WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard assessment products

  1. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  2. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  3. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  4. Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

    2007-06-12

    This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

  5. Assessing the compliance of a product with an eco-label: from standards to constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Houé Ngouna, Raymond; Grabot, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The new awareness of the consumers regarding environmental issues should allow companies to gain a competitive advantage by obtaining eco-labels which certify the low impact of a product on the environment. Getting such label requires to analyse a product according to rules expressed in natural language which may be difficult to interpret but also to apply when the product is complex. In order to address this problem, we suggest a method aiming at providing support to the user when checking t...

  6. Emission- and product standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  7. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  8. Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

  9. Development of plant assessment standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  10. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

  11. Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for…

  12. Product standards form for new radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Pharmacopeia and the British Pharmacopoeia have not yet established standards for new radiopharmaceuticals on the market or in the literature. The radiopharmacist must therefore find some way to cope with the problem of establishing standards for radiopharmaceuticals which he may develop himself. Standards and limitations for each new radiopharmaceutical should be established in a responsible and orderly manner. In the standards, a review should be made of the pharmaceutical, radioactive, chemical, and pharmacological properties of the product. In addition, standards and methods of determining labelling efficiency, sterility, and apyrogenicity must be devised and maintained. An outline is presented to serve as a guideline for the radiopharmacist in setting up a new product standards form when developing a new radiopharmaceutical. (U.S.)

  13. Methods for the assessment of the efficacy of products and slimming treatments for cellulite according to the Italian Interdisciplinary Group for the standardization of efficacy tests on cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenari, S; Bassoli, S; Flori, M L; Rigano, L; Sparavigna, A; Vesnaver, R; Berardesca, E

    2013-04-01

    Cellulite is a very common skin alteration with a complex pathogenesis; different degrees of severity of cellulite can be observed in most part of people after puberty, and numerous cosmetic or more invasive treatments have been proposed, with variable efficacy. Since reproducible methods of evaluation of the effectiveness of cellulite treatments are lacking, the purpose of our group was to define and set general testing principles for evaluating the efficacy of slimming products and treatments/remodeling methods for cellulite, to achieve a delineation of reliable and reproducible research steps following a well-designed and scientifically valid methodology. After a careful review of literature and textbooks and according to personal experience, we defined assessment protocols based on clinical and instrumental tools. In order to make studies reliable, reproducible and safe, a protocol standardization is needed. The sponsor is responsible for assuring quality and information concerning the product under investigation; moreover, investigators should be experienced on cellulite evaluation and treatment, and, finally, the duration and modalities of application of the product should be specified. A treated VS non treated area comparison can be performed, to evaluate the severity of cellulite and the clinical outcomes of the treatment. Besides clinical evaluation, instrumental methods should always be implemented to provide objective data for treatment outcome. PMID:23588148

  14. What standards do I need for my product or service?

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, H.J. de; Zwan, J van der

    2008-01-01

    There are standards for most products and services. Sometimes dozens of them. Examples of standards for products: - Standards for connection to another product. - Safety standards. - Standard dimensions. - Standards with test methods to be able to demonstrate the quality of the product. Examples of standards for services: - Standards that lay down what service the customer may expect. - Requirements for staff training. - Standard procedures. Application of standa...

  15. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens B.; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the...... question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs. The...... value of alignment and strong conformity between goal, content and assessment of the introductory programming course...

  16. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are...... research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an...... industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports...

  17. Organic fish production and the standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Ötles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuring animal welfare by decreasing the stocking density. This alternative model is used in many developed and developing countries in the world and the demand for this product has been the cause of increase in production amount and species variety in the market, although the model comprises 0.01% of the world aquaculture production. However, organic aquaculture production has not been developed as rapidly as organic agriculture. One of the most important reasons of this is the absence of international standards issued for organic aquaculture production. In this paper, the production principles of a number of authorized institutions certifying organic aquaculture are comparatively discussed.  

  18. Standardizing products for the international NSSS market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

  19. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens B.; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques...

  20. MRI assessment of myelination: an age standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    777 cerebral MRI examinations of children aged 3 days to 14 years were staged for myelination to establish an age standardization. Staging was performed using a system proposed in a previous paper, separately ranking 10 different regions of the brain. Interpretation of the results led to the identification of foue clinical diagnoses that are frequently associated with delays in myelination: West syndrome, cerebral palsy, developmental retardation, and congenital anomalies. In addition, it was found that assessment of myelination in children with head injuries was not practical as alterations in MRI signal can simulate earlier stages of myelination. Age limits were therefore calculated from the case material after excluding all children with these conditions. When simplifications of the definition of the stages are applied, these age limits for the various stages of myelination of each of the 10 regions of the brain make the staging system applicable for routine assessment of myelination. (orig.)

  1. Assessing Scholarly Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Hanish; John J. Horan; Bethanne Keen; Ginger Clark

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of scholarly productivity is embroiled in a controversy concerning the differential crediting of coauthors. Some researchers assign equivalent shares to each coauthor; others employ weighting systems based on authorship order. Horan and his colleagues use simple publication totals, arguing that the psychometric properties of labor-intensive alternatives are unknown, and relevant ethical guidelines for including coauthors are neither widely understood nor consistently followed....

  2. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

  3. Standard Assessments: Merits and Demerits and the Alternative Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Narjes Ghafournia

    2015-01-01

    Although standardized assessments are extensively applied for major decision making purposes in many language-teaching programs, the tests are not valid and reliable enough for many evaluation programs due to major demerits. Unfortunately, over the years, many high stakes proficiency tests have been widely applied for different educational purposes mainly due to using technically-sophisticated quantitative scoring methods as well as national and international availability. The extensive use o...

  4. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  5. Standardization and Assessment of Cell Culture Media Quantities in Roller Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Bottles Employed in the Industrial Rabies Viral Vaccine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jagannathan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-3, PTARV-4 and PTARV-5. The samples are taken in an appropriate time intervals for analysis of In Process Quality Control (IPQC tests. The collected viral harvests are further processed to rabies vaccine in a pilot level and in addition to scale up an industrial level. Based on the evaluation the PTARV-2 (250 mL show highly encouraging results for the Vero cell derived rabies vaccine production.

  6. Product Creativity Assessment of Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdottir, Dagny; Onarheim, Balder; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in creativity research, while the role of consumer's knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing inform...

  7. Educational Standards, Assessment, and the Search for Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Pamela A.; Schutz, Aaron

    2001-01-01

    Examines the nature of the "consensus" reflected in educational standards used to orient high-stakes assessment programs and considers the discourse of standards creation and how standards are used to orient assessment development and performance judgments. Discusses the theoretical perspectives of J. Habermas and H. Gadamer. (Author/SLD)

  8. A checklist of evolving environmental site assessments standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, D.A. [Landau Associates, Inc., Edmonds, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Several federal environmental laws passed since 1980 have increased the liability of property owners for the cost of cleanup on their properties. Property owners have used environmental site assessments as a way of minimizing liability. However, until recently there were no standards to guide professionals in performing these assessments. Although several professional organizations have published standards and guidance for conducting environmental site assessments since 1992, there is still no consensus as to what constitutes an ``appropriate level of inquiry,`` ``due diligence,`` or ``customary practice.`` This article attempts to review and critique the major environmental site assessment standards and proposes actions necessary to truly standardize the process.

  9. Standards for the validation of remotely sensed albedo products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Land surface albedo is important component of the Earth's energy balance, defined as the fraction of shortwave radiation absorbed by a surface, and is one many Essential Climate Variables (ECVS) that can be retrieved from space through remote sensing. To quantify the accuracy of these products, they must be validated with respect to in-situ measurements of albedo using an albedometer. Whilst accepted standards exist for the calibration of albedometers, standards for the use of in-situ measurement schemes, and their use in validation procedures have yet to be developed. It is essential that we can assess the quality of remotely sensed albedo data, and to identify traceable sources of uncertainty during process of providing these data. As a result of the current lack of accepted standards for in-situ albedo retrieval and validation procedures, we are not yet able to identify and quantify traceable sources of uncertainty. Establishing standard protocols for in-situ retrievals for the validation of global albedo products would allow inter-product use and comparison, in addition to product standardization. Accordingly, this study aims to assess the quality of in-situ albedo retrieval schemes and identify sources of uncertainty, specifically in vegetation environments. A 3D Monte Carlo Ray Tracing Model will be used to simulate albedometer instruments in complex 3D vegetation canopies. To determine sources of uncertainty, factors that influence albedo measurement uncertainty were identified and will subsequently be examined: 1. Time of day (Solar Zenith Angle) 2. Ecosytem type 3. Placement of albedometer within the ecosystem 4. Height of albedometer above the canopy 5. Clustering within the ecosystem A variety of 3D vegetation canopies have been generated to cover the main ecosystems found globally, different seasons, and different plant distributions. Canopies generated include birchstand and pinestand forests for summer and winter, savanna, shrubland, cropland and citrus orchard. All canopies were simulated for a 100x100m area to best represent in-situ measurement conditions. Preliminary tests have been conducted, firstly, identifying the spectral range required to estimate broadband albedo (BBA) and secondly, determining the hyper-spectral intervals required to calculate BBA from spectral albedo. Final results are expected to be able to identify for the factors aforementioned, given a specified confidence level and within 3% accuracy, when does uncertainty of in-situ measurement fall within these critera, and outside these criteria. As the uncertainty of in-situ measurements should be made on an individual basis accounting for relevant factors, this study aims to document for a specific scenario traceable uncertainty sources in in-situ albedo retrieval.

  10. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  11. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  12. Performance Assessment: Policy Promises and Technical Measurement Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Major changes underway with regard to educational assessment include an increased role for the federal government; increased emphasis on standards; and increased reliance on performance assessment. These changes are the context for the effort to revise the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing." (SLD)

  13. Standards development in the assessment of radiological contamination of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present standards available on sampling, measuring, analyzing, and assessing the presence of radionuclides in soil are reviewed. The review includes the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Environmental Methods Task Group's standards on soil sampling, sample preparation, and radionanalysis; US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radiological contamination at formerly utilized sites and remedial action programs; the Health Physics draft guide for assessment of radiation doses from plutonium and americium in soils; and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines for residual radiological contamination assessment. Draft standards under development and personel observations concerning the need for further standard development are also discussed

  14. Autonomic Standards Assessment Form for Spinal Cord Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin GÜNDÜZ

    2012-01-01

    International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury are defined to document impairments in sensory and motor functions in patients with spinal cord injury. Since autonomic dysfunctions are also common in these patients, Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is developed to define the autonomic functions and it is recommended to be completed in all patients as a part of the clinical evaluation. The aim of this report was to present the Autonomic Standards Assessment...

  15. Standardization and Regulation of Allergen Products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Julia; Vieths, Stefan; Kaul, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Product-specific standardization is of prime importance to ensure persistent quality, safety, and efficacy of allergen products. The regulatory framework in the EU has induced great advancements in the field in the last years although national implementation still remains heterogeneous. Scores of methods for quantification of individual allergen molecules are developed each year and also the challenging characterization of chemically modified allergen products is progressing. However, despite the unquestionable increase in knowledge and the subsequent improvements in control of quality parameters of allergen products, an important aim has not been reached yet, namely cross-product comparability. Still, comparison of allergen product potency, either based on total allergenic activity or individual allergen molecule content, is not possible due to a lack of standard reference preparations in conjunction with validated standard methods. This review aims at presenting the most recent developments in product-specific standardization as well as activities to facilitate cross-product comparability in the EU. PMID:26874849

  16. 78 FR 37723 - Laser Products; Proposed Amendment to Performance Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...report, ``Technical Quality and...of laser products spanning...for this analysis that exporting...standards documentation, documentation...exemption documentation. We do not...consumer products have shorter...production. This analysis assumes similarity...labeling and documentation. According...manufacturing laser products......

  17. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY... the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act, or Title VI of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). These proposed requirements are designed to implement the statutory...

  18. PASSING STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENTS WITH FADING PROMPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Marie GREENE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandates that all students perform at a level of proficient on state assessments. This includes students with learning and intellectual disabilities who are inherently performing below grade level. Given that schools are held accountable for meeting these goals and some states are not allowing students to graduate if they do not pass the assessments, this is a large concern for students, parents, teachers, and administration Method: Forty-five students with a disability in writing or an intellectual disability participated in this quasi-experimental, single-group, pretest-posttest design that evaluated the effectiveness of the Fading Prompts through Graphic Organizers method for students with learning and intellectual disabilities in written expression as measured according to the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment. Results: Data analyses were conducted through the use of four dichotomies for percent differences, which compared teacher administered pretests and posttests, pretests and the state administered PSSA, teacher administered posttests and the PSSA, and the participants’ PSSA and the average state PSSA score. All forty-five students performed at a below basic level during baseline and a proficient level on the posttest. The learned skills generalized to the PSSA with forty-three students earning a passing score of proficient, while two students advanced to basic. Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of this study, it is highly recommended that this program be utilized at least for students with learning and intellectual disabilities until further research can be done.

  19. Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Linn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

  20. Developing Korean Standard for Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yu, Il Je

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetic, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including the manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufact...

  1. 75 FR 79354 - Assessment Technology Standards Request for Information (RFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Register ( http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/ ) Web site (in the case of grants, or other awards). It is... patent, copyright, or trademark protections for assessment technology standards? Are the publications for... most or all copyright license rights? 3.2.33 Derivation. For technology standards, do...

  2. Assessing the Assessors: JMC Administrators Critique the Nine ACEJMC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinardy, Scott; Crawford, Jerry, II.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly ninety years, journalism professionals and academics have attempted to develop standards by which to prepare college students for the media industry. For nearly 70 years, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) has assessed programs based on its standards. This study surveyed administers of…

  3. Autonomic Standards Assessment Form for Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin GÜNDÜZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury are defined to document impairments in sensory and motor functions in patients with spinal cord injury. Since autonomic dysfunctions are also common in these patients, Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is developed to define the autonomic functions and it is recommended to be completed in all patients as a part of the clinical evaluation. The aim of this report was to present the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58 Suppl 1: 38-41.

  4. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance assessments; Performance standards. 115.206 Section 115.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.206 Performance assessments;...

  5. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Standard Extract Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Standard Extract Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's...

  6. International standardization of radiation sterilization of health care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organizations/Technical Committee has prepared a draft International Standard (DIS 11137.2), for the radiation sterilization of health care products. The revised Draft International Standard is contained in the first 16 pages of the document. The remaining 68 pages of the document consists of informative annexes on device and materials qualification, dose-setting methods of radiation sterilization and dosimetry and equipment control. (Author)

  7. Standard and SUSY Higgs production at the LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robert Harlander

    2006-11-01

    Recent theoretical developments concerning Higgs production at the large hadron collider are reviewed, both in the standard model and in the MSSM. Emphasis is put on the inclusive and exclusive cross-sections for gluon fusion, as well as on the associated production with bottom quarks.

  8. Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

  9. Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Remac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal or extra-legal standards. Depending on the legal system, ombudsmen can investigate whether there is an instance of maladministration in the activities of administrative bodies, whether the administration has acted ‘properly’, whether it has acted in accordance with the law, whether administrative actions have breached the human rights of complainants or whether the actions of the administration were in accordance with anti-corruption rules etc. Regardless of the legislative standard of an ombudsman’s control, the ombudsman should consider and assess the situation described in complaints against certain criteria or against certain normative standards. A distinct set of standards which ombudsmen use during their investigation, or at least a clear statement of their assessment criteria, can increase the transparency of their procedures and the persuasiveness of their reports. Are the normative standards used by different ombudsmen the same? Do they possibly create a new normative concept? And can it possibly lead to a higher acceptance of their reports by the administration?

  10. Guidelines for Assessing Michigan Standards in Industrial Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Ronald J.

    This document presents Michigan's standards in industrial technology education and details assessment procedures that will enable Michigan industrial technology teachers to analyze, upgrade, and justify their current programs. The introductory section contains the following materials: a discussion of supportive organizations; an overview of…

  11. Assessing the ecotoxicity of pesticide transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Chris J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2003-10-15

    Once released to the environment, pesticides may be degraded by abiotic and biotic processes. While parent compounds are assessed in detail in many regulatory schemes, the requirements for the assessment of transformation products are less well developed. This study was therefore performed to explore the relationships between the toxicity of transformation products and their parent compounds and to develop a pragmatic approach for use in the risk assessment of transformation products. Data were obtained on the properties and ecotoxicity of transformation products arising from a wide range of pesticides. Generally, transformation products were less toxic to fish, daphnids, and algae than their parent compound. In instances where a product was more toxic, the increase in toxicity could be explained by either (1) the presence of a pesticide toxicophore; (2) the fact that the product is the active part of a propesticide; (3) the product is accumulated to a greater extent than the parent compound; or (4) the product has a more potent mode of action than the parent. On the basis of the findings, an approach has been proposed to estimate the ecotoxicity of transformation products based on chemical structure and data on the toxicity of the parent compound. The assessments can be performed at an early stage in the risk assessment process to identify those substances that require further testing. PMID:14594370

  12. System for production of standards for volume activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project aims to achieve a system for producing standards for volume activity with efficiency higher than that of the current devices. The system is provided with a 4? proportional counter of a special construction with a relative covariance less than 1%. The system makes it possible to obtain activity standards for 3 H, 85 Kr, and 133 Xe. The radionuclides are produced in nuclear plants either as fission products (85 Kr, 133 Xe) or by activation (3 H). These gaseous nuclides as well as tritiated water are released from CANDU-type nuclear plants. The system and the standards should be necessary for the activity monitoring in the nuclear plant. (authors)

  13. Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978

  14. Software Productivity: Harmonization in ISO/IEEE Software Engineering Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Cheikhi; Rafa E. Al-Qutaish; Ali Idri

    2012-01-01

    The software productivity is an important key of software quality factors. The productivity measure has become a tool for managers since it is used to compare the performance between different companies (benchmarking) and to compare the efficiency of different developers in the same company. Therefore, it allows doing strategic planning and decision making based on such measurement. A variety of international standardization bodies such as IEEE and ISO as well as software engineering research...

  15. Methods of production and measurement of standard sources and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the collection of papers having presented at the symposium, results are stated of the work performed in the CMEA member - states in the field of development and application of new methods of production of standard sources and solutions as well as of measuring their activity. Some installations used for measurements have been described. Results of measurements have been stated

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  17. Process Waste Assessments at production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process Waste Assessments (PWA) of production facilities identify those chemical process operations which cause wastes and, therefore, must be targeted in a site's waste minimization plan. Such assessments are needed at all Department of Energy (DOE) production sites. These assessments have been conducted within the Y-12 Development Division for technical planning in support of the Lithium Process Replacements (LPR) project and for the development of modernization technologies for enriched uranium recovery. The PWA procedure is presented as a guide to the methodology for assessing production operations. Mentioned are raw material usage summaries, material balances, and sensitivity analyses that are essential for waste allow a rigid formula to be developed for all facilities. For this reason, the selection of personnel who can interpret and adapt the assessment procedure is an important consideration and will be briefly addressed

  18. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve success in adopting reach standards.

  19. Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

  20. Standardization of code coupling for integrated safety assessment purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology is a useful tool for safety assessment incorporated into licensing activities at CSN, which implies an intensive use of code coupling techniques to join typical TH analysis, severe accident and probability calculation codes. The final goal is to dynamically generate the event tree that stems from an initiating event, improving the conventional PSA static approach. The massive use of coupled codes has led to the definition of a standardized connection methodology, that allows a given code to be incorporated quickly into the overall system and to overcome difficulties derived from particular models and computational methods. With the methodology here proposed a coupled code is meant to work in cooperation with any other code meeting the standard as well, making the connection scheme more open and flexible. (author)

  1. Applying Standard Competency Assessment in Vocational Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad; Nabilah Abu Bakar; Nor Lisa Sulaiman; Kahirol Mohd Salleh; Lai Che Sern

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in vocational education is focused on knowledge and skills. Psychomotor is an aspect that emphasized in teaching competency in vocational education. Teaching based on psychomotor is a way to provide students with the hands on skills. Teachers are the main character in the teaching session. Therefore, this paper explained the differences among teachers in teaching based Standard Competency Assessment with their expertise in particular field. Research used survey design involved 301 te...

  2. Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to...... have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflexivity and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals...

  3. Reliability of standardized assessment for adults who are deafblind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M. Guthrie, PhD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of the interRAI Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA and Deafblind Supplement (DbS. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a multidimensional, standardized assessment instrument for use with adults (18 and older who are deafblind. The interrater reliability of the instrument was tested through the completion of dual assessments with 44 individuals who were deafblind in the province of Ontario, Canada. Overall, nearly 50% of items had a kappa value of at least 0.60, indicating fair to substantial agreement for these items. Several items related to psychosocial well-being, mood, and sense of involvement had kappa scores of less than 0.40. However, among these items with low kappa values, most (78% showed at least 70% agreement between the two assessors. The internal consistency of several health subscales, embedded within the assessment, was also very good and ranged from 0.63 to 0.93. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a reliable instrument for assessing adults with deafblindness to better understand their needs, abilities, and preferences.

  4. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veskovi?-Mora?anin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  5. Standardized and flexible batteries in neuropsychology: an assessment update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R L

    1991-12-01

    This article summarizes current literature relevant to commonly used tests and test batteries in clinical neuropsychology. The first section contains a discussion of the philosophy and relative advantages of standardized and flexible battery approaches in neuropsychology. The second contains historical background and a literature review of the two major standardized test batteries: the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska. The third section includes reviews of tests that are frequently used in the flexible battery approach. Various tests of intellectual functioning, attention, memory, language, and spatial analyses are critiqued in this section. Contributions of the process approach are noted. The article ends by underscoring the need for continued research into the nature of neuropsychological measures and the abilities they assess. PMID:1844714

  6. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub...) Applicable standards. (1) Plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories,...

  7. Non-standard isotope production and applications at Washington University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Timothy J.; McCarthy, Deborah W.; Laforest, Richard; Bigott, Heather M.; Wüst, Frank; Reichert, David E.; Lewis, Michael R.; Welch, Michael J.

    2001-07-01

    The positron emitting radionuclides, oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 have been produced at Washington University for many years utilizing two biomedical cyclotrons; a Cyclotron Corporation CS15 and a Japan Steel Works 16/8 cyclotron. In recent years we have become interested in the production of non-standard PET isotopes. We were initially interested in copper-64 production using the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu nuclear reaction, but now apply this technique to other positron emitting copper isotopes, copper-60 and copper-61. Copper-64 is being produced routinely and made available to other institutions. In 1999 over ten Curies of copper-64 were produced, making copper available to thirteen institutions, as well as research groups at Washington University. We are currently developing methods for the routine productions of other PET radioisotopes of interest, these include; bromine-76, bromine-77, iodine-124, gallium-66, and technetium-94m.

  8. Application of spreadsheets to standardize transportation radiological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the complexity, volume of data and calculations required, one preferred analytical tool to perform transportation risk assessments is the RADTRAN computer code. RADTRAN combines user-determined material, packaging, transportation, demographic and meteorological factors, with health physics data to calculate expected radiological consequences and accident risk from transporting radioactive materials by all commercial modes including truck, rail, ship, air and barge. The computer code consists of two major modules for each transport mode: the incident-free module, in which doses from normal transport are calculated; and the accident module, in which dose consequences and probabilities are evaluated to generate risk estimates. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the development of a standardized procedure to perform transportation radiological risk assessments employing conventional spreadsheet programs to automate generation of RADTRAN input files and post-processing analysis of the resulting output

  9. Student's Video Production as Formative Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learning assessments are subject of discussions that envolve theoretical and practical approaches. To measure learning in physics by high school students, either qualitatively or quantitatively, is a process in which it should be possible to identify not only the concepts and contents students failed to achieve but also the reasons of the failure. We propose that students' video production offers a very effective formative assessment to teachers: as a formative assessment, it produces information that allows the understanding of where and when the learning process succeeded or failed, of identifying, as a subject or as a group, the defficiencies or misunderstandings related to the theme under analysis and their interpretation by students, and it provides also a different kind of assessment, related to some other life skills, like the ability to carry a project to its conclusion and to work cooperatively. In this paper, we describe the use of videos produced by high school students as an assessment resource. T...

  10. Risk assessment of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides in view of the future dialogue between risk managers and risk assessors during the next steps of the revision of the ecotoxicology guidance documents.

  11. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371–9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high. (paper)

  12. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  13. Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela; Longin, Eric; Welton, Carole; Villanueva, Alejandro; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison will...... be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  15. An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

  16. Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

  17. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

  18. Curvaton decay by resonant production of the Standard Model higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate in detail a model where the curvaton is coupled to the Standard Model higgs. Parametric resonance might be expected to cause a fast decay of the curvaton, so that it would not have time to build up the curvature perturbation. However, we show that this is not the case, and that the resonant decay of the curvaton may be delayed even down to electroweak symmetry breaking. This delay is due to the coupling of the higgs to the thermal background, which is formed by the Standard Model degrees of freedom created from the inflaton decay. We establish the occurrence of the delay by considering the curvaton evolution and the structure of the higgs resonances. We then provide analytical expressions for the delay time, and for the subsequent resonant production of the higgs, which ultimately leads to the curvaton effective decay width. Contrary to expectations, it is possible to obtain the observed curvature perturbation for values of the curvaton-higgs coupling as large as 10?1. Our calculations also apply in the general case of curvaton decay into any non Standard Model species coupled to the thermal background

  19. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

  20. A travelling standard for radiopharmaceutical production centres in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogni, M.; de Felice, P.; Fazio, A.

