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1

Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

1980-05-23

2

Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

2007-06-12

3

Emission- and product standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

1988-01-01

4

Standardization of techniques for using planar (2D) imaging for aerosol deposition assessment of orally inhaled products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-dimensional (2D or planar) imaging with (99m)Tc radiolabels enables quantification of whole-lung and regional lung depositions for orally inhaled drug products. This article recommends standardized methodology for 2D imaging studies. Simultaneous anterior and posterior imaging with a dual-headed gamma camera is preferred, but imaging with a single-headed gamma camera is also acceptable. Correction of raw data for the effects of gamma ray attenuation is considered essential for accurate quantification, for instance, using transmission scanning with a flood-field source of (99m)Tc or (57)Co. Evidence should be provided of the accuracy of the quantification method, for instance, by determining "mass balance." Lung deposition may be expressed as a percentage of ex-valve or ex-device dose, but should also be given as mass of drug when possible. Assessment of regional lung deposition requires delineation of the lung borders, using X-ray computed tomography, radioactive gas scans ((133)Xe or (81m)Kr), or transmission scans. When quantifying regional lung deposition, the lung should be divided into outer (O) and inner (I) zones. A penetration index should be calculated, as the O/I ratio for aerosol, normalized to that for a radioactive gas or transmission scan. A variety of methods can be used to assess lung deposition and distribution. Methodology and results should be documented in detail, so that data from different centers may be compared. The use of appropriate methodology will provide greater confidence in the results of 2D imaging studies, and should allay concerns that such studies are qualitative or semiquantitative in nature. PMID:23215844

Newman, Stephen; Bennett, William D; Biddiscombe, Martyn; Devadason, Sunalene G; Dolovich, Myrna B; Fleming, John; Haeussermann, Sabine; Kietzig, Claudius; Kuehl, Philip J; Laube, Beth L; Sommerer, Knut; Taylor, Glyn; Usmani, Omar S; Zeman, Kirby L

2012-12-01

5

DOE limited standard: Operations assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

NONE

1996-05-01

6

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

NONE

1995-07-01

7

Automated Standard Nautical Chart Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In September of 1982, the Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic/Topographic Center printed and released to the public a Standard Nautical Chart which was compiled, symbolized, and color separated using computer technology. The production of this chart invol...

L. Strewig J. P. Ruys J. S. Schneier

1983-01-01

8

Productivity: standard terminology and definitions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There exists a need for a standard set of definitions to describe and measure the tasks performed by the staffs of clinical engineering departments. Too often, in discussions and publications on productivity, inconsistencies exist that make comparisons difficult between the author's methodology and that used by readers or other authors. To avoid this, there needs to be uniformity in the classification of which tasks are productive and the way those tasks are documented, tabulated, and reported. This paper presents some concepts from industrial engineering, as well as descriptions of staff labor and financial terms. Definitions for productivity and other measures of departmental performance are also developed.

Bauld TJ 3rd

1987-03-01

9

Product life cycle assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A product life cycle assessment (PLCA) is a simple or in-depth assessment of the total environmental impact caused by a product or chemical throughout its life time ''from cradle to grave''. It can be a comparative assessment of two or more products. It is attempted to promote a more thorough understanding of this concept, also regarding future applications, basic requirements and a commmonly agreed methodology. An overall view of the concept is given and probable demands on PLCA in different applications, related methodology and databases, a classification (impact analysis) in connection with life cycle assessments, health impacts and methods that might make it possible to include emissions from landfills are the main aspects of this subject that are dealt with. It is, amongst other things, concluded that there is a pressing need for harmonized, generally accepted and perhaps standardized terminology, structure and methods on an international level before PLCA can be used in relation to public decision-making and that generally accepted quality criteria are also lacking. Recommendations are given as to future strategies in this respect. (AB).

1992-01-01

10

Setting standards: Risk assessment issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How drinking water standards are set and which contaminants should be regulated are central issues in reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Other note that the high cost associated with meeting increasingly strict standards is unjustified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits. This article takes a look at the issues involved in developing a rational approach for establishing drinking water standards. It reviews the current approach used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to set standards.

Pontius, F.W.

1995-07-01

11

Mandatory reliability standards assessment report no. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

British Columbia Transmission Corporation (BCTC) is providing this Assessment Report No. 2 to the British Columbia Utilities Commission (Commission) regarding the reliability impacts, suitability, and potential costs of adopting one new reliability standard and 22 revised reliability standards for the bulk power system in British Columbia. Certain of the information and components of its initial assessment report were summarized in this report or attached to it where necessary for ease of reference. The standards constitute revisions to standards previously approved by the Commission for adoption in British Columbia. The 23 reliability standards are the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) standards that are mandatory in the United States (MRS regulation). BCTC recommends the adoption of the one new standard and revisions to 22 other standards and concludes that these assessed standards will preserve or enhance the reliability of the bulk power system in BC and are suitable for adoption in British Columbia based on the criteria applied by BCTC.

NONE

2010-02-15

12

DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

L. Kovalev; I. Kovalev

2012-01-01

13

A new pathway to product standardization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the benefits of product standardization become more evident in improved financial, managerial, and clinical outcomes, tools to make the process easier will be in demand. Once a standardization program is established, e-commerce offers tools to keep it on track.

Whitcomb J

2000-06-01

14

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

15

78 FR 37723 - Laser Products; Proposed Amendment to Performance Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...standard and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for laser products and medical laser products...standard applicable to the laser industry with the current IEC standards (IEC 60825-1, Safety of laser products--Part 1:...

2013-06-24

16

Methods for the assessment of the efficacy of products and slimming treatments for cellulite according to the Italian Interdisciplinary Group for the standardization of efficacy tests on cosmetic products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellulite is a very common skin alteration with a complex pathogenesis; different degrees of severity of cellulite can be observed in most part of people after puberty, and numerous cosmetic or more invasive treatments have been proposed, with variable efficacy. Since reproducible methods of evaluation of the effectiveness of cellulite treatments are lacking, the purpose of our group was to define and set general testing principles for evaluating the efficacy of slimming products and treatments/remodeling methods for cellulite, to achieve a delineation of reliable and reproducible research steps following a well-designed and scientifically valid methodology. After a careful review of literature and textbooks and according to personal experience, we defined assessment protocols based on clinical and instrumental tools. In order to make studies reliable, reproducible and safe, a protocol standardization is needed. The sponsor is responsible for assuring quality and information concerning the product under investigation; moreover, investigators should be experienced on cellulite evaluation and treatment, and, finally, the duration and modalities of application of the product should be specified. A treated VS non treated area comparison can be performed, to evaluate the severity of cellulite and the clinical outcomes of the treatment. Besides clinical evaluation, instrumental methods should always be implemented to provide objective data for treatment outcome.

Seidenari S; Bassoli S; Flori ML; Rigano L; Sparavigna A; Vesnaver R; Berardesca E

2013-04-01

17

Methods for the assessment of the efficacy of products and slimming treatments for cellulite according to the Italian Interdisciplinary Group for the standardization of efficacy tests on cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulite is a very common skin alteration with a complex pathogenesis; different degrees of severity of cellulite can be observed in most part of people after puberty, and numerous cosmetic or more invasive treatments have been proposed, with variable efficacy. Since reproducible methods of evaluation of the effectiveness of cellulite treatments are lacking, the purpose of our group was to define and set general testing principles for evaluating the efficacy of slimming products and treatments/remodeling methods for cellulite, to achieve a delineation of reliable and reproducible research steps following a well-designed and scientifically valid methodology. After a careful review of literature and textbooks and according to personal experience, we defined assessment protocols based on clinical and instrumental tools. In order to make studies reliable, reproducible and safe, a protocol standardization is needed. The sponsor is responsible for assuring quality and information concerning the product under investigation; moreover, investigators should be experienced on cellulite evaluation and treatment, and, finally, the duration and modalities of application of the product should be specified. A treated VS non treated area comparison can be performed, to evaluate the severity of cellulite and the clinical outcomes of the treatment. Besides clinical evaluation, instrumental methods should always be implemented to provide objective data for treatment outcome. PMID:23588148

Seidenari, S; Bassoli, S; Flori, M L; Rigano, L; Sparavigna, A; Vesnaver, R; Berardesca, E

2013-04-01

18

System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

2009-08-01

19

Scientific considerations for assessing biosimilar products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics (biosimilar products) is studied. Unlike the generic products, the development of biosimilar products is much more complicated because of fundamental differences in functional structures and manufacturing processes. As a result, the criteria and standard methods for the design and analysis of bioequivalence assessment of generic drug products may not be directly applicable to assessing biosimilarity of biosimilar products. In this article, we provide some scientific considerations for criteria, design, and analysis regarding the assessment of biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of biosimilar products. In addition, we discuss scientific and practical issues raised at the 2010 FDA public hearing and the 2011 FDA public meeting on biosimilar products. PMID:22933240

Chow, Shein-Chung; Wang, Jun; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Lachenbruch, Peter A

2012-08-30

20

Scientific considerations for assessing biosimilar products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The problem for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics (biosimilar products) is studied. Unlike the generic products, the development of biosimilar products is much more complicated because of fundamental differences in functional structures and manufacturing processes. As a result, the criteria and standard methods for the design and analysis of bioequivalence assessment of generic drug products may not be directly applicable to assessing biosimilarity of biosimilar products. In this article, we provide some scientific considerations for criteria, design, and analysis regarding the assessment of biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of biosimilar products. In addition, we discuss scientific and practical issues raised at the 2010 FDA public hearing and the 2011 FDA public meeting on biosimilar products.

Chow SC; Wang J; Endrenyi L; Lachenbruch PA

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Organic fish production and the standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuring animal welfare by decreasing the stocking density. This alternative model is used in many developed and developing countries in the world and the demand for this product has been the cause of increase in production amount and species variety in the market, although the model comprises 0.01% of the world aquaculture production. However, organic aquaculture production has not been developed as rapidly as organic agriculture. One of the most important reasons of this is the absence of international standards issued for organic aquaculture production. In this paper, the production principles of a number of authorized institutions certifying organic aquaculture are comparatively discussed.  

Yesim Ötles; Osman Ozden; Semih Ötles

2010-01-01

22

Drinking water standards and risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role and use of risk assessment methods in the establishment of drinking water standards are described with emphasis on recent applications. The process essentially includes an attempt to quantify human exposure from all routes including drinking water, animal toxicology, and human epidemiology, when available, to arrive at drinking water concentrations at which exposure would result in ''no known or anticipated adverse effects on health, with a margin of safety.'' The process itself is straightforward; however, the application to decision making for substances that are considered to be potentially nonthreshold acting in their toxicity (e.g., carcinogenic) requires many policy choices beyond the scientific data and is subject to considerable controversy.

