Physicians' Management of Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Standardized patients (SPs) have been developed to measure practitioner performance in actual practice settings, but results have not been fully validated for psychiatric disorders. This study describes the process of creating reliable and valid SPs for unannounced assessment of general-practitioners' management of depression disorders…

Shirazi, Mandana; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami, A.; Kashani, A. Sabouri; Parikh, Sagar; Alaeddini, F.; Arbabi, Mohammad; Wahlstrom, Rolf

2011-01-01

179

Developing Institutional Standards for Critical Thinking Using the Collegiate Learning Assessment. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) measures students' critical thinking skills, but some institutions remain uncertain how to interpret the results. RAND researchers designed a method that institutions can use to develop their own standards. It consists of a three-step process and a system of checks to validate the results. This method will…

Hardison, Chaitra M.; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

2009-01-01

180

The Collegiate Learning Assessment: Setting Standards for Performance at a College or University. Technical Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) is a measure of how much students' critical thinking improves after attending college or university. This report illustrates how institutions can set their own standards on the CLA using a method that is appropriate for the CLA's unique characteristics. The authors examined evidence of reliability and…

Hardison, Chaitra M.; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

1989-01-01

182

Assessment of the effectiveness of standardized infusion devices for healthcare management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since standardization is an important safety measure in healthcare systems, it is essential to systematically assess the effects of introducing new and increasingly complex medical equip-ment, such as infusion devices. In this study, we compared the effects of standardized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-free closed-system integrated infusion devices with conventional infusion de-vices. Specifically, we assessed the safety, work efficiency, user-friendliness, and cost effec-tiveness of these devices. Compared with con-ventional infusion devices, integrated PVC-free infusion devices were more expensive to pur-chase and dispose, but were safer and more user-friendly and efficient. Although it would be preferable to use standardized infusion devices in all hospital departments, their cost may limit their application to departments that use high-risk treatments, where they would be most beneficial.

Shio Sugita

2011-02-01

183

Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. PMID:24657525

Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

2014-05-16

184

Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

2012-02-01

185

Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment. PMID:18289760

Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

2008-05-01

186

Technical Assessment of Oil Clean Up Products  

…applying a clean-up product. Oil clean up guidance September 20103 Oil clean up guidance September 20104 4. Dispersants - these reduce the surface tension of oil allowing wave action to create smaller droplets which are dispersed further into the body of water accelerating natural breakdown. Dispersants…

187

Technical Assessment of Oil Clean Up Products  

…product. Oil clean up guidance September 20103 Oil clean up guidance September 20104 4. Dispersants - these reduce the surface tension of oil allowing wave action to create smaller droplets which are dispersed further into the body of water accelerating natural breakdown. Dispersants are applied by a spray…

188

Technical Assessment of Oil Clean Up Products  

…preferred option for oil spills to surface water and groundwater We prefer the use of mechanical recovery and/or sorbents to remove oil from surface waters. These methods for removing oil don't add to the water pollution and are designed to remove the oil from the water. These products should be used first…

189

Validation of the Standard Method for Assessing Flicker From Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper studies the validity of the standard method in IEC 61400-21 for assessing the flicker emission from multiple wind turbines. The standard method is based on testing a single wind turbine and then using the results of this test to assess the flicker emission from a number of wind turbines. This study is based on the data from two wind farms, one with fixed-speed wind turbines and one with variable-speed wind turbines. The data are: a type test at the terminals of a wind turbine, and measurements at the connection of a collection line to the substation. The type test data are used to assess the flicker emission at the collection line; this assessment is then compared to the actual measurements in order to study the accuracy of the estimation. It was observed in both wind farms, that the assessment based on the standard method is statistically conservative compared to the measurements. The reason for this is the statistical characteristics of flicker emission.

Barahona Garzon, Braulio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

2011-01-01

190

Environmental toxicology and risk assessment: Standardization of biomarkers for endocrine disruption and environmental assessment: Eighth volume. Special technical publication 1364  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference was held April 20--22, 1998 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on biological markers in toxicology and risk assessment, including endocrine disrupter screening assays. Attention is focused on the following: aquatic toxicology; behavioral toxicology; biochemical indicators; developmental indicators; endocrine indicators; biodegradation and fate of chemicals; quality assurance and quality control within laboratory and field studies; risk assessment and communication, and harmonization of standards development. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Henshel, D.S.; Black, M.C.; Harrass, M.C. [eds.

1999-07-01

191

Studies on production, physiochemical and sensory properties of a standard kilishi ingredient mix powder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of kilishi, a sun dried roasted meat product vary considerably due to lack of consistent standardized non meat ingredient portion (spices and condiments) used for its preparation. In this study, an instant standard kilishi ingredient mix powder was developed. The mix powder contained 9.1% moisture, 49.7% protein, 8.3% fat, 3.2% fibre, and 4.4% ash. Particle size of the mix developed was finer than the traditional one. Yield of kilishi increased with increasing concentration of the standard mix powder used for infusion. The highest yield (87%) was obtained at 60% slurry concentration of the mix compared to 59% yield when the traditional paste was used for infusion. Sensory attributes of kilishi produced using 60% slurry concentration of the standard mix was rated better than a commercial kilishi product (P < 0.05). PMID:9205591

Badau, M H; Igene, J O; Collison, E K; Nkama, I

1997-05-01

192

Assessing sperm chromatin and DNA damage: clinical importance and development of standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 20 years, numerous new methods have been developed to identify changes in the organization and composition of sperm chromatin as well as to determine the extent of DNA damage in the nuclei of spermatozoa. Although these methods are being used effectively in assessing how toxicants act on sperm chromatin quality in agricultural settings, their use as complementary biomarkers of sperm quality in assessing male fertility remains controversial. We review some key aspects of the assessment of sperm chromatin quality and DNA damage and identify some of the most widely used tests to monitor these endpoints. An approach to validate three tests by standardizing methodology and determining interlaboratory variation for each test using a standard set of samples is outlined. PMID:24520005

Zini, A; Albert, O; Robaire, B

2014-05-01

193

GM-free private standards, public regulation of GM products and mass media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides evidence on private standards on genetically modified (GM) organisms for 44 retailers operating in 54 countries, distinguishing between retailers not using GM ingredients, and retailers using ingredients which are potentially GM in private label products. Using this information, we empirically investigate the drivers that induce retailers to adopting a GM-free private standard. The results show that many of the drivers highlighted in the literature, such as historical fact...

2013-01-01

194

Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

Anastasiou, Charalampos; Furlan, Elisabetta; Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas

2011-01-01

195

Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

Furlan E.; Anastasiou, C.; Buehler, S.; Herzog, F.; Lazopoulos, A.

2011-07-12

196

Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

Anastasiou, Charalampos; Buehler, Stephan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Furlan, Elisabetta, E-mail: efurlan@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2011-08-19

197

Bioequivalence for locally acting nasal spray and nasal aerosol products: standard development and generic approval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for nasal spray/aerosol products for local action has been very challenging because the relationship between the drug in systemic circulation and the drug reaching the nasal site of action has not been well established. Thus, the current BE standard for these drug/device combination products is based on a weight-of-evidence approach, which contains three major elements: equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delivery. In addition, formulation sameness and device similarity are evidences to support BE. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the scientific rationale of the current BE standard and their development history for nasal spray/aerosol products, as well as the Food and Drug Administration's review and approval status of generic nasal sprays/aerosols with the application of these BE standard. PMID:23686396

Li, Bing V; Jin, Feiyan; Lee, Sau L; Bai, Tao; Chowdhury, Badrul; Caramenico, Hoainhon T; Conner, Dale P

2013-07-01

198

Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristics to the ISO 12207 activities and vers versa. Results: This study presented a set of comments and suggestions to improve the ISO 9126. Conclusion: The weaknesses of the cross-references between the two ISO standards had been highlighted. In addition, this study provided a number of comments and suggestions to be taken into account on the next version of the ISO 9126 international standard.

Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

2009-01-01

199

Modern state of production of radioactivity standards in CMEA member-states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review has been given of production of radioactivity standards in the CMEA member-states. The review has been compiled on the base of catalogues from some countries (Czechoslovakia, USSR, Poland, Hungary and Romania) and on the base of information wOich had been obtained in the frameworks of bileteral cooperation with DDR. Problems are discussed of preparation of radioactive solutions, their chemicak composition and possibilities of delivery according to the information having been obtained from some producers. Problems are considered of typology of standard sources and possibilities of their application. Special attention has been paid to determination of errors and on comparison of these errors for some types of standards. Comparison has been given of standards, being fabricated in the CMEA member-states with corresponding standards, produced in the capitalist European countries

1979-05-15

200

Neutral Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative extension of the standard model using the Seiberg-Witten map of this to the first order of the noncommutative parameter ???. Unlike the standard model (where the process is forbidden) here the Higgs boson pair directly interacts with the photon. We find that the pair production cross section can be quite significant for the noncommutative scale ? lying in the range 0.5 TeV to 1.0 TeV. Using the experimental (LEP 2, Tevatron, and global electroweak fit) bound on the Higgs mass, we obtain 626 GeV???974 GeV.

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Oil company profitability: observations on the use of oil product price assessments and associated errors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil companies often report the exact price obtained for crude oil sales. Furthermore, crude oil prices may be linked to the price of Brent crude oil which is actively and very transparently traded on the International Petroleum Exchange. Brent crude oil prices are reported worldwide electronically and in many newspapers on a daily basis. Gas oil (No. 2 Fuel oil in the USA) is actively traded on the IPE and on NYMEX and the prices are also reported worldwide almost instantaneously. One grade of unleaded gasoline is traded on NYMEX but all other oil products do not have regulated and transparent markets. The prices of these products are assessed by price reporters following daily discussions with active oil traders. Two prices are assessed and reported, the bid (low) and offer (high) even if no trade has taken place. The oil industry itself and oil products consumers make much use of these assessed prices. The object of this paper is to provide some statistical detail on the differences between various product price assessments made through 2000. From these differences, it is possible to provide an indication of the precision of oil product price assessments However, it is doubtful if precision data based on a simple determination of the standard deviation of the differences between the assessment made by the various price reporting services would be of practical use. (Author)

2000-01-01

202

Dust and corrosion product effluents assessment in ITER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed assessment of the activated corrosion products (ACPs) and tokamak dust escaping to the environment during international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) normal operation, including scheduled maintenance, is presented. Calculation models were developed to assess ACPs environmental release through main pathways. The dust air transport to the environment was assessed by the NAUA-Mod.5 code and dedicated computational models. The analysis confirms the conservatism used in non-site specific safety report no.-2 (NSSR-2)

2000-11-01

203

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Science.gov (United States)

...maintaining similar performance characteristics. (c) Ingredients...used in substitute products. (1) Ingredients...the substitute product is not inferior in performance characteristics from the standardized product defined in...

2010-01-01

204

9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Science.gov (United States)

...maintaining similar performance characteristics. (c) Ingredients...used in substitute products. (1) Ingredients...the substitute product is not inferior in performance characteristics from the standardized product defined in...

2010-01-01

205

Assessment of new tropospheric real time product at GOP  

Science.gov (United States)

A benchmark campaign was started in February 2013 at the Geodetic observatory Pecny (GOP) for the assessing of Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) estimated from GNSS data in real time in order to support nowcasting or severe weather events monitoring. For this purpose, we developed the Tefnut application which is derived from the G-Nut software library. Our solution is based on the Precise Point Positioning technique (PPP) exploiting the real time precise orbits and clocks provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). Since February 2013, real time ZTDs have been continuously derived for 36 stations selected worldwide for the benchmark campaign. Resulted ZTDs can be characterized by the standard deviation of 6-9 mm when compared to the EUREF and IGS final tropospheric products. The precision requirement for the nowcasting, initially defined during the EU TOUGH project, has been thus already accomplished. Site-specific biases of up to 15 mm (from a monthly statistics) are however still observed being caused by incomplete precise models in the software. These biases are stable enough to be effectively reduced before a usage of real time ZTDs in meteorological applications. The benchmark campaign included both static and kinematic coordinate solutions. The latter resulted in a slightly worse ZTD precision only, which might be encouraging to develop a system for exploiting also receivers on moving platforms for this type of applications. The G-Nut/Tefnut software is being enhanced steadily and we will focus on further improvements towards higher accuracy of estimated tropospheric parameters as well as an for extensions towards multi-GNSS and advanced tropospheric products monitoring the atmospheric asymmetry too.

Vaclavovic, Pavel; Dousa, Jan

2014-05-01

206

Influence of standardized activities on validity of Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC is an observation-based clinical tool that evaluates ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand during bimanual activities. Two validity aspects were investigated: potential bias interaction between prosthesis users and activities performed during assessment, and potential bias interaction between activities and different user characteristics (sex or prosthetic side. Six activities were standardized for the ACMC. Upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis users (47 congenital, 11 acquired; 31 male, 27 female, average age 19.9 yr performed three standardized activities, each on one occasion. Bias-interaction analysis in the many-facet Rasch model identified inconsistent patterns in the interactions of individual users and activity facets and between activities and user characteristics. The standardized activities had no significant influence on measures of user ability. The activities functioned similarly across both sexes (p-value greater than or equal to 0.12 and across both prosthetic sides in persons with upper-limb reduction deficiency (p-value greater than or equal to 0.50 and persons with acquired amputation (p-value greater than or equal to 0.13. The results provide evidence for the validity of the ACMC across the standardized activities and support use of the ACMC in prosthesis users of both sexes and prosthetic sides. The newly standardized activities are recommended for future ACMC use.

Helen Y. N. Lindner, MSc

2014-02-01

207

United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency (LFA). The Evaluation and Assessment (E ampersand A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E ampersand A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC (with emphasis on the E ampersand A Division) is presented. The contents of the E ampersand A manual are briefly described as are future plans for expansion of this work

1994-09-02

208

United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency (LFA). The Evaluation and Assessment (E&A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E&A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC (with emphasis on the E&A Division) is presented. The contents of the E&A manual are briefly described as are future plans for expansion of this work.

Kerns, K.C.; Smith, J.M.; Blanchard, R.L.; Burson, Z.G. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Remote Sensing Lab.]|[National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Montgomery, AL (United States)]|[Sanford Cohen and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

1994-09-01

209

ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries’ advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries, which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.

Pierre-Yves Renard

2007-12-01

210

Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors)

2010-03-08

211

Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. PMID:21212077

Henrichs, K

2011-03-01

212

Developing Product Quality Control for Standardization of Tsetse Mass Production. Working Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) provides a mechanism within which SIT will be one of the major components of an integrated areawide approach to the establishment of tsetse fly-free areas. Currently world-wide tsetse production is 1/40 of the projected requirement in 2006. To achieve this objective it is essential that quality control (QC) measures suitable for the expanded production be in place. Therefore, improved QC methodology has become a top priority. Improvements in QC methodology will help to ensure the attainment of these production goals and improve quality of rearing, minimize production costs and generate trained QC and production staff required to successfully produce flies and monitor their quality and suitability for release. The proposed CRP is designed to address these issues.

2002-06-10

213

Risk assessment of topically applied products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken skin associated with various skin disorders. BADGE and derivatives had a tendency to permeate pig skin membranes in vitro with higher fluxes in the tape stripped membranes compared to the non-treated membranes. Data from the in vitro skin permeation study and from the literature were used as input parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was foundto be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC. Both UV filters are endocrine disrupting compounds with 3-BC being the more potent. UV filters in sunscreen are often present in high concentrations, which potentially may lead to high systemic exposure dosages. Thus, the risk associated with use of 3-BC and 4-MBC containing sunscreen with regards to endocrine disrupting effects was found to be high and more data is urgently needed in order to fully assess the human risk of 3-BC and 4-MBC in commercial sunscreen.

Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen

2007-01-01

214

Life Cycle Assessment of a Single-Family Residence built to Passive House Standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two complete cradle to grave life cycle assessments are conducted for the comparison of a house built after today?s building standard, TEK07, and a passive house built after the Norwegian Standard NS 3700:2010. Both houses are projected by the building company Nordbohus AS, and are to be constructed in Stord, on the west coast of Norway. The usable floor area, BRA, is 187 m2 for both houses, and a lifetime of 50 years is assumed. The houses are constructed with a wooden framework, insula...