    Short-lived radionuclides, ?, ?+ and/or ?- emitters, such as 18F, and 99mTc, particularly useful for nuclear medicine applications, both diagnostic and in radiotherapy, can be produced with high-specific activity in a small biomedical cyclotron or by a radionuclide generator. While [18F]Fludeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) is a widely used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography, the development of innovative diagnostic techniques and therapies involves the use of new radio-labelled molecules and emerging radionuclides, such as 64Cu and 124I. During the last 3 years, an extensive supply of [18F]FDG was started by many production sites in Italy, and new radiopharmaceuticals are being studied for future nuclear medical applications. Therefore, a special nuclear medicine research programme for primary standard development and transferral to the end-users has been carried out by the ENEA-INMRI. Because of the short half-lives of these nuclides, a portable well-type ionisation chamber was established as a secondary travelling standard. This device has been calibrated and transported to the radiopharmaceutical production centres in Italy where the local instrumentation, typically radionuclide calibrators, has been calibrated by a simple comparison, with an uncertainty level lower than 2%.

  1. On risk assessment of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

  2. Precision parameters of standard methods of analysis for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, J T; Horwitz, W; Albert, R

    1989-01-01

    The available collaborative studies for standard methods of analysis for various constituents of milk and milk products were examined in an attempt to assign specific repeatability and reproducibility precision parameters to these methods. The different collaborative assays for the primary constituents (moisture/solids, fat, protein), the nutritionally important elements (calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus), and miscellaneous analytes/physical constants (ash, lactose, salt, freezing point) produced different estimates of the precision parameters for the same method. A suitable summary of the precision estimates from collaborative studies is given by the reproducibility relative standard deviation, RSDg, which is relatively constant within a product and permits comparisons across products. An estimate of the variation of RSDR for an analyte from a number of collaborative studies is presented in terms of the median and 90% interval (the range of the centermost 90% of values). These estimates are only informative when a substantial number of independent studies are available for pooling the independent estimates to form a distribution of RSDR values. The RSDR for the determination of the primary constituents of milk and milk products is characterized by a median RSDR of 1% and a 90% interval of 0.3-3%, with RSDR estimates occasionally occurring below 0.3% and above 4%. These overall estimates appear to be independent of analyte, matrix, and method and apply to concentrations of primary constituents that range from about 2 to 80%. The repeatability relative standard deviation, RSDr, is unstable, although it tends to converge to about 0.5-0.7 X RSDR. Too few collaborative assays are available to characterize RSDR for the determination of certain other constituents (acidity, ash, lactose, salt, and the nutritionally important elements) unless RSDR values for different analytes, methods, and matrixes are pooled on the basis of similar analyte concentrations. When pooled, the RSDR values are generally better than predicted from the Horwitz equation, RSDR (%) = 2 exp (1-0.5 log10C), where C is the concentration expressed as a decimal fraction; all but one of 661 RSDR values are within the upper empirical limit of twice this curve. PMID:2808241

  3. Assessing the HIPAA standard in practice: PHR privacy policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Inmaculada; Alemán, José Luis Fernández; Toval, Ambrosio

    2011-01-01

    Health service providers are starting to become interested in providing PHRs (Personal Health Records). With PHRs, access to data is controlled by the patient, and not by the health care provider. Companies such as Google and Microsoft are establishing a leadership position in this emerging market. A number of benefits can be achieved with PHRs, but important challenges related to security and privacy must be addressed. This paper presents a review of the privacy policies of 20 free web-based PHRs. Security and privacy characteristics were extracted and assessed according to the HIPAA standard. The results show a number of important differences in the characteristics analyzed. Some improvements can be made to current PHR privacy policies to enhance the audit and management of access to users' PHRs. A questionnaire has been defined to assist PHR designers in this task. PMID:22254820

  4. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    . The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore in...... for two LCA phases, indoor environment and disposal phase. The score method was used on two water-proofing systems. Waterproofing systems are used for making a water-impermeable layer in a bathroom wall. Results from the score method for indoor environment were compared to results from a screening...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the specia...

  6. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around......The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the...... opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of...

  7. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products AGENCY... energy conservation standards enacted through the American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act, among which were a revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct...

  8. 77 FR 31190 - Revised Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...service standards for market-dominant mail products, as part of its Network Rationalization...Network Rationalization is that falling mail volumes and the resultant excess...

  9. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

  10. Energy Saving Recommended: Delivering improved product standards, market presence and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Tom; Galvanoni, Frances [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the home equate to 27 % of UK total emissions. In order for consumers to use less energy, and reduce their environmental impact, the Energy Saving Recommended (ESR) voluntary product labelling scheme for domestic energy saving products was established to direct the consumer to choose better products and make smarter choices. With over 2000 certified products, ESR is present across 5 sectors and covers 24 product categories; 9 sets of standards were reviewed and revised in 2005/6 and a further 13 were delivered in 2006/7. ESR is now implementing existing and developing new standards in consumer electronics - from integrated digital televisions and recorders, to intelligent mains sockets and set-top-boxes, as well as assessing the feasibility of endorsing domestic ICT equipment. The Energy Saving Trust, through its marketing activities, acts as an enabler to make energy saving action simpler, easier and cheaper for the consumer to undertake. Using a variety of communication strategies the trade is engaged through the provision of value added member benefits; a holistic approach is taken with key partners to integrate energy efficiency throughout their businesses. Merchandising support helps product standards to be implemented in the market place; evaluation and research work demonstrates that markets can be changed and shows a 1 in 3 label recognition rate. The credibility and integrity of the label are reinforced through compliance testing, in-store and online label monitoring and legal enforcement, frequent data checks and the integration of ISO best practice standards through the certification system.

  11. Standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (CRP) is an advanced and modern facility that encompasses two essential components: radioisotope research, and radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing. Radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program is not only quite unique, but also an essential component of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) in providing quality patient care for the population of the Kingdom. Accurate diagnosis and therapy with medical imaging equipment requires quality radiopharmaceuticals that are available readily and with reliability. The CRP Department provides that quality and reliability. Research activities of the CRP Department are focused on developing new radiotracers with potential usefulness in biomedical research and clinical applications. Research projects consist of: developing cyclotron targetry for radioisotope production; developing synthesis methods for radiolabeling biomolecules; and developing analytical methods for quality control. The CRP Department operates a semi-commercial radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program that supplies the diagnostic radioactive products to several hospitals in the Kingdom and neighboring countries. These products for clinical applications are produced according to the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices of quality and efficacy. At the heart of the radioisotope program is a medium energy cyclotron capable of accelerating a number of particles for transformation of non-radioactive atoms into radionuclides that are the primary sources for research and development activities, and for preparing radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to having the only cyclotron facility in the region, KFSH and RC also has the only Positron Emission Tomography Center (PET) in this part of the world. This combination of cyclotron and the ultra modern PET facility translates into advanced and specialized care for the patients at KFSH and RC

  12. Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variatio...

  13. Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflection and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals with what-questions and that the portfolio is expected to handle a number of challenges with regard to the documentation of learning processes and achievements as well as the conditioning of learning activities. Furthermore, is becomes clear that descriptions of how the portfolio works are sparse. Based on systems theory, the paper adopts a how-perspective: How does the portfolio re-describe learning? How does it scaffold and organise communication? The conclusion is that systems theory allows us to re-describe the portfolio as a teaching technology, which, by scaffolding both reflection and reflexivity, produces unique conditions for the stimulation and observation of learning, thus increasing the complexity of learning observation.

  14. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  15. Assessment and Next Generation Standards: An Interview with Olivia Gude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of an interview with Olivia Gude, member of the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards Writing Team. In the interview, Gude provides an overview of the process for writing the new visual arts standards.

  16. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

  17. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: an early assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas were well exceeded by the end of 2001, with 915 MW of wind installed in that year alone. RPS compliance costs appear negligible with new wind projects reportedly contracted for well under 3(US) cents/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US) cents/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

  18. Formative Assessment for the Common Core Literacy Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robert; Wilson, Kathleen M.; Flannery, Brian; Kapinus, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: As implementation of the Common Core Literacy Standards moves ahead, teachers, students, and schools are discovering that the standards demand a great deal of them in order to achieve the vision of college, career, and citizenship in the global-digital world outlined in the standards. To accomplish the goals and high…

  19. Using Microsoft Excel to Assess Standards: A "Techtorial". Article #2 in a 6-Part Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    Standards-based assessment is a term currently being used quite often in educational reform discussions. The philosophy behind this initiative is to utilize "standards" or "benchmarks" to focus instruction and assessments of student learning. The National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 2004) provide a framework to guide this process for…

  20. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.; Rasmussen, M.B.; Mogensen, S.S.; Frost, T.; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Muijtjens, A.; Lippert, F.; Ringsted, C.

    2007-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors' resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and...

  1. NPP instrumentation and control systems safety standardization and assessment (2): principles of standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the second article in the set devoted to NPP instrumentation and control systems (I and C). The article contains: statement of the task of I and C safety standardization; methodology of I and C safety standardization; definition of the status of elaborated standards; criteria of the regulatory requirements chose; systematization of input data; description of the procedure of I and C safety standardization

  2. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

  3. Product unconformable in the light of legal regulations and the ISO 9001:2000 standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.

  4. Using Digital Video Production to Meet the Common Core Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Maura

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core Standards has just begun and these standards will impact a generation that communicates with technology more than anything else. Texting, cell phones, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, etc. are the ways they speak with their friends and the world. The Common Core Standards recognize this. According to the Common Core…

  5. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  6. Production of fractional atomic layer standards of niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To produce such standards a modified Pierce-type electron-beam-gun evaporation system with a thickness monitor was used. An ''accurate'' Nb standard of 0.1 monolayer deposit thickness was prepared by evaporation under controlled conditions. Nb standards of 1.1 q, 0.11, and 0.011 monolayers were produced in a single evaporation. These standards were then calibrated to the ''accurate'' standard. The errors quoted do not include those associated with the monitor itself. The relative accuracy of the standards was verified by Rutherford backscattering and ion micro-probe measurements. Standards of Nb and V on single-crystal Si substrates were produced. The very thin fractional-atomic-layer targets were used in an experiment which yielded valuable information for the fusion power program. This experiment is briefly described. The method of fabrication of the targets, and the techniques used to determine the target thicknesses are described

  7. 48 CFR 23.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environmental assessment tool. 23.705 Section 23.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... 23.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General. As required by E.O. 13423... electronic products with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered...

  8. ASSESSING THE USE OF A STANDARDIZED DENTAL DIAGNOSTIC TERMINOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel M; Stark, Paul C.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.; Ramoni, Rachel B; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta E.; Kimmes, Nicole S.; Tavares, Anamaria; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2013-01-01

    Although standardized terminologies, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), have been in use in medicine for over a century, in the dental profession, efforts to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagnostic terminology - the ‘EZcodes’ terminology was developed in 2009. Fifteen dental practices and schools in the United States and Europe have implemented the ‘EZcodes’. In this paper we re...

  9. International Financial Standards: Assessing Effectiveness from the Private Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCHELLA, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates market participants’ endorsement of international financial standards. While the most part of scholarship works has focused on market incentives for states to comply, we shift the focus of the analysis to the incentives for market participants. Why do markets participants choose to follow through the standard and to incorporate states’ compliance with international standards in their investment decisions? In answering this question, the paper develops two hypotheses and...

  10. Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zibordi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS operated onboard the Envisat platform, is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focusses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center-wavelength, significantly decreasing to a few percent at 560 nm and increasing again at 665 nm. Such an underestimate at the blue center-wavelengths leads to an average overestimate of the algal-1 MERIS pigment index largely exceeding 100% for the considered European seas. A comparable overestimate is also observed for the algal-2 pigment index independently determined from top-of-atmosphere radiance through the application of neural networks.

  11. Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zibordi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS operated on board the Envisat platform is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focuses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center wavelength, significantly decreasing to a few percent at 560 nm and increasing again at 665 nm. Such an underestimate at the blue center wavelengths leads to an average overestimate of the algal-1 MERIS pigment index largely exceeding 100% for the considered European seas. A comparable overestimate is also observed for the algal-2 pigment index independently determined from top-of-atmosphere radiance through the application of neural networks.

  12. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ...Benchmark Dose modeling of the best...from hardwood plywood, medium-density...manufacturer's production meets applicable...weekly hardwood plywood production is less than...weekly hardwood plywood production is between...

  13. 75 FR 66038 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...analysis, assessment, and documentation) effectively and efficiently...nerc.com/commondocs.php?cd=2...analysis. This would be a documentation Requirement only and would...Analysis, Assessment and Documentation). Action: Proposed...

  14. SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium Common Core State Standards Analysis: Eligible Content for the Summative Assessment. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Edynn; Lagunoff, Rachel; Worth, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report is a descriptive analysis of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), intended to determine which content is eligible for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium's end-of-year summative assessment for English language arts (ELA) and mathematics in grades 3-8 and high school. The high school standards analyzed were those in grades…

  15. Social Moderation, Assessment and Assuring Standards for Accounting Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watty, Kim; Freeman, Mark; Howieson, Bryan; Hancock, Phil; O'Connell, Brendan; de Lange, Paul; Abraham, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidencing student achievement of standards is a growing imperative worldwide. Key stakeholders (including current and prospective students, government, regulators and employers) want confidence that threshold learning standards in an accounting degree have been assured. Australia's new higher education regulatory environment requires that…

  16. Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains : Reflections on the “Dark Side” of Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing countries. However, much less attention has been paid to the “dark side” of impact assessment – the ethical and political dilemmas that arise in the process of carrying out impact studies. This paper addresses this gap in literature, arguing that impact assessments of CSR standards may do more harm than good to the intended beneficiaries - developing country firms, farmers, workers, and communities - unless these ethical and political dilemmas are given serious consideration.

  17. Linking land use and ecosystem services. Development of a Life Cycle Impact Assessment method to improve evaluation of biobased products

    OpenAIRE

    Knoester, L.

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used standardized method to assess all environmental impacts of products or processes. However, LCA cannot fully assess the impacts of land use, which leads to an incomplete assessment of biobased products. To date, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods evaluate land use impacts on biodiversity and soil quality, but do not include impacts on ecosystem services. Hence, the objective of this research was to develop an LCIA method to evaluate potenti...

  18. Design and logistics IT federation through Product Lifecycle Support standard

    OpenAIRE

    Paviot, Thomas; Cheutet, Vincent; Lamouri, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Wide diffusion of methodologies and software relevant to Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) in industrial companies faces heterogeneity of IT systems. Especially, the lack of interoperability between Product Data Management (PDM) systems, that drive virtual product development, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), which manages real product, cannot lead to a coherent description of the product development process. We show that a "mediator" approach is pertinent for the coordination of thes...

  19. Determinants and Functions of Standardized Assessment Use Among School Mental Health Clinicians: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Ludwig, Kristy; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Bergstrom, Alex; Hendrix, Ethan; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated why and how school mental health clinicians use standardized assessment tools in their work with youth and families. Quantitative and qualitative (focus group) data were collected prior to and following a training and consultation sequence as part of a trial program to assess school clinician's (n = 15) experiences administering standardized tools to youth on their caseloads (n = 191). Findings indicated that, although assessment use was initially somewhat low, clinicians used measures to conduct initial assessments with the bulk of their caseloads (average = 62.2 %) during the implementation period. Clinicians also reported on factors influencing their use of assessments at the client, provider, and system levels; perceived functions of assessment; student responses to assessment use; and use of additional sources of clinically-relevant information (primarily educational data) for the purposes of assessment and progress monitoring. Implications for the contextual appropriateness of standardized assessment and training in assessment tools are discussed. PMID:25875325

  20. Couplings and beyond the Standard Model Higgs production at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large centre-of-mass energy and luminosity provided by the Large Hadron Collider will provide a unique opportunity to search for evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. This talk will focus on the potential to discover and measure the properties of the Higgs bosons expected in models, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

  1. 25 CFR 36.12 - Standard III-Program needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Educational Management § 36.12 Standard III...revised based on an assessment of educational needs. This needs assessment...clear statement of student educational goals and objectives. A...

  2. Assessment of sustainability in Austrian wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Franz Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to find out whether environmental sustainability can be measured not only with regard to climate change and carbon consumption but also as to other criteria concerning material consumption, energy, soil, biodiversity and water. We investigated which measures in the vineyard and wine cellar can lead to “better” sustainability while ensuring a high quality standard. 343 activities were identified to fulfill 61 quality objectives. Of the 2,191 sustainability assessments that were determined the measurements of the individual sustainability criteria vary and are in some cases even negatively correlated. Nevertheless, it was still possible to differentiate sustainably managed wineries from others in all of the Austrian wine producing areas. In our approach, a specifically developed online tool can calculate the expression of ecological, economic and social sustainability and show the effects in a spider diagram in the form of a traffic light rating system. Moreover, an algorithm suggests adequately which quality improvements can be achieved. If part of the management system is changed the online tool will show the positive and negative sustainability effects.

  3. The accreditation of vocational assessment areas: Proposed standard statement and measurement criteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susan, Beukes.

    Full Text Available Vocational Rehabilitation Programmes managed by occupational therapists and the emphasis placed on continuous quality improvement in service delivery, resulted in the question: "How can occupational therapists ensure that the quality of vocational assessment services delivered to clients are of an a [...] cceptable standard?" This study aimed to address the question by developing a standard statement and measurement criteria for the assessment of work abilities of clients using the Donabedian approach for setting standards of practice. Two rounds of questionnaires, using a Delphi survey method, resulted in the formulation of a standard statement and measurement criteria for the Structure, Process and Outcome of work assessment areas by which the work abilities of clients are assessed. The standard statement and the accompanying measurement criteria set the basic standards for quality assurance and can contribute to the implementation of continuous quality improvement processes in vocational assessment areas that may result in the accreditation of vocational rehabilitation programmes managed by occupational therapists.

  4. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production such as erosion, biodiversity, or water quality impacts worldwide and thereby complement existing metrics assessing global EIs such as GHG emissions.

  5. Antimicrobial activity assessment of textiles : standard methods comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Eva Patr??cia Paiva Santos; Magalh??es, L??cia; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Ros??rio

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial fabrics are increasingly important in a great variety of applications and thus several standard methods to evaluate their efficiency have been developed. However, there is no consensus on the most adequate method to be used. Therefore, aim of this work was to compare the practical applicability of the best known standards: AATCC 147, ISO 20645:2004, AATCC:100 and JIS L 1902. Four samples, with different amounts of antimicrobial agents, were used. It was tested 3 qualitative meth...

  6. Environmental life cycle assessment of garment production at a company in India

    OpenAIRE

    Verdenius, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a record amount of apparel fibres was consumed, with increasing demand from developing nations. Over the life cycle of textile production and consumption however, numerous environmental impacts occur. Since the International Organisation for Standardization developed the first methodological framework, environmental life cycle assessment has become an important tool to comprehensively evaluate impacts of production and consumption. By conducting an environmental life cycle assessment...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of...

  9. Standardization of marketed Kumariasava--an Ayurvedic Aloe vera product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamthuruthy, A T; Shah, C R; Khan, T A; Tatke, P A; Gabhe, S Y

    2005-04-29

    Kumariasava is a marketed ayurvedic formulation containing Aloe vera as one of the main ingredients. Present study aims to standardize Kumariasava based upon chromatographic and spectral studies. Various extracts of Kumariasava have been prepared and evaluated. Chloroform extract indicated presence of three well-resolved fluorescent components. Spectral data of these three fractions (III-V) have been reported as a valuable analytical tool for routine standardization of Kumariasava. Fraction V indicated presence of anthraquinones, which is reported as the main constituent of aloe, namely aloin. Hence, isolation and evaluation of aloin has been undertaken. Aloin can be used as possible marker compound for standardization of Kumariasava. PMID:15862670

  10. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

  11. CDER Risk Assessment Exercise to Evaluate Potential Risks from the Use of Nanomaterials in Drug Products

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Celia N.; Tyner, Katherine M; Velazquez, Lydia; Hyams, Kenneth C; Jacobs, Abigail; Shaw, Arthur B.; Jiang, Wenlei; Lionberger, Robert; Hinderling, Peter; Kong, Yoon; Brown, Paul C.; Ghosh, Tapash; Strasinger, Caroline; Suarez-Sharp, Sandra; Henry, Don

    2013-01-01

    The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration was established to assess the possible impact of nanotechnology on drug products. The group is in the process of performing risk assessment and management exercises. The task of the working group is to identify areas where CDER may need to optimize its review practices and to develop standards to ensure review consistency for drug applica...

  12. Standards Initiatives for Software Product Line Engineering and Management within the International Organization for Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Käkölä, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Software product line engineering is an established methodology for fast and effective development of software-intensive systems and services. To reap maximum benefits from the methodology, businesses typically need to implement coordinated changes in development methodologies, tools, product architectures, organizational designs, and business models. Product lines are developed in complex international software ecosystems, but there is no coordinated set of interna...

  13. 75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...trade classifications and lumber sizes for yard, structural, factory/shop use: Classification, measurement, grading and grade-marking...Conformity/vps.cfm. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David F. Alderman, Standards Services Division, telephone:...

  14. 77 FR 23250 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee.... SUMMARY: Section 3003(b)(3) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule for the assessment of policy recommendations developed by the...

  15. 76 FR 25355 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee.... SUMMARY: Section 3003(b)(3) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule for the assessment of policy recommendations developed by the...

  16. 78 FR 29134 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee.... SUMMARY: Section 3003(b)(3) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates that the HIT Standards Committee develop a schedule for the assessment of policy recommendations developed by the...

  17. Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing...

  18. Alignment of Standards, Assessment and Instruction: Implications for English Language Learners in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic…

  19. 7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis to determine the plant pest risks associated with each requested importation in order to determine... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. 319.40-11... Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-11 Plant pest risk assessment standards. When evaluating a request...

  20. Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. ??????????????????? Standards-Based Assessments for 12-Year Basic Education in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??? Yao-Ting Sung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Taiwan officially implemented 12-Year Basic Education. Entrance examinations and classroom assessments are one of the keys to the success of this new program. Because thousands of Taiwanese children will be affected, how to help the program succeed deserves scrutiny. In recent years, many developed nations have used standards-based assessment to enhance their educational programs. Standards-based assessment, therefore, could potentially be advantageous for Taiwan as well. In this study, the implications of broadly applying standards-based assessment were investigated by exploring its effect on knowledge diversity, scholastic ability, and academic pressure among junior high school students.

  2. 78 FR 70938 - Draft Guidelines; Product Environmental Performance Standards and Ecolabels for Voluntary Use in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...consistent approach to using non-governmental product environmental performance...more consistently utilizing non-governmental product environmental performance...reaffirms Federal agency use of non-governmental standards in...

  3. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    Reviews the scientific background for the impact assessment phase of the EDIP methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) covering the impact categories: Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, photochemical ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, human toxicity...

  4. Associated Production for the Standard Model Higgs at CDF

    OpenAIRE

    CDF Collaboration; Bortoletto, D.

    2007-01-01

    We report the latest result for the search for the standard model higgs produced in association with a W and a Z boson at CDF. The results include about 1 to 1.7 fb-1 of data collected by CDF in run II of the Tevatron. Novel analysis techniques have been developed to enhance the sensitivity of these searches.

  5. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment and development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions discussed are taken from Section 5 of Topical Issue Paper: Risk Informed Decision Making. Is there sufficient guidance for the preparation of high quality PSAs? Is there a need for an international standard for PSAs? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to support 'risk informed' regulation, e.g. treatment of rare events, modelling of human failure, severe accident management, organizational factors? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to model new reactor designs that are more dependent on passive safety features? How is it possible to ensure that operators are in a position to develop, use and maintain living PSAs and risk/safety monitors to support risk informed' decisions? What actions should be taken by the IAEA to support the introduction of 'risk informed' decision making, e.g. as related to the areas of the development of international standards, harmonization of criteria, compilation and dissemination of experience, and education and training?

  7. Assessing the Value of Coding Standards: An Empirical Study:

    OpenAIRE

    Boogerd C.; Moonen L.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: ICSM 2008 - IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, 28 September-4 October 2008; doi:10.1109/ICSM.2008.4658076 In spite of the widespread use of coding standards and tools enforcing their rules, there is little empirical evidence supporting the intuition that they prevent the introduction of faults in software. Not only can compliance with a set of rules having little impact on the number of faults be considered wasted effort, but it can actu...

  8. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  9. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S.; YACH, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliverie...

  10. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

  11. NODC Standard Product: World ocean database 2005 (NODC Accession 0099241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database 2005 (WOD05) DVD contains data, documentation, programs, and utilities for the latest release of this product. Data include 7.9 million...

  12. 77 FR 7547 - Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... established energy conservation standards for over 40 classes of residential refrigeration products. See 76 FR... standards. The new standards became effective on January 1, 1993. 54 FR 47916. Subsequently, DOE determined... service, and (3) chest freezers and all other freezers. 55 FR 42845. DOE updated the performance...

  13. CAATS--Comprehensive Assessments Aligned with Teacher Standards: A Five Step Design Model for Assessing Teachers Validly and Reliably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Judy R.; Lang, William Steve

    2005-01-01

    NCATE (2002) requires the measurement of knowledge, skills, and dispositions as part of its accreditation requirements for teacher education programs (Standard 1) and the use of unit assessment systems to aggregate and analyse data with a view toward program improvement (Standard 2). Data must indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and…

  14. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... ore processing and production. See 75 FR 22471. Because EPA lacked emissions information on mercury... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category; and... and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  16. Distance Education Assessment Infrastructure and Process Design Based on International Standard 23988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is an important part of distance education (DE). As class sizes get larger and workloads increase, the IT infrastructure and processes used for DE assessments become more of an issue. Using the BS ISO/IEC 23988:2007 Standard for the use of technology in the delivery of assessments as a guide, this paper describes a rational approach to…

  17. Setting Performance Standards for the VAL-ED: Assessment of Principal Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Goldring, Ellen; Elliott, Stephen; Murphy, Joseph; Polikoff, Morgan; Cravens, Xiu

    2008-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360 assessment of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. The instrument was designed to provide formative and summative assessment to principals on the leadership behaviors most important to student learning. The purpose of this report is to describe the standard-setting…

  18. Assessment of Usability Benchmarks: Combining Standardized Scales with Specific Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bettina Linek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usability of Web sites and online services is of rising importance. When creating a completely new Web site, qualitative data are adequate for identifying the most usability problems. However, changes of an existing Web site should be evaluated by a quantitative benchmarking process. The proposed paper describes the creation of a questionnaire that allows a quantitative usability benchmarking, i.e. a direct comparison of the different versions of a Web site and an orientation on general standards of usability. The questionnaire is also open for qualitative data. The methodology will be explained by the digital library services of the ZBW.