Cotruvo, J.A.

1988-09-01

23

Standardization and Assessment of Cell Culture Media Quantities in Roller Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Bottles Employed in the Industrial Rabies Viral Vaccine Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vero cells are utilized for production of rabies vaccine. This study deals with the optimize quantity media require for the rabies vaccine production in the smooth roller surface. The rabies virus (Pasteur vaccine strain) is infected to monolayer of the various experimented bottles. To analyze the optimal quantity of media for the production of rabies viral harvest during the process of Vero cell derived rabies vaccine. The trials are started from 200 to 400 mL (PTARV-1, PTARV-2, PTARV-3, PTARV-4 and PTARV-5). The samples are taken in an appropriate time intervals for analysis of In Process Quality Control (IPQC) tests. The collected viral harvests are further processed to rabies vaccine in a pilot level and in addition to scale up an industrial level. Based on the evaluation the PTARV-2 (250 mL) show highly encouraging results for the Vero cell derived rabies vaccine production.

S. Jagannathan; S. Chaansha; K. Rajesh; T. Santhiya; C. Charles; K.N. Venkataramana

2009-01-01

24

Web Service Oriented Standard Product Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using standard components or modules is vital in product design, development and manufacturing. The current book type catalogues and those, in the form of electronic files together with CAD drawings distributed on disks or via web-based publication systems, can not meet industry requirements for collaborative engineering. Ideally, users could source competitive offers from different vendors and use their information over the Internet. The drawbacks in the current catalogues are platform dependency, and difficulties in version management, CAD file translation, and catalogue content updating. In this research, a novel “Web Service” oriented approach is proposed to address these limitations. Based on an in-house standard component and assembly library, a new method is proposed to engage a CAD modeler with Java Web Service technology. With such an approach, all the aforementioned drawbacks are eliminated. Moreover, the new method avoids hard coding of catalogues within CAD systems, facilitates the catalogue vendors to update their databases at any time. Taking injection molding design as an example, the authors discussed key mechanisms in its implementation and the feasibility of industrial applications.

Y. S. Ma; T. S. Rajeshbabu; Y. M. Deng

2007-01-01

25

Technology assessment of RDX production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The known processes for producing RDX were assessed with the goal of identifying the process that would generate the least waste and pollution. It was concluded that the Bachman process employed at Holston AAP is the most economical process for producing RDX and that it probably produces less waste than any other process. It was generally agreed that the entire Holston operation is a very clean one that complies with all federal and state emission standards. In addition, a number of opportunities in which Holston could reduce their wastes were identified. Preliminary assessments of waste and pollution profiles for alternate materials, with emphasis on dual-use materials, were performed.

Coburn, M.D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

26

Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact statement. Thus, the aim of this research was the accomplishment of a proposal including the development of procedures to apply in EIA issues surrounding the formulation, application and interpretation of significance criteria, conclusions and recommendations relevant to respect the aim of EIA that in provide environmental viability of men activities.Key-words: impact significance, methods of environmental impact assessment.

Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

2009-01-01

27

Assessment of fluctuating asymmetry on the basis of standard deviation ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical application of newly introduced indicator and integrated index of fluctuating asymmetry, based on standard deviation, is discussed. The calculating mechanism of proposed assessment is discussed in detail.??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????.

Zorina Anastasia

2013-01-01

28

CIABUSCOLO: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available in this study, samples of “Ciabuscolo”, a raw fermented meat product listed among the traditional products of the Marche Region, were collected from four meat processing plants and analysed to evaluate microbiological process and product’s standards.

G. Blasi; M Lanciotti; S. Nardi; B. Palombo; E. Ferretti; L Di Giacomo; E. Verdecchia; G. Finazzi; G. Pezzotti

2008-01-01

29

CIABUSCOLO: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available in this study, samples of “Ciabuscolo”, a raw fermented meat product listed among the traditional products of the Marche Region, were collected from four meat processing plants and analysed to evaluate microbiological process and product’s standards.

G. Blasi; M Lanciotti; S. Nardi; B. Palombo; E. Ferretti; L Di Giacomo; E. Verdecchia; G. Finazzi; G. Pezzotti

2013-01-01

30

Standardized discharge planning assessments: impact on patient outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether a difference exists in patient-reported problems and unmet needs after discharge when a standardized discharge planning assessment is added to usual care by staff nurses. Two groups of 130 adult patients were enrolled while hospitalized. The intervention group patients reported fewer unmet needs (P = .01) and had fewer problems complying with their discharge instructions (P = .04). Standardizing discharge planning assessments by staff nurses may improve identification of continuing care needs. PMID:22437249

Holland, Diane E; Bowles, Kathryn H

31

Standardized discharge planning assessments: impact on patient outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether a difference exists in patient-reported problems and unmet needs after discharge when a standardized discharge planning assessment is added to usual care by staff nurses. Two groups of 130 adult patients were enrolled while hospitalized. The intervention group patients reported fewer unmet needs (P = .01) and had fewer problems complying with their discharge instructions (P = .04). Standardizing discharge planning assessments by staff nurses may improve identification of continuing care needs.

Holland DE; Bowles KH

2012-07-01

32

Autonomic Standards Assessment Form for Spinal Cord Injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury are defined to document impairments in sensory and motor functions in patients with spinal cord injury. Since autonomic dysfunctions are also common in these patients, Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is developed to define the autonomic functions and it is recommended to be completed in all patients as a part of the clinical evaluation. The aim of this report was to present the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58 Suppl 1: 38-41.

Berrin GÜNDÜZ

2012-01-01

33

Portfolios, Performance Assessments, and Standards Based Learning in Educational Leadership.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the use of portfolios, performance assessments, and standards-based learning. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and other professional groups call for performance assessments that are as authentic as possible, and authenticity, in this context, means resembling real-world challenges. A portfolio is…

Stader, David L.; Hill-Winstead, Flo

34

Standardized mastery content assessments for predicting NCLEX-RN outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurse educators need predictors of failure for early intervention. This study investigated the predictability of fundamentals, mental health, and pharmacology standardized assessment scores to identify the risk of baccalaureate students' failure on the NCLEX-RN. Using logistic regression the pharmacology assessment score was predictive with 73.7% accuracy. Use of the pharmacology assessment can assist in early identification of at-risk students in efforts to better prepare for the NCLEX-RN examination. PMID:23407195

Emory, Jan

35

Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

2009-01-01

36

Linking Classroom Instruction and Assessment to Standardized Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the author presents a model that shows how inquiry-based instruction and creative classroom assessment can be used to teach the concepts and principles on which standardized test items are based. To successfully implement this model, the teacher must have a clear understanding of: (1) The ways that the NSES link to instruction and…

Hammerman, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

37

Standard operating procedures for neurophysiologic assessment of male sexual dysfunction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Can neurophysiological testing in male patients with sexual dysfunction benefit the decision-making process? The answer remains unclear. AIM: To provide standard operating procedures for the neurophysiologic assessment of male sexual dysfunction. METHODS: Medical literature was reviewed and combined with expert opinion of the authors. RESULTS: Bulbocavernosus reflex latency time, pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials, and sympathetic skin responses have been considered as potential candidates for the diagnosis and assessment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Currently, there is no consensus on a standardized methodology for these neurophysiological investigations in the overall assessment of ED. These procedures are unable to assess the integrity of the efferent parasympathetic proerectile penile innervation; accordingly, none of these assessment procedures is recommended for ED patients. Corpus cavernosum electromyography (CC-EMG) can detect abnormalities in cavernous smooth muscle although these alterations can be attributed both to damage to autonomic penile innervation and to degenerative processes of the cavernous smooth muscle. CC-EMG is still considered experimental. Evidence does not support that men with premature ejaculation (PE) are consistently characterized by penile hypersensitivity; accordingly, penile threshold determination is not recommended to in the diagnosis of PE. Neurophysiological investigation of other components of the penile sensory pathways in PE patients has not provided any definitive contribution to the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: No neurophysiological assessment procedures yield additional information that consistently aids in the assessment of PE and ED.

Giuliano F; Rowland DL

2013-05-01

38

Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

2010-01-29

39

Standards for psychological assessment of nuclear facility personnel. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject of this study was the development of standards for the assessment of emotional instability in applicants for nuclear facility positions. The investigation covered all positions associated with a nuclear facility. Conclusions reached in this investigation focused on the ingredients of an integrated selection system including the use of personality tests, situational simulations, and the clinical interview; the need for professional standards to ensure quality control; the need for a uniform selection system as organizations vary considerably in terms of instruments presently used; and the need for an on-the-job behavioral observation program.

Frank, F.D.; Lindley, B.S.; Cohen, R.A.

1981-07-01

40

[Application of standardized patients in teaching, learning and assessment].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new German requirements for Licensure to practice medicine focus on teaching clinical skills. It will become difficult for Medical Schools to fulfil these new requirements in the training of medical students with the increasing cost effectiveness in patient care. Standardized patients can be a very useful tool in teaching clinical skills. Implementation of a standardized patients program provides a quasi-real but safe learning environment in which students can acquire skills in physical examination, history taking, interpersonal and communication skills. These skills can also be assessed in this environment.

Ortwein H; Fröhmel A; Burger W

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Software Productivity: Harmonization in ISO/IEEE Software Engineering Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The software productivity is an important key of software quality factors. The productivity measure has become a tool for managers since it is used to compare the performance between different companies (benchmarking) and to compare the efficiency of different developers in the same company. Therefore, it allows doing strategic planning and decision making based on such measurement. A variety of international standardization bodies such as IEEE and ISO as well as software engineering researchers have proposed a set of factors which influence the software productivity attribute, and also a set of measures to evaluate it. However, there is no unique model that integrates all the software productivity best practices. The aim of this paper is to survey the available international standards and research work on software productivity and figure out the key differences in order to propose a standards-based model. Such model will include the set of quality attributes that could be used to reflect the software productivity, and a set of measures that allows evaluating the software developer’s productivity.

Laila Cheikhi; Rafa E. Al-Qutaish; Ali Idri

2012-01-01

42

Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

NONE

1996-01-01

43

Dose-effects relationships, risk assessments, and radiological protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The knowledge of relationship between the dose received by an individual and any particular detrimental effect induced by irradiation is one of the scientific bases of setting radiological protection standards and risk assessments. Several dose-response models, linear or non-linear, have been established in radiobiology and radiological protection. However, no conclusions can be regarded as definitive. Issues concerning the uncertainties and limitations of the risk estimation, the advantages and weakness of using a 'linear, without threshold' model for the purpose of radiological protection were discussed. Some suggestions for avoiding inappropriate assessments of the risk in radiological protection were made.