2011-01-01

215

Assessment of ethanol production options for corn products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of ethanol from corn fiber has the potential to increase ethanol yields by a maximum of 0.3 gal/bushel in a wet-milling process. Incremental yields would be 0.13 gal/bushel from hexose, 0.1 from D-xylose and 0.07 from L-arabinose, at 100% hydrolysis and fermentation efficiency. At 80% efficiency for hexose hydrolysis and fermentation, and 70 % for pentose, an incremental yield of 0.22 gallons/bushel of corn is expected. Of this total, 0.1 gal/bushel would be from hexoses, 0.07 from D-xylose, and 0.05 from L-arabinose. A maximum practical incremental yield would probably fall between 0.22 and 0.3 gallons/bushel. These calculations are based on published compositional analyses of cellulose, starch, mono-saccharides, hemicellulose, protein and oil as distributed between the compartmentalized components of the corn kernel and published yield factors for hexose and pentose fermentations. Experimental yield factors for xylose (0.36 g ethanol/g xylose) and arabinose (0.34) fermenting microorganisms are lower than that for glucose (0.45-0.50), and significantly less than the theoretical yield of 0.51 g ethanol/g pentose. Nonetheless, we estimate that a wet-milling facility which currently produces 100 million gallons/year of ethanol from starch could generate an additional $4-8 million of annual income if the fiber components were processed into ethanol. Hence, advances in fiber pretreatment and pentose fermentation are likely to have a major impact on enhancing productivity of corn ethanol plants. An engineering framework for assigning economic consequences of the additional utilization of fiber is presented. (Author)

Gulati, M.; Kohlmann, K; Ladisch, M.R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Hespell, R.; Bothast, R.J. [USDA-ARS-MWA, NCAUR, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

216

Estimating costs of programme services and products using information provided in standard financial statements.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The financial viability of programme services and product offerings requires that revenue exceeds expenses. Revenue includes payments for services and products as well as donor cash and in-kind contributions. Expenses reflect consumption of purchased or contributed time and materials and utilization (depreciation) of physical plant facilities and equipment. Standard financial reports contain this revenue and expense information, complemented when necessary by valuation and accounting of in-ki...

1998-01-01

217

Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses

2005-09-01

218

System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S), a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures f...

Henshaw, Philip F.; Carey King; Jay Zarnikau

2011-01-01

219

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle.

Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

2009-01-01

220

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle. (author)

Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

2009-12-15

 
 
 
 
221

Assessment of environmental costs: External effects of energy production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy production gives rise to a range of different externalities This paper presents and discusses a recent Danish study where externalities are assessed for conventional coal fired plant versus wind turbines, and for natural gas CHP versus biomass CHP. The present study has used a methodology for externality assessment comprising: identification, quantification, dose-response, valuation and finally monetizing. A number of difficulties are connected to the assessment of externalities to energy production. Local and regional externalities are generally assessed with reasonably degree of certainty. Global warming, on the other hand, in the form of emissions of CO{sub 2} from energy production constitutes a separate and considerable problem due to uncertainty in the long term projections of climate impact and economic consequences.

Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L. [Riso National Lab. (Germany)

1995-12-31

222

Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

Coggins, J.L.

1979-12-14

223

Mannequin or standardized patient: participants' assessment of two training modalities in trauma team simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple mannequins have been employed, to enable training without being dependent on expensive and advanced simulators. We wanted to assess the participants' assessment of using a standardized patient instead of a mannequin. Methods Trauma teams in five hospitals were randomly exposed to a mannequin or a standardized patient in two consecutive simulations for each team. In each hospital two teams were trained, with opposite order of simulation modality. Anonymous, written questionnaires were answered by the participants immediately after each simulation. The teams were interviewed as a focus group after the last simulation, reflecting on the difference between the two simulation modalities. Outcome measures were the participants' assessment of their own perceived educational outcome and comparison of the models, in addition to analysis of the interviews. Results Participants' assessed their educational outcome to be high, and unrelated to the order of appearance of patient model. There were no differences in assessment of realism and feeling of embarrassment. Focus groups revealed that the participants felt that the choice between educational modalities should be determined by the simulated case, with high interaction between team and patient being enhanced by a standardized patient. Conclusion Participants' assessment of the outcome of team training seems independent of the simulation modality when the educational goal is training communication, co-operation and leadership within the team.

Wisborg Torben

2009-01-01

224

Comparison of photographic and visual assessment of occlusal caries with histology as the reference standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic performance for the detection of caries using photographs with an established visual examination method and histological sections as the reference standard. Methods 50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods, diagnoses were made at “caries into dentine” level. The teeth were histologically sectioned and the diagnostic decisions using visual and photographic assessment were compared to the histological reference standard. Inter- and intra- examiner reliability for the methods was assessed and weighted kappa values were calculated. Results The visual examination method had a median sensitivity value of 65.6% and a median specificity value of 82.4%. The photographic assessments method had a median sensitivity of 81.3% and a median specificity of 82.4%. Conclusions The photographic assessments method had a higher sensitivity for caries detection than the visual examination. The two methods had comparable specificities and good intra- and inter- examiner reliability.

Boye Uriana

2012-04-01

225

Using profitability indicators when assessing productivity of production associations in relation to coal extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes the main profitability indicators: profitablity of production, productive capital and labor resources, and demonstrates how to calculate these indicators from data such as production costs, value of profits, goods sold, level of expenses and pure profitability. Production profitability increases as expenses decrease and pure profitability increases. Production profitability may increase if production costs fall and this is usually due to effective usage of mine transport (increased loading). The profitability of productive capital is the product of production profitability and the indicator for the utilization of involved productive capital and depends on the utilization level of technology, materials and power. An increase in the technology in a production association should be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the volume of production. Also demonstrates how to assess profitability of labor resources in relation to level of technology.

Taskaev, A.V.; Galiev, Zh.K.

1988-11-01

226

[Standard of postoperative risk assessment for resectable gastrointestinal stromal tumor and its evaluation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgery is the only possible cure protocol of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). But the risk of recurrence exists constantly. Risk assessment of relapse is very important to guide the targeted adjuvant therapy and predict the prognosis. Although the variables and grading in the risk assessment of recurrence after complete resection of primary local GIST have been identified, but either the F/NIH consensus, AFIP standards, modified NIH standards, or risk identification methods attempted to apply mathematical calculation model in recent years, including Jason S Gold risk nomogram, Rossi nomogram, Joensuu high Hotline Dengjun, are short of long-term, large-scale clinical trials without selection bias. Therefore, recurrence risk probability cannot be predicted accurately. PMID:23536335

Liang, Xiao-bo

2013-03-01

227

Production and decay of the standard model Higgs boson at LEP200  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collect and update theoretical predictions for the production rate and decay branching fractions of the Standard Model Higgs boson that will be relevant for the Higgs search at LEP200. We make full use of the present knowledge of radiative corrections. We estimate the systematics arising from theoretical and experimental uncertainties. (orig.)

1994-01-01

228

Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R Nakaoka, Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan. The scope of SC7 has been specified as 'Standardization for the general requirements and performance of tissue engineered medical products with the exclusion of gene therapy, transplantation and transfusion'.

Sadami Tsutsumi

2010-01-01

229

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

1993-06-01

230

Process Assessment Issues of the ISO/IEC 29110 emerging standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emerging ISO/IEC 29110 standard "Software Engineering - Lifecycle Profiles for Very Small Entities (VSE)" is an ISO initiative to provide Very Small Entities (VSE) with a suitable set of profiles for Process Assessment and Process Improvement. The approach is conforming to ISO 15504 2-D model of process capability: a process dimension based on a Process Reference Model (PRM), and a capability dimension with a set of process attributes grouped into capability levels. The ISO/IEC 29110 stan...

Ribaud, Vincent; Saliou, Philippe

2010-01-01

231

Standardized AP radiographs do not provide reliable diagnostic measures for the assessment of acetabular retroversion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diagnosis of acetabular retroversion is essential in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), but its assessment from radiographs is complicated by pelvic tilt and the two-dimensional nature of plain films. We performed a study to validate the diagnostic accuracy of the cross-over sign (COS) and the posterior wall sign (PWS) in identifying acetabular retroversion. COS and PWS were evaluated from radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans as the standard of reference in 50 hips of subjects with...

Wassilew, Georgi I.; Heller, Markus O.; Diederichs, Gerd; Janz, Viktor; Wenzl, Markus; Perka, Carsten

2012-01-01

232

A model standardized risk assessment protocol for use with hazardous waste sites.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a model standardized risk assessment protocol (SRAP) for use with hazardous waste sites. The proposed SRAP focuses on the degree and patterns of evidence that exist for a significant risk to human populations from exposure to a hazardous waste site. The SRAP was designed with at least four specific goals in mind: to organize the available scientific data on a specific site and to highlight important gaps in this knowledge; to facilitate rational, cost-effective decision ma...

Marsh, G. M.; Day, R.

1991-01-01

233

Development of standardized inspections in restaurants using visual assessments and microbiological sampling to quantify the risks.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between visual inspections carried out by environmental health officers and microbiological examination was studied in 89 restaurants. Using 30 variables a standardized inspection procedure was developed and each of the premises was assessed in six main areas-structure and design, cleaning and cleanliness, personal hygiene, risk of contamination, temperature control, and training and knowledge about food hygiene. Selected foods and specimens from hands, surfaces, and wiping c...

1991-01-01

234

Introducing mapping standards in the quality assessment of buildings extracted from very high resolution satellite imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Many municipal activities require updated large-scale maps that include both topographic and thematic information. For this purpose, the efficient use of very high spatial resolution (VHR) satellite imagery suggests the development of approaches that enable a timely discrimination, counting and delineation of urban elements according to legal technical specifications and quality standards. Therefore, the nature of this data source and expanding range of applications calls for objective methods and quantitative metrics to assess the quality of the extracted information which go beyond traditional thematic accuracy alone. The present work concerns the development and testing of a new approach for using technical mapping standards in the quality assessment of buildings automatically extracted from VHR satellite imagery. Feature extraction software was employed to map buildings present in a pansharpened QuickBird image of Lisbon. Quality assessment was exhaustive and involved comparisons of extracted features against a reference data set, introducing cartographic constraints from scales 1:1000, 1:5000, and 1:10,000. The spatial data quality elements subject to evaluation were: thematic (attribute) accuracy, completeness, and geometric quality assessed based on planimetric deviation from the reference map. Tests were developed and metrics analyzed considering thresholds and standards for the large mapping scales most frequently used by municipalities. Results show that values for completeness varied with mapping scales and were only slightly superior for scale 1:10,000. Concerning the geometric quality, a large percentage of extracted features met the strict topographic standards of planimetric deviation for scale 1:10,000, while no buildings were compliant with the specification for scale 1:1000.

Freire, S.; Santos, T.; Navarro, A.; Soares, F.; Silva, J. D.; Afonso, N.; Fonseca, A.; Tenedório, J.

2014-04-01

235

Assessment of Competitiveness of Industrial Products on the Basis of Commercial Assessment of its Quality ?????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of search for new improved methods of assessment of the level of product competitiveness and efficient ways of its growth is topical and requires a more detailed study. The goal and task of the article is a study of main directions of assessment of product quality as a main component of its competitiveness and development of expression of the indicator of goods competitiveness on the basis of it. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, the article considers main approaches to assessment of quality of products and allocates the one that is more widely used when assessing competitiveness of industrial products. The article compares “consumption cost of production” and “product quality” categories and establishes that, if compared with the consumption cost, the quality is a more specific and content-wide notion, which reflects all sides of satisfaction of customer needs and specific features of the customer’s perception of products. In the result of the study the article develops an expression of the indicator of product competitiveness. The prospect of further study in this direction is consideration of approaches to assessment of effectiveness of the organisational and economic mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of industrial products and main directions of its improvement.???????? ?????? ????? ??????????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????????. ????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?? ????????????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ???????. ??????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ???, ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????. ? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? «??????????????? ????????? ?????????» ? «???????? ?????????» ???? ???????????, ??? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? – ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????. ??? ????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ?????????. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????-?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????????.

Grynova Valentyna M.

2013-09-01

236

Robust methodology for investment climate assessment on productivity: application to investment climate surveys from Central America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing countries are increasingly concerned about improving country competitiveness and productivity, as they face the increasing pressures of globalization and attempt to improve economic growth and reduce poverty. Among such countries, Investment Climate Assessments (ICA) surveys at the firm level, have become the standard way for the World Bank to identify key obstacles to country competitiveness, in order to prioritize policy reforms for enhancing competitiveness. Given the surveys ob...

2008-01-01

237

An impact assessment and critical appraisal of the ISO standard for wheelchair vocabulary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheelchairs are, for users, a primary means of mobility and an important means of performing activities of daily living. A common, accepted vocabulary is required to support and foster evidence-based practice and communication amongst professionals and with users. The international standard for wheelchair vocabulary, ISO 7176-26:2007, specifies terms and definitions with the purpose of eliminating confusion from the duplication or inappropriate use of terms. The aim of this study was to assess its impact and, based on that assessment, critically appraise the standard. Two databases were searched returning 189 and 283 unique articles with wheelchair in the title published between 2004-2006 and 2009-2011 respectively. Compliance, based on title and abstract usage, was poor, ranging from 0 to 50% correct usage, with no significant difference between pre- and post-publication. A review of prescription forms found only 9% correct usage. A survey of NHS wheelchair managers found that only 30% were positive that they had a copy despite 67% agreeing that the standard is important. The ISO wheelchair vocabulary standard was found not to be achieving its stated purpose. It is recommended that it be revised taking into account the findings of this study including the need for targeted dissemination and increased awareness. PMID:23058286

Dolan, Michael J; Henderson, Graham I

2013-07-01

238

Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. -- To effectively use toxicity testing data from lab tests with oils and chemically dispersed oils, researchers must follow standardized testing protocols

2013-06-01

239

Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students, and low socio-economic status (SESstudents. The author pays particular attention to these groups and his analysis reveals some interestingresults: in accounting, the NCEA has not met expectations for these students. From 2004 to 2008, thenumber of low SES accounting students has dropped, as has the number of accounting standards entered andthe rates of achievement. Likewise, there has been no significant improvement in the academic performanceof Maori students taking accounting standards, while Pacific Island students have experienced a significantdecrease in achievement. The author also discusses how studying high school accounting impacts on tertiarylevel study and offers some future implications of this research.

Stephen Agnew

2010-12-01

240

Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Applying life-cycle assessment to low carbon fuel standards. How allocation choices influence carbon intensity for renewable transportation fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 requires life-cycle assessment (LCA) for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from expanded U.S. biofuel production. To qualify under the Renewable Fuel Standard, cellulosic ethanol and new corn ethanol must demonstrate 60% and 20% lower emissions than petroleum fuels, respectively. A combined corn-grain and corn-stover ethanol system could potentially satisfy a major portion of renewable fuel production goals. This work examines multiple LCA allocation procedures for a hypothetical system producing ethanol from both corn grain and corn stover. Allocation choice is known to strongly influence GHG emission results for corn-ethanol. Stover-derived ethanol production further complicates allocation practices because additional products result from the same corn production system. This study measures the carbon intensity of ethanol fuels against EISA limits using multiple allocation approaches. Allocation decisions are shown to be paramount. Under varying approaches, carbon intensity for corn ethanol was 36-79% that of gasoline, while carbon intensity for stover-derived ethanol was -10% to 44% that of gasoline. Producing corn-stover ethanol dramatically reduced carbon intensity for corn-grain ethanol, because substantially more ethanol is produced with only minor increases in emissions. Regulatory considerations for applying LCA are discussed. (author)

Kaufman, Andrew S. [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3529 Microbial Sciences, 1550 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Meier, Paul J. [Energy Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, Douglas J. [Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 460 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2010-09-15

242

European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

Kohoutek, Jan

2014-01-01

243

Trilepton production at the CERN LHC: Standard model sources and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Events with three or more isolated leptons in the final state are known to be signatures of new physics phenomena at high energy collider physics facilities. Standard model sources of isolated trilepton final states include gauge boson pair production such as WZ and W?*, and tt production. We demonstrate that leptons from heavy flavor decays, such as b?lX and c?lX, provide sources of trileptons that can be orders of magnitude larger after cuts than other standard model backgrounds to new physics processes. We explain the physical reason heavy flavor backgrounds survive isolation cuts. We propose new cuts to control the backgrounds in the specific case of chargino plus neutralino pair production in supersymmetric models. After these cuts are imposed, we show that it should be possible to find at least a 4? excess for supersymmetry parameter space point LM9 with 30 fb-1 of integrated luminosity.

2008-08-01

244

Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine. See accompanying commentary by Ajoy Velayudhan DOI: 10.1002/biot.201300098. PMID:24706569

Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

2014-06-01

245

Utility and performance relative to consumer-product energy-efficiency standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This interim report summarizes work done under the third of six tasks of an investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Task III consisted of developing definitions and methods for quantifying utility and performance based on interviews of people within the energy efficiency standards program and reviews of Federal Register notices and public comments on the program. The definition of utility recommended for use in the standards program is: utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of a capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Energy efficiency and product performance as well as purely subjective factors can affect the consumer's perception of the product's utility. Utility can be measured using consumer surveys based on statistical methods. Performance is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input, the product does its intended job. Measures of performance include capacity and quality. Capacity can be stated in terms of thermal flux (in units such as Btu/hour) and storage or working volume. Quality is a measure of the consistency (with time), uniformity (in space), or thoroughness with which the product does its job. Performance can be measured by prescribed test procedures.