  19. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  20. Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Filippini; Elisa Marraccini; Sylvie Lardon; Enrico Bonari

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (b...

  1. Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Remac

    2013-01-01

    Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal...

  2. Wolbachia detection: an assessment of standard PCR protocols.

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, P. M.; Mialdea, G.; Reiss, D.; Sagot, Marie-France; Charlat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia is a large monophyletic genus of intracellular bacteria, traditionally detected using PCR assays. Its considerable phylogenetic diversity and impact on arthropods and nematodes make it urgent to assess the efficiency of these screening protocols. The sensitivity and range of commonly used PCR primers and of a new set of 16S primers were evaluated on a wide range of hosts and Wolbachia strains. We show that certain primer sets are significantly more efficient than others but that no ...

  3. An overview of failure assessment methods in codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the assessment of the integrity of engineering structures containing crack-like flaws, in the absence of effects of creep at elevated temperatures (see volume 5) and of environment (see volume 6). Key methods are extensively reviewed and background information as well as validation is given. However, it should be kept in mind that for actual detailed assessments the relevant documents have to be consulted. In classical engineering design, an applied stress is compared with the appropriate material resistance expressed in terms of a limit stress, such as the yield strength or fatigue endurance limit. As long as the material resistance exceeds the applied stress, integrity of the component is assured. It is implicitly assumed that the component is defect-free but design margins provide some protection against defects. Modern design and operation philosophies, however, take explicit account of the possible presence of defects in engineering components. Such defects may arise from fabrication, e.g., during casting, welding, or forming processes, or may develop during operation. They may extend during operation and eventually lead to failure, which in the ideal case occurs beyond the design life of the component. Failure assessment methods are based upon the behavior of sharp cracks in structures, and for this reason all flaws or defects found in structures have to be treated as if they are sharp planar cracks. Hence the terms flaw or defect should be regarded as being interchangeable with the term crack throughout this volume. (orig.)

  4. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  6. Standardization and Assessment of Preformulation Parameters of Rasayana Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasayana tablet is a polyherbal preparation recommended as a tonic. It contains Amla, Gokhru and Galo in equal proportion. This preparation is generally marketed in the form of churna and tablet with several problems in weight hardness, disintegration time and friability. The present work is based on the Standardization of individual ingredients and formulation of Rasayana tablets with improved formulation parameters in order to compare it with the marketed formulation. Pharmacognostical parameters were also checked for individual crude drugs and marketed tablets like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying and powder microscopy. The preformulation parameters like bulk density, tap density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose were also checked for laboratory granules. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using sucrose (55 % solution and starch (20 % solution as binder. The designed formulations were evaluated for thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The designed formulation was in conformity to the properties evaluated for the tablets and is discussed in detail.

  7. Needs assessment of enteral nutrition support products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, R V; Rupp, J W; Chambers, J F

    1985-11-01

    An opinion survey of San Diego hospital health care professionals who use enteral nutrition products for patient care identified cost as an important factor but indicated that quality control, special nutrition features, and wide application of use were even more important product characteristics considered prior to purchase. There was general agreement that customer service, along with volume discounts, was a crucial aspect of successful marketing. The need for local availability of products was also stressed repeatedly. The importance of high-cost product promotions by vendors was downplayed. Health professionals want more nutrition products with specialized compositional profiles (e.g., low or high protein, low sodium, and gluten- and lactose-free), improved flavor, and convenient single-serving packaging. PMID:3932503

  8. Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afshari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA, a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157 was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran. The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

  9. Assessing Forest Production Using Terrestrial Monitoring Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert Hasenauer; Eastaugh, Chris S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessments of forest biomass are becoming an increasingly important aspect of natural resource management. Besides their use in sustainable resource usage decisions, a growing focus on the carbon sequestration potential of forests means that assessment issues are becoming important beyond the forest sector. Broad scale inventories provide much-needed information, but interpretation of growth from successive measurements is not trivial. Even using the same data, various interpretatio...

  10. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  11. Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Agnew

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students), and low socio-economi...

  12. Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

  13. Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

  14. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahir, Katayon

    2007-01-01

    This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

  16. 42 CFR 493.1239 - Standard: General laboratory systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: General laboratory systems quality... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System... quality assessment. (a) The laboratory must establish and follow written policies and procedures for...

  17. External Peer Review of Assessment: An Effective Approach to Verifying Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue; Hudson, Jane; den Outer, Birgit; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    There is growing international concern to regulate and assure standards in higher education. External peer review of assessment, often called external examining, is a well-established approach to assuring standards. Australian higher education is one of several systems without a history of external examining for undergraduate programmes that is…

  18. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  19. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products... COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  20. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  1. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated

  2. Standardization of Penile Plethysmography Testing in Assessment of Problematic Sexual Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Fedoroff, J Paul; Stewart, Hannah; Dwyer, R Gregg; Burke, William

    2015-09-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is an objective measure of sexual arousal for men, commonly used to assess sexual arousal to both abnormal (i.e., paraphilic) and normal stimuli. While PPG has become a standard measure in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic interests in both Canada and the United States, there is a lack of standardization of stimulus sets and interpretation of results between sites. The current article critically reviews the current state of the art while highlighting clinical and research efforts that may be undertaken in an attempt to reduce issues arising from lack of standardization across sites. Types and themes of stimulus sets, assessment apparatuses, laboratory preparation, and testing procedures are discussed. The continued development of standardized testing protocol and procedures across multiple international sites continues to be encouraged to promote unified PPG administration and interpretation, thus further enhancing the practical utility of the measurements and decreasing inter-rater discrepancies and error. PMID:26350584

  3. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...

  4. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Atlas 1994 (11 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observed and standard level profile data (along with quality control flags) used in the production of these atlases were made available in a World Ocean Atlas 1994...

  5. GHG emissions of green coffee production : toward a standard methodology for carbon footprinting : report

    OpenAIRE

    Sevenster, M.; Verhagen, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the scope for product specific rules for carbon footprinting of (green) coffee is investigated and a proposal is drafted for further work toward actual definition and implementation of such a standard.

  6. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  7. Risk assessment of topically applied products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model co...

  8. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts. PMID:26024722

  9. Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristics to the ISO 1...

  10. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized.

  11. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for ches...

  12. 40 CFR 63.825 - Standards: Product and packaging rotogravure and wide-web flexographic printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rotogravure and wide-web flexographic printing. 63.825 Section 63.825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for the Printing and Publishing Industry § 63.825 Standards: Product and packaging rotogravure and wide-web flexographic printing. (a)...

  13. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...- regulatory approaches to supplant or augment energy conservation standards in order to improve the energy...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC06 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  14. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... consider new and amended energy conservation standards for products included in the definition of general... Framework Document that details the analytical approach and preliminary scope of coverage for the...

  15. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... meeting and availability of the Framework Document in the Federal Register (78 FR 16443) to make available and invite comments on the Framework Document regarding energy conservation standards for...

  16. 78 FR 64067 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...Pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must prescribe energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnace fans. EPCA requires DOE to determine whether such standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and......

  17. Quality control and quality standards for the production of bone allografts in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a rapid progress of tissue banking especially Bone Banking in China, In order to strengthen the control on medical devices, Ministry of Public Health (MPH) issued the 'Regulation on Supervision of Critical Medical Devices, MPH Decree No. 54' in 1997. The SPTB was requested to submit new application for the approval of production and providing of tissue allografts. The needed documents are clinical reports, package insert, quality standards of product, Quality System Regulation (QSR) and audit report. Quality System Regulation document adopted the GMP standard for medical devices of FDA, US (21 CFR 620-1997). SPTB will amend the existed Quality Manual to suit the requirement of QSR. Referring to the AATB Standards, SPTB established 'Technical Standards' for Tissue Banking and was approved by the local government, which will be the supplement of the submitted QSR document. Considering the need of market control, MPH requested to submit a 'Quality Standard of Product' and the method of inspection. SPTB has completed such standards for final inspection of bone products, which includes the test for residual water, microbiology, bone species, colour and structure. In addition, the Tissue Bank has completed standards for in process inspection, which includes residual blood, radiation sterilization, initial bioburden, package leakage and biomechanics. In-process inspection is important for the control of non-conforming final products to assure the safety and efficacy of bone grafts. Methods of in process inspection and final inspection are described and discussed in this paper

  18. Light-water-reactor fission-product data assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment seeks (1) to determine the most probable chemical compounds formed between fission products and actinides in urania fuels under normal and accident conditions and (2) to identify gaps in knowledge of these fission-product compounds. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop predictive capability about the behavior of fission products under normal and acident conditions. The relevant thermochemical data have been organized by compound type, the chemical stability of resultant compounds determined, and data uncertainty evaluated. The assessment focused on fission-product and actinide oxides, halides, tellurides, and hydroxides. Free energy equations are given for those compounds for which data were available

  19. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition : Some pitfalls for the coordination of product standards under imperfect competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the opportunity to start export sales. In contrast, harmonization, in particular the prospect that one’s own national (but not the foreign) standard becomes the only globally accepted standard, opens the foreign market without balancing entry at home. We study these scenarios in a reduced form lobby game with two countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition.

  20. A visitor-focused assessment of new product launch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, F.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the needs and wants of consumers in the process of new product development has been recognized as an essential aspect of preparing effective marketing strategies for the success of business. The new product development strategy has now moved into Consumer-Driven Innovation (CDI...... in a new product development process and reinvent the products by providing ideas and suggestions with their own creative insights. More specifically, using data collected from a trip diary and an online survey with 273 respondents, this article examines visitor assessment on a newly launched product......), which not only asks consumers about their needs and wants but actually involves them in the product design, promotion, and even assessment processes. Informed by the new concept of CDI, this study aims at identifying to what extent visitors as tourism product consumers and co-producers can be involved...

  1. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M.

    2015-02-01

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel-oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel-methanol samples, respectively.

  2. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... proposed rule (76 FR 78872). The comment period for the mineral wool production proposed rule was not... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ90 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral... Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a...

  3. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... CFR Parts 1728 and 1755 Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural... specifications for wood poles, stubs and anchor logs, wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers and pole keys, and for quality control and inspection of timber products. The Agency also...

  4. An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether…

  5. 78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... apply to products manufactured on or after April 16, 2015. 75 FR 20112. The amended energy conservation...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC78 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  6. Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

  7. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm...... environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized.......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the...

  8. NPP instrumentation and control systems safety standardization and assessment (4): principles of assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the fourth of the series articles to devoted to NPP instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. The article contains the following: basic principles of safety assessment; assessment criteria; planning and execution order; the scope and requirements to the documents grounding the safety of I and C systems and their components

  9. Standards-based Assessment of Development Toolchains in Safety-Critical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Szatmári, Zoltán

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the risks of software design failures, the software development processes are more and more subject to regulations fixed in (domain-specific) standards that define criteria for the selection of techniques and measures. In this paper we propose a method for the assessment of development processes and toolchains. The tasks and tools in the development process are modelled and then classified using an ontology that is constructed on the basis of the standard, and a reasoning tool is ap...

  10. [Risk assessment of nanoparticles in consumer products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, S

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials are not just used in various areas of scientific research, but are increasingly found in consumer products. Particularly the cosmetic and textile industries, as well as the medical branch benefit from the specific chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). However, the knowledge base concerning the potential health hazards that nanomaterials hold for humans is far from complete. NPs mainly enter the organism via the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract, where they can accumulate. Transcutaneous penetration is most unlikely in the case of healthy skin. Chronic inflammatory reactions of the airways are particularly relevant in the context of potential risks to human health. Evidence for a geno- and cytotoxic potential of some of the most frequently used NPs is available from cell culture and animal experiments. Therefore, the risk of NP-induced cancerogenesis cannot be ruled out. Currently available nanotoxicological data is partly contradictory, due to differing characteristics of the tested substances and variable experimental settings. Long-term studies using continuous NP exposure in consumer-relevant dosages are needed. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of NP-induced toxicity have to be elucidated in detail. PMID:24916351

  11. Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat under Smallholders Production System

    OpenAIRE

    A Priyono; Akhmad Sodiq; Tawfik ES

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic) factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female), type of ...

  12. Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses

  13. The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Heneghan, C.; Howick, J; O'Neill, B.; Gill, PJ; Lasserson, DS; Cohen, D.; DAVIS, R.; Ward, A.; Smith, A.; Jones, G.(Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK); THOMPSON, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the extent and nature of claims regarding improved sports performance made by advertisers for a broad range of sports-related products, and the quality of the evidence on which these claims are based. METHODS: The authors analysed magazine adverts and associated websites of a broad range of sports products. The authors searched for references supporting the performance and/or recovery claims of these products. The authors critically appraised the methods in the retrieved...

  14. A visitor-focused assessment of new product launch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, F.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the needs and wants of consumers in the process of new product development has been recognized as an essential aspect of preparing effective marketing strategies for the success of business. The new product development strategy has now moved into Consumer-Driven Innovation (CDI), which not only asks consumers about their needs and wants but actually involves them in the product design, promotion, and even assessment processes. Informed by the new concept of CDI, this study aims at ...

  15. Assessing Quality of Data Standards: Framework and Illustration Using XBRL GAAP Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Harris

    The primary purpose of data standards or metadata schemas is to improve the interoperability of data created by multiple standard users. Given the high cost of developing data standards, it is desirable to assess the quality of data standards. We develop a set of metrics and a framework for assessing data standard quality. The metrics include completeness and relevancy. Standard quality can also be indirectly measured by assessing interoperability of data instances. We evaluate the framework using data from the financial sector: the XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) taxonomy and US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings produced using the taxonomy by approximately 500 companies. The results show that the framework is useful and effective. Our analysis also reveals quality issues of the GAAP taxonomy and provides useful feedback to taxonomy users. The SEC has mandated that all publicly listed companies must submit their filings using XBRL. Our findings are timely and have practical implications that will ultimately help improve the quality of financial data.

  16. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We need well-founded means of determining whether software is t for use in safety-critical applications. While software in industries such as aviation has an excellent safety record, the fact that software aws have contributed to deaths illustrates the need for justi ably high con dence in software. It is often argued that software is t for safety-critical use because it conforms to a standard for software in safety-critical systems. But little is known about whether such standards `work.' Reliance upon a standard without knowing whether it works is an experiment; without collecting data to assess the standard, this experiment is unplanned. This paper reports on a workshop intended to explore how standards could practicably be assessed. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Ecacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software (AESSCS) was held on 13 May 2014 in conjunction with the European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). We summarize and elaborate on the workshop's discussion of the topic, including both the presented positions and the dialogue that ensued.

  17. Assignment of mental health diagnoses and severity :effectiveness and reliability of online standardized assessment instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Brøndbo, Per Håkan

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, child psychiatry has been a focus of the Norwegian government's plan to improve mental health care. Psychiatric assessment of children and adolescents is more complex than that of adults, and rating scales and diagnostic instruments have become increasingly important tools in both research and clinical practice. This dissertation investigates standardized assessment instruments used in routine clinical practice to assign diagnoses and severity of mental health...

  18. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

  19. The Total Arsenic Concentrations of Aquatic Products and the Assessment of Arsenic Intake from Aquatic Products in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guang-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of aquatic products consumed by the resident to the daily dietary arsenic intakes of the residents of Guangzhou of Guangdong province in China. All aquatic products were sampled from supermarkets and terminal markets. Accuracy was assured using standard reference material (GBW08551 and recovery experiments. Total arsenic concentrations of aquatic products were determined after acid digestion by hydride generation atomic fluorescent spectrometry. A wide range of arsenic concentration (0.0075-1.2017 mg/kg was found among the various aquatic products, the mean arsenic concentration in aquatic production was 0.2022 mg/kg. The arsenic concentrations of various aquatic products groups were as follows: Crustacean (0.3176±0.2324 mg/kg >Mollusk fish (0.1979±0.2013 mg/k >Saltwater fish (0.1558±0.1119 mg/kg >Freshwater fish (0.1374±0.0970 mg/kg. The range of daily dietary arsenic intake of various residents through the consumption of aquatic products was 5.96-11.85 µg/day. The freshwater fish had the largest contribution to the daily dietary arsenic intakes from aquatic products in all type aquatic products, accounted for around 50%.

  20. Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Furlan, Elisabetta; Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

  1. Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Buehler, Stephan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Furlan, Elisabetta, E-mail: efurlan@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-08-19

    We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

  2. Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan E.; Anastasiou, C.; Buehler, S.; Herzog, F.; Lazopoulos, A.

    2011-07-12

    We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

  3. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    quality levels in favour of the small country. Furthermore, in case of implementation of a minimum quality standard, which forces the low quality producer from the small country to increase the quality level, the producer from the large country reacts strategically by lowering the quality level of his...... standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model. Keywords: Vertical product differentiation; horizontal product differentiation; market integration; duopoly; minimum quality standard. JEL: F12, F13, F14.......This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels in a...

  4. Bioequivalence for locally acting nasal spray and nasal aerosol products: standard development and generic approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing V; Jin, Feiyan; Lee, Sau L; Bai, Tao; Chowdhury, Badrul; Caramenico, Hoainhon T; Conner, Dale P

    2013-07-01

    Demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for nasal spray/aerosol products for local action has been very challenging because the relationship between the drug in systemic circulation and the drug reaching the nasal site of action has not been well established. Thus, the current BE standard for these drug/device combination products is based on a weight-of-evidence approach, which contains three major elements: equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delivery. In addition, formulation sameness and device similarity are evidences to support BE. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the scientific rationale of the current BE standard and their development history for nasal spray/aerosol products, as well as the Food and Drug Administration's review and approval status of generic nasal sprays/aerosols with the application of these BE standard. PMID:23686396

  5. Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hollenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

  6. Developing Product Quality Control for Standardization of Tsetse Mass Production. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) provides a mechanism within which SIT will be one of the major components of an integrated areawide approach to the establishment of tsetse fly-free areas. Currently world-wide tsetse production is 1/40 of the projected requirement in 2006. To achieve this objective it is essential that quality control (QC) measures suitable for the expanded production be in place. Therefore, improved QC methodology has become a top priority. Improvements in QC methodology will help to ensure the attainment of these production goals and improve quality of rearing, minimize production costs and generate trained QC and production staff required to successfully produce flies and monitor their quality and suitability for release. The proposed CRP is designed to address these issues.

  7. Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

  8. Checklist Content on a Standardized Patient Assessment: An Ex Post Facto Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, John R.; van Zanten, Marta; de Champlain, Andre; Hawkins, Richard E.; Peitzman, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    While checklists are often used to score standardized patient based clinical assessments, little research has focused on issues related to their development or the level of agreement with respect to the importance of specific items. Five physicians independently reviewed checklists from 11 simulation scenarios that were part of the former…

  9. Training and Validation of Standardized Patients for Unannounced Assessment of Physicians' Management of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mandana; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami, A.; Kashani, A. Sabouri; Parikh, Sagar; Alaeddini, F.; Arbabi, Mohammad; Wahlstrom, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Standardized patients (SPs) have been developed to measure practitioner performance in actual practice settings, but results have not been fully validated for psychiatric disorders. This study describes the process of creating reliable and valid SPs for unannounced assessment of general-practitioners' management of depression disorders…

  10. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  11. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  12. Study on Design and Implementation of JAVA Programming Procedural Assessment Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Xu; Hua, Ma; Xiujuan, Wang; Jing, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional JAVA course examination is just a list of questions from which we cannot know students' skills of programming. According to the eight abilities in curriculum objectives, we designed an assessment standard of JAVA programming course that is based on employment orientation and apply it to practical teaching to check the teaching…

  13. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…

  14. Validity: Applying Current Concepts and Standards to Gynecologic Surgery Performance Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClaire, Edgar L.; Nihira, Mikio A.; Hardré, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Validity is critical for meaningful assessment of surgical competency. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, validation involves the integration of data from well-defined classifications of evidence. In the authoritative framework, data from all classifications support construct validity claims. The two aims of this…

  15. Checklist Content on a Standardized Patient Assessment: An Ex Post Facto Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, John R.; van Zanten, Marta; de Champlain, Andre; Hawkins, Richard E.; Peitzman, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    While checklists are often used to score standardized patient based clinical assessments, little research has focused on issues related to their development or the level of agreement with respect to the importance of specific items. Five physicians independently reviewed checklists from 11 simulation scenarios that were part of the former…

  16. Setting Proficiency Standards for School Leadership Assessment: An Examination of Cut Score Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Xiu Chen; Goldring, Ellen B.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation informs professional development and helps school personnel improve student learning. Although psychometric literature indicates that a rational, sound, and coherent standard-setting process adds to the credibility of an assessment, few studies have empirically examined the decision-making process. This article…

  17. Enhancing Standardized Assessment Scores and Academic Performance through Learning-Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Regina A.

    2006-01-01

    Many educators contend that standardized assessments coerce instructors into teaching-to-the-test, a method which they claim promotes rote learning, limits academic growth and marginalizes at-risk learners. However, this researcher asserts that when underachieving developmental community college students are instructed with techniques congruent…

  18. Inventory of standards and conventions used for the generation of IAG/GGOS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, D.; Gruber, T.; Gerstl, M.; Hugentobler, U.; Sanchez, L.; Heinkelmann, R.; Steigenberger, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Products and Standards (BPS), a redefinition of the former Bureau for Standards and Conventions (BSC), supports the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) in its goal to obtain geodetic products of highest accuracy and consistency. In order to fully benefit from the ongoing technological improvements of the observing systems contributing to GGOS, it is essential that the analysis of the precise space geodetic observations is based on the definition of common standards and conventions and a unique representation and parameterization of the relevant quantities. This is of crucial importance for the establishment of highly accurate and consistent geodetic reference frames, as the basis for a reliable monitoring of the time-varying shape, rotation and gravity field of the Earth.A major focus was on the compilation of an inventory based on the evaluation of the standards and conventions currently in use by the IAG Services and their contributing analysis centres and for the generation of geometric and gravimetric products, such as geodetic reference frames, Earth orientation parameters, gravity field models and satellite orbits. This product-based inventory presents the current status concerning standards and conventions, indicating that there are several inconsistencies. As a major outcome of this inventory, the BPS will provide recommendations on how to resolve inconsistencies and gaps. In this presention we will briefly report on the mentioned activities and we summarize the most important findings.

  19. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  20. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  1. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle...... assessment (LCA), which main objective is determining the eco-efficiency of a product system with limited focus on its structure. The question is whether a product system which structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will result in being not only inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when...... assessed by means of LCA. This study proposes a theoretical modelling approach to compare vulnerable and resilient product systems within the framework of LCA, consisting of assessment of disturbance and system expansion. Examples are provided where the theory is made operational. The structure of a...

  2. Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

  3. 77 FR 45242 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...the Danny Keysar Child Product Safety Notification...standards for durable infant or toddler products...the CPSA. Because infant bath seats and full-size cribs are children's products, they...reference, Imports, Infants and children, Law...

  4. Validation of the Standard Method for Assessing Flicker From Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzon, Braulio; SØrensen, Poul Ejnar

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the validity of the standard method in IEC 61400-21 for assessing the flicker emission from multiple wind turbines. The standard method is based on testing a single wind turbine and then using the results of this test to assess the flicker emission from a number of wind turbines. This study is based on the data from two wind farms, one with fixed-speed wind turbines and one with variable-speed wind turbines. The data are: a type test at the terminals of a wind turbine, and measurements at the connection of a collection line to the substation. The type test data are used to assess the flicker emission at the collection line; this assessment is then compared to the actual measurements in order to study the accuracy of the estimation. It was observed in both wind farms, that the assessment based on the standard method is statistically conservative compared to the measurements. The reason for this is the statistical characteristics of flicker emission.

  5. New Dental Accreditation Standard on Critical Thinking: A Call for Learning Models, Outcomes, Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, David C; Williams, John N; Baughman, Pauletta Gay; Roesch, Darren M; Feldman, Cecile A

    2015-10-01

    This opinion article applauds the recent introduction of a new dental accreditation standard addressing critical thinking and problem-solving, but expresses a need for additional means for dental schools to demonstrate they are meeting the new standard because articulated outcomes, learning models, and assessments of competence are still being developed. Validated, research-based learning models are needed to define reference points against which schools can design and assess the education they provide to their students. This article presents one possible learning model for this purpose and calls for national experts from within and outside dental education to develop models that will help schools define outcomes and assess performance in educating their students to become practitioners who are effective critical thinkers and problem-solvers. PMID:26427773

  6. Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment of Large Scale Hydrogen Production Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Hertwich, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    An environmental assessment of three designs for a large-scale hydrogen production facility is performed using a Hybrid Life Cycle Assesment approach. The operational adaption of the hybrid framework for this case is shown in detail. The inventory establishment and assembly is explained. The impact assessment is performed by applying midpoint environmental theme indicators. The resulting impact potentials and their origins are presented and discussed for all three cases and for each impact ca...

  7. Multidimensional sustainability assessment of solar products: Educating engineers and designers:

    OpenAIRE

    Flipsen, S.F.J.; Bakker, C.A.; Verwaal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008 the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at the TU Delft hosts the minor Sustainable Design Engineering. The minor has been highly useful as a platform to pilot new ways of teaching engineering for sustainable development. Instead of having students make life cycle assessments and introduce them to straightforward checklists to improve their product designs, we challenge our students to develop a critical understanding of sustainability and use multidimensional assessments. Sus...