1986-01-01

44

[Analysis for the common problems of the product standards for medical devices' registeration].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The product standards for medical devices' registration are important technical document for production and supervision. Up to now, some problems still exist in these product standards. This paper analyzes common issues according to the standard writing specifications.

Yu D; Li G

2012-01-01

45

Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test configurations and approval limits, respectively: 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolution efficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on. PMID:21060604

Norrby, N E

1995-11-01

46

Methods of production and measurement of standard sources and solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the collection of papers having presented at the symposium, results are stated of the work performed in the CMEA member - states in the field of development and application of new methods of production of standard sources and solutions as well as of measuring their activity. Some installations used for measurements have been described. Results of measurements have been stated.

1979-01-01

47

Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve success in adopting reach standards.

Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

2007-03-01

48

Environmental product assessment. The Rapid Environmental Assessment lab REAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motorola operates the Rapid Environmental Assessment Lab in Taunusstein, Germany as center of competence for environmental product assessment. The lab service is provided internally to Motorola businesses and to external customers. The REAL assesses the performance of electronic products according to the requirements of the EU directives on the restriction of the use of hazardous substances (RoHS) and of the Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). The lab determines: material composition data, disassembly properties and, recyclability. (orig.)

Riess, M.; Smirnow, J.; Mueller, K.; Stutz, M. [Motorola GmbH, Physical Realization Research Center - Europe, Taunusstein (Germany)

2004-07-01

49

Multiphoton production at high energies in the Standard Model, 1  

CERN Document Server

We examine multiphoton production in the electroweak sector of the Standard Model in the high energy limit using the equivalence theorem in combination with spinor helicity techniques. We obtain recursion relations for currents consisting of a charged scalar, spinor, or vector line that radiates $n$ photons. Closed form solutions to these recursion relations for arbitrary $n$ are presented for the cases of like-helicity and one unlike-helicity photon production. We apply the currents singly and in pairs to obtain amplitudes for processes involving the production of $n$ photons with up to two unlike helicities from a pair of charged particles. The replacement of one or more photons by transversely polarized

Mahlon, G

1993-01-01

50

Reliability of standardized assessment for adults who are deafblind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of the interRAI Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA) and Deafblind Supplement (DbS). The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a multidimensional, standardized assessment instrument for use with adults (18 and older) who are deafblind. The interrater reliability of the instrument was tested through the completion of dual assessments with 44 individuals who were deafblind in the province of Ontario, Canada. Overall, nearly 50% of items had a kappa value of at least 0.60, indicating fair to substantial agreement for these items. Several items related to psychosocial well-being, mood, and sense of involvement had kappa scores of less than 0.40. However, among these items with low kappa values, most (78%) showed at least 70% agreement between the two assessors. The internal consistency of several health subscales, embedded within the assessment, was also very good and ranged from 0.63 to 0.93. The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a reliable instrument for assessing adults with deafblindness to better understand their needs, abilities, and preferences.

Dawn M. Guthrie, PhD; Robyn Pitman, MA; Paul Stolee, PhD; Graham Strong, OD, MSc; Jeff Poss, PhD; Erin Y. Tjam, PhD; Lindsay Bowman, MPH; Melody Ashworth, MSc; John P. Hirdes, PhD

2011-01-01

51

Multi Higgs and Vector boson production beyond the Standard Model  

CERN Multimedia

If the electroweak symmetry breaking is originated from a strongly coupled sector, as for instance in composite Higgs models, the Higgs boson couplings can deviate from their Standard Model values. In such cases, at sufficiently high energies there could occur an onset of multiple Higgs boson and longitudinally polarised electroweak gauge boson (V_L) production. We study the sensitivity to anomalous Higgs couplings in inelastic processes with 3 and 4 particles (either Higgs bosons or V_L's) in the final state. We show that, due to the more severe cancellations in the corresponding amplitudes as compared to the usual 2 to 2 processes, large enhancements with respect to the Standard Model can arise even for small modifications of the Higgs couplings. In particular, we find that triple Higgs production provides the best multiparticle channel to look for these deviations. We briefly explore the consequences of multiparticle production at the LHC.

Belyaev, A; Rosenfeld, R; Thomas, M C

2013-01-01

52

Assessing Outside the Bubble: Performance Assessment for Common Core State Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The adoption of Common Core State Standards has increased the need for assessments capable of measuring more performance-based outcomes. This monograph brings together the current literature and resources for the development and implementation of performance assessment. The text was written as part of a project-based graduate course and has…

Bishop, Jesica M.; Bristow, Lora J.; Coriell, Bryn P.; Jensen, Mark E.; Johnson, Leif E.; Luring, Sara R.; Lyons-Tinsley, Mary Ann; Mefford, Megan M.; Neu, Gwen L.; Samulski, Emerson T.; Warner, Timothy D.; White, Mathew F.

2011-01-01

53

Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

1982-01-01

54

Natural and agglomerated stone durability assessment according to technical standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of rock behaviour and durability plays an important role in the use of rocks and similar materials for all building purposes. Durability is a complex term, therefore the paper deals with the terminology and aspects related to the evaluation and prediction possibilities of stone durability. Technical standards offer some laboratory procedures suitable for stone durability assessment. The paper presents the results of the application of some standard laboratory methods on select types of natural and agglomerated stones, from the physical properties determination and durability assessment point of view. On the basis of defined criteria of physical properties, such as the value of open porosity, uniaxial compressive strength and water absorption, was predicted the behaviour of selected stones against ageing and weathering. Results of the realised laboratory weathering tests such as the determination of resistance to frost and salt crystallisation, determination of resistance to ageing by SO2 action in the presence of humidity, and determination of resistance to thermal shock, confirmed and verified rock behaviour conditional on stone genesis, mineral composition and structural characteristics.

Ivana Šimková; Tatiana Durmeková

2010-01-01

55

[Hygienic assessment of waste of soda production].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively.

Samutin NM; Vaisman YI; Rudakova LV; Kalinina EV; Glushankova IS; Batrakova GM

2013-03-01

56

Assessing the ecotoxicity of pesticide transformation products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Once released to the environment, pesticides may be degraded by abiotic and biotic processes. While parent compounds are assessed in detail in many regulatory schemes, the requirements for the assessment of transformation products are less well developed. This study was therefore performed to explore the relationships between the toxicity of transformation products and their parent compounds and to develop a pragmatic approach for use in the risk assessment of transformation products. Data were obtained on the properties and ecotoxicity of transformation products arising from a wide range of pesticides. Generally, transformation products were less toxic to fish, daphnids, and algae than their parent compound. In instances where a product was more toxic, the increase in toxicity could be explained by either (1) the presence of a pesticide toxicophore; (2) the fact that the product is the active part of a propesticide; (3) the product is accumulated to a greater extent than the parent compound; or (4) the product has a more potent mode of action than the parent. On the basis of the findings, an approach has been proposed to estimate the ecotoxicity of transformation products based on chemical structure and data on the toxicity of the parent compound. The assessments can be performed at an early stage in the risk assessment process to identify those substances that require further testing.

Sinclair CJ; Boxall AB

2003-10-01

57

A risk assessment for a Korean standard nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Level 3 PSA being termed accident consequence analysis is defined to assess effects on health and environment caused by radioisotopes released from severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In this study consequence analysis on health effects depending on release characteristics of radioisotopes has been performed using the MACCS code in severe accidents. The results of this study may contribute to identifying the relative importance of various parameters occurred in consequence analysis as well as to assessing risk reduction accident management strategies. Especially three parameters for the purpose of consequence analysis, such as the release height, the heat content, and the duration time, are used to analyze the variation of early fatalities and latent cancer fatalities. Also, in this study risk assessment using the concept, 'products of uncertainty and consequences', has been performed using consequence of MACCS and frequency on source term category 19 scenarios from IPE (Individual Plant Examination) analysis.

2003-01-01

58

Standardized assessment for evaluation of team skills: validity and feasibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The authors developed a Standardized Assessment for Evaluation of Team Skills (SAFE-TeamS) in which actors portray health care team members in simulated challenging teamwork scenarios. Participants are scored on scenario-specific ideal behaviors associated with assistance, conflict resolution, communication, assertion, and situation assessment. This research sought to provide evidence of the validity and feasibility of SAFE-TeamS as a tool to support the advancement of science related to team skills training. METHODS: Thirty-eight medical and nursing students were assessed using SAFE-TeamS before and after team skills training. The SAFE-TeamS pretraining and posttraining scores were compared, and participants were surveyed. Generalizability analysis was used to estimate the variance in scores associated with the following: examinee, scenario, rater, pretraining/posttraining, examinee type, rater type (actor-live vs. external rater-videotape), actor team, and scenario order. RESULTS: The SAFE-TeamS scores reflected improvement after training and were sensitive to individual differences. Score variance due to rater was low. Variance due to scenario was moderate. Estimates of relative reliability for 2 raters and 8 scenarios ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. With fixed scenarios and raters, 2 raters and 2 scenarios, reliability is greater than 0.8. Raters believed SAFE-TeamS assessed relevant team skills. Examinees' responses were mixed. CONCLUSIONS: The SAFE-TeamS was sensitive to individual differences and team skill training, providing evidence for validity. It is not clear whether different scenarios measure different skills and whether the scenarios cover the necessary breadth of skills. Use of multiple scenarios will support assessment across a broader range of skills. Future research is required to determine whether assessments using SAFE-TeamS will translate to performance in clinical practice.

Wright MC; Segall N; Hobbs G; Phillips-Bute B; Maynard L; Taekman JM

2013-10-01

59

A proposed standard on medical isotope production in fission reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Authors Robert E. Sehenter, Garry Brown and Charles S. Holden argue that a Standard for 'Medical Isotope Production' is needed. Medical isotopes are becoming major components of application for the diagnosis and treatment of all the major diseases including all forms of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's, among others. Current nuclear data to perform calculations is incomplete, dated or imprecise or otherwise flawed for many isotopes that could have significant applications in medicine. Improved data files will assist computational analyses to design means and methods for improved isotope production techniques in the fission reactor systems. Initial focus of the Standard is expected to be on neutron cross section and branching data for both fast and thermal reactor systems. Evaluated and reviewed tables giving thermal capture cross sections and resonance integrals for the major target and product medical isotopes would be the expected 'first start' for the 'Standard Working Group'. (authors)

Schenter, R. E. [Smart Bullets Inc., 2521 SW Luradel Street, Portland, OR 97219 (United States); Brown, G. J. [Ozarks Medical Center, Cancer Treatment Center, Shaw Medical Building, 1111 Kentucky Avenue, West Plains, MO 65775 (United States); Holden, C. S. [Thorenco LLC, 369 Pine Street, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States)

2006-07-01

60

An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302...CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. (a) Except as...