Coggins, J.L.

1979-07-12

246

Aligning an Early Childhood Assessment to State Kindergarten Content Standards: Application of a Nationally Recognized Alignment Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an alignment study conducted to evaluate the alignment between Indiana's Kindergarten content standards and items on the Indiana Standards Tool for Alternate Reporting. Alignment is the extent to which standards and assessments are in agreement, working together to guide educators' efforts to support children's learning and…

Roach, Andrew T.; McGrath, Dawn; Wixson, Corinne; Talapatra, Devadrita

2010-01-01

247

Towards a Quantitative Performance Measurement Framework to Assess the Impact of Geographic Information Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decennia, the use of Geographic Information (GI) has gained importance, in public as well as in private sector. But even if many spatial data and related information exist, data sets are scattered over many organizations and departments. In practice it remains difficult to find the spatial data sets needed, and to access, obtain and prepare them for using in applications. Therefore Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) haven been developed to enhance the access, the use and sharing of GI. SDIs consist of a set of technological and non-technological components to reach this goal. Since the nineties many SDI initiatives saw light. Ultimately, all these initiatives aim to enhance the flow of spatial data between organizations (users as well as producers) involved in intra- and inter-organizational and even cross-country business processes. However, the flow of information and its re-use in different business processes requires technical and semantic interoperability: the first should guarantee that system components can interoperate and use the data, while the second should guarantee that data content is understood by all users in the same way. GI-standards within the SDI are necessary to make this happen. However, it is not known if this is realized in practice. Therefore the objective of the research is to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impact of GI-standards on the performance of business processes. For that purpose, indicators are defined and tested in several cases throughout Europe. The proposed research will build upon previous work carried out in the SPATIALIST project. It analyzed the impact of different technological and non-technological factors on the SDI-performance of business processes (Dessers et al., 2011). The current research aims to apply quantitative performance measurement techniques - which are frequently used to measure performance of production processes (Anupindi et al., 2005). Key to reach the research objectives is a correct design of the test cases. The major challenge is: to set-up the analytical framework for analyzing the impact of GI-standards on the process performance, to define the appropriate indicators and to choose the right test cases. In order to do so, it is proposed to define the test cases as 8 pairs of organizations (see figure). The paper will present the state of the art of performance measurement in the context of work processes, propose a series of SMART indicators for describing the set-up and measure the performance, define the test case set-up and suggest criteria for the selection of the test cases, i.e. the organizational pairs. References Anupindi, R., Chopra, S., Deshmukh, S.D., Van Mieghem, J.A., & Zemel, E. (2006). Managing Business Process Flows: Principles of Operations Management. New-Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. Dessers, D., Crompvoets, J., Janssen, K., Vancauwenberghe, G., Vandenbroucke, D. & Vanhaverbeke, L. (2011). SDI at work: The Spatial Zoning Plans Case. Leuven, Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Vandenbroucke, D.; Van Orshoven, J.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

2012-12-01

248

Comparative assessment of electricity production systems; Vergleichende Bewertung von Stromerzeugungssystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany's decision to phase out nuclear energy and pursue ambitious climate protection goals necessitate an ''energy turnaround'' and thus a reorganisation of its electricity production system. This gives rise to the question as to what electricity production techniques should, from a societal viewpoint, be preferentially promoted and used in tomorrow's electricity supply system. A holistic assessment of the various production options can help in finding an optimal mix of electricity production systems.

Friedrich, Rainer; Preiss, Philipp [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

2012-07-15

249

Bioassays for risk assessment of coal conversion products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional as well as biotechnological processing of coal leads to a complex mixture of products. Besides chemical and physical characterisation which give the information for product application there is a need for bioassays for the monitoring of probably toxic, mutagenic or cancerogenic properties. Investigations carried out by DMT were focussed on selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays for sensitive estimation of toxic effects. Organisms like bacteria, daphnia and algae representing different complexity in the biosphere were selected as test system for ecotoxicological and toxicological studies. Using coal products, coal relevant model compounds and bioconversion products data for risk assessment are presented. (orig.)

Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

1997-12-31

250

Suomi NPP VIIRS ocean color data product early mission assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

2012-09-01

251

Criteria of an Advanced Assessment of the Reclamation Process Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reclamation of spent moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of used moulding refractory materials, enabling a recoveryof at least one of the components - of properties similar to the ones of the fresh component - and its reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied for each type of moulding sands and reclaims. The most important criteria of the technological assessment o...

2010-01-01

252

Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment of Large Scale Hydrogen Production Facilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An environmental assessment of three designs for a large-scale hydrogen production facility is performed using a Hybrid Life Cycle Assesment approach. The operational adaption of the hybrid framework for this case is shown in detail. The inventory establishment and assembly is explained. The impact assessment is performed by applying midpoint environmental theme indicators. The resulting impact potentials and their origins are presented and discussed for all three cases and for each impact ca...

2004-01-01

253

Application of quantitative risk assessment techniques to dragline productivity optimisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An application of quantitative risk assessment is presented by means of which dragline productivity in strip mining operations can be optimised. A risk assessment technique is proposed through which the causative components of dragline destabilising events are analyzed. These hazard events are introduced and discussed in the light of their likely individual fragility and through analysis of their combined risk profile, a technique proposed by which mine block data is merged with an expert system to manage and predict dragline bench instability risk and thereby improve productivity on a local basis. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Thompson, R.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

1994-12-31

254

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

2007-05-30

255

Standardizing benchmark dose calculations to improve science-based decisions in human health assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling computes the dose associated with a prespecified response level. While offering advantages over traditional points of departure (PODs), such as no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs), BMD methods have lacked consistency and transparency in application, interpretation, and reporting in human health assessments of chemicals.Objectives: We aimed to apply a standardized process for conducting BMD modeling to reduce inconsistencies in model fitting and selection.Methods: We evaluated 880 dose-response data sets for 352 environmental chemicals with existing human health assessments. We calculated benchmark doses and their lower limits [10% extra risk, or change in the mean equal to 1 SD (BMD/L10/1SD)] for each chemical in a standardized way with prespecified criteria for model fit acceptance. We identified study design features associated with acceptable model fits.Results: We derived values for 255 (72%) of the chemicals. Batch-calculated BMD/L10/1SD values were significantly and highly correlated (R2 of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively, n = 42) with PODs previously used in human health assessments, with values similar to reported NOAELs. Specifically, the median ratio of BMDs10/1SD:NOAELs was 1.96, and the median ratio of BMDLs10/1SD:NOAELs was 0.89. We also observed a significant trend of increasing model viability with increasing number of dose groups.Conclusions: BMD/L10/1SD values can be calculated in a standardized way for use in health assessments on a large number of chemicals and critical effects. This facilitates the exploration of health effects across multiple studies of a given chemical or, when chemicals need to be compared, providing greater transparency and efficiency than current approaches.Citation: Wignall JA, Shapiro AJ, Wright FA, Woodruff TJ, Chiu WA, Guyton KZ, Rusyn I. 2014. Standardizing benchmark dose calculations to improve science-based decisions in human health assessments. Environ Health Perspect 122:499-505;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307539. PMID:24569956

Wignall, Jessica A; Shapiro, Andrew J; Wright, Fred A; Woodruff, Tracey J; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

2014-05-01

256

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material. [Site Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

257

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

Precision measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC will be presented. Measurements of production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative QCD in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of the interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the LHC.

Vincter, M; The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

258

Wireless networks. Standard ZigBee (on the example of products of Atmel Corp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The situation and prospects of wireless radio receivers and radio transmitters which use standard ZigBee is examined in this work. The specification of ZigBee is developed on the base of international standard of IEEE 802.15.4 for creation inexpensive wireless networks for transmission small amount of information with low-power consumption. Main feature of ZigBee is support of not only simple topologies of wireless connection but also difficult wireless networks at relatively low energy consumption. Products of company Atmel have the best support of ZigBee technology. ZigBee is used in the industrial monitoring systems, in a medical equipment, can be integrated in the systems of production process automation.

O. M. Lyashuk

2011-03-01

259

Selection of elite microalgae for biodiesel production in tropical conditions using a standardized platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four thermotolerant microalgae were isolated from tropical Taiwan and classified as members of Desmodesmus based on morphological and molecular studies. A platform was established to evaluate their biodiesel production-related traits, including thermotolerance, lipid productivity, lipid oxidative stability and auto-sedimentation. The findings demonstrated thermotolerance of all four species was at the same level, as all could live at 45 °C for 24 h and 50 °C for 8 h with mortality rates below 5% of cells. The lipid productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F2 reached 113 mg/L/d. Its saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 75% of the FAMEs, and it required only 3.1 h to achieve 85% sedimentation. Comparing these traits to those of the other three Desmodesmus and microalgae in the literature, Desmodesmus sp. F2 is one of the best candidates for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical areas. This platform effectively assessed traits of microalgae related to biodiesel production. PMID:23994959

Ho, Shih-hsin; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chiang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chang, Jo-Shu

2013-11-01

260

Assessments on energy and efficiency calibration of an alpha spectrometry system using standard sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies and evaluations of the main parameters of a high resolution multi-chamber alpha spectrometer and its full calibration using standard sources of 241Am, 233U and 244Cm are presented for the validation of the complex method of characterization of an alpha spectrometer dedicated for alpha radioactive concentration measurements of various environmental samples. The resolution and efficiency were determined at all possible source-detector distances for all eight solid state ORTEC ULTRA-AS detectors. In addition, the solid angles associated to different measurement geometries and the repeatability of the results were assessed. A detailed inter-comparison of the results was performed drawing important conclusions regarding the quality of the alpha detector response to the alpha radiation of the standard sources used in measurements. (author)

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's fluorescent lamp standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end uses in China over the last 20 years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting needs. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8-T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through energy efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's 2003 minimum efficiency standard for linear fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

2005-07-01

262

Ready-For-Use-module full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Currently, the somatostatin imaging using DOTA conjugated peptides like DOTA-TOC, -NOC and -TATE are the common applications. Different 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and synthesis modules are described separately. We describe a new full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC. Methods: The module has to fit with components like the pre-conditioned C18 purifications cartridge and the DOTATOC precursor solute in HEPES buffer. The generator was fractionally eluted in ti...

Stephan Maus; Mathias Schreckenberger

2010-01-01

263

TT = Top pair production. III: Testing the standard model in top quark decays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations the top quark completed the set of quarks expected by the Standard Model. It is predicted to have the same quantum numbers and couplings as the other up-type quarks. Albeit, only very few of these properties have been verified so far. This article summarizes the existing measurements of top quark properties in the pair production mode.

Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U.

2006-10-01

264

Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A) and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B). For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process ...

Le?i? Danica

2005-01-01

265

Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. Depending on the chosen criterion, one or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs

1996-01-01

266

Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

Majerus Steve

2009-07-01

267

Bioassays for risk assessment of coal conversion products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional as well as biotechnological processing coal leads to complex mixtures of products. Besides chemical and physical characterization, which provides the information for product application, there is a need for bioassays to monitor properties that are probably toxic, mutagenic or cancerogenic. Investigations carried out focused on the selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays for the sensitive estimation of toxic effects. Organisms like bacteria, Daphnia magna and Scenedesmus subspicatus, representing different complexities in the biosphere, were selected as test systems for ecotoxicological and mutagenicity studies. The results obtained indicate that bioassays are, in principle, suitable tools for characterization and evaluation of coal-derived substances and bioconversion products. Using coal products, coal-relevant model compounds and bioconversion products, data for risk assessment are presented. (orig.)

Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

1999-07-01

268

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables.

1984-11-15

269

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

1984-01-01

270

System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technolog...

Henshaw, Philip F.; King, Carey; Zarnikau, Jay

2011-01-01

271

Visualization of GPM Standard Products at the Precipitation Processing System (PPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the standard data products for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites will be generated at and distributed by the Precipitation Processing System (PPS) at NASA Goddard. PPS will provide several means to visualize these data products. These visualization tools will be used internally by PPS analysts to investigate potential anomalies in the data files, and these tools will also be made available to researchers. Currently, a free data viewer called THOR, the Tool for High-resolution Observation Review, can be downloaded and installed on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems. THOR can display swath and grid products, and to a limited degree, the low-level data packets that the satellite itself transmits to the ground system. Observations collected since the 1997 launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite can be downloaded from the PPS FTP archive, and in the future, many of the GPM standard products will also be available from this FTP site. To provide easy access to this 80 terabyte and growing archive, PPS currently operates an on-line ordering tool called STORM that provides geographic and time searches, browse-image display, and the ability to order user-specified subsets of standard data files. Prior to the anticipated 2013 launch of the GPM core satellite, PPS will expand its visualization tools by integrating an on-line version of THOR within STORM to provide on-the-fly image creation of any portion of an archived data file at a user-specified degree of magnification. PPS will also provide OpenDAP access to the data archive and OGC WMS image creation of both swath and gridded data products. During the GPM era, PPS will continue to provide realtime globally-gridded 3-hour rainfall estimates to the public in a compact binary format (3B42RT) and in a GIS format (2-byte TIFF images + ESRI WorldFiles).

Kelley, O.

2010-12-01

272

Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods?The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to screen for specialists. A social science survey was adopted, and 119 specialists were selected composing 98 specialists in recruitment of pilots and 21 aviation medical clinicians. A total of 359 standard items were evaluated for suitability approval, and then the reliability of evaluation results was analyzed. The final step was the formation of criteria for final judgment. The worthiness of the items was based on the specialists' opinions. When a certain item was deemed suitable by more than 80% of the specialists, it was considered as appropriate, and when a certain item was deemed suitable by less than 60% of the specialists, it was not appropriate. Results?A total of 134 survey brochures were sent out, and 128 out of 134 were retrieved. The positive index of specialist participation was 0.95, and the authority index was 0.86. 271 (75.5% of the 359 items were generally accepted by specialists as appropriate, and 27 (7.5% items were not accepted. Most of these rejected items involved function evaluation, the concept and essence of which could not be easily grasped. Conclusions?Although the majority of the items in the physical examination standards were deemed appropriate by the specialists, there were a few items not accepted. These standards should be revised after being applied in the future.

Zhi-gang JIAO

2012-03-01

273

Estimation and comparison of effective dose (E) in standard chest CT by organ dose measurements and dose-length-product methods and assessment of the influence of CT tube potential (energy dependency) on effective dose in a dual-source CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The dual-energy protocol delivers the lowest effective dose of the investigated protocols for standard chest CT examinations, thus enabling functional imaging (like dual-energy perfusion) and can produce weighted images without dose penalty. ? The high-pitch protocol goes along with a 16% increase in dose compared to the standard 120 kV protocol and thus should preferably be used in pediatric, acute care settings (e.g. pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and the like) or restless patients. ? The difference in effective dose estimates between ICRP 60 and 103 is minimal. ? Tube potential definitely has an effect on estimates of effective dose. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine effective dose (E) during standard chest CT using an organ dose-based and a dose-length-product-based (DLP) approach for four different scan protocols including high-pitch and dual-energy in a dual-source CT scanner of the second generation. Materials and methods: Organ doses were measured with thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) in an anthropomorphic male adult phantom. Further, DLP-based dose estimates were performed by using the standard 0.014 mSv/mGycm conversion coefficient k. Examinations were performed on a dual-source CT system (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens). Four scan protocols were investigated: (1) single-source 120 kV, (2) single-source 100 kV, (3) high-pitch 120 kV, and (4) dual-energy with 100/Sn140 kV with equivalent CTDIvol and no automated tube current modulation. E was then determined following recommendations of ICRP publication 103 and 60 and specific k values were derived. Results: DLP-based estimates differed by 4.5–16.56% and 5.2–15.8% relatively to ICRP 60 and 103, respectively. The derived k factors calculated from TLD measurements were 0.0148, 0.015, 0.0166, and 0.0148 for protocol 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for single-energy and dual-energy protocols show a difference of less than 0.04 mSv. Conclusion: Estimates of E based on DLP work equally well for single-energy, high-pitch and dual-energy CT examinations. The tube potential definitely affects effective dose in a substantial way. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for both single-energy and dual-energy examinations differ not more than 0.04 mSv.

2012-04-01

274

24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Building product standards...exterior finish and insulation systems, use of... § 200.946 Building product standards...exterior finish and insulation systems, use of...Exterior Finish and Insulation Systems shall...Design Loads for Buildings and Other...