  8. Radiation Safety Analysis In The NFEC For Assessing Possible Implementation Of The ICRP-60 Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety analysis of the 3 facilities in the nuclear fuel element center (NFEC) for assessing possible implementation of the ICRP-60 standard has been done. The analysis has covered the radiation dose received by workers, dose rate in the working area, surface contamination level, air contamination level and the level of radioactive gas release to the environment. The analysis has been based on BATAN regulation and ICRP-60 standard. The result of the analysis has showed that the highest radiation dose received has been found to be only around 15% of the set value in the ICRP-60 standard and only 6% of the set value in the BATAN regulation. Thus the ICRP-60 as radiation safety standard could be implemented without changing the laboratory design

  9. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible ...

  10. Bioequivalence for Locally Acting Nasal Spray and Nasal Aerosol Products: Standard Development and Generic Approval

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bing V.; Jin, Feiyan; Lee, Sau L.; Bai, Tao; Chowdhury, Badrul; Caramenico, Hoainhon T.; Conner, Dale P.

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for nasal spray/aerosol products for local action has been very challenging because the relationship between the drug in systemic circulation and the drug reaching the nasal site of action has not been well established. Thus, the current BE standard for these drug/device combination products is based on a weight-of-evidence approach, which contains three major elements: equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delive...

  11. An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Van Rikxoort, Henk; Zrust, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and implemented to maximize benefits for biodiversity conservation. PMID:25363833

  12. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  13. Product creativity assessment of innovations: considering the creative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in creativity research, while the role of consumer’s knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing inform...

  14. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle assessment (LCA), which main objective is determining the eco-efficiency of a product system with limited focus on its structure. The question is whether a product system which structure is improved or d...

  15. Summative and Formative Assessments in Mathematics Supporting the Goals of the Common Core Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Being proficient in mathematics involves having rich and connected mathematical knowledge, being a strategic and reflective thinker and problem solver, and having productive mathematical beliefs and dispositions. This broad set of mathematics goals is central to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. High-stakes testing often drives…

  16. United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency (LFA). The Evaluation and Assessment (E ampersand A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E ampersand A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC (with emphasis on the E ampersand A Division) is presented. The contents of the E ampersand A manual are briefly described as are future plans for expansion of this work

  17. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

    2009-12-15

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle. (author)

  18. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle.

  19. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle assessment (LCA), which main objective is determining the eco-efficiency of a product system with limited focus on its structure. The question is whether a product system which structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will result in being not only inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when assessed by means of LCA. This study proposes a theoretical modelling approach to compare vulnerable and resilient product systems within the framework of LCA, consisting of assessment of disturbance and system expansion. Examples are provided where the theory is made operational. The structure of a vulnerable product system changes under disturbance: some processes are constrained and others are made necessary. In a resilient product system the number and type of processes do not change under conditions of disturbance, because some redundant disturbance-preventing activities are included. If this modelling approach is applied, resilient product systems appear not necessarily less eco-efficient than their vulnerable counterparts. This goes against the intuitive idea that optimizing a system for efficiency only will necessarily allow achieving eco-efficiency as well. This modelling approach is then critically discussed.

  20. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  1. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Lind; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. Materials and methods: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants’ ALS- competence was assessed using the Advanced Life Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is con- ducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding resuscitation teaching issued by the university. Results: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of theparticipants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites.

  2. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  3. Human toxicity as a criterion in the environmental assessment of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wenzel, Henrik

    As part of a life cycle assessment methodology methods are developed for the semiquantitative screening and for the quantitative assessment of potential contributions to toxicity towards human beings through exposure in the environment to emissions occurring during the life cycle of a product. The...... assessment proceeds through the steps of classification, characterization, normalization and valuation. In the classification step attention is focused on intrinsic toxicity, low biodegradability and potential for bioconcentration as properties that predicpose a substance for ecotoxicity. No concrete values...... environment. The transfer efficiency is modelled in a standard scenario for indirect exposure of human beings through intake of fish, plants, meat and dairy products. The effect analysis consists in the determination of the highest oral dose or air concentration that is expected to cause no effects in human...

  4. Vegetation Health and Productivity Indicators for Sustained National Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. O.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment process is developing a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public. Implementing a 14 year record of Gross and Net Primary Productivity (GPP/NPP) derived from the NASA EOS MODIS satellite sensor we demonstrate how these products can serve as Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health National Climate Indicators for implementation in sustained National Climate Assessments. The NPP product combines MODIS vegetation data with daily global meteorology to calculate annual growth of all plant material at 1 sq. km resolution. NPP anomalies identify regions with above or below average plant growth that may result from climate fluctuations and can inform carbon source/sink dynamics, agricultural and forestry yield measures, and response to wildfire or drought conditions. The GPP product provides a high temporal resolution (8-day) metric of vegetation growth which can be used to monitor short-term vegetation response to extreme events and implemented to derive vegetation phenology metrics; growing season start, end, and length, which can elucidate land cover and regionally specific vegetation responses to a changing climate. The high spatial resolution GPP and NPP indicators can also inform and clarify responses seen from other proposed Pilot Indicators such as forest growth/productivity, land cover, crop production, and phenology. The GPP and NPP data are in continuous production and will be sustained into the future with the next generation satellite missions. The long-term Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health Indicators are ideal for use in sustained National Climate Assessments, providing regionally specific responses to a changing climate and complete coverage at the national scale.

  5. Influence of standardized activities on validity of Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y. N. Lindner, MSc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC is an observation-based clinical tool that evaluates ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand during bimanual activities. Two validity aspects were investigated: potential bias interaction between prosthesis users and activities performed during assessment, and potential bias interaction between activities and different user characteristics (sex or prosthetic side. Six activities were standardized for the ACMC. Upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis users (47 congenital, 11 acquired; 31 male, 27 female, average age 19.9 yr performed three standardized activities, each on one occasion. Bias-interaction analysis in the many-facet Rasch model identified inconsistent patterns in the interactions of individual users and activity facets and between activities and user characteristics. The standardized activities had no significant influence on measures of user ability. The activities functioned similarly across both sexes (p-value greater than or equal to 0.12 and across both prosthetic sides in persons with upper-limb reduction deficiency (p-value greater than or equal to 0.50 and persons with acquired amputation (p-value greater than or equal to 0.13. The results provide evidence for the validity of the ACMC across the standardized activities and support use of the ACMC in prosthesis users of both sexes and prosthetic sides. The newly standardized activities are recommended for future ACMC use.

  6. Improving pest risk assessment and management through the aid of geospatial information technology standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Rafoss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of geospatial information over the Internet for the management of risks from invasive alien species is an increasingly important service. The evolution of information technology standards for geospatial data is a key factor to simplify network publishing and exchange of maps and data. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C-geolocation specification is a recent addition that may prove useful for pest risk management. In this article we implement the W3C-geolocation specification and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC mapping standards in a Web browser application for smartphones and tablet computers to improve field surveys for alien invasive species. We report our first season field experiences using this tool for online mapping of plant disease outbreaks and host plant occurrence. It is expected that the improved field data collection tools will result in increased data availability and thereby new opportunities for risk assessment, because data-needs and availability are crucial for species distribution modelling and model-based forecasts of pest establishment potential. Finally, we close with a comment on the future potential of geospatial information standards to enhance the translation from data to decisions regarding pest risks, which should enable earlier detection of emerging risks as well as more robust projections of pest risks in novel areas. The forthcoming standard for processing of geospatial information, the Web Processing Standard (WPS, should open new technological capabilities both for automatic initiation and updating of risk assessment models based on new incoming data, and subsequent early warning.

  7. Double Higgs boson production in the Standard Model with extra scalar particles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhemchugov, E V

    2015-01-01

    Three extensions of the scalar sector of the Standard Model are considered: one extra isosinglet, one extra isotriplet, two extra isotriplets (the Georgi-Machacek model). Double Higgs boson production cross section is calculated in all these extensions. Bounds from electroweak precision observables, signal strength measurements and custodial symmetry violation are estimated.

  8. 76 FR 81903 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production'' is being extended for 22 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72508), is being extended for 22 days to... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ11 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  9. 76 FR 72769 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP), (54 FR 38044, September 14, 1989), described in the next...., 100-in-1 million]'' (54 FR 38045). In the second step of the process, the EPA sets the standard at a... considered acceptable.'' 54 FR 38045. We discussed the maximum individual lifetime cancer risk as being...

  10. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... the proposed rule published February 14, 2012, (77 FR 8576) is being extended for 14 days to April 13... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ40 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  11. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  12. Review of central exclusive production of the Higgs boson beyond the Standard Model.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taševský, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 29, ?. 28 (2014), "1446012-1"-"1446012-21". ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LHC * Higgs boson * central exclusive production * beyond Standard Model * forward detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.699, year: 2014

  13. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...EPA is proposing to add the gold mine ore processing and production area source category to the list of source categories subject to regulation under the hazardous air pollutant section of the Clean Air Act (CAA) due to their mercury emissions. EPA is also proposing national mercury emission standards for this category based on the emissions level of the best performing facilities which are......

  14. Production and decay of the standard model Higgs boson at LEP200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We collect and update theoretical predictions for the production rate and decay branching fractions of the Standard Model Higgs boson that will be relevant for the Higgs search at LEP200. We make full use of the present knowledge of radiative corrections. We estimate the systematics arising from theoretical and experimental uncertainties. (orig.)

  15. Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figy, Terrance [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Palmer, Sophy [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). IThP; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

  16. Production and decay of neutralinos in the nonminimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis after a presentation of the nonminimal supersymmetric standard model the lower mass limits for neutralinos and Higgs bosons are calculated. Then some typical scenarios for the study of the neutralino production and decay at LEP2 are constructed, for which the cross sections are calculated. (HSI)

  17. 76 FR 72507 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... to form carbon monoxide and to reduce the ores to base metal.\\5\\ The molten material (product and... Reporting Tool FR Federal Register gr/dscf grains per dry standard cubic foot HAP hazardous air pollutants... propensity to become particulate matter (PM)2.5. These benefits incorporate the conversion from...

  18. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building...

  19. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lucy deButts, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  20. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC88 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  1. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in reports

  2. Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadami Tsutsumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R Nakaoka, Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan. The scope of SC7 has been specified as 'Standardization for the general requirements and performance of tissue engineered medical products with the exclusion of gene therapy, transplantation and transfusion'.

  3. ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Renard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries’ advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries, which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.

  4. Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors)

  5. An update on GOSAT standard products at five-and-a-half years after the launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Masataka; Kawazoe, Fumie; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2014-11-01

    GOSAT has been operated more than 5.5 years after its launch on January 23, 2009. Receiving TANSO-FTS Level 1A/1B data and TANSO-CAI Level 1A data from JAXA (FTS: Fourier Transform Spectrometer; CAI: Cloud and Aerosol Imager, JAXA: Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has provided various kinds of Standard data products such as FTS SWIR Level 2 (XCO2 and XCH4: column concentrations of CO2 and CH4), FTS TIR Level 2 (vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 concentration), FTS Level 4A (global CO2 flux), FTS Level 4B (global CO2 distribution), CAI Level 1B/1B+, and CAI Level 2 (cloud flag). After the latest updates of FTS Level 1 products to V161.160 (Version 161.160) by JAXA in 2013, now FTS SWIR Level 2 products are available as V02.21 (Version 02.21) for the entire period from April 2009 to May 2014. In March 2014, FTS Level 4 products of CO2 (V02.02) were processed with FTS Level 2 (V02.21) for the period of June 2009 to October 2011. FTS Level 4 products of CH4 (V01.01) were newly added to the Standard products and are available for 2 years from June 2009. FTS TIR Level 2 products (V01.0x) were updated in August 2014 and delivered to general users for 2.5 years from January 2010. There were some minor changes in their data format. After improving product search functions with an interactive map operation in GUIG (GUIG: GOSAT User Interface Gateway), general users are able to find and download these Standard products for their concerning area much easily.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of a Single-Family Residence built to Passive House Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlstrøm, Oddbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Two complete cradle to grave life cycle assessments are conducted for the comparison of a house built after today?s building standard, TEK07, and a passive house built after the Norwegian Standard NS 3700:2010. Both houses are projected by the building company Nordbohus AS, and are to be constructed in Stord, on the west coast of Norway. The usable floor area, BRA, is 187 m2 for both houses, and a lifetime of 50 years is assumed. The houses are constructed with a wooden framework, insula...

  7. Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie

    2015-01-01

    Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering.

  8. Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie; Seppala, Susanna; Christensen, Ulla; Riisberg, Lone; Harrison, Scott James; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable......Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization...... also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to...

  9. PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used as an objective technical tool to evaluate the environmental consequences of a product, process, or activity holistically, across its entire life cycle. omplete LCA can be viewed as consisting of three complementary components (1) the i...

  10. Radiation safety of the population and agroindustrial production (on the problem of standardization of the radionuclide content in agricultural products)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper studies the important problems of the standardization of radionuclide content in foodstuffs and of the radionuclide content of the agricultural industry (soils, feeds, other subjects of the environment). The paper presents data on the annual dose equivalents of irradiation of a human being living at the contaminated territory. The basic concept provisions are substantiated to determine the permissible levels of the activity of feed stuffs and the contamination control levels for agricultural lands and products

  11. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  12. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula honey for assessing quality standards and commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amada B Pucciarelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the interest in the production and trading of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula honey in the province of Misiones, Argentina, in this work we assessed microbiological and physicochemical parameters in order to contribute to the elaboration of standards for quality control and promote commercialization. Results showed that yateí honey samples had significantly different microbiological and physicochemical characteristics in comparison to established quality standards for Apis mellifera honey. Thus, we observed that values for pH (3.72, glucose (19.01 g/100 g and fructose (23.74 g/100 g were lower than A. mellifera quality standards, while acidity (79.42 meq/kg, moisture (24%, and mould and yeast count (MY (3.02 log CFU/g were higher. The acid content was correlated with glucose (R²=0.75 and fructose (R²=0.68 content, and also with mould and yeast counts (R²=0.45 to a lesser extent. The incidence of microorganisms in yateí honey samples reached 42.85% and 39% for Clostridium sulfite-reducers and Bacillus spp., respectively. No C. botulinum or B. cereus cells were detected. Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. incidence was similar (ca. 7.14%, whereas Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected. We conclude that the microbiological and physicochemical properties of yateí honey are different from those of A. mellifera honey; hence, different quality standards could be implemented to promote its commercialization.

  13. Single top production at next-to-leading order in the Standard Model effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cen

    2016-01-01

    Single top production processes at hadron collider provide information on the relation between the top quark and the electroweak sector of the standard model. We compute the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the three main production channels: $t$-channel, $s$-channel and $tW$ associated production, in the standard model including operators up to dimension-six. The calculation can be matched to parton shower programs and can therefore be directly used in experimental analyses. The QCD corrections are found to significantly impact the extraction of the current limits on the operators, because both of an improved accuracy and a better precision of the theoretical predictions. In addition, the distributions of some of the key discriminating observables are modified in a nontrivial way, which could change the interpretation of measurements in terms of UV complete models.

  14. 24 CFR 200.949 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior insulated steel door systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA... INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.949 Building product standards and...

  15. From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack; Alting, Leo

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP) is...... to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the eco-efficiency of the industry. The role of industry in...... meeting the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is...

  16. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  17. Contribution to Risk Analysis of a Standard Brewery: Application of a Hygiene Assessment System Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, António; Salazar, Jairo; Pérez, Esteban; Sanjuán, Esther; Carrascosa, Conrado; Saavedra, Pedro; Millán, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    "Beer is a food product with a high consumption in Gran Canaria and the brewery industry is also present in this island. In order to carry out this study, it was designed a survey to assist in the assessment of risks from the facilities and infrastructures of the brewery, the raw materials used in the beer production and the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plan.

  18. Comparison of photographic and visual assessment of occlusal caries with histology as the reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Uriana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic performance for the detection of caries using photographs with an established visual examination method and histological sections as the reference standard. Methods 50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods, diagnoses were made at “caries into dentine” level. The teeth were histologically sectioned and the diagnostic decisions using visual and photographic assessment were compared to the histological reference standard. Inter- and intra- examiner reliability for the methods was assessed and weighted kappa values were calculated. Results The visual examination method had a median sensitivity value of 65.6% and a median specificity value of 82.4%. The photographic assessments method had a median sensitivity of 81.3% and a median specificity of 82.4%. Conclusions The photographic assessments method had a higher sensitivity for caries detection than the visual examination. The two methods had comparable specificities and good intra- and inter- examiner reliability.

  19. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mili?evi?

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  20. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and ?-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and ?-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and ?-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. PMID:26173853

  1. Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Norouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003–2007 using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01 in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

  2. Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Prigent, C.; Turk, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Tian, Y.; Furuzawa, F. A.; Masunaga, H.

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to intercompare four global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. The intercompared land emissivity products were generated over a 5-year period (2003-2007) using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), and WindSat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and a satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to changes in land surface conditions. Results show the existence of systematic differences among the products. Also, it was noticed that emissivity values in each product have similar frequency dependency over different land-cover types. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower than the rest of the products across various land-cover conditions which may be attributed to the 01:30/13:30 LT overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analyzed products was lowest (less than 0.01) in rain forest regions for all products and highest at northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed similar spatial distribution across the products, with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

  3. Standards in biological dosimetry: A requirement to perform an appropriate dose assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Every year, many countries perform a significant number of investigations based on biological radiation dose assessment to check suspected or true overexposure by irradiation of radiation workers and individuals of the general population. The scoring of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes has gradually become the "gold standard" for the biodosimetry-based assessment of accidental situations. Nevertheless, other "classical" biodosimetric methods such as micronuclei, prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) and FISH translocations are relevant in some exposure situations, also for surveillance of groups of populations at risk. Historical international intercomparison studies have shown discrepancies among dose-effect curves used to estimate doses from blood samples irradiated between 0 and 4Gy. Recent experimental work performed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has shown the impact of some blood harvesting parameters on the mitotic index, and consequently on the quality of dose assessment. Therefore, it was relevant to define the best Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) criteria to harmonize protocols among biodosimetry laboratories. Complementary with several editions of an IAEA technical manual, ISO standards were written with the view of considering the most used chromosome aberrations assays: dicentrics and micronuclei. An important feature of these standards is to address the organization of population triage and laboratories networking that would be required in case of a large nuclear event or malicious act involving radioactive material. These ISO standards are relevant and helpful to implement a coordinated response of several biodosimetry networks in Europe, Japan, Canada, and to support European programs such as MULTIBIODOSE and RENEB. A new important ISO standard on the use of FISH translocations in retrospective dosimetry is now being drafted. PMID:26520381

  4. Qualitative risk assessment from gluten in dairy products for population with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Pollak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available People with celiac disease represent susceptible population that can be cured only by “gluten-free” diet, while dairy products have been recognized as exceptionally recommended. Therefore, it is very important for dairy products not to contain gluten in concentrations that could be harmful for them. The aim of this research was to investigate risk exposure to gluten from dairy products for the population with celiac disease in the Republic of Croatia by usage of referent analytical methods and scientifically based methods of risk assessment. Total number of 19 subgroups of standard dairy products (n=40 and four subgroups of “gluten-free” dairy products (n=53 labelled with crossed cereal or quotation “glutenfree” and without quantity of gluten labelled were analysed by ELISA-R5 method. Adult population with celiac disease (n=57 was interweaved on eating habits, while intake of dairy products for infants and children was calculated based on recommended intakes and menus. The results have shown that number of standard dairy products that according to their nature should not contain gluten, as well as “gluten-free” dairy products contain certain amount of gluten that can be estimated in certain unfavourable scenarios and in susceptible subpopulations as risky to sick individuals. Dairy products represent very low risk to adult population with celiac disease and can be consumed in quantities that do not differ from the recommended quantities for healthy population. On the other side, dairy products for infants in the age from 6 to 12 months represent increased risk for infants with celiac disease and require implementation of risk management activities in order to reduce risk. Dairy products for infants and children from 1 to 6 years represent moderate risk depending on eating habits. The obtained results point out neediness of risk management methods implementation through information and education of population with celiac disease, as well as producers of dairy products.

  5. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

  6. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Burgoyne Louise; Shanks Andrew; Gaffney Robert; Walshe Nuala; Ryan C Anthony; Wiskin Connie M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in...

  7. A model standardized risk assessment protocol for use with hazardous waste sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, G. M.; Day, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a model standardized risk assessment protocol (SRAP) for use with hazardous waste sites. The proposed SRAP focuses on the degree and patterns of evidence that exist for a significant risk to human populations from exposure to a hazardous waste site. The SRAP was designed with at least four specific goals in mind: to organize the available scientific data on a specific site and to highlight important gaps in this knowledge; to facilitate rational, cost-effective decision ma...

  8. A standardized conjugation protocol to assess antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species

    OpenAIRE

    Lampkowska, J.; FELD, L; Monaghan, A.; Toomey, N.; Schjørring, S.; Jacobsen, B; Van der Voet, H.; Andersen, S R; Bolton, D; Aarts, H.J.M.; Krogfelt, K A; Wilcks, A; Bardowski, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAMbeta1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laboratory experiments involving five laboratories from different countries. The ultimate goal of the study was to assess the microbial potential of antibiotic resistance transfer among Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB...

  9. Development of EMPRO: a tool for the standardized assessment of patient-reported outcome measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Valderas, JM; Ferrer, M.; Mendívil, J; Garin, O.; Rajmil, L.; Herdman, M; Alonso, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to develop a tool for the standardized assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to assist the choice of instruments. METHODS: An expert panel adapted the eight attributes proposed by the Medical Outcomes Trust as evaluation review criteria, created items to evaluate them, and included a response scale for each item. A pilot test was designed to test the new tool's feasibility and to obtain preliminary information concerning its psychometric properties. Th...

  10. GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kandulski Arne; Peitz Ulrich; Mönkemüller Klaus; Neumann Helmut; Weigt Jochen; Malfertheiner Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD) have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD); pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40?mg) for 4?weeks in PPI naive patients...

  11. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. -- To effectively use toxicity testing data from lab tests with oils and chemically dispersed oils, researchers must follow standardized testing protocols

  12. Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Agnew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students, and low socio-economic status (SESstudents. The author pays particular attention to these groups and his analysis reveals some interestingresults: in accounting, the NCEA has not met expectations for these students. From 2004 to 2008, thenumber of low SES accounting students has dropped, as has the number of accounting standards entered andthe rates of achievement. Likewise, there has been no significant improvement in the academic performanceof Maori students taking accounting standards, while Pacific Island students have experienced a significantdecrease in achievement. The author also discusses how studying high school accounting impacts on tertiarylevel study and offers some future implications of this research.

  13. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Sergio Cueto; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es; García Alonso, J. Ignacio, E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online {sup 13}C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online {sup 13}C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of {sup 13}C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO{sub 2}, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards.

  14. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. PMID:21651724

  15. Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products

    OpenAIRE

    Sadami Tsutsumi

    2010-01-01

    Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products) has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R...

  16. Food and sustainability: do consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information on production standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, Carolien T; de Boer, Joop; Boersema, Jan J

    2007-07-01

    We tested how consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information about food production methods that may contribute to a more sustainable agriculture. Nine copy tests were formed, each containing one out of three products and one out of three panels of information. The products were (1) fillet of chicken, (2) semi-skimmed milk and (3) fillet of salmon. The panels of information were (a) a certified organic logo and details about the animal welfare standards of organic products, (b) just the logo, or (c) a statement in which the product was attributed to the world market. About 371 customers of a supermarket in the city of Amsterdam filled in a questionnaire, which included a subset of three copy tests. The results showed that many consumers did not realize that the organic logo already covers all the standards. They were inclined to underestimate the distinctive advantage of the logo; products with logo and details got higher ratings of positive attributes but were also considered more expensive. As a consequence, the detailed information panels enabled consumers to choose more in agreement with their personal values but the net impacts on purchase intentions were small. PMID:17303285

  17. Considerations for Using Genetic and Epigenetic Information in Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Standard Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P A; Whittaker, C; Curran, C P

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment forms the basis for both occupational health decision-making and the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Although genetic and epigenetic data have not been widely used in risk assessment and ultimately, standard setting, it is possible to envision such uses. A growing body of literature demonstrates that genetic and epigenetic factors condition biological responses to occupational and environmental hazards or serve as targets of them. This presentation addresses the considerations for using genetic and epigenetic information in risk assessments, provides guidance on using this information within the classic risk assessment paradigm, and describes a framework to organize thinking about such uses. The framework is a 4 × 4 matrix involving the risk assessment functions (hazard identification, dose-response modeling, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) on one axis and inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic data on the other axis. The cells in the matrix identify how genetic and epigenetic data can be used for each risk assessment function. Generally, genetic and epigenetic data might be used as endpoints in hazard identification, as indicators of exposure, as effect modifiers in exposure assessment and dose-response modeling, as descriptors of mode of action, and to characterize toxicity pathways. Vast amounts of genetic and epigenetic data may be generated by high-throughput technologies. These data can be useful for assessing variability and reducing uncertainty in extrapolations, and they may serve as the foundation upon which identification of biological perturbations would lead to a new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessments. PMID:26583908

  18. OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS OF ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pushkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions addressed to the definition of the objectives and methodology for assessing the quality of information systems (IS have been considered. The ??basic justification motives of assessing the quality of IS at the enterprise have been made. On the basis of analysis of existing metho­do­logies of IS monitoring and control the main aims and objectives of assessing the quality of IS have been defined. The structural model of the quality of IS, based on all IS support subsystems used at an enterprise has been deve­loped. To assess the quality of the exploited or the newly acquired information systems it is proposed to use a methodology, based on the standards, because they enable a comprehensive assessment of the status of all IT-enterprise resources, including personnel, application software, computer equipment, information. The results of the research and the comparative analysis of existing methodologies for monitoring and management of information systems and technologies at an enterprise has shown that the most effective and appropriate methodology for monitoring and evaluating the quality of IS is Cobit methodology, which the authors of this work assumed as a basis for the research. The structure and characteristics of the functional components of the information system, which most accurately describe the actual state of automation of information processing and traditionally used at many enterprises for management purposes have been described. The resulting structure is used to develop a model of assessing the quality of IS. Having determined the quality of each component, one can talk about the quality of IS in general. Thus, it is possible to obtain the adequate data on the state of an enterprise information system to determine its level of compliance with the standards and to evaluate its quality. The results of this work can be used to develop practical methods based on experts estimates, which will adapt the Cobit standard to Ukrainian reality and will allow more objective and fair evaluation of the quality of enterprises' IS. On the ground of the methodology based on standards it is expected to develop a model of information systems quality management at an enterprise, providing two control loops: for the executive director and director of infor­mation technology. This approach will improve the theoretical developments in the field of quality assessment of enterprise information systems and develop a practical methodology for evaluating the quality of IS.