2009-07-01

62

The development of an Arctic standard for floating production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry uses floating offshore structures to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store and offload the product to an export tanker or pipeline system. The floating structure can include the hull, marine systems, accommodation, hydrocarbon processing facilities, storage and offloading systems, a mooring system to hold the structure on location, the flow lines or risers connecting the unit to the well head, and the subsea installations and the flowlines that collect the hydrocarbons from the wells. This paper discussed the development of ISO 19906, a new standard for the design of floating oil and gas production facilities in the Arctic. Ice management will play a prominent role in the standard, which is due to be published in 2009. The authors presented their views on some of the rationale that went into the development of requirements for floating structures in this standard, with reference to ship-shaped hull or barge units; column stabilized and buoy type units; and, tension leg platform units. The standard deals with design principles and functional requirements applicable to the life cycle of the floating structure, such as the construction phases; transportation, installation, and move-off phases; the operating phase; and, the decommissioning phase. The same principles should be used for both steel hulled floating structures and structures fabricated from other materials. This paper also reviewed another standard which is under development for the design of floating production systems, namely ISO 19904 for materials, equipment, and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries. Ice action and hull design issues were discussed along with the requirements for the design, construction and operation of a hull with respect to the considerations of the Arctic environment. The requirements for establishing an ice management system that addresses the detection, threat evaluation and implementation of active mitigation measures to deal with hazardous ice situations, including both glacial ice features and sea ice were also reviewed. The entire production system of a floating production facility should be designed appropriately for the geographical location and environmental conditions. This could potentially involve seasonal operation, special operating procedures, ice management or even disconnection. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Makrygiannis, M. [BP Norway AS, Stavanger (Norway); McKenna, R. [R. McKenna Consultant, Wakefield, PQ (Canada); Wright, B. [B. Wright Associates, Canmore, AB (Canada); Allyn, N. [Westmar Consultants, North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sildnes, T. [Det Norske Veritas, Hovik (Norway); Jolles, W. [Agip KCO, Den Haag (Netherlands); Morland, M. [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway); Grant, R. [Grantec, Halifax, NS (Canada)

2006-11-15

63

Non-standard isotope production and applications at Washington University  

Science.gov (United States)

The positron emitting radionuclides, oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 have been produced at Washington University for many years utilizing two biomedical cyclotrons; a Cyclotron Corporation CS15 and a Japan Steel Works 16/8 cyclotron. In recent years we have become interested in the production of non-standard PET isotopes. We were initially interested in copper-64 production using the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu nuclear reaction, but now apply this technique to other positron emitting copper isotopes, copper-60 and copper-61. Copper-64 is being produced routinely and made available to other institutions. In 1999 over ten Curies of copper-64 were produced, making copper available to thirteen institutions, as well as research groups at Washington University. We are currently developing methods for the routine productions of other PET radioisotopes of interest, these include; bromine-76, bromine-77, iodine-124, gallium-66, and technetium-94m. .

McCarthy, Timothy J.; McCarthy, Deborah W.; Laforest, Richard; Bigott, Heather M.; Wüst, Frank; Reichert, David E.; Lewis, Michael R.; Welch, Michael J.

2001-07-01

64

Standard test method for saponification number of petroleum products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This method covers the determination of the amount of constituents in petroleum products that will saponify under the conditions of the test. Since compounds of sulfur, phosphorus, the halogens, and certain other elements which are sometimes added to petroleum products also consume alkali and acids, the results obtained indicate the effect of these extraneous materials in addition to the saponifiable material present. Results on products containing such materials, on used internal-combustion-engine crank-case oils, and on used turbine oils must be interpreted in this respect. Summary of method: a known weight of the sample, dissolved in methylethylketone is heated with a known amount of alcoholic potassium hydroxide (KOH). The excess alkali is titrated with standard acid and the saponification number calculated.

1980-01-01

65

An international serum standard for application in assays to detect human complement activation products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of the complement system in clinical medicine has become evident during the last decades and complement therapeutics has now reached the clinic. Thus, there is an increased interest in and need for assays to evaluate complement activity and dysfunction. Pathologically increased complement activation can indirectly be evaluated by quantification of complement components, but in order to exactly measure such activation, assays for quantification of products formed during activation are required. Progress in this field is hampered by lack of standardization. Therefore, members of the International Complement Standardization Committee, a joint initiative of the International Complement Society and the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), prepared a defined standard for application in assays for complement activation products. We here report on the production and properties of this International Complement Standard #2 (ICS#2). ICS#2 was made from a pool of sera from healthy blood donors (ICS#1) that was activated with a combination of heat-aggregated IgG and zymosan, and subsequently stabilized by adding EDTA and nafamostat mesylate. The protocol was optimized to make the standard applicable in the following activation product assays: C1rs-C1-inhibitor complexes, C4a, C4bc, C4d, Bb, C3bBbP, C3a, C3bc, C3dg, C5a and the soluble terminal C5b-9 complement complex (SC5b-9, TCC). ICS#2 was defined as containing 1000 complement activation units (CAU)/mL for all activation products measured. All activation products were stable after 10 times thawing and freezing and most of the activation products were stable during storage at 4°C for up to 21 days. ICS#2 was produced large-scale and is considered a valuable tool for standardization, calibration and reference control for complement activation assays, providing the necessary prerequisite for quality assessments between complement laboratories. PMID:23787367

Bergseth, Grethe; Ludviksen, Judith K; Kirschfink, Michael; Giclas, Patricia C; Nilsson, Bo; Mollnes, Tom E

2013-06-17

66

An international serum standard for application in assays to detect human complement activation products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The importance of the complement system in clinical medicine has become evident during the last decades and complement therapeutics has now reached the clinic. Thus, there is an increased interest in and need for assays to evaluate complement activity and dysfunction. Pathologically increased complement activation can indirectly be evaluated by quantification of complement components, but in order to exactly measure such activation, assays for quantification of products formed during activation are required. Progress in this field is hampered by lack of standardization. Therefore, members of the International Complement Standardization Committee, a joint initiative of the International Complement Society and the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), prepared a defined standard for application in assays for complement activation products. We here report on the production and properties of this International Complement Standard #2 (ICS#2). ICS#2 was made from a pool of sera from healthy blood donors (ICS#1) that was activated with a combination of heat-aggregated IgG and zymosan, and subsequently stabilized by adding EDTA and nafamostat mesylate. The protocol was optimized to make the standard applicable in the following activation product assays: C1rs-C1-inhibitor complexes, C4a, C4bc, C4d, Bb, C3bBbP, C3a, C3bc, C3dg, C5a and the soluble terminal C5b-9 complement complex (SC5b-9, TCC). ICS#2 was defined as containing 1000 complement activation units (CAU)/mL for all activation products measured. All activation products were stable after 10 times thawing and freezing and most of the activation products were stable during storage at 4°C for up to 21 days. ICS#2 was produced large-scale and is considered a valuable tool for standardization, calibration and reference control for complement activation assays, providing the necessary prerequisite for quality assessments between complement laboratories.

Bergseth G; Ludviksen JK; Kirschfink M; Giclas PC; Nilsson B; Mollnes TE

2013-12-01

67

Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS) assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS). Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu; Andile Mji

2012-01-01

68

Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: standard operating procedure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension (PH) should be evaluated using a multimodality approach to ensure that they receive a correct diagnosis. The series of investigations required includes clinical evaluation, noninvasive imaging techniques and right heart catheterisation (considered to be the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of PH). Current guidelines recommend that a detailed echocardiographic assessment is performed in all patients with suspected PH. In this review we summarise a protocol adopted by the National Pulmonary Hypertension Centres of UK and Ireland and approved by the British Society of Echocardiography for the evaluation of these patients. The views and measurements described are recommended for diagnosis, assisting in prognosis and providing a noninvasive means of following disease progression or response to therapy.

Luke S. Howard; Julia Grapsa; David Dawson; Michael Bellamy; John B. Chambers; Navroz D. Masani; Petros Nihoyannopoulos; J. Simon R. Gibbs

2012-01-01

69

Desirability of a standard notation for fisheries assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The worldwide increase of the publications concerning the assessment of marine renewable living resources is highlighting long-standing problems with symbols and annotations. Starting from the symbols presented within the classic fisheries masterpieces produced, mainly in the fifty of the last century, a first “Milestone” list was organised. Thereafter, the pertinent literature was (not exhaustively) browsed in order to integrate this Milestone list on the base of a set of decisional criteria. The present contribution consists in using the Latin letters as well established symbols for the corresponding parameters, leaving free to specific use (with few historical exceptions) the Greek letters in view to open a discussion among all the fisheries scientists and bodies in order to move towards a common language and better communication standards.

Sergio Ragonese; Sergio Vitale

2013-01-01

70

Assessing the HIPAA standard in practice: PHR privacy policies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health service providers are starting to become interested in providing PHRs (Personal Health Records). With PHRs, access to data is controlled by the patient, and not by the health care provider. Companies such as Google and Microsoft are establishing a leadership position in this emerging market. A number of benefits can be achieved with PHRs, but important challenges related to security and privacy must be addressed. This paper presents a review of the privacy policies of 20 free web-based PHRs. Security and privacy characteristics were extracted and assessed according to the HIPAA standard. The results show a number of important differences in the characteristics analyzed. Some improvements can be made to current PHR privacy policies to enhance the audit and management of access to users' PHRs. A questionnaire has been defined to assist PHR designers in this task.

Carrión I; Alemán JL; Toval A

2011-01-01

71

Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products  

CERN Document Server

1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

72

Risk assessment of plant protection products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides). Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of sc...

Hardy T; Bopp S; Egsmose M; Fontier H; Mohimont L; Steinkellner H; Streissl F

73

Sunplicity: From complex system design to standard product level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1989 Alpha Real launched the project Megawatt to promote and demonstrate that standardized PV-systems in the kW-range are cost effective in comparison to large scale installations. Project Megawatt was a huge success and the project concept was adopted by many others around the world. Within this system standard new components had been developed and tested, such as an arc detector to improve safety against fire, roof tile for integration in dwellings and flat roof support for integration in commercial buildings. Exactly five years later, the project Gigawatt was launched by Alpha Real to promote and demonstrate that small independent 200 W AC modules will be cost effective compared with DC wired PV-systems. Several developments were made to achieve a unique product. Some of the inventions were a new hot spot detector and control device, and the low cost DC to AC converter edisun{reg_sign}. Three different types of PV-products were developed and called accordingly Gigalino Handy, Gigalino Top and Gigalino Max.