2010-04-01

275

Assessing the productivity of advanced practice providers using a time and motion study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale is widely used to measure healthcare provider productivity and to set payment standards. The scale, however, is limited in its assessment of pre- and postservice work and other potentially non-revenue-generating healthcare services, what we have termed service-valued activity (SVA). In an attempt to quantify SVA, we conducted a time and motion study of providers to assess their productivity in inpatient and outpatient settings. Using the Standard Time and Motion Procedures checklist as a methodological guide, we provided personal digital assistants (PDAs) that were prepopulated with 2010 Current Procedural Terminology codes to 19 advanced practice providers (APPs). The APPs were instructed to identify their location and activity each time the PDA randomly alarmed. The providers collected data for 3 to 5 workdays, and those data were separated into revenue-generating services (RGSs) and SVAs. Multiple inpatient and outpatient departments were assessed. The inpatient APPs spent 61.6 percent of their time on RGSs and 35.1 percent on SVAs. Providers in the outpatient settings spent 59.0 percent of their time on RGSs and 38.2 percent on SVAs. This time and motion study demonstrated an innovative method and tool for the quantification and analysis of time spent on revenue- and non-revenue-generating services provided by healthcare professionals. The new information derived from this study can be used to accurately document productivity, determine clinical practice patterns, and improve deployment strategies of healthcare providers. PMID:23821897

Ogunfiditimi, Folusho; Takis, Lisa; Paige, Virginia J; Wyman, Janet F; Marlow, Elissa

2013-01-01

276

Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

McAloone, Timothy Charles

2003-01-01

277

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of electroweak interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs-boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements presented in this note are based on approximately 5 fb-1 of data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 with the ATLAS detector based at the CERN Laboratory.

Vincter Manuella G.

2013-11-01

278

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

CERN Multimedia

Measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of electroweak interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs-boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements presented in this note are based on approximately 5~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7~TeV in 2011 with the ATLAS detector based at the CERN Laboratory.

Vincter, MG

2013-01-01

279

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

2012-08-01

280

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Standard for assessment of fuel integrity under anticipated operational occurrences in BWR power plant:2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To secure fuel integrity, a Light Water Reactor (LWR) core is designed so that no boiling transition (BT) should take place in fuel assemblies and excessive rise in fuel cladding temperature due to deteriorated that transfer should be avoided in Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOO). In some AOO in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), however, the rise in reactor power could be limited by SCRAM or void reactivity effect. Recent studies have provided accumulated knowledge that even if BT takes place in fuel assemblies, the rise in fuel cladding temperature could be so small that it will not threat to fuel integrity, as long as the BT condition terminates within a short period of time. In addition, appropriate methods have been developed to evaluate the cladding temperature during dryout. This standard provides requirements in the assessment of fuel integrity under AOO in which limited-BT condition is temporarily reached and the propriety of reusing a fuel assembly that has experienced limited-BT condition. The standard has been approved by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan following deliberation by impartial members for two and half years. It is now expected that this standard will provide an effective measure for the rational expansion of fuel design and operational margin. (author)

2003-06-01

282

Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more `tender', `short' and `crumbly' and less `hard' and `stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product `I 657' was less `juicy' than the rest. Products `I 657' and `L 40' were more `cohesive' and tasted more `sourish' and less of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron/liver' and `fat' aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat `tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

283

Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for In vitro biofilm production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 14 Escherichia coli isolates were assessed for their ability to produce biofilm in-vitro by slime production on Congo red agar medium (CRA and microtitre plate assay. Out of 14 isolates tested, 12 were slime producing on CRA as indicated by black colonies. The isolates of E.coli varied in their ability to produce biofilm on the surface of microtitre plate ranging from 0.101 to 0.543 ODm. Out of 14 isolates tested, 10 were positive for biofilm production employing criterion of blank corrected ODs9s > 0.1. Two of slime negative isolated were also negative for biofilm production where as the two slime positive isolates were found to be negative for biofilm production. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 364-366

A.I. Dadawala

284

Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

1980-01-01

285

Real Options in the Assessment of New Products  

Science.gov (United States)

For the evaluation of new product development (NPD) and - alternatively - research & development (R&D) projects, the consideration of technical, market, and environmental uncertainties is of highest importance. Such uncertainties often result from changes in the markets and their environment. In these cases, real options assessment can provide a better understanding of the value of a project, since this approach allows to model management actions during the products’ lifetime very flexible and allows to select best project alternatives. This paper describes the use of the real options approach in information technology (IT). The application field is the production of a new desktop video-conference system with possible product extensions to be developed during lifetime.

Esber, Said; Baier, Daniel

286

DEVELOPING USABLE SOFTWARE PRODUCT USING USABILITY RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Usability is an important factor in ensuring development of quality and usable software product. Ignorance and unawareness about the concept of usability and failure to address usability during software development process has led to usability problems in software product. Many efforts has been suggested in literature to overcome usability problem in software products but current practices faces challenges in reducing these usability problems. Alternatively, the concept of risk management can be used to control usability problems even though these problems cannot be eliminated totally. The concept of risk management is important to deal with usability problem before it occurs. Unfortunately, there is still lack of proper definition of usability risk and a proper model to identify, analyze and prioritize potential usability risk during Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC. This paper presents comprehensive study on the need for Usability Risk Assessment Model to reduce usability problems in software products.

Jayaletchumi T. Sambantha Moorthy

2014-03-01

287

Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae in ponds.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyses the potential environmental impacts and economic viability of producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in ponds. A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of a notional production system designed for Australian conditions was conducted to compare biodiesel production from algae (with three different scenarios for carbon dioxide supplementation and two different production rates) with canola and ULS (ultra-low sulfur) diesel. Comparisons of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions (g CO(2)-e/tkm) and costs (¢/tkm) are given. Algae GHG emissions (-27.6 to 18.2) compare very favourably with canola (35.9) and ULS diesel (81.2). Costs are not so favourable, with algae ranging from 2.2 to 4.8, compared with canola (4.2) and ULS diesel (3.8). This highlights the need for a high production rate to make algal biodiesel economically attractive. PMID:20594828

Campbell, Peter K; Beer, Tom; Batten, David

2011-01-01

288

Low Voltage Flip-flop Standard Cells with Optimum Energy Delay Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents transmission gate flip-flop standard cells with channel length and dual-threshold techniques and their low-voltage operating. The proposed transmission gate flip-flops have the same structure with the basic master-slave transmission gate one using multiplexers, but the different place is the feedback path (non-critical path. In the non-critical path, the dual-channel length flip-flop uses high threshold devices while the dual-threshold flip-flop uses gate-length modulation device. Three flip-flop standard cells are investigated from 0.5 to 1.2 V in term of Energy Delay Product (EDP with HSPICE at a SMIC 130 nm technology. The dual-threshold flip-flop standard cell achieves considerable leakage reductions and gate-length biasing flip-flop standard cell achieves the lowest total energy consumption in all the cells. The results demonstrate that scaling supply voltage using dual-threshold CMOS (low threshold and ultra high threshold and gate-length biasing are advantageous, especially in low voltage regions (800-900 mv which yield the best EDP.

Yang Dan

2013-01-01

289

First Results from the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) Assessment Instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable effort in the astronomy education research over the past several years has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important in advancing astronomy as a sub-discipline of physics education research, allowing researchers to establish the initial knowledge state of students as well as to attempt to measure some of the impacts of innovative instructional interventions. Before now, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. Moving beyond the 10-year old Astronomy Diagnostics Test, we have developed and validated a new assessment instrument that is tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. Researchers from the Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Wyoming's Science and Math Teaching Center (UWYO SMTC) designed a criterion-referenced assessment tool, called the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Through iterative development, this multiple-choice instrument has a high degree of reliability and validity for instructors and researchers needing information on students’ initial knowledge state at the beginning of a course and can be used, in aggregate, to help measure the impact of course-length duration instructional strategies for undergraduate science survey courses with learning goals tightly aligned to the consensus goals of the astronomy education community.

Slater, Stephanie

2009-01-01

290

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

Burgoyne Louise

2010-03-01

291

Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B. For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process by UML class diagram and standardized model of document Working Order for technological process in the form of OAGI BOD XML document. Based on it, from an example, model of technological process is presented by activity diagram (DA in XML form and an appearance of document Working Order. Just as well, rules of transformation DA to XML are presented.

Le?i? Danica

2005-01-01

292

Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (beef and lamb in the urban region of Pisa, a medium-sized Italian city. The capacity of periurban livestock farms for meat production to fulfil urban demand was assessed on the basis of meat supply and demand. We derived meat demand from statistical data, whereas we calculated meat supply on the basis of three estimates (i.e. potential, current, actual meat supply taking into account both statistical and on-farm survey data. In particular, the potential meat supply was estimated from statistical data on slaughtered livestock, the current meat supply was estimated from meat production data of on-farm surveys, while the actual meat supply was estimated from the amount of meat sold by farmers on the local market from onfarm surveys. For the urban region of Pisa, we estimated that the potential meat supply met is equal to 16% of the beef demand and 62% of the lamb demand. This data could change, if the on-farm data is taken into account in the current supply, as was the case with lamb, which decreased to 37%, whereas beef remained almost unchanged (14%. The actual supply was 70% and 10% of the current supply for beef and lamb respectively. We identified some gaps between the three estimates, particularly for lamb production, suggesting that it may have some constraints in terms of production and commercialisation. Our results can contribute to assess local food systems and their drivers at the farm level. Furthermore these results also highlight the need for an agronomical approach to food systems based on the analysis of farm activities located in periurban areas in order to quantify the food supply that is actually produced for the local market. Food planning policies, as well as studies at the local level, could take advantage from this method.

Rosalia Filippini

2014-04-01

293

Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for In vitro biofilm production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 14 Escherichia coli isolates were assessed for their ability to produce biofilm in-vitro by slime production on Congo red agar medium (CRA) and microtitre plate assay. Out of 14 isolates tested, 12 were slime producing on CRA as indicated by black colonies. The isolates of E.coli varied in their ability to produce biofilm on the surface of microtitre plate ranging from 0.101 to 0.543 ODm. Out of 14 isolates tested, 10 were positive for biofilm production employing criterion of blan...

2010-01-01

294

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

2010-03-01

295

CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

Baker, David P.

2002-01-01

296

THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

Andrykiewicz, Anna; Seternus, Arkadiusz; S?onimiec, Justyna; Trzes?niewski, Arkadiusz

2012-01-01

297

Assessing the productivity function of soils. A review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development and survival or disappearance of civilizations has been based on the performance of soils to provide food, fibre, and further essential goods for humans. Amongst soil functions, the capacity to produce plant biomass (productivity function) remains essential. This function is closely associated with the main global issues of the 21st century like food security, demands of energy and water, carbon balance and climate change. A standardised methodology for assessing the productiv...

Mueller, Lothar; Schindler, Uwe; Mirschel, Wilfried; Graham Shepherd, T.; Ball, Bruce C.; Helming, Katharina; Rogasik, Jutta; Eulenstein, Frank; Wiggering, Hubert

2010-01-01

298

Assessing the impact of soil degradation on food production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Continuing soil degradation remains a serious threat to future food security. Yet, global soil degradation assessments are based on qualitative expert judgments or remotely sensed quantitative proxy values that suffice to raise awareness but are too coarse to identify appropriate sustainable land management interventions. Studies in China and Sub Saharan Africa illustrate the considerable impact of degradation on crop production but also point to the need for solutions dependent on location s...

Bindraban, P. S.; Velde, M.; Ye, L.; Berg, M.; Materechera, S.; Kiba, D. I.; Tamene, L.; Ragnarsdottir, K. V.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Beek, C. L.; Lynden, G. W. J.

2012-01-01

299

Assessment of Potential Milk Production of Chinese Hesitan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was aimed to assess a potentiality of milk production for a recently established dairy farm. A total of 201 Chinese Hesitan cows and 21 calves were raised in stall feeding system. The cows were respectively divided into area A (lactating only), B (late pregnant only), C (early pregnant only) and D (calves only). The study period lasted for 60 days which initially involved only 19 lactating cows and ended with 102 lactating cows. Physical observation of daily milk collection (twice ...

Abdullahi, A. Y.; Yang, J. B.

2012-01-01

300

24 CFR 200.947 - Building product standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board.  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board. 200...standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All polystyrene foam insulation board...

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1. promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. LCA Center Denmark was presented at the SETAC Europe conference in Hamburg in 2003 where it had just been launched. This presentation will follow up on the progress and activities of the center and report from an independent evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cyclethinking in industry will be presented.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

2004-01-01

302

Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

1994-11-03

303

Technical background paper for utility and performance relative to consumer-product energy-efficiency standards (for proposed energy-efficiency standards)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes an investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The objective of the investigation was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy-efficiency-standards program. Performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input, the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer-survey methods already largely in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy-efficiency standards. The recommended approach to classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most-quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach to utility and performance issues and classification requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

Coggins, J.L.

1979-09-13

304

Standard-model predictions for W-pair production in electron-positron collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the status of the theoretical predictions for W-pair production in e+e- collisions within the electroweak standard model (SM). We first consider for on-shell W-bosons the lowest-order cross-section within the SM, the general effects of anomalous couplings, the radiative corrections within the SM, and approximations for them. Then we discuss the inclusion of finite-width effects in lowest order and the existing results for radiative corrections to off-shell W-pair production, and we outline the general strategy to calculate radiative corrections within the pole scheme. We summarize the theoretical predictions for the total and partial W-boson widths including radiative corrections and discuss the quality of an improved Born approximation. Finally we provide a general discussion of the structure-function method to calculate large logarithmic higher-order corrections associated with collinear photon radiation. (orig.)

1994-01-01

305

States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71  

Science.gov (United States)

Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the…

Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.

2008-01-01

306

States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75  

Science.gov (United States)

All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is…

Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

2010-01-01

307

The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

Fullmer, Patricia

2009-01-01

308

Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

2009-11-01

309

Standardization of laboratory performance. Approaches to the design of external quality assessment schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Special Programme for Research in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization sponsors clinical trials involving immunoassay measurements by laboratories in different countries. These trials present significant problems of standardization of results. The performance of different laboratories is monitored by means of external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). The design of appropriate EQAS for differing analytes is affected by the number of participating centres, and whether the analyte is measured on a regular basis. Three different EQAS designs are discussed: The first is the WHO EQAS for reproductive hormones, which is intended for analytes measured on a regular basis by a large number of centres. The second design is for unusual analytes that are measured infrequently and at irregular intervals. The third design is for studies where small differences between treatments or subject groups are expected. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

1991-08-26

310

Standardization of natural pohenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Huang, J.C.; Hsu, Y.S.

1985-01-01

311

Status of characterization techniques for carbon nanotubes and suggestions towards standards suitable for toxicological assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnologies promise to contribute significantly to major technological challenges of the upcoming century. Despite profound scientific progress in the last decades, only minor advances have been made in the field of nanomaterial toxicology. The International Team in Nanosafety (TITNT) is an international and multidisciplinary group of scientists, which aims at better understanding the risks of nanomaterials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) account for one of the most promising nanomaterials and have therefore been chosen as representative material for nanoscaled particles. They are currently investigated by the different platforms of TITNT. As a starting point, the present report summarizes a literature-based study on the physico-chemical properties of CNT, as they are closely linked with toxicological properties. A brief introduction to synthesis, purification and material properties is given. Characterization methods for CNT are discussed with respect to their reliability and the information content on chemical properties. Recommendations for a set of standard characterizations mandatory for toxicological assessment are derived.

2011-07-06

312

Standard criteria and methods to assess the reclamation of native vegetation on mined land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is currently much interest in the re-establishment of native (semi-natural) vegetation in mineral workings in the UK. It is expected that future planning consents will have conditions attached which require evidence that the proposed communities have been achieved. At present there is no standard approach. This paper describes a formal sample based method which enables assessment of plant community, species richness and species of particular interest at any point in time and their course of development. The method is illustrated by use of data collected for sown grassland on a restored opencast coal site in South Wales. Further development work is likely to be necessary and comparison with other recently recommended methods is suggested

1999-08-13

313

The Fargo Map Test: a standardized method for assessing remote memory for visuospatial information.  