  19. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  20. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  1. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  2. Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for In vitro biofilm production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Dadawala

    Full Text Available A total of 14 Escherichia coli isolates were assessed for their ability to produce biofilm in-vitro by slime production on Congo red agar medium (CRA and microtitre plate assay. Out of 14 isolates tested, 12 were slime producing on CRA as indicated by black colonies. The isolates of E.coli varied in their ability to produce biofilm on the surface of microtitre plate ranging from 0.101 to 0.543 ODm. Out of 14 isolates tested, 10 were positive for biofilm production employing criterion of blank corrected ODs9s > 0.1. Two of slime negative isolated were also negative for biofilm production where as the two slime positive isolates were found to be negative for biofilm production. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 364-366

  3. DEVELOPING USABLE SOFTWARE PRODUCT USING USABILITY RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaletchumi T. Sambantha Moorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Usability is an important factor in ensuring development of quality and usable software product. Ignorance and unawareness about the concept of usability and failure to address usability during software development process has led to usability problems in software product. Many efforts has been suggested in literature to overcome usability problem in software products but current practices faces challenges in reducing these usability problems. Alternatively, the concept of risk management can be used to control usability problems even though these problems cannot be eliminated totally. The concept of risk management is important to deal with usability problem before it occurs. Unfortunately, there is still lack of proper definition of usability risk and a proper model to identify, analyze and prioritize potential usability risk during Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC. This paper presents comprehensive study on the need for Usability Risk Assessment Model to reduce usability problems in software products.

  4. Assessment of the quality of durum wheat products by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence video image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novales, Bruno; Abecassis, Joel; Bertrand, Dominique; Devaux, Marie-Francoise; Robert, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Because assessment of Durum wheat semolina purity by standard ash-test has been widely criticized, we attempted to characterize products of a semolina mill by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging. A collection of milled wheat products ranging from very pure semolina to brans were chosen for this study. Multidimensional statistical analyses (Principal component analyses) were applied to the spectral and image data. Maps showing a classification of the products according to purity were obtained without biochemical calibration. Principal component regression was applied to the data in order to test the relationship of aleurone fluorescence to ash content. Both spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging gave similar results with good determination coefficients (r2 equals 0.97 and 0.92) for the study of a single wheat variety. Products obtained from different wheat varieties were more difficult to compare.

  5. Assessing the productivity of advanced practice providers using a time and motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfiditimi, Folusho; Takis, Lisa; Paige, Virginia J; Wyman, Janet F; Marlow, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale is widely used to measure healthcare provider productivity and to set payment standards. The scale, however, is limited in its assessment of pre- and postservice work and other potentially non-revenue-generating healthcare services, what we have termed service-valued activity (SVA). In an attempt to quantify SVA, we conducted a time and motion study of providers to assess their productivity in inpatient and outpatient settings. Using the Standard Time and Motion Procedures checklist as a methodological guide, we provided personal digital assistants (PDAs) that were prepopulated with 2010 Current Procedural Terminology codes to 19 advanced practice providers (APPs). The APPs were instructed to identify their location and activity each time the PDA randomly alarmed. The providers collected data for 3 to 5 workdays, and those data were separated into revenue-generating services (RGSs) and SVAs. Multiple inpatient and outpatient departments were assessed. The inpatient APPs spent 61.6 percent of their time on RGSs and 35.1 percent on SVAs. Providers in the outpatient settings spent 59.0 percent of their time on RGSs and 38.2 percent on SVAs. This time and motion study demonstrated an innovative method and tool for the quantification and analysis of time spent on revenue- and non-revenue-generating services provided by healthcare professionals. The new information derived from this study can be used to accurately document productivity, determine clinical practice patterns, and improve deployment strategies of healthcare providers. PMID:23821897

  6. Skin cancer prevention in the primary care setting: assessment using a standardized patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Robin L; Hansen, Lori A; Sharp, Lisa K; Poorsattar, Solmaz P; Lipsky, Martin S

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to utilize the standardized patient technique in assessing the ability of primary care physicians to identify and counsel primary prevention for patients at high risk for skin cancer. A secondary goal was to test the feasibility of this technique as a measure of actual physician behaviors in the outpatient setting. We used a convenience sample of 15 primary care physicians. The standardized patient was an 18-year-old woman with skin phototype I. She presented to physicians as needing a general physical examination for a summer lifeguard job at a beach. She stated a family history of skin cancer. Physician performances were rated using a standard checklist completed by the standardized patient following each visit. We found that none of the physicians asked questions specifically related to skin phototype or sun exposure habits such as childhood sunburns. Only 13% asked about mole changes. For counseling, 67% of physicians recommended sunscreen use; only 7% discussed sunscreen types or procedures for effective use. Only 13% counseled other skin protective behaviors. No significant differences by physician gender were found in these areas; however, female physicians counseled more global health behaviors than male physicians (p performed for high-risk patients. The standardized patient technique worked well in obtaining outcome data for physicians' preventive practices. PMID:17461802

  7. Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Helic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

  8. Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

  9. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events. PMID:25976848

  10. Product Creativity Assessment of Innovations : Considering the Creative Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdottir, Dagny; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in creativity research, while the role of consumer's knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing information about a complex development process could amplify consumer's perception of product creativity. Does storytelling about the process contribute to amplifying creativity ratings? What form of storytelling is needed to make an impact? Results from 134 respondents showed a small but not significant amplifying effect from the additional process information; however, an important learning can be drawn about the form of storytelling needed. An absolute minimal form was chosen here, displaying the need for investigating other, more elaborate forms. Additionally, the analysis showed that creativity was an important driver for the assessment of other product attributes such as purchasability, portraying the importance of design creativity and underlining the importance of further investigating the role of creative process information in amplifying consumer's perception of creativity in products.

  11. Product creativity assessment of innovations: considering the creative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in creativity research, while the role of consumer’s knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing information about a complex development process could amplify consumer’s perception of product creativity. Does storytelling about the process contribute to amplifying creativity ratings? What form of storytelling is needed to make an impact? Results from 134 respondents showed a small but not significant amplifying effect from the additional process information; however, an important learning can be drawn about the form of storytelling needed. An absolute minimal form was chosen here, displaying the need for investigating other, more elaborate forms. Additionally, the analysis showed that creativity was an important driver for the assessment of other product attributes such as purchasability, portraying the importance of design creativity and underlining the importance of further investigating the role of creative process information in amplifying consumer’s perception of creativity in products.

  12. Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Filippini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (beef and lamb in the urban region of Pisa, a medium-sized Italian city. The capacity of periurban livestock farms for meat production to fulfil urban demand was assessed on the basis of meat supply and demand. We derived meat demand from statistical data, whereas we calculated meat supply on the basis of three estimates (i.e. potential, current, actual meat supply taking into account both statistical and on-farm survey data. In particular, the potential meat supply was estimated from statistical data on slaughtered livestock, the current meat supply was estimated from meat production data of on-farm surveys, while the actual meat supply was estimated from the amount of meat sold by farmers on the local market from onfarm surveys. For the urban region of Pisa, we estimated that the potential meat supply met is equal to 16% of the beef demand and 62% of the lamb demand. This data could change, if the on-farm data is taken into account in the current supply, as was the case with lamb, which decreased to 37%, whereas beef remained almost unchanged (14%. The actual supply was 70% and 10% of the current supply for beef and lamb respectively. We identified some gaps between the three estimates, particularly for lamb production, suggesting that it may have some constraints in terms of production and commercialisation. Our results can contribute to assess local food systems and their drivers at the farm level. Furthermore these results also highlight the need for an agronomical approach to food systems based on the analysis of farm activities located in periurban areas in order to quantify the food supply that is actually produced for the local market. Food planning policies, as well as studies at the local level, could take advantage from this method.

  13. Categorical data model for cylindricity consistent with geometrical product specifications standard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenlong; Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Xiangqian; Qi, Qunfen; Scott, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Geometrical Product Specifications is an international standard system regarding standardization of dimensional, tolerancing, surface texture and related metrological principles and practices in the charge of ISO/TC213. Integrated information system is necessary to encapsulate the knowledge in GPS to extend its application in digital manufacturing. Establishing a suitable data structure for GPS data is one of the main works in building the integrated information system. This paper is focused on cylindricity and the main points are as follows: proposes the complete verification operator and the complete drawing indication for cylindricity consistent with GPS standard system; models the inter/intra relationships between the elements of operations involved in cylindricity and integrates them by category theory; solves the storage format and closure of query for the categorical data model by the pull-back structure and functor transform in category theory respectively.

  14. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  15. Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories to...... include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques...

  16. Online Assessment of Satellite-Derived Global Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is difficult to measure and predict. Each year droughts and floods cause severe property damages and human casualties around the world. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for mitigation and preparedness efforts. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite precipitation product development. In particular, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability have been improved by blended techniques. Their resulting products are widely used in various research and applications. However biases and uncertainties are common among precipitation products and an obstacle exists in quickly gaining knowledge of product quality, biases and behavior at a local or regional scale, namely user defined areas or points of interest. Current online inter-comparison and validation services have not addressed this issue adequately. To address this issue, we have developed a prototype to inter-compare satellite derived daily products in the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS). Despite its limited functionality and datasets, users can use this tool to generate customized plots within the United States for 2005. In addition, users can download customized data for further analysis, e.g. comparing their gauge data. To meet increasing demands, we plan to increase the temporal coverage and expanded the spatial coverage from the United States to the globe. More products have been added as well. In this poster, we present two new tools: Inter-comparison of 3B42RT and 3B42 Inter-comparison of V6 and V7 TRMM L-3 monthly products The future plans include integrating IPWG (International Precipitation Working Group) Validation Algorithms/statistics, allowing users to generate customized plots and data. In addition, we will expand the current daily products to monthly and their climatology products. Whenever the TRMM science team changes their product version number, users would like to know the differences by inter-comparing both versions of TRMM products in their areas of interest. Making this service available to users will help them to better understand associated changes. We plan to implement this inter-comparison in TRMM standard monthly products with the IPWG algorithms. The plans outlined above will complement and accelerate the existing and ongoing validation activities in the community as well as enhance data services for TRMM and the future Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

  17. The method of standard samples production for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of standard samples production for X-ray fluorescence analysis which allows to increase the accuracy and reproduction of the results is described. The method includes the preparation of water solution of analyzing element, putting the solution on surface and drying the samples. The filter of AFA-XA type used as support is treated by 1-3 % polyacrylamide solution, dried and then the solution of analyzing element is put on it. (author)

  18. TT = Top pair production. III: Testing the standard model in top quark decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U.

    2006-10-01

    With its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations the top quark completed the set of quarks expected by the Standard Model. It is predicted to have the same quantum numbers and couplings as the other up-type quarks. Albeit, only very few of these properties have been verified so far. This article summarizes the existing measurements of top quark properties in the pair production mode.

  19. Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents

    OpenAIRE

    Lečić Danica

    2005-01-01

    Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A) and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B). For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process ...

  20. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Scott A; Cunningham, David G; Marles, Robin J

    2010-03-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines. PMID:20018204

  1. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  2. Applying toxicological risk assessment principles to constituents of smokeless tobacco products : implications for product regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To determine how information on chemical constituents of different smokeless tobacco products (STPs) may be used in cancer risk assessment for regulatory purposes. METHODS:This study investigated select STP constituents potentially associated with significant cancer risk by applying a known toxicological risk assessment framework. Cancer risk estimates were obtained for selected constituents of STPs and a medicinal nicotine gum formulation with comparable ...

  3. Fungi, MVOCs and dust exposure assessment in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Susana; Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Monteiro, Ana; Viegas, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural workers especially poultry farmers, are at increased risk of occupational respiratory diseases. In poultry production besides fungi microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) are also present due to compounds released during fungal metabolism. Dust is also one of the risk factors present in animal housing and is comprised by poultry residues, fungi and feathers. A study was developed aiming to assess occupational exposure to fungi, MVOCs and dust in seven poultry units located ...

  4. Estimation and comparison of effective dose (E) in standard chest CT by organ dose measurements and dose-length-product methods and assessment of the influence of CT tube potential (energy dependency) on effective dose in a dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The dual-energy protocol delivers the lowest effective dose of the investigated protocols for standard chest CT examinations, thus enabling functional imaging (like dual-energy perfusion) and can produce weighted images without dose penalty. ? The high-pitch protocol goes along with a 16% increase in dose compared to the standard 120 kV protocol and thus should preferably be used in pediatric, acute care settings (e.g. pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and the like) or restless patients. ? The difference in effective dose estimates between ICRP 60 and 103 is minimal. ? Tube potential definitely has an effect on estimates of effective dose. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine effective dose (E) during standard chest CT using an organ dose-based and a dose-length-product-based (DLP) approach for four different scan protocols including high-pitch and dual-energy in a dual-source CT scanner of the second generation. Materials and methods: Organ doses were measured with thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) in an anthropomorphic male adult phantom. Further, DLP-based dose estimates were performed by using the standard 0.014 mSv/mGycm conversion coefficient k. Examinations were performed on a dual-source CT system (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens). Four scan protocols were investigated: (1) single-source 120 kV, (2) single-source 100 kV, (3) high-pitch 120 kV, and (4) dual-energy with 100/Sn140 kV with equivalent CTDIvol and no automated tube current modulation. E was then determined following recommendations of ICRP publication 103 and 60 and specific k values were derived. Results: DLP-based estimates differed by 4.5–16.56% and 5.2–15.8% relatively to ICRP 60 and 103, respectively. The derived k factors calculated from TLD measurements were 0.0148, 0.015, 0.0166, and 0.0148 for protocol 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for single-energy and dual-energy protocols show a difference of less than 0.04 mSv. Conclusion: Estimates of E based on DLP work equally well for single-energy, high-pitch and dual-energy CT examinations. The tube potential definitely affects effective dose in a substantial way. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for both single-energy and dual-energy examinations differ not more than 0.04 mSv.

  5. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

  6. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  7. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  8. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECAN Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

  10. Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

  11. Exposure dose assessment and discussion on radioisotope production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure dose status on radioisotope production on application in China has been assessed in the paper. The average annual occupational exposure dose received by workers in the radioisotope production is about one tenth of the annual dose limit in normal situation. It less than one twentieth for workers in the radioisotope applications. However, the annual collective dose for the latter is higher than the former by one oder magnitude due to the larger number of workers in the application field. Although the output of radioisotopes increased doubly in 1980's as compared with 1970's the increase on the annual collective dose was not obivous. For exposure to the public, 131I for example, the collective dose in the radioisotope production decreased by one to two orders of magnitude and the releasing factor reduced by two orders of magnitude. Therefore, the exposure dose received by workers in radioisotope production and application is lower in normal situation. However, the facts worth paying attention to are that there were many events and accidents which happened in the radioisotope applications, especially at the irradiation facilities. The probability of fatal accident was as high as 10-3 per irradiator year. In order to improve the radiation safety situation, it is imperative to conduct the safety assessment for irradiation facilities, to enhance management of the radioactive wastes and spent sources and to establish the experience feedback system. (author). 23 refs., 8 tabs

  12. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from their widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from the literature review is carried out. The following section of the chapter discusses some practices and approaches that should beconsidered when performing cereal-based LCAs in order to achieve the best possible results. Conclusions are drawn in the final part of the chapter and some indications are given of the main hot spots in the cereal supply chain.

  13. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  14. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: 32P, 51Cr, 60C, and 65Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated

  15. Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

  16. Real Options in the Assessment of New Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esber, Said; Baier, Daniel

    For the evaluation of new product development (NPD) and - alternatively - research & development (R&D) projects, the consideration of technical, market, and environmental uncertainties is of highest importance. Such uncertainties often result from changes in the markets and their environment. In these cases, real options assessment can provide a better understanding of the value of a project, since this approach allows to model management actions during the products’ lifetime very flexible and allows to select best project alternatives. This paper describes the use of the real options approach in information technology (IT). The application field is the production of a new desktop video-conference system with possible product extensions to be developed during lifetime.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED STRAW PULP AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Paula Maria Leponiemi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new, straw-based fibre manufacturing technology integrated to bioenergy and biofuels production. The process is based on a novel hot water treatment and subsequent mechanical refining, both of which are performed at a high temperature. Soda process, ethanol production, and chemical defibration based on hot water treatment and subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching were selected as references. The idea is to utilise the fibre fraction for packaging and the dissolved solids and the formed fines for energy. The investment costs of this process are significantly lower than those of a soda process. Additionally, a chemicals recovery process is unnecessary. Furthermore, the process offers an attractive alternative for biogas production. However, the assessment showed that the process could only be economical in some terms. Subsidies for investment would probably be needed to promote the acceptance of this environmentally safe process.

  18. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Hauschild, M.

    2003-01-01

    possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around......The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the...... opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of...

  19. Cost of construction production and feature of its assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Stanislavovna Ptuhina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A lot of questions about pricing is still remain operating during work in construction. It is predetermined by entry of Russia into the WTO (World Trade Organization. That fact sets before construction branch the purpose of standards development of pricing regulatory base in construction taking into account world experience and foreign economic activity. In this article features of pricing in construction and also the accounting of expenses of contract organization are considered. Budget cost – is the main aspect of pricing. It is a basis for definition of contractual price on construction production on the basis of which the size of investment means pays off.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the standards for...

  2. Comparative assessment of standards development for radiation and other hazardous exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental question in development of standards for allowable exposure is, open-quotes What levels of safety are the standards intended to achieve?close quotes This question has clearly not received the attention it deserves. A comparative assessment of standards for radiation and other physical and chemical hazards indicates that differing concerns may have motivated their developmental process. In most cases, the organization formulating the standards stated their objective in general terms such as, open-quotes to ensure safety,close quotes open-quotes to protect worker's health,close quotes open-quotes to cause no undue stress,close quotes open-quotes to avoid adverse health effects,close quotes or to open-quotes maintain exposure levels as low as reasonably achievable.close quotes It was generally recognized that absolute safety was unachievable, and therefore, some open-quotes reasonableclose quotes level of safety would need to be determined. The problem is made even more complex with the understanding that there can be a wide range in individual sensitivity to various harmful agents

  3. A modified risk assessment to establish molybdenum standards for land application of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, G A; Brobst, R B; Chaney, R L; Kincaid, R L; McDowell, L R; Pierzynski, G M; Rubin, A; Van Riper, G G

    2001-01-01

    The USEPA standards (40 CFR Part 503) for the use or disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids) derived risk-based numerical values for Mo for the biosolids --> land --> plant --> animal pathway (Pathway 6). Following legal challenge, most Mo numerical standards were withdrawn, pending additional field-generated data using modern biosolids (Mo concentrations leaching and a leaching correction factor (LC) is used to adjust cumulative biosolids application limits. The modified UC and new FC and LC factors are used in a new algorithm to calculate biosolids Mo Pathway 6 risk. The resulting numerical standards for Mo are cumulative limit (RPc)=40 kg Mo ha(-1), and alternate pollutant limit (APL) = 40 mg Mo kg(-1) We regard the modifications to algorithms and parameters and calculations as conservative, and believe that the risk of Mo-induced hypocuprosis from biosolids Mo is small. Providing adequate Cu mineral supplements, standard procedure in proper herd management, would augment the conservatism of the new risk assessment. PMID:11577853

  4. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  7. Drought footprint on European ecosystems between 1999 and 2010 assessed by remotely sensed vegetation phenology and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivits, Eva; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cherlet, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drought affects more people than any other natural disaster but there is little understanding of how ecosystems react to droughts. This study jointly analyzed spatio-temporal changes of drought patterns with vegetation phenology and productivity changes between 1999 and 2010 in major European bioclimatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used as drought indicator whereas changes in growing season length and vegetation productivity were assessed using r...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  9. Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. Depending on the chosen criterion, one or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs

  10. Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, E; Ford, J

    2001-01-01

    According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis. PMID:11382983

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Steve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

  12. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. PMID:26049800

  13. Life cycle assessment in market, research, and policy: Harmonization beyond standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamagni, Alessandra; Cutaia, Laura

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces the special series "LCA in Market Research and Policy: Harmonization beyond standardization," which was generated from the 19th SETAC Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Case Study Symposium held November 2013, in Rome, Italy. This collection of invited articles reflects the purpose of symposium and focuses on how LCA can support the decision-making process at all levels (i.e., in industry and policy contexts) and how LCA results can be efficiently communicated and used to support market strategies. PMID:26119764

  14. PET/CT Standardized Uptake Values (SUVs) in Clinical Practice and Assessing Response to Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kinahan, Paul E; Fletcher, James W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of standardized uptake values (SUVs) is now common place in clinical FDG-PET/CT oncology imaging, and has a specific role in assessing patient response to cancer therapy. Ideally, the use of SUVs removes variability introduced by differences in patient size and the amount of injected FDG. However, in practice there are several sources of bias and variance that are introduced in the measurement of FDG uptake in tumors and also in the conversion of the image count data to SUVs. The over...

  15. Towards a life cycle sustainability assessment: making informed choices on products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciroth, Andreas [GreenDeltaTC, Berlin (Germany); Finkbeiner, Matthias; Traverso, Marzia [TU Berlin (Germany); Hildenbrand, Jutta [Chalmers University (United States); Kloepffer, Walter [Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (Germany); Mazijn, Bernard [Ghent University (Belgium); Prakash, Siddharth [Oeko-Institut (Germany); Sonnemann, Guido; Valdivia, Sonia [UNEP (France); Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie [Technological Federal University of Parana, ACV (Brazil); Vickery-Niederman, Gina [University of Arkansas (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In this introduction to the concept of life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), we acknowledge the foundations laid by previous works and initiatives. One such initiative has been the ISO 14040 series (Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework), which in addition to the ISO 26000: Social Responsibility Guidance Standard, and the contribution of a number of international initiatives (Appendix A) have been essential for the development of this publication. The life cycle of a product involves flows of material, energy and money. Nonetheless, the picture is not complete unless we look also at the production and consumption impacts on all actors along the 'value chain' -- workers, local communities, consumers and society itself. Different life cycle assessment techniques allow individuals and enterprises to assess the impact of their purchasing decisions and production methods along different aspects of this value chain. An (Environmental) life cycle assessment (LCA) looks at potential impacts to the environment as a result of the extraction of resources, transportation, production, use, recycling and discarding of products; life cycle costing (LCC) is used to assess the cost implications of this life cycle; and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) examines the social consequences. However, in order to get the 'whole picture', it is vital to extend current life cycle thinking to encompass all three pillars of sustainability: (i) environmental, (ii) economic and (iii) social. This means carrying out an assessment based on environmental, economic and social issues -- by conducting an overarching life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). This publication shows how all three techniques -- which all share similar methodological frameworks and aims -- can be combined to make the move towards an overarching LCSA possible. Because it is holistic, systemic and rigorous, (environmental) LCA is the preferred technique when it comes to compiling and assessing information about potential environmental impacts of a product. It has been standardized in the ISO 14040 and 14044 and is applied by practitioners globally. Life cycle costing as a technique to calculate and manage costs, especially for large investments has been used to support decision-makers in procurement for decades, with a rigorous focus on private costs. Prerequisites for better alignment with (environmental) LCA are currently being researched and will help the further development of the method. As an emerging technique, S-LCA will play a key role in complementing material- and energy-flow-related information. Since the late 1990s, the Life Cycle Initiative partnership of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has enhanced the role of life cycle based approaches and thinking in several ways. Two examples are the partnership's contributions to the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and inputs for the development of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP). This current publication, Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, expands this work by bringing the concept of LCSA methods to the fore. In doing so, it will contribute to the sustainable development discussions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Summit) in 2012 ('Rio+20'). The text will also contribute to the UNEP Green Economy Initiative -- which strives to build economies that bring improved human well-being, reduce inequalities over the long term and which keep future generations safe from environmental risk and ecological scarcity. The publication includes eight case studies to illustrate how current and emerging life cycle assessment techniques are being implemented worldwide from Asia through Europe and Latin America.

  16. Draft CSA standard on environmental risk assessments at class I nuclear facilities and uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is preparing a draft Standard on environmental risk assessments (ERAs) at Class I nuclear facilities and uranium mines and mills (CSA N288.6). It is being prepared by a technical subcommittee of the CSA N288 Technical Committee, including experts from across the nuclear industry, government and regulatory authorities, and environmental service providers, among others. It addresses the design, implementation, and management of environmental risk assessment programs, and is intended to standardize practice across the industry. This paper outlines the scope of the draft Standard and highlights key features. It is under development and subject to change. (author)

  17. Application of national testing standards to simulation-based assessments of clinical palpation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Carla M

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of simulation technology, several types of data acquisition methods have been used to capture hands-on clinical performance. Motion sensors, pressure sensors, and tool-tip interaction software are a few of the broad categories of approaches that have been used in simulation-based assessments. The purpose of this article is to present a focused review of 3 sensor-enabled simulations that are currently being used for patient-centered assessments of clinical palpation skills. The first part of this article provides a review of technology components, capabilities, and metrics. The second part provides a detailed discussion regarding validity evidence and implications using the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing as an organizational and evaluative framework. Special considerations are given to content domain and creation of clinical scenarios from a developer's perspective. The broader relationship of this work to the science of touch is also considered. PMID:24084306

  18. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products. PMID:25249274

  19. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. PMID:20153167

  20. Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes ‘chicken’, ‘bouillon’ and ‘fat’ scored highest and the ‘iron/liver’ aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more ‘tender’, ‘short’ and ‘crumbly’ and less ‘hard’ and ‘stringy’ in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product ‘I 657’ was less ‘juicy’ than the rest. Products ‘I 657’ and ‘L 40’ were more ‘cohesive’ and tasted more ‘sourish’ and less of ‘sweet/maize’ than the standard products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly higher for the ‘K 8’ product than for the ‘Standard A’ and ‘L 40’ products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of ‘chicken’, ‘umami/bouillon’, ‘iron/liver’ and ‘fat’ aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat ‘tenderness’ for the overall liking of broiler meat.