Real, M.G.; Buehler, U. [Alpha Real AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Toggweiler, P.; Roth, G.; Bolliger, E.

1994-12-31

74

Advancement of isotope separation for the production of reference standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a mass separator that is currently producing high purity isotopes for use as internal standards for high precision isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In 2008, INL began the revival of the vintage 1970s era instrument. Advancements thus far include the successful upgrading and development of system components such as the vacuum system, power supplies, ion-producing components, and beam detection equipment. Progress has been made in the separation and collection of isotopic species including those of Ar, Kr, Xe, Sr, and Ba. Particular focuses on ion source improvements and developments have proven successful with demonstrated output beam currents of over 10 ?A 138Ba and 350 nA 134Ba from a natural abundance Ba source charge (?2.4 % 134Ba). In order to increase production and collection of relatively high quantities (mg levels) of pure isotopes, several improvements have been made in ion source designs, source material introduction, and ion detection and collection. These improvements have produced isotopes of high purity (>98 %) and in quantities in the tens of micrograms per run. The instrument and results for pure isotope production for IDMS standards will be presented. (author)

2013-01-01

75

Standardizing Limits for Cost of Production in Commercial Egg Operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken in Chakwal during 2000-2001 while collecting data from 109 flocks to predict standard limits for various cost components in commercial egg production enterprise. Net profit per bird was taken as response variable and the cost components one by one were standardized using quadratic functions. Maximum critical limit for total predicted cost of production per bird, cost of: feed, labor, day-old chick, building and equipment, immunization, medication, transportation, miscellaneous items, bedding and electricity was Rs. 343.41, Rs. 22.97, Rs. 21.63, Rs. 17.39, Rs. 9.08, Rs. 7.80, Rs. 3.32, Rs. 3.30, Rs. 2.05, Rs. 2.03, respectively. The critical maximum limits were the indicators suggesting that any increase beyond those limits would render the enterprise uneconomical. The information provided may serve a useful purpose for the commercial layer farms in improving net profit from commercial layers in Chakwal.

Farooq. M.; M. A. Mian; Zahoor-ul-Haq; F. R. Durrani; M. Syed

2002-01-01

76

A travelling standard for radiopharmaceutical production centres in Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-lived radionuclides, ?, ?+ and/or ?- emitters, such as 18F, and 99mTc, particularly useful for nuclear medicine applications, both diagnostic and in radiotherapy, can be produced with high-specific activity in a small biomedical cyclotron or by a radionuclide generator. While [18F]Fludeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) is a widely used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography, the development of innovative diagnostic techniques and therapies involves the use of new radio-labelled molecules and emerging radionuclides, such as 64Cu and 124I. During the last 3 years, an extensive supply of [18F]FDG was started by many production sites in Italy, and new radiopharmaceuticals are being studied for future nuclear medical applications. Therefore, a special nuclear medicine research programme for primary standard development and transferral to the end-users has been carried out by the ENEA-INMRI. Because of the short half-lives of these nuclides, a portable well-type ionisation chamber was established as a secondary travelling standard. This device has been calibrated and transported to the radiopharmaceutical production centres in Italy where the local instrumentation, typically radionuclide calibrators, has been calibrated by a simple comparison, with an uncertainty level lower than 2%.

Capogni, M.; de Felice, P.; Fazio, A.

77

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

2011-10-31

78

The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance.

Wiser, Ryan H.; Langniss, Ole

2001-11-01

79

Multiphoton production at high energies in the Standard Model, 2  

CERN Multimedia

We examine multiphoton production in the electroweak sector of the Standard Model in the high energy limit using the equivalence theorem in combination with spinor helicity techniques. We utilize currents consisting of a charged scalar, spinor, or vector line that radiates $n$ photons. Only one end of the charged line is off shell in these currents, which are known for the cases of like-helicity and one unlike-helicity photons. We obtain a wide variety of helicity amplitudes for processes involving two pairs of charged particles by considering combinations of four currents. We examine the situation with respect to currents which have both ends of the charged line off-shell, and present solutions for the case of like-helicity photons. These new currents may be combined with two of the original currents to produce additional amplitudes involving Higgs, longitudinal $Z$ or neutrino pairs.

Mahlon, G

1993-01-01

80

Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variatio...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Risk assessment of plant protection products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides). Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU) law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity) the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting) and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides in view of the future dialogue between risk managers and risk assessors during the next steps of the revision of the ecotoxicology guidance documents.

Hardy T; Bopp S; Egsmose M; Fontier H; Mohimont L; Steinkellner H; Streissl F

2012-01-01

82

Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manu...

Ruban, Anna

83

Neuropsychological assessment and cerebral vascular disease: The new standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) includes vascular dementia (VaD), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) and mixed dementia. In clinical practice, VCI concerns patients referred for clinical stroke or cognitive complaint. To improve the characterization of VCI and to refine its diagnostic criteria, an international group has elaborated a new standardized evaluation battery of clinical, cognitive, behavioral and neuroradiological data which now constitutes the reference battery. The adaption of the battery for French-speaking subjects is reported as well as preliminary results of the on-going validation study of the GRECOG-VASC group [Clinical Trial NCT01339195]. The diagnostic accuracy of various screening tests is reviewed and showed an overall sub-optimal sensitivity (structured interview has been shown to increase the detection of dementia. In addition to the well known NINDS-AIREN criteria of VaD, criteria of VCI have been recently proposed which are based on the demonstration of a cognitive disorder by neuropsychological testing and either history of clinical stroke or presence of vascular lesion by neuroimaging suggestive of a link between cognitive impairment and vascular disease. A memory deficit is no longer required for the diagnosis of VaD as it is based on the cognitive decline concerning two or more domains that affect activities of daily living. Both VaMCI and VaD are classified as probable or possible. These new criteria have yet to be validated. Considerable uncertainties remain regarding the determinant of VCI, and especially the lesion amount inducing VCI and VaD. The interaction between lesion amount and its location is currently re-examined using recent techniques for the analysis of MRI data. The high frequency of associated Alzheimer pathology is now assessable in vivo using amyloid imaging. The first studies showed that about a third of patients with VaD due to small vessel disease or with poststroke dementia have amyloid PET imaging suggestive of AD. These new techniques will examine the interaction between vascular lesions and promotion of amyloid deposition. Although results of these on-going studies will be available in few years, these data indicate that efforts should be done in clinical practice to reduce underdiagnosis of VCI; VCI should be examined using a specific protocol which will be fully normalized soon for French-speaking patients; the sub-optimal sensitivity of screening tests prompts to use a structured interview to grade Rankin scale and to perform systematically a comprehensive assessment in stroke patients at risk of VCI; poststroke dementia occurring after 3 months poststroke may be preventable by treatment of modifiable vascular risk factors and secondary prevention of stroke recurrence according to recent recommendations. PMID:23999023

Godefroy, O; Leclercq, C; Bugnicourt, J-M; Roussel, M; Moroni, C; Quaglino, V; Beaunieux, H; Taillia, H; Nédélec-Ciceri, C; Bonnin, C; Thomas-Anterion, C; Varvat, J; Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Assal, F

2013-08-30

84

Exergetic assessment of solar hydrogen production methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. Its eco-friendly production is really crucial for better environment and sustainable development. In this paper, various types of hydrogen production methods namely solar thermal (high temperature and low temperature), photovoltaic, photoelectrolysis, biophotolysis etc are discussed. A brief study of various hydrogen production processes have been carried out. Various solar-based hydrogen production processes are assessed and compared for their merits and demerits in terms of exergy efficiency and sustainability factor. For a case study the exergy efficiency of hydrogen production process and the hydrogen system is discussed in terms of sustainability. (author)

Joshi, A.S.; Dincer, I.; Reddy, B.V. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: anand.joshi@uoit.ca, ibrahim.dincer@uoit.ca, bale.reddy@uoit.ca

2009-07-01

85

Exergetic assessment of solar hydrogen production methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. Its eco-friendly production is really crucial for better environment and sustainable development. In this paper, various types of hydrogen production methods namely solar thermal (high temperature and low temperature), photovoltaic, photoelectrolysis, biophotolysis etc are discussed. A brief study of various hydrogen production processes have been carried out. Various solar-based hydrogen production processes are assessed and compared for their merits and demerits in terms of exergy efficiency and sustainability factor. For a case study the exergy efficiency of hydrogen production process and the hydrogen system is discussed in terms of sustainability. (author)

2009-01-01

86

Assessing the Quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors comment on Porter, McMaken, Hwang, and Yang's recent analysis of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by critiquing their measures of the focus of the standards and the absence of an assessment of coherence. The authors then consider whether the standards are an improvement over most state mathematics standards by discussing…

Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

2011-01-01

87

Neuropsychological assessment and cerebral vascular disease: The new standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) includes vascular dementia (VaD), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) and mixed dementia. In clinical practice, VCI concerns patients referred for clinical stroke or cognitive complaint. To improve the characterization of VCI and to refine its diagnostic criteria, an international group has elaborated a new standardized evaluation battery of clinical, cognitive, behavioral and neuroradiological data which now constitutes the reference battery. The adaption of the battery for French-speaking subjects is reported as well as preliminary results of the on-going validation study of the GRECOG-VASC group [Clinical Trial NCT01339195]. The diagnostic accuracy of various screening tests is reviewed and showed an overall sub-optimal sensitivity (<0.8). Thus, the general recommendation is to perform systematically a comprehensive assessment in stroke patients at risk of VCI. Furthermore,the use of a structured interview has been shown to increase the detection of dementia. In addition to the well known NINDS-AIREN criteria of VaD, criteria of VCI have been recently proposed which are based on the demonstration of a cognitive disorder by neuropsychological testing and either history of clinical stroke or presence of vascular lesion by neuroimaging suggestive of a link between cognitive impairment and vascular disease. A memory deficit is no longer required for the diagnosis of VaD as it is based on the cognitive decline concerning two or more domains that affect activities of daily living. Both VaMCI and VaD are classified as probable or possible. These new criteria have yet to be validated. Considerable uncertainties remain regarding the determinant of VCI, and especially the lesion amount inducing VCI and VaD. The interaction between lesion amount and its location is currently re-examined using recent techniques for the analysis of MRI data. The high frequency of associated Alzheimer pathology is now assessable in vivo using amyloid imaging. The first studies showed that about a third of patients with VaD due to small vessel disease or with poststroke dementia have amyloid PET imaging suggestive of AD. These new techniques will examine the interaction between vascular lesions and promotion of amyloid deposition. Although results of these on-going studies will be available in few years, these data indicate that efforts should be done in clinical practice to reduce underdiagnosis of VCI; VCI should be examined using a specific protocol which will be fully normalized soon for French-speaking patients; the sub-optimal sensitivity of screening tests prompts to use a structured interview to grade Rankin scale and to perform systematically a comprehensive assessment in stroke patients at risk of VCI; poststroke dementia occurring after 3 months poststroke may be preventable by treatment of modifiable vascular risk factors and secondary prevention of stroke recurrence according to recent recommendations.