Science.gov (United States)

At present, there is no standardized method for assessing remote memory (RM) for visuospatial information in humans. The Fargo Map Test (FMT) uses knowledge of the locations of geographical features in regions of the country in which subjects currently live and formerly resided to provide a measure of this aspect of RM. Two different formats of the FMT have been developed, which differ in their demands for fine motor skill, ease of scoring, and in the amount and nature of geographical knowledge that can be measured. Preliminary findings suggest that both formats are equally sensitive to the influences of gender and age in normal subjects. Furthermore, knowledge of the geography of regions of prior residence appears to be stable over a period of at least 15 years. PMID:3343366

Beatty, W W

1988-01-01

314

Compliance assessment of an uranium hexafluoride package 30B with overpack to the IAEA standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Dipartimento di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari (DCMN) of the Pisa University a research program was carried out in order to assess the compliance to the updated IAEA standards of the UF6 30B container, complete with its sandwich phenolic foam filled external overpack. The research program, performed in collaboration with ENEA and several interested Italian firms, included 9 mt free drop, perforation, thermal and leaktightness tests, on two complete packages with dummy load. The heat transfer conditions, with the UF6 real contents, were simulated by means of numerical analyses with the TRUMP computer code and calculation procedures set up using the available experimental data. The attained results seem to be useful from the point of view of the foreseen purposes

1988-05-24

315

Towards a life cycle sustainability assessment: making informed choices on products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this introduction to the concept of life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), we acknowledge the foundations laid by previous works and initiatives. One such initiative has been the ISO 14040 series (Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework), which in addition to the ISO 26000: Social Responsibility Guidance Standard, and the contribution of a number of international initiatives (Appendix A) have been essential for the development of this publication. The life cycle of a product involves flows of material, energy and money. Nonetheless, the picture is not complete unless we look also at the production and consumption impacts on all actors along the 'value chain' -- workers, local communities, consumers and society itself. Different life cycle assessment techniques allow individuals and enterprises to assess the impact of their purchasing decisions and production methods along different aspects of this value chain. An (Environmental) life cycle assessment (LCA) looks at potential impacts to the environment as a result of the extraction of resources, transportation, production, use, recycling and discarding of products; life cycle costing (LCC) is used to assess the cost implications of this life cycle; and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) examines the social consequences. However, in order to get the 'whole picture', it is vital to extend current life cycle thinking to encompass all three pillars of sustainability: (i) environmental, (ii) economic and (iii) social. This means carrying out an assessment based on environmental, economic and social issues -- by conducting an overarching life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). This publication shows how all three techniques -- which all share similar methodological frameworks and aims -- can be combined to make the move towards an overarching LCSA possible. Because it is holistic, systemic and rigorous, (environmental) LCA is the preferred technique when it comes to compiling and assessing information about potential environmental impacts of a product. It has been standardized in the ISO 14040 and 14044 and is applied by practitioners globally. Life cycle costing as a technique to calculate and manage costs, especially for large investments has been used to support decision-makers in procurement for decades, with a rigorous focus on private costs. Prerequisites for better alignment with (environmental) LCA are currently being researched and will help the further development of the method. As an emerging technique, S-LCA will play a key role in complementing material- and energy-flow-related information. Since the late 1990s, the Life Cycle Initiative partnership of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has enhanced the role of life cycle based approaches and thinking in several ways. Two examples are the partnership's contributions to the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and inputs for the development of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP). This current publication, Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, expands this work by bringing the concept of LCSA methods to the fore. In doing so, it will contribute to the sustainable development discussions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Summit) in 2012 ('Rio+20'). The text will also contribute to the UNEP Green Economy Initiative -- which strives to build economies that bring improved human well-being, reduce inequalities over the long term and which keep future generations safe from environmental risk and ecological scarcity. The publication includes eight case studies to illustrate how current and emerging life cycle assessment techniques are being implemented worldwide from Asia through Europe and Latin America.

Ciroth, Andreas [GreenDeltaTC, Berlin (Germany); Finkbeiner, Matthias; Traverso, Marzia [TU Berlin (Germany); Hildenbrand, Jutta [Chalmers University (United States); Kloepffer, Walter [Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (Germany); Mazijn, Bernard [Ghent University (Belgium); Prakash, Siddharth [Oeko-Institut (Germany); Sonnemann, Guido; Valdivia, Sonia [UNEP (France); Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie [Technological Federal University of Parana, ACV (Brazil); Vickery-Niederman, Gina [University of Arkansas (United States)

2011-07-01

316

Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

2009-12-01

317

Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

1996-07-01

318

Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: "3"2P, "5"1Cr, "6"0C, and "6"5Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated

1996-01-01

319

ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED STRAW PULP AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new, straw-based fibre manufacturing technology integrated to bioenergy and biofuels production. The process is based on a novel hot water treatment and subsequent mechanical refining, both of which are performed at a high temperature. Soda process, ethanol production, and chemical defibration based on hot water treatment and subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching were selected as references. The idea is to utilise the fibre fraction for packaging and the dissolved solids and the formed fines for energy. The investment costs of this process are significantly lower than those of a soda process. Additionally, a chemicals recovery process is unnecessary. Furthermore, the process offers an attractive alternative for biogas production. However, the assessment showed that the process could only be economical in some terms. Subsidies for investment would probably be needed to promote the acceptance of this environmentally safe process.

Anja Paula Maria Leponiemi

2011-04-01

320

Standardized Handwriting to Assess Bradykinesia, Micrographia and Tremor in Parkinson's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess whether standardized handwriting can provide quantitative measures to distinguish patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease from age- and gender-matched healthy control participants. Design Exploratory study. Pen tip trajectories were recorded during circle, spiral and line drawing and repeated character ‘elelelel’ and sentence writing, performed by Parkinson patients and healthy control participants. Parkinson patients were tested after overnight withdrawal of anti-Parkinsonian medication. Setting University Medical Center Groningen, tertiary care, the Netherlands. Participants Patients with Parkinson's disease (n?=?10; mean age 69.0 years; 6 male) and healthy controls (n?=?10; mean age 68.1 years; 6 male). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Movement time and velocity to detect bradykinesia and the size of writing to detect micrographia. A rest recording to investigate the presence of a rest-tremor, by frequency analysis. Results Mean disease duration in the Parkinson group was 4.4 years and the patients were in modified Hoehn-Yahr stages 1–2.5. In general, Parkinson patients were slower than healthy control participants. Median time per repetition, median velocity and median acceleration of the sentence task and median velocity of the elel task differed significantly between Parkinson patients and healthy control participants (all p<0.0014). Parkinson patients also wrote smaller than healthy control participants and the width of the ‘e’ in the elel task was significantly smaller in Parkinson patients compared to healthy control participants (p<0.0014). A rest-tremor was detected in the three patients who were clinically assessed as having rest-tremor. Conclusions This study shows that standardized handwriting can provide objective measures for bradykinesia, tremor and micrographia to distinguish Parkinson patients from healthy control participants.

Smits, Esther J.; Tolonen, Antti J.; Cluitmans, Luc; van Gils, Mark; Conway, Bernard A.; Zietsma, Rutger C.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Maurits, Natasha M.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Assessment of new vehicles emissions certification standards in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Light duty gasoline vehicles account for most of CO hydrocarbons and NOx emissions at the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). In order to ameliorate air pollution from the beginning of 2001, Tier 1 emission standards became mandatory for all new model year sold in the country. Car manufacturers in Mexico do not guarantee the performance of their exhaust emissions systems for a given mileage. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Tier 1 vehicles will stand the certification values for at least 162000 km with the regular fuel available at the MAMC. Mileage accumulation and deterioration show that certified carbon monoxide emissions will stand for the useful life of the vehicles but in the case of non-methane hydrocarbons will be shorter by 40%, and nitrogen oxides emissions above the standard will be reached at one third of the accumulated kilometers. The effect of gasoline sulfur content, on the current in use Tier 1 vehicles of the MAMC and the impact on the emissions inventory in year 2010 showed that 31000 extra tons of NOx could be added to the inventory caused by the failure of the vehicles to control this pollutant at the useful life of vehicles. PMID:16570219

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; López-Salinas, E

2006-03-01

322

HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

2011-10-01

323

Assessment of quantities for radiation protection in the ICRU standard tissue sphere for intermediate energy neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the fluctuating cross section structure in the energy range of 0.4 to 10.0 MeV on the responses of neutrons in the ICRU standard tissue sphere is analyzed. The point-energy, coupled neutron-secondary particles Monte Carlo method was used in the direct estimation of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent. A new approach was adopted where energy band-averaged responses were calculated instead of the previous method, which generated them as point values. By analyzing the depth-dose distributions with an improved searching method, assessments were made for the important quantities in radiation protection; the index quantities, the newly defined operational quantities, and other relevant quantities defined in the standard receptor. The energy dependencies of the resulting response functions were consistent with the cross section structure and were dominated by the oxygen content in tissue due to both the oxygen resonance cross section and the characteristic behavior of the recoil proton quality factor. The relative differences between the present index quantities and the previous values vary from -17.0 to +3.4% with respect to the present results for the deep dose equivalent, and from -19.2 to +8.6% for the shallow dose equivalent values on the principal axis, these relative differences deviate from +4.0 to 33.8%

1985-01-01

324

Standard SANC modules for NLO QCD radiative corrections to single top-quark production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the results obtained with the newly created standard SANC modules for calculation of the NLO QCD corrections to single top-quark-production processes in s and t channels at the partonic level, as well as to top-decays. The main aim of these results is to prove the correct work of modules. A comprehensive comparison with the results of the CompHEP system is given, where possible. These modules are intended to be used in Monte Carlo generators for single top-quark-production processes at the LHC. As in our recent paper, devoted to the electroweak corrections to these processes, we study the regularization of the top-legs associated infrared divergences with the aid of the complex mass of the top quark. A comparison of QCD corrections with those computed by the conventional method is presented both for top production and for decays. For s-channel production we give an analytic proof of equivalence of the two methods in the limit of low top width

2012-01-01

325

Standard SANC modules for NLO QCD Radiative Corrections to Single-top Production  

CERN Multimedia

It this paper we present the results obtained with the newly created Standard SANC modules for calculation of the NLO QCD corrections to single top production processes in s and t channels at the partonic level, as well as top-decays. The main aim of these results is to prove the correct work of modules. A comprehensive comparison with results of the CompHEP system is given, where possible. These modules are intended to be used in Monte Carlo generators for single top production processes at the LHC. As in our recent paper, devoted to the electroweak corrections to these processes, we study the regularization of the top-legs associated infrared divergences with aid of the complex mass of the top quark. A comparison of QCD corrections with those computed by the conventional method is presented both for top production and decays. For s channel production we give an analytic proof of equivalence of the two methods in the limit of low top width.

Bardin, D; Christova, P; Kalinovskaya, L; Kolesnikov, V; von Schlippe, W; Yordanova, K

2011-01-01

326

Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Fleetwide Standard Underway Data Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project was recently launched with the ambitious goal of documenting “routine underway data” from the US academic research fleet and delivering those data to established national archives. Data distributions will be submitted by 18 operating institutions for 30 vessels, from hundreds of cruises per year. R2R will be responsible for digital data collected with instruments that are part of the ship’s permanent equipment and are routinely operated and recorded by the ship’s technicians. Examples include navigation, multibeam, subbottom, gravimeter, magnetics, ADCP, CTD, meteorology, etc. It is anticipated that most underway data will be promptly and publicly released. However R2R will have the ability to securely embargo any specific datasets identified in advance by the chief scientist, for a proprietary hold period of up to two years as mandated by the NSF 04-004 Division of Ocean Sciences Data and Sample Policy. It is important to note that there are data types that R2R will not address. For example, the chief scientist will continue to be responsible for the documentation and archiving of data from specific instruments brought on board by the scientific party, not part of the ship’s standard equipment. Similarly, data collected with National Facility assets including the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF), Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) and the National Marine Seismic Facility (NMSF) will continue to be submitted to the appropriate archiving facility directly by those facilities, rather than through R2R. Soon after the shipboard data is received by R2R, the entire original distribution will be safely stored in a deep archive for long-term preservation, and a cataloging process will be undertaken to assemble data sets for delivery to National Data Centers, as described more fully in the invited presentation by Robert Arko, “Rolling Deck to Repository: Technical Design - Experiences and Lessons.” A suite of R2R standard products will be generated for each cruise including (1) Basic Cruise Metadata, (2) Operations Report, and (3) Quality Controlled Navigational Products. Certified R2R navigation will be created at three levels: NavHiRes at the original raw sample rate (usually one sample per second), Nav1Min at a standard 1-minute time interval, and NavControl at a reduced rate appropriate for graphical representation of a cruise at a global or regional scale. These standard data products will be made available for automatic harvesting on www.rvdata.us by repository and data systems, and for download by individual users.

Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, P. D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.

2009-12-01

327

Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels in a two stage game. The firms choose the quality level in the first game, and their prices in the second game. The Nash equilibrium illustrates that the producer in the large country produces a higher quality than the producer in the small country. However, a reduction of the trade barrier twists the quality levels in favour of the small country. Furthermore, in case of implementation of a minimum quality standard, which forces the low quality producer from the small country to increase the quality level, the producer from the large country reacts strategically by lowering the quality level of his product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model.

Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

2006-01-01

328

Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are also exploring the Global Change Information System ontology, BCO-DMO Ocean Data Ontology, and other relevant published ontologies (e.g., Integrated Ocean Observing System ontology). We are also using the mapping of ISO 19115-2 Lineage to PROV-O and comparing both strategies for traceability of marine ecosystem indicators. The use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR will enable the transparency, and ultimately reproducibility, endorsed in the recent NOAA Information Quality Guidelines. Semantically enabling not only the provenance but also the data products will yield a better understanding of the connected web of relationships between marine ecosystem and ocean health assessments conducted by different stakeholder groups.

Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

2013-12-01

329

Evaluación de nutrición parenteral estandarizada en niños / Assessment of standard parenteral nutrition in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: En la actualidad existe un mayor consenso en el proceso de soporte nutricional con Nutrición Parenteral (NP) en pediatría, en los estándares de la prescripción, formulación, elaboración y en los requerimientos nutricionales, para mejorar la calidad del proceso y seguridad en el pacient [...] e. La utilización de soluciones estandarizadas de NP en niños es minoritaria por la dificultad de adaptación a las distintas situaciones fisiopatológicas. Para hacerlo viable, en el 2006 diseñamos y validamos un amplio rango de soluciones estandarizadas para niños mayores de 10 kg y/o mayores de 1 año. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilización e idoneidad de las soluciones de NP estandarizadas en un Hospital de Tercer Nivel desde su implantación. Método: Analizamos todas las prescripciones y formulaciones de NP de los niños desde enero de 2006 hasta junio de 2008: la frecuencia de prescripción de soluciones estándar según edad, peso e indicación y sus modificaciones. Comparamos los nutrientes aportados con las soluciones NP individualizados frente a las recomendacionesde las Guías de referencia y las NP estandarizadas. Resultados: 47 niños con un peso medio de 26,6 kg (9-50) y edad media 6,8 años (1-14) recibieron 539 unidades de NP. Las NP estandarizadas (437) fueron utilizadas en el 83% de los pacientes. Sus requerimientos totales energéticos se alcanzaron de1 a 3 días , utilizando de una a tres tipos fórmulas . De ellas solo tuvieron modificación un 4% (22), con cambios fácilmente aplicables : aumento del volumen (16), disminución de la glucosa (3), y aumento del potasio (3). El análisis de las NP individualizadas en 8 niños, muestran una misma tendencia, menor aporte calórico en un 33% al recomendado. Conclusión: Las soluciones de PN estandarizadas se adecuaron a las necesidades nutricionales de la mayoría de los pacientes, según su estado y patología, destacando su adaptabilidad y versatilidad. Su utilización, ha agilizado el circuito prescripción-validación-preparación y ha mejorado la eficiencia del proceso. Abstract in english Introduction: Nowadays, there is a stronger consensus on the proceedings of nutritional support with parenteral nutrition (PN) in paediatrics, the prescription standards, its formulation, elaboration, and nutritional requirements in order to improve the process quality and the patient's safety. The [...] use of standardized PN solutions in children is rare due to the difficulty to adapt them to every pathophysiologic condition. In order to do so, in 2006 we designed and validated a big range of standard solutions for children weighing more than 10 kg or being older than 1 year. Objective: To assess the use of standard PN solutions and their suitability in children from January of 2006 until June of 2008: the frequency of prescription of standard solutions by age, weight, and indication, as well as their modifications. We compared the nutrients given by individualized PN solutions versus the recommendations of the Reference Guidelines and standardised PN. Results: 47 children with a mean weight of 26.6 kg (9-50) and mean age 6.8 years (1-14) received 539 units of PN. Standardized PN (437) were used in 83% of the patients. Their total energy requirements were reached within 1-3 days by using one to three types of formulas. Only 4% (22) of them were modified, with easily feasible changes: volume increase (16), glucose lowering (3), and potassium increase (3). The analysis of the individualized PN in 8 children shows the same trend, with a caloric intake lower than 33% of the recommended one. Conclusion: Standardized PN meet the nutritional requirements in most of the patients according to their morbid condition, highlighting their adaptability and versatility. Their use has eased the prescription-validation-preparation circuit and has improved the efficiency of the process.

I., Caba Porras; A., Cabello Muriel; B., Oya Álvarez de Morales; J. F., Marín Pozo; J., García Aranda; C., Llácer Pérez.

330

Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains : Reflections on the â??Dark Sideâ? of Impact Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing countries. However, much less attention has been paid to the â??dark sideâ? of impact assessment â?? the ethical and political dilemmas that arise in the process of carrying out impact studies. This paper addresses this gap in literature, arguing that impact assessments of CSR standards may do more harm than good to the intended beneficiaries - developing country firms, farmers, workers, and communities - unless these ethical and political dilemmas are given serious consideration.