  1. Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-gang JIAO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods?The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to screen for specialists. A social science survey was adopted, and 119 specialists were selected composing 98 specialists in recruitment of pilots and 21 aviation medical clinicians. A total of 359 standard items were evaluated for suitability approval, and then the reliability of evaluation results was analyzed. The final step was the formation of criteria for final judgment. The worthiness of the items was based on the specialists' opinions. When a certain item was deemed suitable by more than 80% of the specialists, it was considered as appropriate, and when a certain item was deemed suitable by less than 60% of the specialists, it was not appropriate. Results?A total of 134 survey brochures were sent out, and 128 out of 134 were retrieved. The positive index of specialist participation was 0.95, and the authority index was 0.86. 271 (75.5% of the 359 items were generally accepted by specialists as appropriate, and 27 (7.5% items were not accepted. Most of these rejected items involved function evaluation, the concept and essence of which could not be easily grasped. Conclusions?Although the majority of the items in the physical examination standards were deemed appropriate by the specialists, there were a few items not accepted. These standards should be revised after being applied in the future.

  2. Risk assessment and critical control points from the production perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, J A; Domenech, E; Escriche, I; Martorell, S

    1999-01-12

    The implementation of a risk analysis program as risk assessment and critical control points (RACCP) is most necessary in order to accomplish the foodborne industries current objective of total quality. The novelty of this technique, when compared to actual hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) and its extension to incorporate elements of quantitative risk analysis (QRA), is that RACCP considers the risk of the consequences produced by the production process performance deviations, both inside and outside the company, and also identifies their causative factors. On the other hand, the techniques to be taken in order to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such deviations must be consistent with the former data, but the need for a cost-benefit assessment must not be ignored so that the chosen technique be most profitable for the company. An example developed in a mineral water bottling plant showed that RACCP application is feasible and useful. During this example case, RACCP demonstrated it could obtain a profitable production process that keeps quality and safety of the final product at its maximum, while providing protection to both company and consumer. PMID:10050681

  3. From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP) is substantiated describing the different tools of the IPP. An overview is given on Design for Environment (DFE), presenting central findings from the latest decade of research and reviewing different DFE tools which have been developed. Describing the DFX's of Design for environment, a specific focus is devoted to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the eco-efficiency of the industry. The role of industry in meeting the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current drivers seem insufficient to create a strong move of particularly the small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of sustainability, and the need for stronger legislation and particularly for education and attitude building among future citizens and engineers is identified.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment modeling of milk production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Soltanali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock units are known as one of the most influential sectors in the environment pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the environmental impacts of milk production in Guilan province of Iran through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The primary data were collected from 45 units of milk production through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and was estimated an acceptable value of 0.91. The consumption of resources and emissions were allocated to a functional unit (FU of one ton of milk. Impacts of emissions in five impact categories of global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and depletion of resources were investigated. The results showed that the characterization index for these impact categories were 1831 kg CO2 eq, 7.97 kg SO2 eq, 3.42 kg PO4?3 eq, 0.21 kg C2H4 eq and 838.39 MJ, respectively. Final indices for these impact categories were calculated as 0.24, 0.28, 0.076, 0.017 and 0.046, respectively. Environmental index (EcoX and resources depletion index (RDI were obtained 0.61 and 0.04, respectively. In this study, the highest potential for environmental impacts of production revealed for acidification and followed by global warming impact category.

  5. Low Voltage Flip-flop Standard Cells with Optimum Energy Delay Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents transmission gate flip-flop standard cells with channel length and dual-threshold techniques and their low-voltage operating. The proposed transmission gate flip-flops have the same structure with the basic master-slave transmission gate one using multiplexers, but the different place is the feedback path (non-critical path. In the non-critical path, the dual-channel length flip-flop uses high threshold devices while the dual-threshold flip-flop uses gate-length modulation device. Three flip-flop standard cells are investigated from 0.5 to 1.2 V in term of Energy Delay Product (EDP with HSPICE at a SMIC 130 nm technology. The dual-threshold flip-flop standard cell achieves considerable leakage reductions and gate-length biasing flip-flop standard cell achieves the lowest total energy consumption in all the cells. The results demonstrate that scaling supply voltage using dual-threshold CMOS (low threshold and ultra high threshold and gate-length biasing are advantageous, especially in low voltage regions (800-900 mv which yield the best EDP.

  6. From the Margins to the Spotlight: Diverse Deaf and Hard of Hearing Student Populations and Standardized Assessment Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student progress, teacher effectiveness, and the impact of school reform. The diversity of student characteristics within DHH and DWD populations is only now becoming visible in the research literature relating to standardized assessments and their use in large-scale accountability reforms. The purpose of this article is to explore the theoretical frameworks surrounding assessment policy and practice, current research related to standardized assessment and students who are DHH and DWD, and potential implications for practice within both the assessment and instruction contexts. PMID:26497076

  7. An integrated factor analysis model for product eco-design based on full life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi fang Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Among the methods of comprehensive analysis for a product or an enterprise, there exist defects and deficiencies in traditional standard cost analyses and life cycle assessment methods. For example, some methods only emphasize one dimension (such as economic or environmental factors while neglecting other relevant dimensions. This paper builds a factor analysis model of resource value flow, based on full life cycle assessment and eco-design theory, in order to expose the relevant internal logic between these two factors. Design/methodology/approach: The model considers the efficient multiplication of resources, economic efficiency, and environmental efficiency as its core objectives. The model studies the status of resource value flow during the entire life cycle of a product, and gives an in-depth analysis on the mutual logical relationship of product performance, value, resource consumption, and environmental load to reveal the symptoms and potentials in different dimensions. Originality/value: This provides comprehensive, accurate and timely decision-making information for enterprise managers regarding product eco-design, as well as production and management activities. To conclude, it verifies the availability of this evaluation and analysis model using a Chinese SUV manufacturer as an example. 

  8. Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le?i? Danica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B. For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process by UML class diagram and standardized model of document Working Order for technological process in the form of OAGI BOD XML document. Based on it, from an example, model of technological process is presented by activity diagram (DA in XML form and an appearance of document Working Order. Just as well, rules of transformation DA to XML are presented.

  9. Higgs production by gluon fusion in the standard model and in the supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second chapter the standard model is described. Beside the theoretical foundations with the two-Higgs doublet model also an extension of the SM is discussed. The third chapter deals with supersymmetry and the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The Fortran program SusHi is presented in chapter four. Chapter five treats the renormalization of the sbottom sector and the bottom mass. It is described, which renormalization schemes are maid available in SusHi. In the sixth chapter we present our results for inclusive cross sections. Thereby the most important production channels, gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation are considered and compared. Differential distributions we discuss in the seventh chapter. Thereby mainly the resummation of logarithms is discussed. Beside an analytic resummation also the POWHEG formalism is described. The results of both methods are presented and compared.

  10. Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-29

    The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment of bioethanol production from wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol produced from lignocelluloses is expected to make a major contribution on transportation fuel markets. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was carried out to assess the environmental burdens of ethanol production from wheat straw and its use as ethanol blend fuels. Two ethanol based fuel E15 (a mixture of 15% ethanol and 85% petrol by volume) and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% petrol by volume) were assessed and results were compared to those of conventional petrol (PT) in 1 km driven by an equivalent car. The environmental performance was studied using ReCiPe methodology and includes global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, water depletion and fossil depletion. The results show that, compared to petrol, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are lower for ethanol blends, with a 73% reduction for an E85-fuelled car and 13% reduction with E15. A modest savings of 40% in fossil depletion was also found when using E85 and 15% when using E15. Similar results are also observed for ozone depletion. The findings highlight a number of environmental issues such as acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity and water depletion for which areas ethanol blend use does not offer any advantages compared with petrol. A further analysis of ethanol production at well to gate level helps identify the key areas in the ethanol production life cycle. The results indicate where effort needs to be placed to improve the technology performance and process design which can help in lowering the environmental impacts in the whole life cycle. -- Highlights: ? The paper examines environmental impact of two ethanol blend fuel from wheat straw. ? Reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel can be achieved by ethanol blend fuel. ? Ethanol blend fuel has disadvantage in environmental issues such as water use. ? We show significant environmental impacts occur during the prehydrolysis phase. ? The use of sulphuric acid, steam and electricity is identified as the main source.

  12. Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

  13. Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, F.; Schulze Uphoff, U.; Koerber, S.; Maintz, D. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schoenau, E.; Semler, O. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Children' s Hospital

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Product creativity assessment of innovations: considering the creative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic in....... Does storytelling about the process contribute to amplifying creativity ratings? What form of storytelling is needed to make an impact? Results from 134 respondents showed a small but not significant amplifying effect from the additional process information; however, an important learning can be drawn...

  15. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef; Fawzy Abd El-Kader El-Fishawy; El-Sayed Abd El-Naby Ramadan; Asmaa Mohamed Abd El-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v) and (1:5 w/v) for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the dete...

  16. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  17. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

  18. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin 4, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  19. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  20. Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

  1. Synthetic Biology in the FDA Realm: Toward Productive Oversight Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Leili; Hall, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) is expected to create tremendous opportunities in a wide range of areas, including in foods, therapeutics, and diagnostics subject to regulatory oversight by the United States Food and Drug Administration. At the same time, there is substantial basis for concern about the uncertainties of accurately assessing the human health and environmental risks of such SB products. As such, SB is the latest in a string of emerging technologies that is the subject of calls for new approaches to regulation and oversight that involve "thinking ahead" to anticipate governance challenges upstream of technological development and adopting oversight mechanisms that are both adaptive to new information about risks and reflexive to performance data and feedback on policy outcomes over time. These new approaches constitute a marked departure from the status quo, and their development and implementation will require considerable time, resources, and reallocation of responsibilities. Furthermore, in order to develop an appropriate oversight response, adaptive or otherwise, there is first a need to identify the specific types and natures of applications, uncertainties, and regulatory issues that are likely to pose oversight challenges. This article presents our vision for a Productive Oversight Assessment (POA) approach in which the abilities and deficits of an oversight system are evaluated with the aim of enabling productive decisions (i.e., timely, feasible, effective for achieving desired policy outcomes) about oversight while also building capacity to facilitate broader governance efforts. The value ofPOA is two-fold. First, it will advance the development of a generalizable approach for making productive planning and decision-making about the oversight of any given new technology that presents challenges and uncertainties for any given oversight system whose policy goals are implicated by that technology. Second, this effort can enhance the very processes advocated under anticipatory and adaptive approaches by laying the groundwork for and providing valuable data to support future normative deliberations about the governance of emerging technologies. PMID:26302603

  2. Higgs Pair-Production in the Standard Model at Next Generation Linear $e^+e^-$ Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Sampayo, O A

    2003-01-01

    We study the Higgs pair-production in the Standard Model of the strong and electroweak interactions at future $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider energies, with the reaction $e^{+}e^{-}\\to t \\bar t HH$. We evaluated the total cross section of $t\\bar tHH$ and calculate the number total of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at tree-level. The numerical computation is done for the energy which is expected to be available at a possible Next Linear $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collider: with center-of-mass energy $800, 1600$ $GeV$ and luminosity 1000 $fb^{-1}$.

  3. Standardized methods for the production of high specific-activity zirconium-89

    OpenAIRE

    Jason P Holland; Sheh, Yiauchung; Lewis, Jason S

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium-89 is an attractive metallo-radionuclide for use in immunoPET due to the favorable decay characteristics. Standardized methods for the routine production and isolation of high purity and high specific-activity 89Zr using a small cyclotron are reported. Optimized cyclotron conditions reveal high average yields of 1.52 ± 0.11 mCi/?A·h at a proton beam energy of 15 MeV and current of 15 ?A using a solid, commercially available 89Y-foil target (0.1 mm, 100% natural abundance). 89Zr was ...

  4. Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper

    OpenAIRE

    Skala Dejan U.; Glišić Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60%) and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3) in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids). Other raw materials have also bee...

  5. Assessing net community production in a glaciated Alaskan fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisdorph, S. C.; Mathis, J. T.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of deglaciation in Glacier Bay has been observed to seasonally influence the biogeochemistry of this marine system. The influence from surrounding glaciers, particularly tidewater glaciers, has the potential to affect the efficiency and structure of the marine food web within Glacier Bay. To assess the magnitude and the spatial and temporal variability in net community production in a glaciated fjord, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon, inorganic macronutrients, dissolved oxygen, and particulate organic carbon between July 2011 and July 2012 in Glacier Bay, Alaska. High net community production rates were observed across the bay (~ 54 to ~ 81 mmol C m-2 d-1) between the summer and fall of 2011. However, between the fall and winter, as well as between the winter and spring of 2012, air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and organic matter respiration made net community production rates negative across most of the bay as inorganic carbon and macronutrient concentrations returned to pre-bloom levels. The highest organic carbon production occurred within the west arm between the summer and fall of 2011 with ~ 4.5 × 105 kg C d-1. Bay-wide, there was carbon production of ~ 9.2 × 105 g C d-1 between the summer and fall. Respiration and air-sea gas exchange were the dominant drivers of carbon chemistry between the fall and winter of 2012. The substantial spatial and temporal variability in our net community production estimates may reflect glacial influences within the bay, as meltwater is depleted in macronutrients relative to marine waters entering from the Gulf of Alaska in the middle and lower parts of the bay. Further glacial retreat will likely lead to additional modifications in the carbon biogeochemistry of Glacier Bay, with unknown consequences for the local marine food web, which includes many species of marine mammals.

  6. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

  7. NEES Tsunami "Product" Example : Standards and Guidelines for Construction of Coastal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Eskijian, M.; Borrero, J. C.; McCarthy, D.

    2003-12-01

    In the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in improving tsunami inundation models. In addition to the availability of high qualify field survey data, comparisons with small and larger scale laboratory data as in NSF's Friday Harbor workshop (Yeh et al., 1996) have allowed validation of inundation predictions. By contrast, there has been far less progress in predicting forces or in translating inundation predictions to standards and guidelines. One example of addressing this issue is in a companion FEMA study undertaken jointly by the Marine Faciltiies Division of the State Lands Commission (CSLC) with USC to develop standards and guidelines for marine terminals in Los Angeles, Ventura and Orange Counties in Southern California, referred to as MOTEMS. Poorly or inadequately designed oil terminals can pose significant risks to public safety; SLC regulates the operation of marine facilities in California waters and and has the mandate to adopt performance standards for the construction and maintenance of these terminals. Prior to this study, no standards existed for seismic or tsunami hazards. The consortium comprised of USC, SLC and LLNL first completed a probabilistic hazard assessment to suggest combined probabilities for ground accelerations from different events that might affect marine terminals in the Southland. Then both tsunamigenic faults and offshore landslide-prone areas were identified and the associated runup modeled (Borrero, 2002). SLC then integrated the seismic and tsunami results and developed engineering standards for marine oil terminals, now in the final stages to state adoption as regulations (Eskijian et al, 2003). While the tsunami-specific standards allow for safer design of marine facilities, they are currently stated in terms of expected tsunami wave heights and return periods. Consulting engineers and the CSLC have to make their own assessments as to the adequacy of resulting force predictions for the design tsunami heights, as well as impact loads from ships and floating debris. While small scale data on forces on piles and walls have been obtained in collaborative NSF-funded studies (Harry Yeh, pers. comm.), predictions from these data sets at prototype scales have yet to be validated. Also, no predictions for tsunami forces from numerical models have yet been compared with lab data. Large scale laboratory experiments planned under NEES will allow for the validation of numerical predictions for wave velocities and forces, the extrapolation from small scale lab experiments, and the translation of force predictions to construction standards. It is anticipated that the latter will include performance guidelines for the design of seawalls, wharfs, piers, and structures to mitigate both direct and indirect tsunamigenic losses. References Borrero, J.C., 2002, Analysis of Tsunami Hazards in Southern California, PhD thesis, USC, 262p. Eskijian, M.S. Heffron, R.E., Dahlgren, T., 2003.. Engineering Standards for Marine Oil Terminals, in Submarine Landslides and Tsunamis, Yacliner, A. et al (eds), NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Yeh, H. Liu, P.L-F., Synolakis, Long Wave Runup Models, World Scientific. Marine Oil Terminal Engineering and Maintenance Standards, (MOTEMS), July 2003, published by the California State Lands Commission.

  8. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  9. Development and Quality Assessment of Date Chocolate Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Egagah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Date chocolate products were produced by processing cocoa bean into cocoa powder (fermentation, milling, alkalization, press cake to cocoa butter, grinding, sifting and cocoa powder and Date fruit into date powder (cleaning, sorting, drying, milling and sifting. The powders (Cocoa and Date were used in the formulation of four different samples of chocolate mixes. The chemical analysis of the Date chocolates showed that sample C had the highest pH value, this was followed by sample B, while sample A had the lowest value. Sample B had high moisture content, with sample D having the highest. The four samples contained trace amount of fat; the carbohydrate contents of the samples were high, with sample B having the highest, while the protein contents were a bit close with sample D having the highest. Microbiological analysis showed the mesophilic aerobic bacteria plate count and the yeast and mould count are within the range of the standard. The sensory evaluation showed that samples A and B significantly differed (p<0.05 in taste, while samples A and D differed in texture significantly (p<0.05. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in flavor, color, firmness and overall acceptability for the 4 samples. The use of Date-palm in chocolate production improved the taste and flavor of the product. The use of Date palm with or without sugar produces chocolate with a different texture and sweetness.

  10. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A.; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H.; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R.; Willig, Michael R.; Winarni, Nurul L.; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world’s species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3–8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify conservation strategies that can avert biodiversity collapse. PMID:26785119

  11. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify conservation strategies that can avert biodiversity collapse. PMID:26785119

  12. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgoyne Louise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

  13. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing students

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2010-03-17

    Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

  14. Higgs Boson Production via Gluon Fusion in the Standard Model with four Generations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Higgs bosons can be produced copiously at the LHC via gluon fusion induced by top and bottom quark loops, and can be enhanced strongly if extra heavy quarks exist. We present results for Higgs +zero-, one- and two-jet production at the LHC, in both the Standard Model and the 4th generation model, by evaluating the corresponding heavy quark triangle, box and pentagon Feynman diagrams. We compare the results by using the effective Higgs-gluon interactions in the limit of heavy quarks with the cross sections including the full mass dependences. NLO effects with full mass dependence are included in the inclusive Higgs boson production rate. Our results improve the theoretical basis for fourth generation effects on the Higgs boson search at the LHC.

  15. Standard-model predictions for W-pair production in electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the status of the theoretical predictions for W-pair production in e+e- collisions within the electroweak standard model (SM). We first consider for on-shell W-bosons the lowest-order cross-section within the SM, the general effects of anomalous couplings, the radiative corrections within the SM, and approximations for them. Then we discuss the inclusion of finite-width effects in lowest order and the existing results for radiative corrections to off-shell W-pair production, and we outline the general strategy to calculate radiative corrections within the pole scheme. We summarize the theoretical predictions for the total and partial W-boson widths including radiative corrections and discuss the quality of an improved Born approximation. Finally we provide a general discussion of the structure-function method to calculate large logarithmic higher-order corrections associated with collinear photon radiation. (orig.)

  16. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals. PMID:26775851

  17. Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. ? As the power increases, the NSEF increases. ? Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. ? It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. ? There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MWe and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MWe. So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

  18. TRIGA R a widely used fuel - Assessments, validation and application of criticality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA R (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics), reactor is the most widely used non-power nuclear reactor in the world. Sixty six TRIGA R reactors are running or under construction in 24 countries. These reactors are used in many diverse applications, including production of radioisotopes for medicine and industry, treatment of tumors, non destructive testing, basic research on the properties of matter, and for education and training. TRIGA R International, a joint venture company between General Atomics and CERCA, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AREVA NP, manufactures and sells TRIGA R fuel to research reactor. The CERCA Factory is currently the only Company in the world to manufacture this type of fuel. Criticality safety evaluations implement requirements to justify sufficient sub critical margins for fuel fabrication plants. Basic criticality data (i. e., criticality standards) are used to determine the sub critical margins for all processes involving enriched uranium. Safety analysis help to identify and update those standards to bound normal, abnormal and accidental conditions. The French criticality code package CRISTAL V1 was used to perform the calculations. After a brief description of the fuel design and the calculation scheme, this paper presents the results for the different types and media of TRIGA R fuel (powder, elements). Experimental benchmarks data were used for validation as well as comparative calculations with Monte-Carlo codes MORET 4 and MCNP. The criticality section of the safety analysis report supporting the actual TRIGA workshops was reviewed to ensure the update of the criticality standards does not harm the safety of the installations. (authors)

  19. Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team. UPSAT. An international peer review service for uranium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to improve the safe operation of uranium production facilities. This programme facilitates the exchange of knowledge and experience between team members and industry personnel. An UPSAT mission is an international expert review, conducted outside of any regulatory framework. The programme is implemented in the spirit of voluntary co-operation to contribute to the enhancement of operational safety and practices where it is most effective, at the facility itself. An UPSAT review supplements other facility and regulatory efforts which may have the same objective

  20. Quality requirements for vegetables and fruit products in the European Union : training manual, product quality standards including UN-ECE quality standards for unions

    OpenAIRE

    Voort, M.P.J., van der; Baricicova, V.; Dandar, M.; Grzegorzewska, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.B.; Szabo, C; Zmarlicji, K.

    2007-01-01

    This training manual is part of the pilot on agricultural quality standards. The objective of this pilot is the development and testing of a training course on quality requirements. The training manual informs growers and trainers on the basic quality requirements and the relationship of these requirements with international standards and EU Marketing Standards. The manual presents the slides, followed by an explanation of each slide. The manual consists of a warming-up for a training course,...

  1. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  2. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of these studies was twofold: - firstly to check the safety level of the French units in the international context. - secondly, and considerably more importantly, to develop an additional resource for help in decision-making, allowing assessment of the relative impact of modifications to installations or procedures and to detect, once again in relative terms, any weak points. The importance of this second objective is of course greatly increased by the fact that the French nuclear facilities are standardized. When probabilistic safety studies are mentioned, emphasis is frequently placed on the first objective. Although it may be reassuring to find that the French power plants are well placed internationally, the absolute values indicated by the different probabilistic assessments are too dependent on the domain covered, the techniques implemented and the data used for it to be possible to make comparisons of safety levels on the basis of global results alone. On the other hand, the use of probabilistic safety assessments can provide interesting insights towards relative comparison approaches offering the greatest improvements in safety. In this respect, it is encouraging to find that the design of the 1300 MWe series represents an overall improvement over that of the 900 MWe series. The two studies which have been carried out must not be seen as an end, but as a way forward. Furthermore, it is possible to improve and add to them. This opens up two lines of action for the French safety organizations in the field of probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, the latter plan to use the probabilistic safety assessments to help in the following fields: - grading safety problems and identifying any weak points; for instance, in carrying out the two assessments, two outage accident sequences were revealed whose relative importance had been underestimated. The international community has been kept well informed about them, - making periodic safety reassessments (earned out every ten years in France): this essentially consists of making a more quantitative assessment of the impact of any modifications made to bring equipment up to standard, - analyzing the accident situation operating procedures and the technical operating specifications, - studying the importance of the reliability of certain items of equipment or systems for safety, - analyzing the design of reactors of the N4 series and future types. As regards the evolution of the tool, the probabilistic safety assessments will be updated to allow for any modifications made to the units, the latest discoveries and the lessons derived from feedback of experience. Furthermore, the French probabilistic safety assessments may be supplemented to cover additional hazards, such as fire risks; extensions may be made to better appreciate, for various sequences leading to core meltdown, the corresponding probabilities of off-site releases, making allowance for certain modes of containment failure. This will involve overcoming a number of difficulties, essentially methodological, requiring a major analysis initiative which may well constitute a central feature of international cooperation. To conclude, it must be emphasized that although a major step has been taken with the completion of the level 1 probabilistic safety assessments of the 900 and 1300 MWe units, the making available of these tools has opened up a large additional field of study with much potential for improving the safety of these units. A major effort has been made to carry out these two studies. This effort will be maintained to ensure that they continue to bear fruit

  3. Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

  4. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JØrgen Drud; Nielsen, JØrgen Ulff-MØller

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels in a two stage game. The firms choose the quality level in the first game, and their prices in the second game. The Nash equilibrium illustrates that the producer in the large country produces a higher quality than the producer in the small country. However, a reduction of the trade barrier twists the quality levels in favour of the small country. Furthermore, in case of implementation of a minimum quality standard, which forces the low quality producer from the small country to increase the quality level, the producer from the large country reacts strategically by lowering the quality level of his product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model.