Godefroy O; Leclercq C; Bugnicourt JM; Roussel M; Moroni C; Quaglino V; Beaunieux H; Taillia H; Nédélec-Ciceri C; Bonnin C; Thomas-Anterion C; Varvat J; Aboulafia-Brakha T; Assal F

2013-08-01

88

An evaluation of life cycle assessment of European milk production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method regulated by ISO that conveys the environmental impact of products. LCA studies of the same product should be comparable to benefit environmental policy making. LCA of milk production has evaluated environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, resource utilisation and land use change. Thirteen LCA studies of European milk production were analysed for comparability, and direct comparison was difficult due to technical issues, arbitrary choices and inconsistent assumptions. The strengths and weaknesses of LCA for evaluating an agricultural system are identified and improvements for comparability of future studies are also considered. Future LCA of milk production should ensure that: (1) the production system is appropriately characterized according to the goal of study; (2) a clear description of the system boundary and allocation procedures is provided according to ISO standards; (3) a common functional unit, probably Energy Corrected Milk, should be used or assumed fat and protein content presented to enable comparisons; (4) where appropriate, site-specific emission factors and characterization factors should be used in environmental hotspots (e.g. manure management, spreading of synthetic fertilizer, production of purchased feed), and phosphorous loss should be better addressed; (5) a range of impact categories including climate change, energy use, land use, acidification and eutrophication should be used to assess pollution swapping, all of which are subject to national or regional directives; perhaps in the future biodiversity should also be included; and (6) the sensitivity to choices of methods and uncertainty of final results should be evaluated.

Yan MJ; Humphreys J; Holden NM

2011-03-01

89

Tying Together the Common Core of Standards, Instruction, and Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear, high standards will enable us to develop an education system that ensures that high school graduates are ready for college. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has been working with other organizations to develop a Common Core of Standards. The partners working with the foundation are developing tools that will show teachers what is…

Phillips, Vicki; Wong, Carina

2010-01-01

90

Environmental assessment of brick production in Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brick constitutes one of the major materials used for the construction of buildings. The present study analyses the different stages followed during brick production and the materials and energy used in each stage. The purpose is to identify 'hot-spots', i.e. parts of the life cycle that are important to the total environmental impact. The analysis is performed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a method used to identify and quantify the environmental performance of a process or a product from 'cradle to grave'. LCA methodology provides a quantitative basis for assessing potential improvements in environmental performance of a system throughout the life cycle. The system investigated includes raw material acquisition, industrial production, packaging and transportation. Energy use and emissions are quantified and the potential environmental effects are assessed. The main energy inputs to the production system are electricity, diesel and solid fuel (Pet-Coke). The environmental burdens that arise from the operation of a brick industry are mainly due to air emissions derived from fossil fuel utilization. (author)

Koroneos, Christopher; Dompros, Aris [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 483, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-05-15

91

On risk assessment of energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

2005-01-01

92

Branch standard centre for radionuclide metrology and isotope production standardization in Czechoslovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks are described of the branch standardization centre. The principal information sources are listed in the field of technical standardization as are the methods of the processing and use of these sources for the compilation of technical standards. (M.D.)

1982-01-01

93

Using Digital Video Production to Meet the Common Core Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The implementation of the Common Core Standards has just begun and these standards will impact a generation that communicates with technology more than anything else. Texting, cell phones, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, etc. are the ways they speak with their friends and the world. The Common Core Standards recognize this. According to the Common Core…

Nichols, Maura

2012-01-01

94

SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium Common Core State Standards Analysis: Eligible Content for the Summative Assessment. Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a descriptive analysis of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), intended to determine which content is eligible for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium's end-of-year summative assessment for English language arts (ELA) and mathematics in grades 3-8 and high school. The high school standards analyzed were those in grades…

Sato, Edynn; Lagunoff, Rachel; Worth, Peter

2011-01-01

95

Production flow for sweetened according to export peasant residual standard  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a production process of honey pomelo according to an export agriculture remanet standard. Through a series of processes of building a demonstration base for exporting honey pomelo, determining a forbidden pesticide list, selecting the variety of pesticides, doing nutrient diagnosis and prescription fertilization, sterically controlling and pruning fruit trees, interplanting green manure, building an ecological orchard, implementing the integrated control of diseases and insect pests, implementing fruit bagging, detecting quality and agriculture remanet, and collecting fruit, keeping fresh and package through the heat shrinking film far infrared ray fresh-keeping and packing technology, and controlling and managing the quality through the quality control information management technology and the like, the honey pomelo is produced. The process can lead produces to accord with the quality and the agriculture remanet demands of an export state and break through a green trade barrier of international trade, abundant honey pomeloes are exported to developed nations which are the european union and the like, and the process has an excellent market prospect.

YINGJUN YAN; XIUJIN ZHENG; MINGYANG ZHANG; KAIMING HUANG; WENHAI LIN

96

Developing federal standards and accreditations for data protection products  

Science.gov (United States)

Security standards help users implement adequate protection in their systems. Independent, third-party conformance testing to security standards provides those users with a metric beyond vendor affirmation in determining conformance. Independent third-party conformance testing gives manufacturers the opportunity to claim conformance to a standard using a strong metric. However neither standards nor testing programs can be successful without the support of the manufacturers and users they are intended to serve. This paper discusses a standard that was developed by NIST in conjunction with industry, federal and private sector users, and the validation program that provides users the necessary metric to determine conformance.

Carnahan, Lisa J.

1996-03-01

97

Production of fractional atomic layer standards of niobium and vanadium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To produce such standards a modified Pierce-type electron-beam-gun evaporation system with a thickness monitor was used. An ''accurate'' Nb standard of 0.1 monolayer deposit thickness was prepared by evaporation under controlled conditions. Nb standards of 1.1 q, 0.11, and 0.011 monolayers were produced in a single evaporation. These standards were then calibrated to the ''accurate'' standard. The errors quoted do not include those associated with the monitor itself. The relative accuracy of the standards was verified by Rutherford backscattering and ion micro-probe measurements. Standards of Nb and V on single-crystal Si substrates were produced. The very thin fractional-atomic-layer targets were used in an experiment which yielded valuable information for the fusion power program. This experiment is briefly described. The method of fabrication of the targets, and the techniques used to determine the target thicknesses are described

1976-10-21

98

Reenvisioning assessment for the Academy and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's standards revision process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Assessment has become a major aspect of accreditation processes across all of higher education. As the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) plans a major revision to the standards for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) education, an in-depth, scholarly review of the approaches and strategies for assessment in the PharmD program accreditation process is warranted. This paper provides 3 goals and 7 recommendations to strengthen assessment in accreditation standards. The goals include: (1) simplified standards with a focus on accountability and improvement, (2) institutionalization of assessment efforts; and (3) innovation in assessment. Evolving and shaping assessment practices is not the sole responsibility of the accreditation standards. Assessment requires commitment and dedication from individual faculty members, colleges and schools, and organizations supporting the college and schools, such as the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Therefore, this paper also challenges the academy and its members to optimize assessment practices.

Janke KK; Kelley KA; Kuba SE; Mason HL; Mueller BA; Plake KS; Seaba HH; Soliman SR; Sweet BV; Yee GC

2013-09-01

99

75 FR 65293 - Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards...Requirements for the Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) has developed...guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic...

2010-10-22

100

Assessment of technologies to meet a low carbon fuel standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper investigates the potential for cost-effective GHG reductions from electrification and expanded use of biofuels. The analysis indicates that fuel providers could meetthe standard using a portfolio approach that employs both biofuels and electricity, which would reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with the progress of cellulosic and battery technologies, feedstock prices, land availability, and the sustainability of the various compliance approaches. Our analysis is based on the details of California's development of an LCFS; however, this research approach could be generalizable to a national U.S. standard and to similar programs in Europe and Canada.

Yeh S; Lutsey NP; Parker NC

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Loss of safety assessment and the IEC 61508 standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard IEC 61508 contains a lot of useful information and guidance for safety improvement regarding the use of safety systems. However, some of the basic concepts and methods for loss of safety quantification are somewhat confusing. This paper discusses the failure classification, the various contributions to the safety unavailability, and in particular the common cause failure (CCF) model presented in this standard. Suggestions for clarifications and improvements are provided. In particular, a new CCF model is suggested, denoted the Multiple Beta Factor model.

2004-01-01

102

Measurement and standardization of eye safety for optical radiation of LED products  

Science.gov (United States)

The blue light hazard (BLH) to human eye's retina is now a new issue emerging in applications of artificial light sources. Especially for solid state lighting sources based on the blue chip-LED(GaN), the photons with their energy more than 2.4 eV show photochemical effects on the retina significantly, raising damage both in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The photobiological safety of artificial light sources emitting optical radiation has gained more and more attention worldwide and addressed by international standards IEC 62471-2006(CIE S009/E: 2002). Meanwhile, it is involved in IEC safety specifications of LED lighting products and covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to artificial optical radiation. In practical applications of the safety standards, the measuring methods of optical radiation from LED products to eyes are important in establishment of executable methods in the industry. In 2011, a new project to develop the international standard of IEC TR62471-4,that is "Measuring methods of optical radiation related to photobiological safety", was approved and are now under way. This paper presents the concerned methods for the assessment of optical radiation hazards in the standards. Furthermore, a retina radiance meter simulating eye's optical geometry is also described, which is a potential tool for blue light hazard assessment of retinal exposure to optical radiation. The spectroradiometric method integrated with charge-coupled device(CCD) imaging system is introduced to provide more reliable results.