Lund-Thomsen, Peter

2013-01-01

331

Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn

2009-05-29

332

Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption. PMID:18752893

Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

2009-04-30

333

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

2009-04-01

334

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation. PMID:19265202

Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; de Boode, W P; Gerrits, I H; Huisman, H J; Thijssen, J M; Kapusta, L; de Korte, C L

2009-04-01

335

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

2009-04-07

336

Utilization of internal standard response factors to estimate the concentration of organic compounds leached from pharmaceutical packaging systems and application of such estimated concentrations to safety assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substances from packaging systems that are leached into packaged medical products may have a safety impact on patients to whom such medical products are administered. The potential safety impact depends on the identity and concentration of the leached substances. The concentration above which a leachable must be identified in order to assess its safety impact is frequently estimated using an internal standard to "calibrate" the analytical response of a chromatographic system. Such an estimate is accurate to the extent that the responses of the internal standard and leachables are similar. To establish the accuracy of the internal standard approach, a database of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) responses was generated for thirty-eight leachables and eight internal standard candidates. Although the FID and MS responses of many of the leachables and internal standards fell within a narrow band, acidic and basic compounds produced responses that were discernibly different from those of neutral analytes. While most of the internal standards were suited for concentration estimation, three of the candidates, dimethylphthalate, triphenylphosphate and 4,4-dibromobiphenyl, produced the smallest mean error in estimated concentration for the analytes examined. As the FID and MS responses were linear, internal standards could be used to estimate leachables concentrations even when the difference in leachable versus internal standard concentrations was as great as a factor of 25. A multiplier may be appropriate to adjust an estimated concentration to its greatest possible value, and it is this value that is used to convert an estimated Analytical Evaluation Threshold (AET) into a working or final AET. PMID:22337797

Jenke, Dennis; Odufu, Alex

2012-03-01

337

Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography  

CERN Document Server

Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

2014-01-01

338

From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP) is substantiated describing the different tools of the IPP. An overview is given on Design for Environment (DFE), presenting central findings from the latest decade of research and reviewing different DFE tools which have been developed. Describing the DFX's of Design for environment, a specific focus is devoted to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the eco-efficiency of the industry. The role of industry in meeting the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current drivers seem insufficient to create a strong move of particularly the small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of sustainability, and the need for stronger legislation and particularly for education and attitude building among future citizens and engineers is identified.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack

2005-01-01

339

Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1988-01-01

340

Proposal of managerial standards for new product portfolio management in Brazilian pharmaceutical companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A gestão de portfólio de projetos de novos produtos visa a auxiliar os tomadores de decisão a selecionar projetos de novos produtos considerando critérios importantes para a organização. A indústria farmacêutica brasileira tem passado por transformações devido ao aumento das exigências sanitárias ap [...] ós a Lei de Genéricos, de 1999. O objetivo deste trabalho foi entender como as indústrias farmacêuticas brasileiras selecionam seus projetos de desenvolvimento de novos produtos e propor uma estrutura que possa auxiliar estas empresas a selecionar seus projetos de produtos. Foi utilizada a metodologia de estudo de caso e uma mostra de quatro organizações foi investigada. Os resultados indicam que essas empresas apresentam um desenvolvimento de produtos não estruturado e que a seleção de projetos de novos produtos é realizada de forma não-sistemática. Critérios importantes para a seleção de projetos de novos produtos foram identificados e utilizados para elaboração de um padrão gerencial para aplicação da gestão de portfólio de projetos de novos produtos. Abstract in english New Product Portfolio Management is aimed at helping decision-makers better select projects for new products based on key criteria for the manufacturer. The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry has been undergoing change due to stricter sanitary requirements following the enactment of the Generic Law i [...] n 1999. This paper presents the results of a research study aimed at clarifying the rationale employed by national pharmaceutical companies in selecting and prioritizing their new product development projects. Consequently, proposals for an analytical structure that could help these companies better select their products were produced. The research was carried out using case study methodology in which four different companies were investigated. The results of the field study confirmed that these companies had a non-structured Product Development System and that the selection of new product development projects was made on a non-systematic basis. The research also identified key criteria for the selection of projects of new pharmaceutical products, which provided the basis for the preparation of a proposal for a managerial standard for application of New Product Portfolio Management.

Moreira, Raquel Assis; Cheng, Lin Chih.

 
 
 
 
341

Proposal of managerial standards for new product portfolio management in Brazilian pharmaceutical companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New Product Portfolio Management is aimed at helping decision-makers better select projects for new products based on key criteria for the manufacturer. The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry has been undergoing change due to stricter sanitary requirements following the enactment of the Generic Law in 1999. This paper presents the results of a research study aimed at clarifying the rationale employed by national pharmaceutical companies in selecting and prioritizing their new product development projects. Consequently, proposals for an analytical structure that could help these companies better select their products were produced. The research was carried out using case study methodology in which four different companies were investigated. The results of the field study confirmed that these companies had a non-structured Product Development System and that the selection of new product development projects was made on a non-systematic basis. The research also identified key criteria for the selection of projects of new pharmaceutical products, which provided the basis for the preparation of a proposal for a managerial standard for application of New Product Portfolio Management.A gestão de portfólio de projetos de novos produtos visa a auxiliar os tomadores de decisão a selecionar projetos de novos produtos considerando critérios importantes para a organização. A indústria farmacêutica brasileira tem passado por transformações devido ao aumento das exigências sanitárias após a Lei de Genéricos, de 1999. O objetivo deste trabalho foi entender como as indústrias farmacêuticas brasileiras selecionam seus projetos de desenvolvimento de novos produtos e propor uma estrutura que possa auxiliar estas empresas a selecionar seus projetos de produtos. Foi utilizada a metodologia de estudo de caso e uma mostra de quatro organizações foi investigada. Os resultados indicam que essas empresas apresentam um desenvolvimento de produtos não estruturado e que a seleção de projetos de novos produtos é realizada de forma não-sistemática. Critérios importantes para a seleção de projetos de novos produtos foram identificados e utilizados para elaboração de um padrão gerencial para aplicação da gestão de portfólio de projetos de novos produtos.

Raquel Assis Moreira

2010-03-01

342

Environmental life cycle assessment of bioethanol production from wheat straw  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethanol produced from lignocelluloses is expected to make a major contribution on transportation fuel markets. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was carried out to assess the environmental burdens of ethanol production from wheat straw and its use as ethanol blend fuels. Two ethanol based fuel E15 (a mixture of 15% ethanol and 85% petrol by volume) and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% petrol by volume) were assessed and results were compared to those of conventional petrol (PT) in 1 km driven by an equivalent car. The environmental performance was studied using ReCiPe methodology and includes global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, water depletion and fossil depletion. The results show that, compared to petrol, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are lower for ethanol blends, with a 73% reduction for an E85-fuelled car and 13% reduction with E15. A modest savings of 40% in fossil depletion was also found when using E85 and 15% when using E15. Similar results are also observed for ozone depletion. The findings highlight a number of environmental issues such as acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity and water depletion for which areas ethanol blend use does not offer any advantages compared with petrol. A further analysis of ethanol production at well to gate level helps identify the key areas in the ethanol production life cycle. The results indicate where effort needs to be placed to improve the technology performance and process design which can help in lowering the environmental impacts in the whole life cycle. -- Highlights: ? The paper examines environmental impact of two ethanol blend fuel from wheat straw. ? Reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel can be achieved by ethanol blend fuel. ? Ethanol blend fuel has disadvantage in environmental issues such as water use. ? We show significant environmental impacts occur during the prehydrolysis phase. ? The use of sulphuric acid, steam and electricity is identified as the main source.

2012-12-01

343

Assessment of the phototoxic potential of cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cosmetics are nontoxic or less toxic in perse but photoactivation may then sensitize and could produce additional phototoxicity. Phototoxicity assessment of ten different lipsticks and eight facial creams was conducted. Results revealed that six lipsticks and five facial creams generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced haemolysis and caused lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (in vitro) under sunlight exposure. Seven creams and one lipstick were alkaline while one cream and two lipsticks were acidic. The test lipsticks and creams showed absorption in UV/visible range. The study demonstrated synergistic action of cosmetic products and sunlight. Therefore, sunlight exposure should be avoided after the use of photosensitive cosmetics. PMID:18282649

Hans, Rajendra K; Agrawal, Neeraj; Verma, Kiran; Misra, Rajendra B; Ray, Ratan S; Farooq, Mohammad

2008-05-01

344

Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. ? As the power increases, the NSEF increases. ? Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. ? It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. ? There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MWe and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MWe. So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

2011-03-01

345

Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

2009-06-30

346

Improvement of Vicia-micronucleus test for assessment of soil quality: a proposal for international standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Viciafaba root tip micronucleus test is one of the most employed plant genotoxicity assays, and has been used on various types of contaminated materials. This test has been standardized by AFNOR, the French member organization of ISO. However, this test is usually performed with a water extraction step but soil genotoxicity assessment would be more relevant when performed directly in the soil itself. In order to harmonize these protocols, an ISO standard for the V.faba micronucleus test in both liquid phase (exposure of plants to different liquid matrix, including soil water extracts) and solid phase (direct exposure of plants to the soil) would be very useful. In this context, we compared two exposure durations in the solid phase (48 h and 5 d) for the V.faba micronucleus test with two different well-known genotoxicants, maleic hydrazide and copper sulfate. We concluded that these two durations induced equivalent sensitivity: the micronucleus frequency was significantly increased with 5 ?mol maleic hydrazide per kg dry soil and with 2 mmol copper sulfate per kg dry soil with both exposure durations. However, exposing roots to soil during 48 h is more practical. Moreover, organically and conventionally cultured seeds were employed to determine whether the seed provenance influenced the test sensitivity. Organic seeds were less sensitive to copper, possibly because copper-based treatments are permitted, and often applied, in organic farms. Therefore, in the absence of completely non-treated seeds, organically-cultured seeds did not appear to offer any advantages over conventional seeds. PMID:21906776

Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie

2011-11-01

347

GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40?mg for 4?weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48?hours, wireless pH metry. Methods All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ and acid exposure was determined by 48?hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO. In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40?mg q.d. for 4?weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40?mg b.i.d. Results 31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48?hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71% had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%. Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40?mg q.d. after 4?weeks (88%. Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms. Conclusions Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.

Kandulski Arne

2013-01-01

348

Impact of a standardized training program on midwives' ability to assess fetal heart anatomy by ultrasound  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Studies of prenatal detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) in the UK, Italy, and Norway indicate that it should be possible to improve the prenatal detection rate of CHD in Sweden. These studies have shown that training programs, visualization of the outflow tracts and color-Doppler all can help to speed up and improve the detection rate and accuracy. We aimed to introduce a more accurate standardized fetal cardiac ultrasound screening protocol in Sweden. Methods A novel pedagogical model for training midwives in standardized cardiac imaging was developed, a model using a think-aloud analysis during a pre- and post-course test and a subsequent group reflection. The self-estimated difficulties and knowledge gaps of two experienced and two beginner midwives were identified. A two-day course with mixed lectures, demonstrations and hands-on sessions was followed by a feedback session three months later consisting of an interview and check-up. The long-term effects were tested two years later. Results At the post-course test the self-assessed uncertainty was lower than at the pre-course test. The qualitative evaluation showed that the color Doppler images were difficult to interpret, but the training seems to have improved their ability to use the new technique. The ability to perform the method remained at the new level at follow-up both three months and two years later. Conclusions Our results indicate that by implementing new imaging modalities and providing hands-on training, uncertainty can be reduced and examination time decreased, but they also show that continuous on-site training with clinical and technical back-up is important.

2014-01-01

349

Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

2010-01-01

350

Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

2008-10-01

351

Development and Quality Assessment of Date Chocolate Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Date chocolate products were produced by processing cocoa bean into cocoa powder (fermentation, milling, alkalization, press cake to cocoa butter, grinding, sifting and cocoa powder and Date fruit into date powder (cleaning, sorting, drying, milling and sifting. The powders (Cocoa and Date were used in the formulation of four different samples of chocolate mixes. The chemical analysis of the Date chocolates showed that sample C had the highest pH value, this was followed by sample B, while sample A had the lowest value. Sample B had high moisture content, with sample D having the highest. The four samples contained trace amount of fat; the carbohydrate contents of the samples were high, with sample B having the highest, while the protein contents were a bit close with sample D having the highest. Microbiological analysis showed the mesophilic aerobic bacteria plate count and the yeast and mould count are within the range of the standard. The sensory evaluation showed that samples A and B significantly differed (p<0.05 in taste, while samples A and D differed in texture significantly (p<0.05. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in flavor, color, firmness and overall acceptability for the 4 samples. The use of Date-palm in chocolate production improved the taste and flavor of the product. The use of Date palm with or without sugar produces chocolate with a different texture and sweetness.

T.I. Egagah

2010-01-01

352

An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs  

Science.gov (United States)

The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform process, a small minority that report working under supportive administrators believe that reform efforts are working well or will soon show positive effects. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

353

78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conservation Standards for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...conservation standards for residential furnace fans, with a comment period that was scheduled...conservation standards for residential furnace fans published on October 25, 2013 (78...

2013-12-24

354

Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes â??chickenâ??, â??bouillonâ?? and â??fatâ?? scored highest and the â??iron/liverâ?? aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more â??tenderâ??, â??shortâ?? and â??crumblyâ?? and less â??hardâ?? and â??stringyâ?? in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product â??I 657â?? was less â??juicyâ?? than the rest. Products â??I 657â?? and â??L 40â?? were more â??cohesiveâ?? and tasted more â??sourishâ?? and less of â??sweet/maizeâ?? than the standard products. The â??overall likingâ?? score was significantly higher for the â??K 8â?? product than for the â??Standard Aâ?? and â??L 40â?? products. The â??overall likingâ?? score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of â??chickenâ??, â??umami/bouillonâ??, â??iron/liverâ?? and â??fatâ?? aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat â??tendernessâ?? for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

355

Double Higgs production at TeV Colliders in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

The reconstruction of the Higgs potential in the Minimal SupersymmetricStandard Model (MSSM) requires the measurement of the trilinear Higgsself-couplings. The `double Higgs production' subgroup has been investigatingthe possibility of detecting signatures of processes carrying a dependence onthese vertices at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and future Linear Colliders(LCs). As reference reactions, we have chosen $gg\\to hh$ and $e^+e^-\\to h h Z$,respectively, where $h$ is the lightest of the MSSM Higgs bosons. In bothcases, the $Hhh$ interaction is involved. For $m_H>2m_h$, the two reactions areresonant in the $H\\to hh$ mode, providing cross sections which are detectableat both accelerators and strongly sensitive to the strength of the trilinearcoupling involved. We explore this mass regime of the MSSM in the $h\\to b\\barb$ decay channel, also accounting for irreducible background effects.

Lafaye, R; Mühlleitner, M M; Moretti, S

2000-01-01

356

Combined CDF and Dzero Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs-Boson Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We combine results from CDF and D0 searches for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in ppbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV. With 1.0-1.9 fb-1 of data collected at CDF, and 0.9-1.7 fb-1 at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs production are a factor of 6.2 (1.4) higher than the SM cross section for a Higgs mass of m_Higgs = 115 (160) GeV/c^2. Based on simulation, the median expected upper limit is 4.3 (1.9). These results extend significantly the indi...

Phenomena, Tevatron New; Group, Higgs Working; Collaboration, For The Cdf; Collaboration, The D.

2007-01-01

357

Fission product chain yields and delayed neutrons: ANS standards 5.2 and 5.8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chain yields are the addition of the direct values along constant (Z + N) paths. The addition must also account for decay branching, especially for delayed neutrons that couple the mass chains. The result is the familiar double-humped plot of yield per fission versus mass number. The lines of stable nuclides and most probable yield are shown in the (Z,N) plane. Some modern measurements provide direct yields; other provide cumulative values for long-lived or stable products. Yield evaluations must account for each type of measurement and the degree of decay coupling, beginning with direct yields. For some fissioning nuclides at thermal or fast neutron incident energies, the amount of data is enormous; and for other nuclide-energy combinations, the data must be developed from systematics. Many applications of chain yields can use the same systematics to estimate independent values. The ANS 5.2 standard is currently in rough draft form for comment from working group members

1990-11-11

358

Assessing risk of non-compliance of phosphorus standards for lakes in England and Wales  

Science.gov (United States)

High population densities, use of inorganic fertilizer and intensive livestock agriculture have increased phosphorus loads to lakes, and accelerated eutrophication is a major pressure for many lakes. The EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that good chemical and ecological quality is restored in all surface water bodies by 2015. Total phosphorus (TP) standards for lakes in England and Wales have been agreed recently, and our aim was to estimate what percentage of lakes in England and Wales is at risk of failing these standards. With measured lake phosphorus concentrations only being available for a small number of lakes, such an assessment had to be model based. The study also makes a source apportionment of phosphorus inputs into lakes. Phosphorus loads were estimated from a range of sources including agricultural loads, sewage effluents, septic tanks, diffuse urban sources, atmospheric deposition, groundwater and bank erosion. Lake phosphorus concentrations were predicted using the Vollenweider model, and the model framework was satisfactorily tested against available observed lake concentration data. Even though predictions for individual lakes remain uncertain, results for a population of lakes are considered as sufficiently robust. A scenario analysis was carried out to investigate to what extent reductions in phosphorus loads would increase the number of lakes achieving good ecological status in terms of TP standards. Applying the model to all lakes in England and Wales greater than 1 ha, it was calculated that under current conditions roughly two thirds of the lakes would fail the good ecological status with respect to phosphorus. According to our estimates, agricultural phosphorus loads represent the most frequent dominant source for the majority of catchments, but diffuse urban runoff also is important in many lakes. Sewage effluents are the most frequent dominant source for large lake catchments greater than 100 km². The evaluation in terms of total load can be misleading in terms of what sources need to be tackled by catchment management for most of the lakes. For example sewage effluents are responsible for the majority of the total load but are the dominant source in only a small number of larger lake catchments. If loads from all sources were halved this would potentially increase the number of complying lakes to two thirds but require substantial measures to reduce phosphorus inputs to lakes. For agriculture, required changes would have to go beyond improvements of agricultural practise, and need to include reducing the intensity of land use. The time required for many lakes to respond to reduced nutrient loading is likely to extend beyond the current timelines of the WFD due to internal loading and biological resistances.