  5. Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a W Boson at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Albrow, M.G.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria U., Santander; Amerio, S.; /Padua U.; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab

    2008-03-01

    We present a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson in proton-antiproton collisions (p{bar p} {yields} W{sup {+-}}H {yields} {ell}{nu}b{bar b}) at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The search employs data collected with the CDF II detector which correspond to an integrated luminosity of approximately 1 fb{sup -1}. We select events consistent with a signature of a single lepton (e{sup {+-}}/{mu}{sup {+-}}), missing transverse energy, and two jets. Jets corresponding to bottom quarks are identified with a secondary vertex tagging method and a neural network filter technique. The observed number of events and the dijet mass distributions are consistent with the standard model background expectations, and we set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section times branching ratio ranging from 3.9 to 1.3 pb for Higgs boson masses from 110 to 150 GeV/c{sup 2}, respectively.

  6. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

  7. Cytotoxicity assessment of antibiofouling compounds and by-products in marine bivalve cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domart-Coulon, I; Auzoux-Bordenave, S; Doumenc, D; Khalanski, M

    2000-06-01

    Short-term primary cell cultures were derived from adult marine bivalve tissues: the heart of oyster Crassostrea gigas and the gill of clam Ruditapes decussatus. These cultures were used as experimental in vitro models to assess the acute cytotoxicity of an organic molluscicide, Mexel-432, used in antibiofouling treatments in industrial cooling water systems. A microplate cell viability assay, based on the enzymatic reduction of tetrazolium dye (MTT) in living bivalve cells, was adapted to test the cytotoxicity of this compound: in both in vitro models, toxicity thresholds of Mexel-432 were compared to those determined in vivo with classic acute toxicity tests. The clam gill cell model was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of by-products of chlorination, a major strategy of biofouling control in the marine environment. The applications and limits of these new in vitro models for monitoring aquatic pollutants were discussed, in reference with the standardized Microtox test. PMID:10806375

  8. Assessing the Symptoms of Cancer Using Patient-Reported Outcomes (ASCPRO): searching for standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeland, Charles S; Sloan, Jeff A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2006 draft guidance on "Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Use in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling Claims" has engendered wide discussion about patient-reported outcome (PRO) domains that should be endpoints in clinical trials. Reducing the severity and impact of symptoms is a natural intervention endpoint for cancer, a condition associated with considerable symptom burden. Because symptoms are best described by patients who have them, including PROs as measures of treatment effectiveness or the differences among treatments provides essential information about the efficacy and toxicity of a treatment and its effects on function. The FDA guidance provides a framework for addressing such issues as clinical significance, study design, and statistical methods as they relate to applications for labeling claims; however, no set of recommended approaches for assessing specific symptoms by patient report in clinical trials exists, other than for pain. Accordingly, an interdisciplinary workgroup, Assessing the Symptoms of Cancer using Patient-Reported Outcomes (ASCPRO), has been formed to generate evidence-based recommendations for the assessment of patient-reported cancer-related symptoms and the use of that information to facilitate clinical research and decision making. ASCPRO is among the first working groups to focus primarily on nonpain symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, appetite loss, depression, cognitive impairment, and shortness of breath. ASCPRO members are stakeholders in optimal symptom assessment, including patient advocates, academics, clinicians, those who pay for symptom control and monitor quality of care, and those who produce products that palliate cancer-related symptoms but that may also engender treatment-related symptoms. PMID:20538189

  9. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative recommendations are provided and substitute materials such as aluminum alloys for stainless steel and high-density polyethylene for polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile-based polymers show promise to meet toxicity reduction, cost, and material functionality requirements. Furthermore, the TPI method, an European Union focused screening tool, is customized to reflect regulated U.S. toxicity parameters. Results show that, although it is possible to adopt U.S. parameters into the TPI method, harmonization of toxicity regulation and standards in various nations and regions is necessary to eliminate inconsistencies during hazard screening of substances used globally. As a whole, the present work helps to assimilate material hazard assessment methods into the larger framework of design for environment strategies so toxics use reduction could be achieved for the development and management of electronics and other consumer goods.

  10. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philp; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-02-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  11. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation associations. One central aim of such a criteria is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy resources. Increased use of renewable energy resources is considered to be an essential mean to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The liberalisation of energy markets makes it possible to reinforce and enlarge incentives, which improve the environmental quality of energy products, covering both renewable and non-renewable components. This requires the production of as comparative, transparent, modular and updateable information as possible. Such information promotes effectively the communication between energy producers and their customers and other interest groups and would thus also promote a more even distribution of environmental responsibility of choices and decision-making among different parties. (orig.)

  12. Life cycle assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the preceding project 'Life Cycle Assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects' for the first time the risks of deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment have been taken into account in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This was performed by a risk assessment in addition to a quantitative impact assessment. As from a methodological perspective this was not satisfactory, the Federal Environment Agency commissioned the C.A.U. GmbH and the Institute of Applied Ecology Freiburg to further develop the impact assessment methodology for the risks of GMOs. Any further development of the methodology of impact assessment in LCAs has to be performed on the basis of the standard EN/ISO 14042. There are 2 options for taking into account risks of deliberate release of GMOs: 1. allocation of the potential effects resulting from the genetic modification on human beings and the environment to existing categories of the impact assessment and attempt to quantify within those existing methods of characterization; 2. development of a new category, e.g. 'effects of genetically modified crop plants'. In order to asses the possibilities under option 1 various models of characterization within the categories human toxicity, ecotoxicity and land use (appropriation of environmental space) have been analyzed. The risks of GMOs identified and dealt with in the preceding study were allocated to these categories. It seemed to be impossible to integrate the risks in existing models of characterization for human toxicity and ecotoxicity, as these are based on exposure and impact factors. The development of a factor for exposure seems possible for GMOs, however a suitable impact factor is not possible to generate. In addition it was analyzed if in other impact categories which are difficult to quantify any solutions for operationalization exist. This does not seem to be the case. As a result, first steps to develop a new category, e.g. 'genetic engineering' were undertaken. This impact category shall enable to take into account the risks of the deliberate release of genetically modified crop plants in the course of agricultural production and the comparison of different genetically modified crop plants. For the calculation of a factor for characterizing a specific genetically modified crop plant, a risk number is determined on the basis of the likelihood of each risk category being realized. This depends on the likelihood of dissemination in a specific climate zone as well as on the number of transferred or modified genes. This risk number is combined with the number of the potentially affected areas of protection. The data are gained from the respective notification dossiers for the specific genetically modified plant. In the inventory analysis the agricultural production area (or the result of the area and the duration of application) of the genetically modified plant, relating to the functional unit, is determined. The resulting indicator is calculated by multiplying with the respective characterizing factor. This is shown taking the 2 model products Bt-maize 176 and herbicide tolerant winter oilseed rape as examples. The results of this study show that it is possible to operationalize the risks of the planting of genetically modified crop plants for the impact assessment in a LCA via a new category. The calculation of the characterizing factors is possible on the basis of the available data sources. (author)

  13. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini, D.

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with unwanted impurities. All in all, more insight should be gained into the magnitude of iLUC impacts associated with energy crops. Their quantification is the key factor determining a beneficial or detrimental GHG performance of bioenergy systems based on energy crops. If energy crops are introduced, combined heat and power production should be prioritized based on the results of this research. Production of liquid biofuels for transport should be limited as the overall energy conversion efficiency is significantly lower thereby leading to decreased GHG performances. On this basis, recovery of energy, materials and resources from waste such as residual agricultural/forestry biomass and municipal/commercial/industrial waste should be seen as the way ahead. Highly-efficient combustion and incineration offer robust energy and environmental performances. Innovative waste refineries may achieve si

  14. The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

  15. States' Flexibility Waiver Plans for Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). Synthesis Report 96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Edwards, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    All states have alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. For accountability purposes, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allows up to 1% of students to be counted as proficient with this assessment option. In 2011 the U.S. Department of…

  16. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the…

  17. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is…

  18. Mission-Driven Expected Impact: Assessing Scholarly Output for 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Laurel R.; Lopes, Kevin J.; White, John Bryan

    2016-01-01

    As of the 2016-2017 academic year, all schools undergoing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accreditation will be assessed on the new standards that were ratified in 2013, which include the assessment of the impact of portfolios of intellectual contributions. The authors discuss key ideas underlying a business school's research…

  19. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed. PMID:26169605

  20. Standard criteria and methods to assess the reclamation of native vegetation on mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently much interest in the re-establishment of native (semi-natural) vegetation in mineral workings in the UK. It is expected that future planning consents will have conditions attached which require evidence that the proposed communities have been achieved. At present there is no standard approach. This paper describes a formal sample based method which enables assessment of plant community, species richness and species of particular interest at any point in time and their course of development. The method is illustrated by use of data collected for sown grassland on a restored opencast coal site in South Wales. Further development work is likely to be necessary and comparison with other recently recommended methods is suggested

  1. Standardization of natural phenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 references, 3 figures

  2. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  3. Status of characterization techniques for carbon nanotubes and suggestions towards standards suitable for toxicological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnologies promise to contribute significantly to major technological challenges of the upcoming century. Despite profound scientific progress in the last decades, only minor advances have been made in the field of nanomaterial toxicology. The International Team in Nanosafety (TITNT) is an international and multidisciplinary group of scientists, which aims at better understanding the risks of nanomaterials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) account for one of the most promising nanomaterials and have therefore been chosen as representative material for nanoscaled particles. They are currently investigated by the different platforms of TITNT. As a starting point, the present report summarizes a literature-based study on the physico-chemical properties of CNT, as they are closely linked with toxicological properties. A brief introduction to synthesis, purification and material properties is given. Characterization methods for CNT are discussed with respect to their reliability and the information content on chemical properties. Recommendations for a set of standard characterizations mandatory for toxicological assessment are derived.

  4. Assessment of organ doses by standard X-ray procedures in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modern method has been described to assess the radiation burden by X-ray procedures with consideration of the standards of our Society for Medical Radiology in the GDR. The underlying methodology is a Monte Carlo computer technique, which simulates stochastically the energy deposition of X-ray photons in a mathematically described heterogeneous anthropomorphic phantom by Rosenstein (US Department of Health, Education and Welfare). To apply the procedure specific values for the following parameters must be determined for each dose estimation: projection and view, X-ray field size and location entrance exposure at skin surface, beam quality, source-to-image receptor distance. The base data are obtained in terms of tissue-air ratio. Organ doses were calculated for chest, urography, skull, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lymphography. Concluding possibilities have been discussed for reduction of radiation burden. 9 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (author)

  5. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R

    2007-02-01

    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population. PMID:17266414

  6. Phenology Data Products to Support Assessment and Forecasting of Phenology on Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, K.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Moore, D. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database maintained by USA-NPN now has over 3.7 million records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2014, with the majority of these observations collected since 2008 as part of a broad, national contributory science strategy. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. While users are free to develop custom algorithms for data cleaning, winnowing and summarization prior to analysis, the National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation provides a progress report on data product development, including: (1) Quality controlled raw phenophase status data; (2) Derived phenometrics (e.g. onset, duration) at multiple scales; (3) Data visualization tools; (4) Tools to support assessment of species interactions and overlap; (5) Species responsiveness to environmental drivers; (6) Spatially gridded phenoclimatological products; and (7) Algorithms for modeling and forecasting future phenological responses. The prioritization of these data products is a direct response to stakeholder needs related to informing management and policy decisions. We anticipate that these products will contribute to broad understanding of plant and animal phenology across scientific disciplines.

  7. Assessment of Acetylcholinesterase Activity Using Indoxylacetate and Comparison with the Standard Ellman’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity plays an important role in diagnostic, detection of pesticides and nerve agents, in vitro characterization of toxins and drugs including potential treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. These experiments were done in order to determine whether indoxylacetate could be an adequate chromogenic reactant for AChE assay evaluation. Moreover, the results were compared to the standard Ellman’s method. We calculated Michaelis constant Km (2.06 × 10?4 mol/L for acetylthiocholine and 3.21 × 10?3 mol/L for indoxylacetate maximum reaction velocity Vmax (4.97 × 10?7 kat for acetylcholine and 7.71 × 10?8 kat for indoxylacetate for electric eel AChE. In a second part, inhibition values were plotted for paraoxon, and reactivation efficacy was measured for some standard oxime reactivators: obidoxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM and HI-6. Though indoxylacetate is split with lower turnover rate, this compound appears as a very attractive reactant since it does not show any chemical reactivity with oxime antidots and thiol used for the Ellman’s method. Thus it can be advantageously used for accurate measurement of AChE activity. Suitability of assay for butyrylcholinesterase activity assessment is also discussed.

  8. HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

  9. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  10. Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat under Smallholders Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Priyono

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female, type of birth (singles, twins, triplets and dam’s parity (1-7. Data were analysed statistically according to the analysis of variance procedure using the General Linear Model (GLM. Least squares analysis revealed that dam’s parity, birth type, and sex of kid were significant sources of variation for birth and weaning weight and pre weaning growth in Kacang kids. The average birth weight, weaning weight and pre weaning growth of males (2.07±0.02 kg; 10.457±0.1 kg; 69.35±0.73 g/d were found to be higher than females (1.95±0.02 kg; 9.15±0.09 kg; 60.73±0.71 g/d. Kid production traits increased with parity, with the largest values at the fourth parity and then slightly decreased thereafter. The average male and female birth weight (2.18+0.03 kg; 2.02+0.03 kg, weaning weight (10.72+0.11 and 9.39+0.13 kg and pre weaning growth (71.63+0.79 and 62.21+0.96 g/d of single kids were heavier than twins, and triplets indicating the influence of the mothering ability of doe. It was recommended, the farmers should consider maternal ability for improvement of weaning weight and growth rate of Kacang kids. (Animal Production 12(2: 111-116 (2010Key Words: Kacang goat, kid production, birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate

  11. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the standards for new and..., and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? (a) For each new and existing affected source, you must comply with...

  12. 10 CFR 170.21 - Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., approvals of facility standard reference designs, re-qualification and replacement examinations for reactor... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design approvals, special projects, inspections and import and...

  13. 41 CFR 101-29.401 - Federal product descriptions listed in the GSA Index of Federal Specifications, Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal product descriptions listed in the GSA Index of Federal Specifications, Standards and Commercial Item Descriptions. 101... listed in the GSA Index of Federal Specifications, Standards and Commercial Item Descriptions....

  14. Inclusion of Social Aspects in Life Cycle Assessment of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla

    about their direct and indirect social impacts throughout the life cycle of their products. The developed methodology of Social LCA consists of (1) a framework for Social LCA (2) a method to perform quantitative Social LCA (phases, steps and activities), and (3) methods and principles to develop......This Industrial PhD thesis presents the development of a social life cycle assessment (LCA) method for application in life cycle management in companies. The method aims to facilitate companies to conduct business in a socially responsible manner by enabling decisions on the basis of knowledge...... underlying modelling of social impacts. Concrete models for inclusion of four impact categories representing fundamental labour rights violations are developed and tested in six case studies. The results of the case studies are used to evaluate the Social LCA method and the specific models for labour rights...

  15. Scientometric Assessment of Publication Productivity of JNTBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mini Devi,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the scientometric assessment of publication productivity of Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI. The data for the study was taken from the Annual report of the JNTBGRI from 2001-2010 which were then tabulated and analysed. The scientists of JNTBGRI prefer mostly Indian journals to publish their articles.Journal of Economic Taxonomic Botany tops the list with the highest number of articles 50 (9.11 %, followed by Zoos (Print Journal with 39 articles. India is the leading country with 54.67 % of total journals. The collaboration coefficient of journal article during the year 2010 is found to be 0.7541. The articles published in the journal Current Science got 45 citations and Journal of Ethnopharmacology got only 5 citations. The article tries to analyse the country-wise distribution of journals, collaboration-coefficient in research and subject areas in which research has been done.

  16. Evaluación de nutrición parenteral estandarizada en niños / Assessment of standard parenteral nutrition in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I., Caba Porras; A., Cabello Muriel; B., Oya Álvarez de Morales; J. F., Marín Pozo; J., García Aranda; C., Llácer Pérez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad existe un mayor consenso en el proceso de soporte nutricional con Nutrición Parenteral (NP) en pediatría, en los estándares de la prescripción, formulación, elaboración y en los requerimientos nutricionales, para mejorar la calidad del proceso y seguridad en el pacient [...] e. La utilización de soluciones estandarizadas de NP en niños es minoritaria por la dificultad de adaptación a las distintas situaciones fisiopatológicas. Para hacerlo viable, en el 2006 diseñamos y validamos un amplio rango de soluciones estandarizadas para niños mayores de 10 kg y/o mayores de 1 año. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilización e idoneidad de las soluciones de NP estandarizadas en un Hospital de Tercer Nivel desde su implantación. Método: Analizamos todas las prescripciones y formulaciones de NP de los niños desde enero de 2006 hasta junio de 2008: la frecuencia de prescripción de soluciones estándar según edad, peso e indicación y sus modificaciones. Comparamos los nutrientes aportados con las soluciones NP individualizados frente a las recomendacionesde las Guías de referencia y las NP estandarizadas. Resultados: 47 niños con un peso medio de 26,6 kg (9-50) y edad media 6,8 años (1-14) recibieron 539 unidades de NP. Las NP estandarizadas (437) fueron utilizadas en el 83% de los pacientes. Sus requerimientos totales energéticos se alcanzaron de1 a 3 días , utilizando de una a tres tipos fórmulas . De ellas solo tuvieron modificación un 4% (22), con cambios fácilmente aplicables : aumento del volumen (16), disminución de la glucosa (3), y aumento del potasio (3). El análisis de las NP individualizadas en 8 niños, muestran una misma tendencia, menor aporte calórico en un 33% al recomendado. Conclusión: Las soluciones de PN estandarizadas se adecuaron a las necesidades nutricionales de la mayoría de los pacientes, según su estado y patología, destacando su adaptabilidad y versatilidad. Su utilización, ha agilizado el circuito prescripción-validación-preparación y ha mejorado la eficiencia del proceso. Abstract in english Introduction: Nowadays, there is a stronger consensus on the proceedings of nutritional support with parenteral nutrition (PN) in paediatrics, the prescription standards, its formulation, elaboration, and nutritional requirements in order to improve the process quality and the patient's safety. The [...] use of standardized PN solutions in children is rare due to the difficulty to adapt them to every pathophysiologic condition. In order to do so, in 2006 we designed and validated a big range of standard solutions for children weighing more than 10 kg or being older than 1 year. Objective: To assess the use of standard PN solutions and their suitability in children from January of 2006 until June of 2008: the frequency of prescription of standard solutions by age, weight, and indication, as well as their modifications. We compared the nutrients given by individualized PN solutions versus the recommendations of the Reference Guidelines and standardised PN. Results: 47 children with a mean weight of 26.6 kg (9-50) and mean age 6.8 years (1-14) received 539 units of PN. Standardized PN (437) were used in 83% of the patients. Their total energy requirements were reached within 1-3 days by using one to three types of formulas. Only 4% (22) of them were modified, with easily feasible changes: volume increase (16), glucose lowering (3), and potassium increase (3). The analysis of the individualized PN in 8 children shows the same trend, with a caloric intake lower than 33% of the recommended one. Conclusion: Standardized PN meet the nutritional requirements in most of the patients according to their morbid condition, highlighting their adaptability and versatility. Their use has eased the prescription-validation-preparation circuit and has improved the efficiency of the process.

  17. A quantitative assessment of standard vs. customized midline shield construction for invasive cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An individualized midline shield (MLS) has been advocated for delivering homogeneous radiotherapy for patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Yet, many radiation oncologists continue to employ a standard block. In the latter instance, any deviation of the cranial-caudal central axis of the tandem from the patient's midline could result in dose inhomogeneity to tumor. A retrospective review of a single university medical center's experience with constructing the MLS was initiated to determine the outcome of using a standard block vs. a customized block that conforms to the 'Point A' isodose line. In addition, participating radiation oncologists associated with the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) were polled to assess if there exists a consensus regarding midline block utilization in the management of cervical cancer patients which could be compared to the institutional study. Methods and Materials: From January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1992, 32 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma who underwent low dose rate brachytherapy at a single institution were identified. Patients were grouped as having a standard block (18 cases), customized block (5 cases), or no block (9 cases). The 'Point A' isodose distribution from the implant was superimposed onto the whole pelvic simulation film and quantitatively compared to the actual or a hypothetical standard block outlined on the same radiograph. In September of 1995, 56 member and affiliated institutions in the GOG were surveyed concerning their use of a MLS, and the results were tabulated in December of 1995. Results: Approximately 72% of all cases 923 out of 32) at the single institution had tandem deviation ranging from 0-230 with a median of 50. This translated into a median percent overdosage to 'Point A' Right of 15% and 'Point A' Left of 12.5%. Although overall survival and incidence of chronic complications have not been affected by type of shielding, patient follow-up is limited with a median of 17.7 months (range: 4.2-58.9 months). Of the 56 surveyed radiation facilities in the GOG, 34 (61%) responded. One center was subsequently excluded as it performs only high dose rate brachytherapy. Of the evaluable respondents, 88% (29 out of 33) utilize a MLS in treating their patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Of the latter group, 76% (22 out of 29), 21% (6 out of 29), and 3% (1 out of 29) employ a standard block, customized block, and a 'step-wedge', respectively. For those using a standard block, 77% (17 out of 22) align the central cranial-caudal axis of the MLS along the corresponding midplane of the patient's pelvis on an anteroposterior radiograph rather than along the superior-inferior central axis of the tandem. Conclusions: This study suggests that the use of a standard midline shield could result in potential tumor dose inhomogeneity and should be avoided. A national survey of major academic centers further suggests that the majority of these facilities also utilize a rectangular central block that is not positioned with respect to possible tandem deviation. Further investigation concerning the techniques of midline shield construction should be considered

  18. [Introduction, designs and assessment of a suture set for standard cardiovascular surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariishi, Seiichiro; Nishimori, Hideaki; Fukutomi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2011-03-01

    A packing system for threads and needles has been introduced with the aim of efficient operations in the field of cardiovascular surgery. To provide competent and safe surgery to patients, a suture set was developed according to the standard cardiovascular surgery procedure with cooperation between doctors and nurses at Kochi University Hospital. This suture set was introduced to all surgeries for adults conducted under cardiopulmonary bypass. Herein, we describe problems before the introduction, the process of the introduction, and designs of the suture set. In addition, we assessed the present condition since the introduction of this suture set. Many positive opinions were obtained from both doctors and nurses, and the suture set thus yielded a satisfactory assessment. Psychological stability and safety provided by the suture set may lead not only to cost reduction but also to an increased level of surgery as a whole. In addition, it may now be possible to provide simpler and more efficient cardiovascular surgery with this set. This suture set will serve as a useful model for thread and needle packing systems to be developed at various facilities in the future. PMID:21404558

  19. Assessment standards, Van Hiele levels, and grade seven learners’ understandings of geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosisi Feza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of researchers in mathematical education assert that the instruction in geometry offered in South African schools is inadequate and that traditional teaching strategies do little to promote teachers understandings of their learners’ levels of mathematical thought. Van Hiele specifically states that the inability of many teachers to match instruction with their learners’ levels of geometrical understanding is a contributing factor to their failure to promote meaningful understandings in this topic.  This study investigated whether a sample of grade seven learners in previously disadvantaged primary schools met both the assessment criteria for geometry as stated by the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement and the implied Van Hiele thinking levels.  The data generated suggest that none of the 30 learners who participated in this study had attained these requirements and that language competency in general is a barrier to the attainment of higher levels of understanding amongst this group of second-language learners. It is suggested that not only Van Hiele Levels and Assessment Standards, but also learners’ cultural background and their specific use of words in the vernacular context, need to be taken into consideration by teachers when developing learning programmes. Possible strategies to meet these requirements are suggested.

  20. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; B?azejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed. PMID:23411753

  1. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  2. Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

    2009-04-07

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

  4. The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Grisso, Thomas; Mulder, Eva; Vermeiren, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups. PMID:25116035

  5. Fission product chain yields and delayed neutrons: ANS standards 5.2 and 5.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain yields are the addition of the direct values along constant (Z + N) paths. The addition must also account for decay branching, especially for delayed neutrons that couple the mass chains. The result is the familiar double-humped plot of yield per fission versus mass number. The lines of stable nuclides and most probable yield are shown in the (Z,N) plane. Some modern measurements provide direct yields; other provide cumulative values for long-lived or stable products. Yield evaluations must account for each type of measurement and the degree of decay coupling, beginning with direct yields. For some fissioning nuclides at thermal or fast neutron incident energies, the amount of data is enormous; and for other nuclide-energy combinations, the data must be developed from systematics. Many applications of chain yields can use the same systematics to estimate independent values. The ANS 5.2 standard is currently in rough draft form for comment from working group members

  6. Biocatalytic production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil: Standardization of process parameters and comparison of fuel characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soham; Karemore, Ankush; Das, Sancharini; Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Deysarkar, Asoke [PfP Technology LLC., 14227 Fern, Houston, TX 77079 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of cottonseed oil was studied using low cost crude pancreatic lipase as catalyst in a batch system. The effects of the critical process parameters including water percentage, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration, buffer pH and reaction temperature were determined. Maximum conversion of 75-80% was achieved after 4 h at 37 C, pH 7.0 and with 1:15 M ratio of oil to methanol, 0.5% (wt of oil) enzyme and water concentration of 5% (wt of oil). Various organic solvents were tested among which a partially polar solvent (t-butanol) was found to be suitable for the reaction. The major fuel characteristics like specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point and calorific value of the 20:80 blends (B20) of the fatty acid methyl esters with petroleum diesel conformed very closely to those of American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards. (author)

  7. 15 CFR 996.11 - Development of standards for a hydrographic product or class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...propose an appropriate standards writing body. NOAA may accept this body at...cooperation of, the selected standards writing body. (b) Once accepted as a work item by the standards writing body, NOAA shall undertake,...

  8. 76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ...Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer...Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment (Commercial...water conservation standards required by the Energy...CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT 0 1. The...water conservation standards and effective...

  9. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. → Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

  10. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in associated production with w boson at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Xu; /Michigan U.