Mou, Tongsheng; Peng, Zhenjian

2013-06-01

103

Alignment of Standards, Assessment and Instruction: Implications for English Language Learners in Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic…

Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan

2010-01-01

104

Assessing product image quality for online shopping  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

2012-01-01

105

Extending the LOINC conceptual schema to support standardized assessment instruments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To extend the Clinical LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes) semantic schema to support (1) the representation of common types of assessment instruments and (2) the disambiguation of versions and variants that may have differing reliability and validity. DESIGN: Psychometric theory and survey research framework, plus an existing tool for implementing many types of assessment instruments (Dialogix), were used to identify and model the attributes of instruments that affect reliability and validity. Four modifications to the LOINC semantic schema were proposed as a means for completely identifying, disambiguating, and operationalizing a broad range of assessment instruments. MEASUREMENTS: Assess the feasibility of modeling these attributes within LOINC, with and without the proposed extensions. RESULTS: The existing LOINC schema for supporting assessment instruments was unable to consistently meet either objective. In contrast, the proposed extensions were able to meet both objectives, because they are derived from the Dialogix schema, which already performs those tasks. CONCLUSION: These extensions to LOINC can facilitate the use, analysis, and improvement of assessment instruments and thereby may improve the detection and management of errors.

White TM; Hauan MJ

2002-11-01

106

78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EERE-2012-BT-STD-0022] RIN 1904-AC78 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters...EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer...

2013-02-26

107

75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EE-2009-BT-STD-0022] RIN 1904-AC06 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces...to analyze for purposes of amending energy conservation standards for certain...

2010-03-15

108

Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p < 0.05) than fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p < 0.05) than for biofuels. Analysis of inorganic compounds like PM??,?.?, SO? or NO(x) shows some advantages of sugar beet bioethanol and soybean biodiesel production (p < 0.05), although production of sugarcane bioethanol shows larger impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p < 0.001). Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards.

Fink R; Medved S

2013-01-01

109

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

110

Standards for chemical quality of drinking water: A critical assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author critically reviews present standards for the chemical quality of drinking water, particularly the limits proposed by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in 1979. Particularly, the general principles of standard setting are discussed. It appears that there exists a surprisingly high similarity in drinking water limits, issued by various national and international authorities, although for other environmental compartments important discrepancies exist. Usually, drinking water limits lack adequate documentation, and appear often to be copied from other existing lists. There is an apparent lack of logical consistency in limits set for food, ambient or workroom air, and drinking water, probably due to lack of communication between health experts and decision-making authorities. Moreover, there is a lack of toxicologic studies, explicitly aimed at setting limits. Extrapolation from the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for food or the Threshold Limit Value (TLV)-Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for workroom air could be undertaken to derive tentative drinking water limits, as long as explicitly designed studies for drinking water are not yet available.

Zielhuis, R.L.

1982-06-01

111

Standards for chemical quality of drinking water: a critical assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author critically reviews present standards for the chemical quality of drinking water, particularly the limits proposed by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in 1979. Particularly, the general principles of standard setting are discussed. It appears that there exists a surprisingly high similarity in drinking water limits, issued by various national and international authorities, although for other environmental compartments important discrepancies exist. Usually, drinking water limits lack adequate documentation, and appear often to be copied from other existing lists. There is an apparent lack of logical consistency in limits set for food, ambient or workroom air, and drinking water, probably due to lack of communication between health experts and decision-making authorities. Moreover, there is a lack of toxicologic studies, explicitly aimed at setting limits. Extrapolation from the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for food or the Threshold Limit Value (TLV)-Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for workroom air could be undertaken to derive tentative drinking water limits, as long as explicitly designed studies for drinking water are not yet available.

Zielhuis, R.L.

1982-01-01

112

Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) operated onboard the Envisat platform, is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focusses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center-wavelength, significantly decreasing to a few percent at 560 nm and increasing again at 665 nm. Such an underestimate at the blue center-wavelengths leads to an average overestimate of the algal-1 MERIS pigment index largely exceeding 100% for the considered European seas. A comparable overestimate is also observed for the algal-2 pigment index independently determined from top-of-atmosphere radiance through the application of neural networks.

G. Zibordi; F. Mélin; J.-F. Berthon; E. Canuti

2013-01-01

113

Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01

114

Assessing the Impact of Standards-based Curricula: Investigating Students’ Epistemological Conceptions of Mathematics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the advent of the NCTM Standards (1989), mathematics educators have been faced with the challenge of assessing the impact of Standards-based (or “reform”) curricula. Research on the impact of Standards-based curricula has predominantly focused on student achievement; here we consider an alternative: Students’ epistemological conceptions of mathematics. 297 participants were administered a Likert-scale survey instrument, the Conceptions of Mathematics Inventory. Of these, 163 had not experienced Standards-based curricula, while the rest had used a Standards-based curriculum for over three years. Our results indicate that students at the Standards-based site expressed more sophisticated epistemological conceptions of mathematics than those of the students from the non-Standards-based site. We interpret this result to suggest that implementation of Standards-based curricula may be having an effect on students’ epistemological conceptions of mathematics.

Jon R. Star; Amanda Jansen Hoffmann

2005-01-01

115

78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...A-489-501] Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\2\\ The period of review is...

2013-06-07

116

Patients’ vs. Physicians’ Assessments of Emergencies: The Prudent Layperson Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare perception of the need for emergency care by emergency department (ED) patients vs. emergency physicians (EPs). Methods: Mailed survey to EPs and a convenience sample of ED patients. Survey rated urgency of acute sore throat, ankle injury, abdominal pain, and hemiparesis, as well as the best definition of “emergency.” Responses were compared with chi-square (p < .05). Results: 119/140 (85%) of EPs and 1453 ED patients responded. EPs were more likely to judge acute abdominal pain (79.8% vs. 43.4%, p < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 5.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19-8.40) and hemiparesis (100% vs. 82.6%, p < 0.001, OR 24.9, 95% CI 3.75-94.4) as an emergency. Similar proportions of ED patients and EPs considered sore throat (12.2% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.18, OR 0.59, CI 0.27-1.23) and ankle injury (46.9% vs. 38.6%, p = 0.10, OR 0.71, CI 0.48-1.06) an emergency. EPs (35%) and ED patients (40%) agreed to a similar degree with the “prudent layperson” definition, “a condition that may result in death, permanent disability, or severe pain.” (p = .36, OR 1.22, CI 0.81-1.84). EPs were more likely to add, “the condition prevented work,” (27% vs. 16%, p = 0.003, OR 0.51, CI 0.33-0.81). Patients more often added, “occurred outside business hours” (15% vs. 4%, p = 0.002, OR 4.0, CI = 1.5-11.3). Conclusion: For serious complaints, ED patients’ thresholds for seeking care are higher than judged appropriate by EPs. Stroke is not uniformly recognized as an emergency. Absent consensus for the “correct” threshold, the prudent layperson standard is appropriate.

Langdorf, Mark I; Bearie, Brian J; Kazzi, A. Antoine; Blasko, Barbara; Kohl, Andras

2003-01-01

117

Assessing culturally competent diabetes care with unannounced standardized patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: More effective diabetes care is desperately needed, especially for ethnic minority populations. Provider cultural competence promises to be an important means for reducing disparities in outcomes for patients with diabetes. The objectives of this study were to understand the role of cultural competence in the diabetes office visit. METHODS: Unannounced standardized patients (SPs) were sent to the offices of 29 family and internal medicine residents and practicing physicians. The SPs portrayed a Mexican American woman newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Using a checklist developed with the input of experts in Hispanic/Latino health care and cultural competence, the SPs evaluated physicians' cultural competence, diabetes care, and general communications skills. RESULTS: The average total SP Checklist score was 70.7-11.0%, with a range of 43.9% to 90.2%. Physicians scored highly on items that measured general communication skills (95.9%) but were less likely to ask about social history (ie, family and community support issues, 51.9% and 48.1%, respectively). Sixty-seven percent of physicians ordered a hemoglobin A1c, 44% referred to ophthalmology, and 15% performed a monofilament exam. Physicians' inquiry into SPs explanatory model of disease (ie, asking about the SPs' views regarding their disease and its treatment) correlated with the performance of several diabetes treatment-related behaviors, Spearman's rho=.466. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide support for a relationship between inquiry into patients' explanatory models of disease and effective diabetes care. Social history and explanatory model elicitation skills are vital parts of cultural competence training programs and potentially valuable tools for mitigating health disparities.

Kutob RM; Bormanis J; Crago M; Senf J; Gordon P; Shisslak CM

2013-06-01

118

Environmental impact assessments for energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is the final report from a jointly financed project within lVL studying methodology for environmental impact assessments (EIAs). The aim has been to show possibilities and problems with EIAs for air pollution emissions from energy production plants in environments where critical loads and levels are exceeded. The project has mainly dealt with plants emitting air pollutants with environmental effects on the regional scale, including sulphur and nitrogen compounds, volatile organic compounds and particles, and effects such as acidification, eutrophication and ozone formation. Conclusions from the work are that project managers, environmental auditors, together with regional and local authorities could have use for better and more detailed guidelines, in the form of more detailed emission data from different types of alternative plants; Guidelines for the elaborating and assessing of relevant zero alternatives; Regional environmental goals and guidelines for the acceptable contribution to these by different activities; Criteria for the definition of the areas of 'environmental influence'. Furthermore, quantitative relationships between exposure and effects may contribute to better and more detailed descriptions of environmental impact and the need of decreasing the load for the recovery of polluted ecosystems.

2000-01-01

119

Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

1989-06-01

120

HOW LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT ENCOURAGE LOCAL FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is an evaluation that will give useful information about successive stages alongside product full life cycle, from the purchase of the raw materials, production, consumption and waste recycling or elimination. This assessment will emphasize that the locally food production and consumption has the lowest environmental impact and is the most sustainable one.

OANA BRINZAN; EUGENIA ?IGAN

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

1999-01-01

122

Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA), a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA) production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157) was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran). The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

M Riazipour; M Salehi; A Zand; M Bagheripour; A Emamgholi; Z Mottaghiyan; M Afshari; R Kachuei; R Golmohammadi

2012-01-01

123

DOE [Department of Energy]-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

1990-01-01

124

DOE (Department of Energy)-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

Williams, D.L. Jr.