Duethmann, D.; Anthony, S.; Carvalho, L.; Spears, B.

2009-04-01

359

A Total Productivity PCA Model for Assessment and Improvement of Electrical Manufacturing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a framework for assessment of electrical manufacturing systems based on a total machine productivity approach and multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the total model is developed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA and validated and verified by Numerical Taxonomy (NT and non-parametric correlation methods, namely, Spearman correlation experiment and Kendall Tau. To achieve the objectives of this study, a comprehensive study was conducted to locate the most important economic and technical indicators which influence machine performance. These indicators are related to machine productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and profitability. Six major electrical machinery sectors are selected according to the format of International Standard for Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC. Then, a comparative study is conducted through PCA among the electrical machinery sectors by considering the six sectors. This in turn shows the weak and strong points of electrical machinery and apparatus manufacturing sectors with respect to machine productivity. Furthermore, PCA identified which machine indicators have the major impacts on the performance of electrical machinery sectors. The modeling approach of this study could be used for ranking and analysis of other electrical sectors. This study is the first to introduce a total productivity model for assessment and improvement of total machine performance in electrical manufacturing sectors.

Ali Azadeh

2005-01-01

360

Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in associated production with w boson at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron is presented in this dissertation. The process of interest is the associated production of W boson and Higgs boson, with the W boson decaying leptonically and the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of bottom quarks. The dataset in the analysis is accumulated by the D0 detector from April 2002 to April 2008 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}. The events are reconstructed and selected following the criteria of an isolated lepton, missing transverse energy and two jets. The D0 Neural Network b-jet identification algorithm is further used to discriminate b jets from light jets. A multivariate analysis combining Matrix Element and Neural Network methods is explored to improve the Higgs boson signal significance. No evidence of the Higgs boson is observed in this analysis. In consequence, an observed (expected) limit on the ratio of {sigma} (p{bar p} {yields} WH) x Br (H {yields} b{bar b}) to the Standard Model prediction is set to be 6.7 (6.4) at 95% C.L. for the Higgs boson with a mass of 115 GeV.

Chun, Xu; /Michigan U.

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Cytotoxicity assessment of antibiofouling compounds and by-products in marine bivalve cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-term primary cell cultures were derived from adult marine bivalve tissues: the heart of oyster Crassostrea gigas and the gill of clam Ruditapes decussatus. These cultures were used as experimental in vitro models to assess the acute cytotoxicity of an organic molluscicide, Mexel-432, used in antibiofouling treatments in industrial cooling water systems. A microplate cell viability assay, based on the enzymatic reduction of tetrazolium dye (MTT) in living bivalve cells, was adapted to test the cytotoxicity of this compound: in both in vitro models, toxicity thresholds of Mexel-432 were compared to those determined in vivo with classic acute toxicity tests. The clam gill cell model was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of by-products of chlorination, a major strategy of biofouling control in the marine environment. The applications and limits of these new in vitro models for monitoring aquatic pollutants were discussed, in reference with the standardized Microtox test. PMID:10806375

Domart-Coulon, I; Auzoux-Bordenave, S; Doumenc, D; Khalanski, M

2000-06-01

362

Assessment of normal ACL double bundle anatomy in standard viewing planes by magnetic resonance imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomical studies show that the native ACL consists of two distinct functional bundles, termed the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles. The utility of using routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish the individual bundles of the ACL has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer agreement for assessment of the AM and PL bundles using MRI in the axial, coronal, and sagittal viewing planes. We identified a series of patients seen in the senior author's clinic during a 16-month period. Images were independently evaluated in blinded fashion at two separate time points by a musculoskeletal radiologist and two orthopaedic residents. The AM bundle was detected in most planes of view with high frequency and reliability, while detection of the PL bundle was less frequent and had a lower associated reliability. Our results indicate that it is difficult to reliably detect both the AM and PL bundles using a low-field strength magnet with standard planes of view. It has been demonstrated that the ACL may be imaged effectively in planes that are based on the natural course of the ligament, and it is likely that this will also facilitate visualization of the individual AM and PL bundles. The use of additional oblique planes of view offers a potential approach for improved evaluation of the ACL, even with low field strength magnets. Future work in this area may assist in the pre-operative assessment of isolated AM or PL bundle injuries, facilitating a more anatomic approach to ACL reconstruction. PMID:17225176

Starman, James S; Vanbeek, Corinne; Armfield, Derek R; Sahasrabudhe, Amit; Baker, Champ L; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

2007-05-01

363

Resource Utilization Reduction for Evaluation of Chest Pain in Pediatrics Using a Novel Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Chest pain is a common reason for referral to pediatric cardiologists. Although pediatric chest pain is rarely attributable to serious cardiac pathology, extensive and costly evaluation is often performed. We have implemented a standardized approach to pediatric chest pain in our pediatric cardiology clinics as part of a broader quality improvement initiative termed Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs). In this study, we evaluate the impact of a SCAMP for...

Verghese, George Rohin; Friedman, Kevin G.; Rathod, Rahul; Meiri, Amir; Saleeb, Susan; Graham, Dionne Alicbusan; Geggel, Robert Leslie; Fulton, David Roger

2012-01-01

364

Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative recommendations are provided and substitute materials such as aluminum alloys for stainless steel and high-density polyethylene for polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile-based polymers show promise to meet toxicity reduction, cost, and material functionality requirements. Furthermore, the TPI method, an European Union focused screening tool, is customized to reflect regulated U.S. toxicity parameters. Results show that, although it is possible to adopt U.S. parameters into the TPI method, harmonization of toxicity regulation and standards in various nations and regions is necessary to eliminate inconsistencies during hazard screening of substances used globally. As a whole, the present work helps to assimilate material hazard assessment methods into the larger framework of design for environment strategies so toxics use reduction could be achieved for the development and management of electronics and other consumer goods.

Lam, Carl

365

MISR Global Aerosol Product Assessment by Comparison with AERONET  

Science.gov (United States)

A statistical approach is used to assess the quality of the MISR Version 22 (V22) aerosol products. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval results are improved relative to the early post- launch values reported by Kahn et al. [2005a], varying with particle type category. Overall, about 70% to 75% of MISR AOD retrievals fall within 0.05 or 20% AOD of the paired validation data, and about 50% to 55% are within 0.03 or 10% AOD, except at sites where dust, or mixed dust and smoke, are commonly found. Retrieved particle microphysical properties amount to categorical values, such as three groupings in size: "small," "medium," and "large." For particle size, ground-based AERONET sun photometer Angstrom Exponents are used to assess statistically the corresponding MISR values, which are interpreted in terms of retrieved size categories. Coincident Single-Scattering Albedo (SSA) and fraction AOD spherical data are too limited for statistical validation. V22 distinguishes two or three size bins, depending on aerosol type, and about two bins in SSA (absorbing vs. non-absorbing), as well as spherical vs. non-spherical particles, under good retrieval conditions. Particle type sensitivity varies considerably with conditions, and is diminished for mid-visible AOD below about 0.15 or 0.2. Based on these results, specific algorithm upgrades are proposed, and are being investigated by the MISR team for possible implementation in future versions of the product.

Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

2010-01-01

366

Examinee-centered standard setting for large-scale assessments: The prototype group method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the prototype group method (PGM of standard setting within the context of a large-scale language assessment project. The PGM combines a Rasch measurement approach to the analysis of examinee proficiency with the concept of prototypes drawn from research on human judgment and categorization. Experts first identify learners typical of each of five levels of language proficiency as specified by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001. Based on the distributions of proficiency estimates for learner prototypes belonging to adjacent levels, cut scores are computed by means of a logistic regression procedure. These cut scores define the language proficiency level a particular examinee has achieved. Data from 39 independent samples of examinees (total N = 8,721 covering a range of German language proficiency levels are used to illustrate the PGM. Rasch analysis and logistic regression results corroborate the adequacy of this approach. The discussion focuses on the method’s distinctive features, practical requirements of its implementation, and issues of cut-score validation.

Thomas Eckes

2012-09-01

367

Perceptual video quality assessment in H.264 video coding standard using objective modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since usage of digital video is wide spread nowadays, quality considerations have become essential, and industry demand for video quality measurement is rising. This proposal provides a method of perceptual quality assessment in H.264 standard encoder using objective modeling. For this purpose, quality impairments are calculated and a model is developed to compute the perceptual video quality metric based on no reference method. Because of the shuttle difference between the original video and the encoded video the quality of the encoded picture gets degraded, this quality difference is introduced by the encoding process like Intra and Inter prediction. The proposed model takes into account of the artifacts introduced by these spatial and temporal activities in the hybrid block based coding methods and an objective modeling of these artifacts into subjective quality estimation is proposed. The proposed model calculates the objective quality metric using subjective impairments; blockiness, blur and jerkiness compared to the existing bitrate only calculation defined in the ITU G 1070 model. The accuracy of the proposed perceptual video quality metrics is compared against popular full reference objective methods as defined by VQEG. PMID:24790819

Karthikeyan, Ramasamy; Sainarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Deepa, Subramaniam Nachimuthu

2014-01-01

368

Orbiter Cold Plate Intergranular Corrosion: Development of NDE Standards and Assessment of NDE Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

During pre-servicing of a space shuttle (orbiter vehicle, OV-102), helium leak detection of an avionics cold plate identified a leak located in the face sheet oriented towards the support shelf. Subsequent destructive examination of the leaking cold plate revealed that intergranular corrosion had penetrated the 0.017-inch thick aluminum (AA6061) face sheet. The intergranular attack (IGA) was likely caused by an aggressive crevice environment created by condensation of water vapor between the cold plate and support shelf. Face sheet susceptibility to IGA is a result of the brazing process used in the fabrication of the cold plates. Cold plate components were brazed at 1000 F followed by a slow cooling process to avoid distortion of the bonded cold plate. The slow cool process caused excessive grain boundary precipitation resulting in a material that is susceptible to IGA. The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) Develop first-of-a-kind nondestructive evaluation (NDE) standards that contain IGA identical to that found in the orbiter cold plates; and (2) Assess advanced NDE techniques for corrosion detection and recommend methods for cold plate examination. This report documents the results of work performed at Langley Research Center to fulfill these objectives.

Smith, Stephen W.; Winfree, William P.; Piascik, Robert S.

2002-01-01

369

Evaluation of a standard test method and material for low-activity waste product acceptance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution behavior of a candidate reference glass has been measured under a range of test conditions. The data base from these tests can be used to evaluate the credibility and validity of test results reported by Private Contractors as part of the acceptance process for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products for DOE wastes. The LRM-1 glass that was used in the tests was formulated to be compositionally representative of anticipated ILAW products for Hanford and other Department of Energy sites. Replicate tests with this glass were used to measure the variability in the response (i.e., the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si) under different test conditions. The glass was further evaluated for possible use as a standard material by analysis of its composition, microstructure, density, and compressive strength. In addition, the Na leachability index was measured with the ANS 16.1 test, and the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure was run. The results of those tests and analyses are summarized

1998-07-05

370

Productivity assessment of an integrated voice/data workstation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 500 management information systems are used by the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) to help keep the US Air Force's aerospace weapon systems in combat-readiness throughout the world. To accomplish its logistics mission, the AFLC helps manage and track $113 billion in assets and some 460,000 annual contracts. Major assets include 915,835 different supply items and the maintenance of 9418 aircraft. A staff of 102,600 in the AFLC handles these assets through four primary functions: Procurement, Material Management, Distribution, and Maintenance. Most of the information systems used in the massive logistics effort were designed 20 years ago for a batch-processing environment. To take advantage of new developments in automated office systems, the AFLC has established a Logistics Management System (LMS) modernization plan. Under this plan the AFLC will update and automate its functional processes, ADP hardware, software, and communication networks. As part of the program, the AFLC is studying what changes occur in human productivity through the use of an automated office information system that integrates voice and data. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was engaged to study a prototype ''Integrated Voice/Data System'' (IVDS) to assess these changes. For the prototype assessment, the survey used an off-the-shelf departmental IVDS system supporting 64 workstations. Through a ''survey/questionnaire'' method, users at AFLC's staff (management) level were asked to estimate ''work time'' saved. This report presents the results of the productivity study associated with implementation of an integrated voice and data system. These results will provide AFLC decision-makers with sample estimates of productivity improvements that may be expected by an advanced integrated voice and data system.

Banks, W.W.; Prassinos, P.G.

1987-03-01

371

Standardization in the field of petroleum und related products; Normung auf dem Gebiet der Mineraloel- und Brennstoffnormung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explains the relationship between the national standardization committee for petroleum, fuels, lubricants and related products (FAM), the regional committee CDN/TC 19 ''Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin'', and the international committee ISO/TC 28 ''Petroleum products and lubricants''. The document describes the different fields of work und gives several examples for working results as national, European and international standards. (orig)

Treige-Wegener, M. [DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, e.V., Berlin (Germany). Normenausschuss Materialpruefung; Feuerhelm, H.T. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (DE). Fachausschuss Mineraloel- und Brennstoffnormung (FAM)

2006-07-01

372

PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We aimed to compare the standardized central review of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUVmax and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ?3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

2014-03-01

373

PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We aimed to compare the standardized central review of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUV{sub max} and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ?3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

Tychyj-Pinel, Christelle [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ricard, Fabien [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Fulham, Michael [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Fournier, Marion [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, The Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation (LYSARC), Pierre-Benite (France); Meignan, Michel [CHU Henri Mondor, Medicine Nucleaire, Creteil (France); Lamy, Thierry [Service d' Hematologie, CHU, Rennes (France); Vera, Pierre [Centre Henri Becquerel, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rouen (France); Rouen University, QuantIF (Litis EA4108), Rouen (France); Salles, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Service d' Hematologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Trotman, Judith [University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Concord Hospital, Department of Haematology, Concord, NSW (Australia)

2014-03-15

374

Ready-For-Use-module full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, the somatostatin imaging using DOTA conjugated peptides like DOTA-TOC, -NOC and -TATE are the common applications. Different 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and synthesis modules are described separately. We describe a new full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC. Methods: The module has to fit with components like the pre-conditioned C18 purifications cartridge and the DOTATOC precursor solute in HEPES buffer. The generator was fractionally eluted in time steps of 30 sec. An elution profile was created and the time frame of the middle fraction was adjusted with the basis software and the flow rate of the peristaltic pump. The reaction vial was charged with 30 µg DOTATOC solved in 100µl HEPES buffer (150-200mg / 0.1 ml and placed in the heating block. The generator was eluted with 0.6 N HCl and the reaction volume (~ 1ml was collected at the reaction vial after switching the valves V2 and V3 for 40 s. The labeling was performed under 95°C for 12 min at pH 3.5-4. Purification was achieved by injecting the reaction mixture onto the C18cardridge, washing with 1,5 ml H2O and 10 ml air. The 68Ga-DOTATOC was transferred over a sterile filter to the product vial by elution with 1 ml ethanol and 9 ml of saline. Results: The tin dioxide generator we used was specified with an elution yield in 5 ml not less than 80%. The rule of thumb prognosticates a durability of 200 elutions or 10 month. After ~ 70 elution the yield of our systems fall below the value of 80%. The typical overall elution, labeling and purification procedure took less than 25 min.The non-ionic buffer HEPES was most effective and the optimal amount was ~ 160 mg. Using 33 µg (23 nmol,the labeling yield was 60%-65% and their radiochemical purity was > 97%. Conclusion: The combination of a 68Ge/68Ga generator, produced under cGMP guidelines and a "Ready for use" automated module allows a standardized production with high radiochemical yields for 68Ga-DOTATOC. This combination of both will provide the user with facile and reliable package for the preparation in routine clinical applications, especially und the aspect of cGLP and cGMP

Stephan Maus

2010-10-01

375

High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.

Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

1996-09-30

376

New ammonia lyases and amine transaminases: Standardization of production process and preparation of immobilized biocatalysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: New enzymes for biotransformations can be obtained by different approaches including directed mutagenesis and in vitro evolution. These mutants have to be efficiently produced for laboratory research on bioreactions as well as for process development. In the framework of a European ERA-I [...] B project, two different types of enzymes (ammonia lyases and aminotransferases) have been selected as biocatalysts for the synthesis of industrially relevant amines. New mutant enzymes have been obtained: a) aspartases able to recognize ?-amino acids; b) ?-transaminases with improved activity. The objectives are to find out a common operational strategy applicable to different mutants expressed in E. coli with the same initial genetic background, the development of an integrated process for production and the preparation of stable useful biocatalysts. Results: Mutant enzymes were expressed in E. coli BL21 under the control of isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible promoter. The microorganisms were grown in a formulated defined medium and a high-cell density culture process was set up. Fed-batch operation at constant specific growth rate, employing an exponential addition profile allowed high biomass concentrations. The same operational strategy was applied for different mutants of both aspartase and transaminase enzymes, and the results have shown a common area of satisfactory operation for maximum production at low inducer concentration, around 2 ?mol IPTG/g DCW. The operational strategy was validated with new mutants and high-cell density cultures were performed for efficient production. Suitable biocatalysts were prepared after recovery of the enzymes. The obtained aspartase was immobilized by covalent attachment on MANA-agarose, while ?-transaminase biocatalysts were prepared by entrapping whole cells and partially purified enzyme onto Lentikats (polyvinyl alcohol gel lens-shaped particles). Conclusions: The possibility of expressing different mutant enzymes under similar operation conditions has been demonstrated. The process was standardized for production of new aspartases with ?-amino acid selectivity and new ?-transaminases with improved substrate acceptance. A whole process including production, cell disruption and partial purification was set up. The partially purified enzymes were immobilized and employed as stable biocatalysts in the synthesis of chiral amines.

Casablancas, Antoni; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Álvaro, Gregorio; Benaiges, Maria Dolors; Caminal, Glòria; Mas, Carles de; González, Glòria; López, Carmen; López-Santín, Josep.

377

Criteria for data evaluation and adoption for regulatory guides - an assessment of the 'General Instructions and Standard Values' and of the planned Ordinance on Radioecological Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author states that the quantified, conservative model assumptions are by no means suited to compensate for an under-assessment of dose commitments due to too low parameters chosen for calculation. The mathematical model used is also said to be inadequate for a sufficiently realistic simulation of real ecological processes, as it takes into account only 7 of the 41 factors having an impact on radionuclide transfer in the food chains. The author explains the necessity of revising the ''General Instructions and Standard Values for Calculating the Radiation Dose to the Population''. (DG)

1981-10-15

378

Baby care product development: artificial urine in vitro assay is useful for cosmetic product assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of infants' inability to control urination, the skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from irritating effects of urine and prevention of diaper dermatitis such as products for cleansing and protection of the skin. Several in vitro models are currently available to assess tolerance. In vitro testing using artificial urine allows the protective effects of diaper-region cosmetics to be ascertained. Thus, a new model defined as "artificial urine in vitro assay" has been added to our traditional pre-clinical in vitro testing program. IL1-? is a highly active and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a key role in inflammation and is the biological mirror of irritation induced by diaper dermatitis. This study determines, on human skin explants, if a cosmetic formula is (1) tolerated equally as well in the presence of artificial urine as in its absence and (2) is able to decrease IL1-? production induced by artificial urine or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. 31 tests including 17 in-house formulas, 10 bench-markers and 4 combinations of products were performed and data obtained are represented on a simple four-point scale (from practically non protective to very protective). It allows determination of formula-type groups that will have predictable protective properties in subsequent clinical trials and comparison with competitors' products. It is a useful aid in the formulation stage and provides readily-useable data for the cosmetic risk assessment. PMID:23850986

Degouy, Arnaud; Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

2014-02-01

379

FASAL: an integrated approach for crop assessment and production forecasting  

Science.gov (United States)

India has a very well developed system for collection of crop statistics covering more than 50 crops at village level and aggregating it at different administrative levels. However, need for early and in-season crop production forecasting has been strongly felt. Remote sensing for crop assessment has been explored since very beginning of space applications in India. A nation-wide project called Crop Acreage and Production Estimation (CAPE) was launched at the behest of Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India in 1988. Major growing regions in the country for wheat, rice, cotton, groundnut, rapeseed/mustard and Rabi (winter) sorghum were covered. Production forecasts were made about a month before the harvesting using multi-band remote sensing data acquired at optimum bio-window and weather data. Ministry of Agriculture, satisfied with the performance of CAPE, came out with a request to target multiple crop production forecasts starting with crop sowing to end of season. Crop identification with remote sensing data requires using the data when crop has sufficiently grown. However, forecasting of crop at sowing stage would require use of weather data and information on economic factors controlling the farmer's response. Considering these things "Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agrometeorological and Land based observations (FASAL)" concept was devised. FASAL aims at using econometric models to forecast the area and production before the crop sowing operations. In unirrigated areas, information on amount and distribution of rainfall is being used for forecasting the crop acreage as well as yield. Remote sensing data, both optical and microwave form the core of crop area enumeration, crop condition assessment and production forecasting. Temporal remote sensing data is being used to monitor the crop through its growing period. Vegetation indices and weather parameter derived from surface and satellite observations will be used to develop the crop growth monitoring system. Components of FASAL concept have been developed, tested and implemented through a series of exercise and these are i) National wheat and winter potato production forecasting using IRS AWiFS data, ii) National Kharif rice production forecasting using Radarsat SAR data, and iii) District level FASAL implementation in Orissa state. Typically three in-season forecasts are being made. With this the FASAL concept of using the multi source data and techniques has been successfully demonstrated. FASAL implementation has been taken up to make national level multiple forecast of crops like rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, rapeseed/mustard, rabi-sorghum, winter-potato and jute. Procedure development for use of remote sensing, weather data - surface measurements as well as derived from satellite data, field and ancillary data to run the crop growth simulation models has been taken up. The programme is sponsored by Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Space Applications Centre of Indian Space Research Organisation has provided the scientific leadership to the project. A large team drawn form a number of institutions such as ISRO/Department of Space, State Remote Sensing Applications Centres, State Agricultural Universities and many other institutions are working for the project.

Parihar, Jai S.; Oza, Markand P.

2006-12-01

380

A epidemiologia na avaliação da qualidade: uma proposta / Epidemiological standards for assessing quality: a proposal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo propõe uma estratégia de definição de indicadores para avaliar a qualidade do processo de assistência, baseada na identificação dos objetivos dessa assistência e na verificação da existência de normas técnicas que a norteiem. Simultaneamente, aplica esta metodologia ao processo de assist [...] ência ao nascimento e parto, adotando enfoque de risco, tanto para a saúde individual, como para a coletiva. Utiliza para tal um banco de dados de 4.558 Histórias Clínicas Perinatais Simplificadas de 12 hospitais. Os indicadores selecionados foram: sorologia para sífilis, tipagem sanguínea Rh, vacinação antitetânica, taxa de cesáreas, recepção do bebê por pediatra na sala de partos, boletim de Apgar, avaliação de idade gestacional por exame físico, alojamento conjunto, aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta, encaminhamento para consulta de puerpério. Para classificação dos hospitais, foram utilizadas a soma simples, padrão-ouro, e hierarquização. A metodologia proposta permitiu identificar um hospital com qualidade excelente, cinco com qualidade boa, dois com qualidade regular e quatro com desempenho completamente insatisfatório. Abstract in english This paper proposes a strategy for defining indicators to assess the quality of the process of health care, based on the identification of the objectives of the care being delivered and on the verification of whether the technical guidelines for the procedures are being enforced. The article goes on [...] to apply the proposed methodology to the process of health care during childbirth, based on a perspective of comprehensive care and adopting both an individual and collective risk approach. It uses a data bank of 4,558 Simplified Perinatal Clinical Histories (CLAP/PAHO/WHO) from 12 hospitals.The indicators selected were: V.D.R.L., Rh blood typing, antitetanus vaccination, rate of cesarean sections, reception of the baby by a pediatrician at birth, Apgar score, evaluation of the gestational age by physical exam, rooming-in, exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge, and referral for a puerperal consultation. Methods for classification of hospitals were the sum of their scores for each indicator, gold standard, and ranking. This methodology warranted identification of one hospital with excellent quality of care, five with good care, two with fair care, and four whose performances were completely unsatisfactory. Finally, some remarks on the assessment of quality of health care are made and future developments are proposed.

Rattner, Daphne.

 
 
 
 
381

A epidemiologia na avaliação da qualidade: uma proposta / Epidemiological standards for assessing quality: a proposal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo propõe uma estratégia de definição de indicadores para avaliar a qualidade do processo de assistência, baseada na identificação dos objetivos dessa assistência e na verificação da existência de normas técnicas que a norteiem. Simultaneamente, aplica esta metodologia ao processo de assist [...] ência ao nascimento e parto, adotando enfoque de risco, tanto para a saúde individual, como para a coletiva. Utiliza para tal um banco de dados de 4.558 Histórias Clínicas Perinatais Simplificadas de 12 hospitais. Os indicadores selecionados foram: sorologia para sífilis, tipagem sanguínea Rh, vacinação antitetânica, taxa de cesáreas, recepção do bebê por pediatra na sala de partos, boletim de Apgar, avaliação de idade gestacional por exame físico, alojamento conjunto, aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta, encaminhamento para consulta de puerpério. Para classificação dos hospitais, foram utilizadas a soma simples, padrão-ouro, e hierarquização. A metodologia proposta permitiu identificar um hospital com qualidade excelente, cinco com qualidade boa, dois com qualidade regular e quatro com desempenho completamente insatisfatório. Abstract in english This paper proposes a strategy for defining indicators to assess the quality of the process of health care, based on the identification of the objectives of the care being delivered and on the verification of whether the technical guidelines for the procedures are being enforced. The article goes on [...] to apply the proposed methodology to the process of health care during childbirth, based on a perspective of comprehensive care and adopting both an individual and collective risk approach. It uses a data bank of 4,558 Simplified Perinatal Clinical Histories (CLAP/PAHO/WHO) from 12 hospitals.The indicators selected were: V.D.R.L., Rh blood typing, antitetanus vaccination, rate of cesarean sections, reception of the baby by a pediatrician at birth, Apgar score, evaluation of the gestational age by physical exam, rooming-in, exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge, and referral for a puerperal consultation. Methods for classification of hospitals were the sum of their scores for each indicator, gold standard, and ranking. This methodology warranted identification of one hospital with excellent quality of care, five with good care, two with fair care, and four whose performances were completely unsatisfactory. Finally, some remarks on the assessment of quality of health care are made and future developments are proposed.

Rattner, Daphne.

382

Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

2011-01-01

383

The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9: Concepts, Skills, Standards, and Assessments. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

In a new edition of her standards-based math workbook, author Pearl Gold Solomon covers essential concepts and skills as defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for learners in middle schools. Designed as a comprehensive resource for planning curriculum, instruction, and assessment, The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9,…

Solomon, Pearl Gold

2007-01-01

384

Economic Assessment Of The Industrial Solar Production Of Lime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of concentrated solar energy in place of fossil fuels for driving the endothermic calcination reaction CaCO{sub 3} ? CaO + CO{sub 2} at above 1300 K has the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20% in a state-of-the-art lime plant and up to 40% in a conventional cement plant. An economic assessment for an industrial solar calcination plant with 25 MWth solar input indicates that the cost of solar produced lime ranges between 128-157 $/ton, about twice the current selling price of conventional lime. The solar production of high purity lime for special sectors in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry might be competitive with conventional fossil fuel based calcination processes at current fuel prices. (author)

Meier, A.; Gremaud, N. [Schindler Lifts Ltd. (Switzerland); Steinfeld, A. [PSI and ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2005-03-01

385

In-vessel hydrogen production assessment during severe accident sequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1991 the Design Division of Electricite de France (EdF) acquired the MAAP license (modular accident analysis program) to contribute to the assessment of severe accident concerns both on its 56 operating (EdF) pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants (including two N4 plants), and for future projects, mainly the European pressurized reactor (EPR). EdF checked the MAAP code consistency with CATHARE (until the beginning of core overheating) and ESCADRE (severe accident code system of CEA-IPSN, the technical support of the French Safety Authority) results, mainly on thermal-hydraulic aspects. This paper presents results on studies concerned with the MAAP4 code simulation of hydrogen production during severe accidents and the resulting core degradation phase on a French four-loop 1300-MW PWR.

Droulas, J.L.; Nebois, L.; Magondeaux, B. de [Electricite de France, Villeurbanne (France)

1996-12-31

386

Standardized methods for the production of high specific-activity zirconium-89  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconium-89 is an attractive metallo-radionuclide for use in immuno-PET due to favorable decay characteristics. Standardized methods for the routine production and isolation of high-purity and high-specific-activity 89Zr using a small cyclotron are reported. Optimized cyclotron conditions reveal high average yields of 1.52±0.11 mCi/?A.h at a proton beam energy of 15 MeV and current of 15 ?A using a solid, commercially available 89Y-foil target (0.1 mm, 100% natural abundance). 89Zr was isolated in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity (>99.99%) as [89Zr]Zr-oxalate by using a solid-phase hydroxamate resin with >99.5% recovery of the radioactivity. The effective specific-activity of 89Zr was found to be in the range 5.28-13.43 mCi/?g (470-1195 Ci/mmol) of zirconium. New methods for the facile production of [89Zr]Zr-chloride are reported. Radiolabeling studies using the trihydroxamate ligand desferrioxamine B (DFO) gave 100% radiochemical yields in 89Zr]Zr-DFO is stable with respect to ligand dissociation in human serum for >7 days. Small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies have demonstrated that free 89Zr(IV) ions administered as [89Zr]Zr-chloride accumulate in the liver, whilst [89Zr]Zr-DFO is excreted rapidly via the kidneys within 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies. The detailed methods described can be easily translated to other radiochemistry facilities and will facilitate the use of 89Zr in both basic science and clinical investigations.

2009-10-01

387

Standardized methods for the production of high specific-activity zirconium-89  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zirconium-89 is an attractive metallo-radionuclide for use in immuno-PET due to favorable decay characteristics. Standardized methods for the routine production and isolation of high-purity and high-specific-activity {sup 89}Zr using a small cyclotron are reported. Optimized cyclotron conditions reveal high average yields of 1.52{+-}0.11 mCi/{mu}A.h at a proton beam energy of 15 MeV and current of 15 {mu}A using a solid, commercially available {sup 89}Y-foil target (0.1 mm, 100% natural abundance). {sup 89}Zr was isolated in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity (>99.99%) as [{sup 89}Zr]Zr-oxalate by using a solid-phase hydroxamate resin with >99.5% recovery of the radioactivity. The effective specific-activity of {sup 89}Zr was found to be in the range 5.28-13.43 mCi/{mu}g (470-1195 Ci/mmol) of zirconium. New methods for the facile production of [{sup 89}Zr]Zr-chloride are reported. Radiolabeling studies using the trihydroxamate ligand desferrioxamine B (DFO) gave 100% radiochemical yields in <15 min at room temperature, and in vitro stability measurements confirmed that [{sup 89}Zr]Zr-DFO is stable with respect to ligand dissociation in human serum for >7 days. Small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies have demonstrated that free {sup 89}Zr(IV) ions administered as [{sup 89}Zr]Zr-chloride accumulate in the liver, whilst [{sup 89}Zr]Zr-DFO is excreted rapidly via the kidneys within <20 min. These results have important implication for the analysis of immuno-PET imaging of {sup 89}Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies. The detailed methods described can be easily translated to other radiochemistry facilities and will facilitate the use of {sup 89}Zr in both basic science and clinical investigations.

Holland, Jason P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: hollanj3@mskcc.org; Sheh Yiauchung [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: shehy@mskcc.org; Lewis, Jason S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: lewisj2@mskcc.org

2009-10-15

388

The W-process for software product evaluation: A method for goal-oriented implementation of the ISO 14598 standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of software product evaluations will grow with the awareness of the need for better software quality. The process to conduct such evaluations is crucial to get evaluation results that can be applied and meet customer' expectations. This paper reviews a well-known evaluation process: the ISO 14598 standard. The review focuses on the difficulties in selecting and evaluating the appropriate evaluation techniques. The review shows that the standard has problems in applying evaluati...

Punter, T.; Kusters, R. J.; Trienekens, J. J. M.; Bemelmans, T.; Brombacher, A.

2004-01-01

389