    2009-11-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron is presented in this dissertation. The process of interest is the associated production of W boson and Higgs boson, with the W boson decaying leptonically and the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of bottom quarks. The dataset in the analysis is accumulated by the D0 detector from April 2002 to April 2008 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}. The events are reconstructed and selected following the criteria of an isolated lepton, missing transverse energy and two jets. The D0 Neural Network b-jet identification algorithm is further used to discriminate b jets from light jets. A multivariate analysis combining Matrix Element and Neural Network methods is explored to improve the Higgs boson signal significance. No evidence of the Higgs boson is observed in this analysis. In consequence, an observed (expected) limit on the ratio of {sigma} (p{bar p} {yields} WH) x Br (H {yields} b{bar b}) to the Standard Model prediction is set to be 6.7 (6.4) at 95% C.L. for the Higgs boson with a mass of 115 GeV.

  11. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East. PMID:21309452

  12. Proposal on ''standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for the Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals - National Nuclear Energy Agency (P2RR-BATAN) has one Cyclotron type CS-30 with maximum 30 MeV proton energy. It is used since 1990 for 201Tl production. The main use of 201Tl in Indonesia is for diagnosis and assessment of myocardial ischaemia, especially diagnosis of coronary artery disease, viability of the heart muscle and forecasting the outcome for patients with coronary disease. The Cyclotron facility is supported with a solid target station, two hot cells and the chemical equipment for electroplating. The yield of 201Tl production currently achieved around 40-50%. The irradiation technique and chemical separation should be improved. We are also very interested in the development of the production of 103Pd via 103Rh (p,n) 103Pd reaction. The objective of this proposal will support the main program of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) in enhancement of health care and in providing Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals for hospitals

  13. Achieving transparency in carbon labelling for construction materials – Lessons from current assessment standards and carbon labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The evolution of international GHG standards is reviewed. • The evolution of international carbon labelling schemes is reviewed. • The transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes are revealed. • Key recommendations are provided to improve transparency in carbon labelling. - Abstract: The construction industry is one of the largest sources of carbon emissions. Manufacturing of raw materials, such as cement, steel and aluminium, is energy intensive and has considerable impact on carbon emissions level. Due to the rising recognition of global climate change, the industry is under pressure to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes are therefore developed as meaningful yardsticks to measure and compare carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes can help switch consumer-purchasing habits to low-carbon alternatives. However, such switch is dependent on a transparent scheme. The principle of transparency is highlighted in all international greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, including the newly published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products – requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication. However, there are few studies which systematically investigate the transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes. A comparison of five established carbon labelling schemes, namely the Singapore Green Labelling Scheme, the CarbonFree (the U.S.), the CO2 Measured Label and the Reducing CO2 Label (UK), the CarbonCounted (Canada), and the Hong Kong Carbon Labelling Scheme is therefore conducted to identify and investigate the transparency requirements. The results suggest that the design of current carbon labels have transparency issues relating but not limited to the use of a single sign to represent the comprehensiveness of the carbon footprint. These transparency issues are partially caused by the flexibility given to select system boundary in the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to measure GHG emissions. The primary contribution of this study to the construction industry is to reveal the transparency requirements from international GHG standards and carbon labels for construction products. The findings also offer five key strategies as practical implications for the global community to improve the performance of current carbon labelling schemes on transparency

  14. Search for associated production of Higgs with Z boson in the noncommutative Standard Model at linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    J., Selvaganapathy; Konar, Partha

    2015-01-01

    We study the associated Higgs production with Z boson at future linear colliders in the framework of the minimal noncommutative standard model. Using the Seiberg-Witten map, we calculate the production cross-section considering all orders of the noncommutative parameter $\\Theta_{\\mu\

  15. Product environmental footprint in policy and market decisions: Applicability and impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Annekatrin; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    In April 2013, the European Commission published the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint (PEF/OEF) methodology--a life cycle-based multicriteria measure of the environmental performance of products, services, and organizations. With its approach of "comparability over flexibility," the PEF/OEF methodology aims at harmonizing existing methods, while decreasing the flexibility provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards regarding methodological choices. Currently, a 3-y pilot phase is running, aiming at testing the methodology and developing product category and organization sector rules (PEFCR/OEFSR). Although a harmonized method is in theory a good idea, the PEF/OEF methodology presents challenges, including a risk of confusion and limitations in applicability to practice. The paper discusses the main differences between the PEF and ISO methodologies and highlights challenges regarding PEF applicability, with a focus on impact assessment. Some methodological aspects of the PEF and PEFCR Guides are found to contradict the ISO 14044 (2006) and ISO 14025 (2006). Others, such as prohibition of inventory cutoffs, are impractical. The evaluation of the impact assessment methods proposed in the PEF/OEF Guide showed that the predefined methods for water consumption, land use, and abiotic resources are not adequate because of modeling artefacts, missing inventory data, or incomplete characterization factors. However, the methods for global warming and ozone depletion perform very well. The results of this study are relevant for the PEF (and OEF) pilot phase, which aims at testing the PEF (OEF) methodology (and potentially adapting it) as well as addressing challenges and coping with them. PMID:25919189

  16. Reduced-dose chest CT with 3D automatic exposure control vs. standard chest CT: Quantitative assessment of emphysematous changes in smokers’ lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the capability of reduced-dose chest CT with three-dimensional (3D) automatic exposure control (AEC) on quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in smoker’ lung parenchyma, compared to standard chest CT. Methods: Twenty consecutive smoker patients (mean age 62.8 years) underwent CT examinations using a standard protocol (150 mAs) and a protocol with 3D-AEC. In this study, the targeted standard deviations number was set to 160. For quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in lung parenchyma in each subject using the standard protocol, a percentage of voxels less than ?950 HU in the lung (%LAA?950) was calculated. The 3D-AEC protocol's %LAA was computed from of voxel percentages under selected threshold CT value. The differences of radiation doses between these two protocols were evaluated, and %LAAs?950 was compared with the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. Results: Mean dose length products were 780.2 ± 145.5 mGy cm (standard protocol), and 192.0 ± 95.9 (3D-AEC protocol). There was significant difference between them (paired Student's t test, p ?950 and 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. In adopting the feasible threshold CT values of the 3D-AEC protocol, the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs were significantly correlated with %LAAs?950 (r = 0.98, p < 0.001) and limits of agreement from Bland–Altman analysis was 0.52 ± 4.3%. Conclusions: Changing threshold CT values demonstrated that reduced-dose chest CT with 3D-AEC can substitute for the standard protocol in assessments of emphysematous change in smoker’ lung parenchyma.

  17. Standardized large-scale H-1PV production process with efficient quality and quantity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchs, Barbara; Roscher, Mandy; Müller, Marcus; Kürschner, Kathrin; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The promising anticancer properties of rodent protoparvoviruses, notably H-1PV, have led to their clinical testing. This makes it necessary to produce highly pure, well-characterized virus batches in sufficient quantity. The present work focused on developing standardized production, purification, and characterization procedures as a basis for exploiting H-1PV both preclinically and in clinical trials for anticancer virotherapy. Two infection and two virus purification strategies were tested and the resulting virus preparations compared for their purity and full-, infectious-, and empty-particle contents. The adopted production process, which involves culturing and infecting NB-324K cells in 10-layer CellSTACK(®) chambers (1×10(3) infectious units per infected cell), is simple, scalable, and reproducible. Downstream processing to eliminate contaminating DNA and protein includes DNAse treatment, filtration, and two Iodixanol density-gradient centrifugations, the first gradient being a step gradient and the second, either a step (1×10(10)PFU/ml) or a continuous gradient (3×10(11)PFU/ml). A procedure was also developed for obtaining infectious particle-free preparations of empty virions for research purposes: cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation followed by UV irradiation (1×10(14)physicalparticles/ml). For quick, sensitive determination of physical particles (and hence, particle-to-infectivity ratios), a "Capsid-ELISA" was developed, based on a novel monoclonal antibody that specifically targets assembled capsids. PMID:26658622

  18. Evaluation of a standard test method and material for low-activity waste product acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution behavior of a candidate reference glass has been measured under a range of test conditions. The data base from these tests can be used to evaluate the credibility and validity of test results reported by Private Contractors as part of the acceptance process for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products for DOE wastes. The LRM-1 glass that was used in the tests was formulated to be compositionally representative of anticipated ILAW products for Hanford and other Department of Energy sites. Replicate tests with this glass were used to measure the variability in the response (i.e., the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si) under different test conditions. The glass was further evaluated for possible use as a standard material by analysis of its composition, microstructure, density, and compressive strength. In addition, the Na leachability index was measured with the ANS 16.1 test, and the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure was run. The results of those tests and analyses are summarized

  19. Improvement of Vicia-micronucleus test for assessment of soil quality: a proposal for international standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    The Viciafaba root tip micronucleus test is one of the most employed plant genotoxicity assays, and has been used on various types of contaminated materials. This test has been standardized by AFNOR, the French member organization of ISO. However, this test is usually performed with a water extraction step but soil genotoxicity assessment would be more relevant when performed directly in the soil itself. In order to harmonize these protocols, an ISO standard for the V.faba micronucleus test in both liquid phase (exposure of plants to different liquid matrix, including soil water extracts) and solid phase (direct exposure of plants to the soil) would be very useful. In this context, we compared two exposure durations in the solid phase (48 h and 5 d) for the V.faba micronucleus test with two different well-known genotoxicants, maleic hydrazide and copper sulfate. We concluded that these two durations induced equivalent sensitivity: the micronucleus frequency was significantly increased with 5 ?mol maleic hydrazide per kg dry soil and with 2 mmol copper sulfate per kg dry soil with both exposure durations. However, exposing roots to soil during 48 h is more practical. Moreover, organically and conventionally cultured seeds were employed to determine whether the seed provenance influenced the test sensitivity. Organic seeds were less sensitive to copper, possibly because copper-based treatments are permitted, and often applied, in organic farms. Therefore, in the absence of completely non-treated seeds, organically-cultured seeds did not appear to offer any advantages over conventional seeds. PMID:21906776

  20. Impact of a standardized training program on midwives’ ability to assess fetal heart anatomy by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of prenatal detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) in the UK, Italy, and Norway indicate that it should be possible to improve the prenatal detection rate of CHD in Sweden. These studies have shown that training programs, visualization of the outflow tracts and color-Doppler all can help to speed up and improve the detection rate and accuracy. We aimed to introduce a more accurate standardized fetal cardiac ultrasound screening protocol in Sweden. A novel pedagogical model for training midwives in standardized cardiac imaging was developed, a model using a think-aloud analysis during a pre- and post-course test and a subsequent group reflection. The self-estimated difficulties and knowledge gaps of two experienced and two beginner midwives were identified. A two-day course with mixed lectures, demonstrations and hands-on sessions was followed by a feedback session three months later consisting of an interview and check-up. The long-term effects were tested two years later. At the post-course test the self-assessed uncertainty was lower than at the pre-course test. The qualitative evaluation showed that the color Doppler images were difficult to interpret, but the training seems to have improved their ability to use the new technique. The ability to perform the method remained at the new level at follow-up both three months and two years later. Our results indicate that by implementing new imaging modalities and providing hands-on training, uncertainty can be reduced and examination time decreased, but they also show that continuous on-site training with clinical and technical back-up is important

  1. GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandulski Arne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40?mg for 4?weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48?hours, wireless pH metry. Methods All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ and acid exposure was determined by 48?hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO. In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40?mg q.d. for 4?weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40?mg b.i.d. Results 31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48?hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71% had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%. Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40?mg q.d. after 4?weeks (88%. Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms. Conclusions Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.

  2. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Optimal utilization of biomass and waste for energy purposes offers great potentials for reducing fossil fuel dependency and resource consumption. The common understanding is that bioenergy decreases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as the carbon released during energy conversion has previously been captured during growth of the plants. This, however, neglects that using the land for energy crops implies that the same land cannot be used for other purposes, including food cropland, forestry, grassland, etc. This may induce cascading effects converting natural biomes into arable land with associated impacts. Waste, such as municipal solid waste, does not involve land use change impacts. However, existing and emerging waste treatment technologies offer different environmental benefits and drawbacks which should be evaluated in order to recommend appropriate technologies in selected scenarios. To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with un

  3. Assessing risk of non-compliance of phosphorus standards for lakes in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duethmann, D.; Anthony, S.; Carvalho, L.; Spears, B.

    2009-04-01

    High population densities, use of inorganic fertilizer and intensive livestock agriculture have increased phosphorus loads to lakes, and accelerated eutrophication is a major pressure for many lakes. The EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that good chemical and ecological quality is restored in all surface water bodies by 2015. Total phosphorus (TP) standards for lakes in England and Wales have been agreed recently, and our aim was to estimate what percentage of lakes in England and Wales is at risk of failing these standards. With measured lake phosphorus concentrations only being available for a small number of lakes, such an assessment had to be model based. The study also makes a source apportionment of phosphorus inputs into lakes. Phosphorus loads were estimated from a range of sources including agricultural loads, sewage effluents, septic tanks, diffuse urban sources, atmospheric deposition, groundwater and bank erosion. Lake phosphorus concentrations were predicted using the Vollenweider model, and the model framework was satisfactorily tested against available observed lake concentration data. Even though predictions for individual lakes remain uncertain, results for a population of lakes are considered as sufficiently robust. A scenario analysis was carried out to investigate to what extent reductions in phosphorus loads would increase the number of lakes achieving good ecological status in terms of TP standards. Applying the model to all lakes in England and Wales greater than 1 ha, it was calculated that under current conditions roughly two thirds of the lakes would fail the good ecological status with respect to phosphorus. According to our estimates, agricultural phosphorus loads represent the most frequent dominant source for the majority of catchments, but diffuse urban runoff also is important in many lakes. Sewage effluents are the most frequent dominant source for large lake catchments greater than 100 km². The evaluation in terms of total load can be misleading in terms of what sources need to be tackled by catchment management for most of the lakes. For example sewage effluents are responsible for the majority of the total load but are the dominant source in only a small number of larger lake catchments. If loads from all sources were halved this would potentially increase the number of complying lakes to two thirds but require substantial measures to reduce phosphorus inputs to lakes. For agriculture, required changes would have to go beyond improvements of agricultural practise, and need to include reducing the intensity of land use. The time required for many lakes to respond to reduced nutrient loading is likely to extend beyond the current timelines of the WFD due to internal loading and biological resistances.

  4. Next Generation Landsat Products Delivered Using Virtual Globes and OGC Standard Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiers, M.; Dwyer, J.; Neiers, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the next in the series of Landsat satellite missions and is tasked with the objective of delivering data acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI). The OLI instrument will provide data continuity to over 30 years of global multispectral data collected by the Landsat series of satellites. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS) Center has responsibility for the development and operation of the LDCM ground system. One of the mission objectives of the LDCM is to distribute OLI data products electronically over the Internet to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at no cost. To ensure the user community and general public can easily access LDCM data from multiple clients, the User Portal Element (UPE) of the LDCM ground system will use OGC standards and services such as Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Geographic encoding of Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) feeds for both access to and delivery of LDCM products. The USGS has developed and tested the capabilities of several successful UPE prototypes for delivery of Landsat metadata, full resolution browse, and orthorectified (L1T) products from clients such as Google Earth, Google Maps, ESRI ArcGIS Explorer, and Microsoft's Virtual Earth. Prototyping efforts included the following services: using virtual globes to search the historical Landsat archive by dynamic generation of KML; notification of and access to new Landsat acquisitions and L1T downloads from GeoRSS feeds; Google indexing of KML files containing links to full resolution browse and data downloads; WMS delivery of reduced resolution browse, full resolution browse, and cloud mask overlays; and custom data downloads using WCS clients. These various prototypes will be demonstrated and LDCM service implementation plans will be discussed during this session.

  5. New ammonia lyases and amine transaminases: Standardization of production process and preparation of immobilized biocatalysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antoni, Casablancas; Max, Cárdenas-Fernández; Gregorio, Álvaro; Maria Dolors, Benaiges; Glòria, Caminal; Carles de, Mas; Glòria, González; Carmen, López; Josep, López-Santín.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: New enzymes for biotransformations can be obtained by different approaches including directed mutagenesis and in vitro evolution. These mutants have to be efficiently produced for laboratory research on bioreactions as well as for process development. In the framework of a European ERA-I [...] B project, two different types of enzymes (ammonia lyases and aminotransferases) have been selected as biocatalysts for the synthesis of industrially relevant amines. New mutant enzymes have been obtained: a) aspartases able to recognize ?-amino acids; b) ?-transaminases with improved activity. The objectives are to find out a common operational strategy applicable to different mutants expressed in E. coli with the same initial genetic background, the development of an integrated process for production and the preparation of stable useful biocatalysts. Results: Mutant enzymes were expressed in E. coli BL21 under the control of isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible promoter. The microorganisms were grown in a formulated defined medium and a high-cell density culture process was set up. Fed-batch operation at constant specific growth rate, employing an exponential addition profile allowed high biomass concentrations. The same operational strategy was applied for different mutants of both aspartase and transaminase enzymes, and the results have shown a common area of satisfactory operation for maximum production at low inducer concentration, around 2 ?mol IPTG/g DCW. The operational strategy was validated with new mutants and high-cell density cultures were performed for efficient production. Suitable biocatalysts were prepared after recovery of the enzymes. The obtained aspartase was immobilized by covalent attachment on MANA-agarose, while ?-transaminase biocatalysts were prepared by entrapping whole cells and partially purified enzyme onto Lentikats (polyvinyl alcohol gel lens-shaped particles). Conclusions: The possibility of expressing different mutant enzymes under similar operation conditions has been demonstrated. The process was standardized for production of new aspartases with ?-amino acid selectivity and new ?-transaminases with improved substrate acceptance. A whole process including production, cell disruption and partial purification was set up. The partially purified enzymes were immobilized and employed as stable biocatalysts in the synthesis of chiral amines.

  6. Qualification of an automated device to objectively assess the effect of hair care products on hair shine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Ralf; Wiersbinski, Tim; Becker, Michael E; Weisshaar, Jürgen; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed and qualified an automated routine screening tool to quantify hair shine. This tool is able to separately record individual properties of hair shine such as specular reflection and multiple reflection, as well as additional features such as sparkle, parallelism of hair fibers, and hair color, which strongly affect the subjective ranking by individual readers. A side-by-side comparison of different hair care and styling products with regard to hair shine using the automated screening tool in parallel with standard panel assessment showed that the automated system provides an almost identical ranking and the same statistical significances as the panel assessment. Provided stringent stratification of hair fibers for color and parallelism, the automated tool competes favorably with panel assessments of hair shine. In this case, data generated with the opsira Shine-Box are clearly superior over data generated by panel assessment in terms of reliability and repeatability, workload and time consumption, and sensitivity and specificity to detect differences after shampoo, conditioner, and leave-in treatment. The automated tool is therefore well suited to replace standard panel assessments in claim support, at least as a screening tool. A further advantage of the automated system over panel assessments is the fact that absolute numeric values are generated for a given hair care product, whereas panel assessments can only give rankings of a series of hair care products included in the same study. Thus, the absolute numeric data generated with the automated system allow comparison of hair care products between studies or at different time points after treatment. PMID:22152491

  7. Systematic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV prevention interventions: need for standardization of measures

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia A Fonner; Caitlin E Kennedy; O’Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consist...

  8. System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

  9. Categorization framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Michelson, Evan S.; Kamper, Anja; Borling, Pernille; Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank; Baun, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, of which 37% used nanoparticles suspended in liquids, whereas

  10. Assessment of agricultural drought in rainfed cereal production areas of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural drought assessment is an important tool for water management in water-scarce regions such as Inner Mongolia and northeastern China. Conventional methods have difficulty of clarifying long-term influences of drought on regional agricultural production. To accurately evaluate regional agricultural drought, we assessed the performance of drought indices by constructing a new assessment framework with three components: crop model calibration and validation, drought index calculation, and index assessment (standard period setting, mean value and agreement assessments). The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model simulated well of county-level wheat and maize yields in the nine investigated counties. We calculated a major crop-specific index yield reduction caused by water stress (WSYR) in the EPIC crop model, by relating potential and rainfed yields. Using 26 agricultural drought cases, we compared WSYR with two meteorological drought indices: precipitation (P) and aridity index (AI). The results showed that WSYR had greater agreement (85 %) than either the precipitation (65 %) or aridity index (68 %). The temporal trend of the indices over the period 1962-2010 was tested using three approaches. The result via WSYR revealed a significant increase in the trend of agricultural drought in drought-prone counties, which could not be shown by the precipitation and aridity indices. Total number of dry year via WSYR from 1990s to 2000s increases more sharply than via P or AI. As shown by WSYR, the number of dry years in northeastern China and Inner Mongolia is generally increasing, particularly after the 2000s, in the western part of the study area. The study reveals the usefulness of the framework for drought index assessment and indicates the potential of WSYR and possible drought cases for drought classification.

  11. Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2011-04-01

    A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

  12. Examinee-centered standard setting for large-scale assessments: The prototype group method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eckes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prototype group method (PGM of standard setting within the context of a large-scale language assessment project. The PGM combines a Rasch measurement approach to the analysis of examinee proficiency with the concept of prototypes drawn from research on human judgment and categorization. Experts first identify learners typical of each of five levels of language proficiency as specified by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001. Based on the distributions of proficiency estimates for learner prototypes belonging to adjacent levels, cut scores are computed by means of a logistic regression procedure. These cut scores define the language proficiency level a particular examinee has achieved. Data from 39 independent samples of examinees (total N = 8,721 covering a range of German language proficiency levels are used to illustrate the PGM. Rasch analysis and logistic regression results corroborate the adequacy of this approach. The discussion focuses on the method’s distinctive features, practical requirements of its implementation, and issues of cut-score validation.

  13. Standardization of the neutron probe for the assessment of masonry deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repair of the infrastructure will require nondestructive methods to assess the condition of existing buildings and other structures, many of which are constructed of masonry. One possible technology is the neutron probe, a prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) technique that can perform non- destructive elemental analyses in the field. It is based on a very low intensity 252Cf neutron source and a high-purity germanium detector for the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture within the material. The thermal neutron capture cross sections for hydrogen and chlorine are very large, and in masonry, these elements are found primarily in moisture and chlorides. These are major causes of deterioration in porous materials such as brick masonry. The moisture damages the material through expansive stresses during freeze-thaw cycles. Chlorides also generate expansive stresses through periodic cycles of dissolution and recrystallization in response to relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere. Similar problems also occur in reinforced concrete, where chlorides cause additional damage through corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The sensitivity of the neutron probe to hydrogen and chlorine thus means it can be used to map the distribution of these agents of deterioration. Preliminary field work at Colonial Williamsburg and Venice, Italy, showed that the technique could yield useful qualitative information. However, to be a quantitative method, the neutron probe had to be standardized in the laboratory on materials of known composition and specified moisture and chloride content

  14. Bio-SNG production - concepts and their assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roensch, Stefan [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics (IUE), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    A major goal of today's energy policy is to establish an energy system with less greenhouse gas emissions (cf. ''Renewable energy roadmap'' [1]). The energetic use of biomass seems to be a very promising option to contribute to this goal: biomass can be used demand-oriented and to produce different energy carriers (e.g. power, heat and biofuels) needed within the energy system. Due to high overall efficiencies, especially the thermo-chemical conversion of solid biofuels to the natural gas substitute Bio-SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas) seems to be very promising. Therefore, it is the goal of this paper to analyse Bio-SNG production processes as a part of integrated polygeneration processes. Different Bio-SNG concepts using a gas slip stream in a gas engine or a gas turbine and process heat in an organic rankine cycle or conventional steam cycle are assessed. Based on mass and energy balances these concepts are discussed from an energetic, economic and environmental point of view. The analysis shows increasing exergetic efficiencies as well as improved economic and environmental process characteristics with increasingly integrated processes. However, the economic competitiveness still remains a bottleneck for a Bio-SNG market implementation. Therefore, two possible options to improve this competitiveness are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  15. Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carlà, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

    2014-10-01

    Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated P?eiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

  16. PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to compare the standardized central review of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUVmax and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ?3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

  17. PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tychyj-Pinel, Christelle [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ricard, Fabien [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Fulham, Michael [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Fournier, Marion [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, The Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation (LYSARC), Pierre-Benite (France); Meignan, Michel [CHU Henri Mondor, Medicine Nucleaire, Creteil (France); Lamy, Thierry [Service d' Hematologie, CHU, Rennes (France); Vera, Pierre [Centre Henri Becquerel, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rouen (France); Rouen University, QuantIF (Litis EA4108), Rouen (France); Salles, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Service d' Hematologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Trotman, Judith [University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Concord Hospital, Department of Haematology, Concord, NSW (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    We aimed to compare the standardized central review of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUV{sub max} and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ?3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

  18. Indian public health standards for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy facilities: An assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Janmejaya Samal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) are the prescribed quality norms for health care services in India. For the first time this set of standards was introduced with the initiation of National Rural Health Mission in India. The first set of standards was released in 2007 and the second revised set was released in 2012. Among various services Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) is one of the components and certain standards have also been prescrib...

  19. Study on the Maturity Assessment Model and Application of Highway’s Standardization Management

    OpenAIRE

    Song Hao; Wang Xueqing; Feng Jian

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of highway standardization management ability description, evaluation and improvement, in this paper, a highway standardization management maturity evaluation model has firstly been put forward. Moreover, the influence highway qualitative factors of implementing the standardized management have analyzed and its evaluation index system has constructed. Furthermore, based on the practice of highway in Henan province, a standard management level has been made quanti...

  20. Study on the Maturity Assessment Model and Application of Highway’s Standardization Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of highway standardization management ability description, evaluation and improvement, in this paper, a highway standardization management maturity evaluation model has firstly been put forward. Moreover, the influence highway qualitative factors of implementing the standardized management have analyzed and its evaluation index system has constructed. Furthermore, based on the practice of highway in Henan province, a standard management level has been made quantitative analysis and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.