1990-11-01

125

DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

126

Quality control and quality standards for the production of bone allografts in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a rapid progress of tissue banking especially Bone Banking in China, In order to strengthen the control on medical devices, Ministry of Public Health (MPH) issued the 'Regulation on Supervision of Critical Medical Devices, MPH Decree No. 54' in 1997. The SPTB was requested to submit new application for the approval of production and providing of tissue allografts. The needed documents are clinical reports, package insert, quality standards of product, Quality System Regulation (QSR) and audit report. Quality System Regulation document adopted the GMP standard for medical devices of FDA, US (21 CFR 620-1997). SPTB will amend the existed Quality Manual to suit the requirement of QSR. Referring to the AATB Standards, SPTB established 'Technical Standards' for Tissue Banking and was approved by the local government, which will be the supplement of the submitted QSR document. Considering the need of market control, MPH requested to submit a 'Quality Standard of Product' and the method of inspection. SPTB has completed such standards for final inspection of bone products, which includes the test for residual water, microbiology, bone species, colour and structure. In addition, the Tissue Bank has completed standards for in process inspection, which includes residual blood, radiation sterilization, initial bioburden, package leakage and biomechanics. In-process inspection is important for the control of non-conforming final products to assure the safety and efficacy of bone grafts. Methods of in process inspection and final inspection are described and discussed in this paper.

1999-01-01

127

Taste assessment trials for sensory analysis of oral pharmaceutical products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taste assessment trials are conducted with an aim to evaluate taste of tastants (food, chemical, drug etc.) and involve estimation of gustatory sensation responses in healthy human volunteers within well controlled procedures. Taste assessment trials are the standard and so far preferred method of taste assessment. Several in vitro taste assessment approaches have emerged as subsidiary methods but none could replace Taste assessment trials. The article provides an overview on conduct of taste assessment trials in healthy adult human volunteers and children. PMID:18930868

Anand, Vikas; Kharb, Vandana; Kataria, Mahesh; Kukka, Vipin; Choudhury, Pratim Kumar

2008-10-01

128

Standardized mapping of nursing assessments across 59 U.S. military treatment facilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Create an interoperable set of nursing flowsheet assessment measures within military treatment facility electronic health records using the 3M Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD). DESIGN: The project comprised three phases: 1) discovery included an in-depth analysis of the Essentris data to be mapped in the HDD; 2) mapping encompassed the creation of standard operating procedures, mapping heuristics, and the development of mapping tools; and 3) quality assurance incorporated validation of mappings using inter-rater agreement. RESULTS: Of 569,073 flowsheet concepts, 92% were mapped to the HDD. Of these, 31.5% represented LOINC concepts, 15% represented SNOMED CT and 1% represented both. 52.5% were mapped to HDD concepts with no standardized terminology representations. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing flowsheet data can be mapped to standard terminologies but there is not the breadth of coverage necessary to represent nursing assessments. Future work is necessary to develop a standard information model for the nursing process.

Harman TL; Seeley RA; Oliveira IM; Sheide A; Kartchner T; Woolstenhulme RD; Wilson PS; Lau LM; Matney SA

2012-01-01

129

A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

1998-09-00

130

Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported to Saudi Arabia in order to curtail their excess and safeguard consumer health.

Al-Saleh I; Al-Enazi S; Shinwari N

2009-07-01

131

Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

|In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

Vervaeke, Marina

2012-01-01

132

Egg Production Performance and Prediction of Standard Limits for Traits of Economic Importance in Broiler Breeders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted on broiler breeders maintained in 24 different farms located in Mansehra and Abbotabad to investigate egg production performance and develop standard limits for production traits of economic importance. Average number of day-old chicks received at a broiler breeder...

Murad Ali; M. Farooq; F. R. Durrani; N. Chand; K. Sarbiland; A. Riaz

133

An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether…

Cox, Christopher

2006-01-01

134

Assessment Report of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) Wholesale Electric Quadrant Draft Technical Standards for Public Key Infrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides an independent analysis of the draft standards developed by the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) related to its PKI Standards described in the document entitled 'NAESB Wholesale Electric Quadrant (WEQ) draft technical s...

2006-01-01

135

Applying toxicological risk assessment principles to constituents of smokeless tobacco products: implications for product regulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine how information on chemical constituents of different smokeless tobacco products (STPs) may be used in cancer risk assessment for regulatory purposes. METHODS: This study investigated select STP constituents potentially associated with significant cancer risk by applying a known toxicological risk assessment framework. Cancer risk estimates were obtained for selected constituents of STPs and a medicinal nicotine gum formulation with comparable toxicity information and also median concentration data on the GothiaTek analytes. The calculated cancer risk was considered 'unacceptable' if it exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) benchmark of an 'acceptable' cancer risk of 10E-6. RESULTS: The cancer risk estimates derived from daily use of 10 g of STPs meeting the industry-set GothiaTek limits exceed the levels generally considered 'acceptable' by the USEPA at least 8000 times. Except for the medicinal nicotine tested, all the STP types, including the relatively lower tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA)-containing snus, were found to carry an 'unacceptable' cancer risk. The calculated cancer risks associated with the snus and the US moist snuff products were, respectively, at least 1000 times and 6000 times greater than the minimum acceptable. TSNA and cadmium are associated with the largest estimated cancer risks for all the STPs evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings provide an empirical risk assessment that could guide STP regulation using an existing toxicological assessment framework. The study findings question the scientific rationale of the industry-set standards and highlight the need for regulatory actions to reduce specific toxicants in all STPs.

Ayo-Yusuf OA; Connolly GN

2011-01-01

136

Standard setting in complex performance assessments: An approach aligned with cognitive diagnostic models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increased interest in student-level diagnostic information from multiple performance assessments, it becomes possible to create multivariate classifications of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs). In this paper, a systematic, multivariate and non-compensating standard setting approach, called the cognitive analytical approach (CAA), is proposed for performance assessment with complex tasks. CAA is based on the framework of evidence-centered design (Mislevy, Steinberg, & Almond, 2003) that supports a chain of reasoning from design and development to delivery of an assessment. In CAA, the performance standards are established simultaneously with domain-modeling, test specifications, and item writing rather than after the assessment has been completed; the cut scores are evaluated iteratively along with the test design and development phases. CAA has the benefits of ensuring the validity of the performance standards, reducing the cognitive load of standard setting, including the complexity of the tasks, and facilitating the vertical articulation of KSAs. In this paper, we elucidate the theoretical and practical rationale of CAA and demonstrate its proce-dures and results with an illustrative example.

Robert W. Lissitz; Feifei Li

2011-01-01

137

Process Assessment Issues of the ISO/IEC 29110 emerging standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emerging ISO/IEC 29110 standard "Software Engineering - Lifecycle Profiles for Very Small Entities (VSE)" is an ISO initiative to provide Very Small Entities (VSE) with a suitable set of profiles for Process Assessment and Process Improvement. The approach is conforming to ISO 15504 2-D model of...

Ribaud, Vincent; Saliou, Philippe

138

Pesticide Assessment Guidelines, Subdivision G: Product Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a guideline for the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), Subdivision G provides guidance to the registrant on developing product performance data that the Agency may require to demonstrate the effectiveness of their pesticide pr...

C. Grable S. Duffy T. Ellwanger W. Audia W. Campbell

1982-01-01

139

Assessment of the effectiveness of standardized infusion devices for healthcare management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since standardization is an important safety measure in healthcare systems, it is essential to systematically assess the effects of introducing new and increasingly complex medical equip-ment, such as infusion devices. In this study, we compared the effects of standardized polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-free closed-system integrated infusion devices with conventional infusion de-vices. Specifically, we assessed the safety, work efficiency, user-friendliness, and cost effec-tiveness of these devices. Compared with con-ventional infusion devices, integrated PVC-free infusion devices were more expensive to pur-chase and dispose, but were safer and more user-friendly and efficient. Although it would be preferable to use standardized infusion devices in all hospital departments, their cost may limit their application to departments that use high-risk treatments, where they would be most beneficial.

Shio Sugita; Hideko Aida; Aya Okada; Hiroyuki Kobayashi

2011-01-01

140

Teleophthalmology assessment of diabetic retinopathy fundus images: smartphone versus standard office computer workstation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of a smartphone handset compared with a standard office computer workstation for teleophthalmology fundus photo assessments of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Eligible, consenting participants' fundus images were acquired using a non-mydriatic camera. These images along with other medical data were transmitted 20 miles away through the Internet (gold standard) and also through an iPhone(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) to two ophthalmologists, who independently compared the images. RESULTS: The ? coefficient between the gold standard workstation display and iPhone images to detect retinopathy-related changes for both readers was more than 0.9. The image quality of the iPhone was scored high by the ophthalmologists. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmic images transmitted through both smartphone and Internet techniques match well with each other. Despite current limitations, smartphones could represent as a tool for fundus photo assessments of diabetic retinopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the economic and clinical feasibility of smartphones in ophthalmology.

Kumar S; Wang EH; Pokabla MJ; Noecker RJ

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols.

Coelho G; Clark J; Aurand D

2013-06-01

142

Validation of the Standard Method for Assessing Flicker From Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper studies the validity of the standard method in IEC 61400-21 for assessing the flicker emission from multiple wind turbines. The standard method is based on testing a single wind turbine and then using the results of this test to assess the flicker emission from a number of wind turbines. This study is based on the data from two wind farms, one with fixed-speed wind turbines and one with variable-speed wind turbines. The data are: a type test at the terminals of a wind turbine, and measurements at the connection of a collection line to the substation. The type test data are used to assess the flicker emission at the collection line; this assessment is then compared to the actual measurements in order to study the accuracy of the estimation. It was observed in both wind farms, that the assessment based on the standard method is statistically conservative compared to the measurements. The reason for this is the statistical characteristics of flicker emission.

Barahona Garzon, Braulio; SØrensen, Poul Ejnar

2011-01-01

143

Radiation Safety Analysis In The NFEC For Assessing Possible Implementation Of The ICRP-60 Standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation safety analysis of the 3 facilities in the nuclear fuel element center (NFEC) for assessing possible implementation of the ICRP-60 standard has been done. The analysis has covered the radiation dose received by workers, dose rate in the working area, surface contamination level, air contamination level and the level of radioactive gas release to the environment. The analysis has been based on BATAN regulation and ICRP-60 standard. The result of the analysis has showed that the highest radiation dose received has been found to be only around 15% of the set value in the ICRP-60 standard and only 6% of the set value in the BATAN regulation. Thus the ICRP-60 as radiation safety standard could be implemented without changing the laboratory design.

1998-01-01

144

Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM OF THE STUDY: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors' resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants' ALS-competence was assessed using the Advanced Life Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is conducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding resuscitation teaching issued by the university. RESULTS: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of the participants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites. CONCLUSION: Newly graduated doctors do not have sufficient competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests according to the current guidelines published by ERC. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between sites. Change in teaching and assessment practice in undergraduate emergency medicine courses is needed in order to increase the level of ALS-competence of newly graduated doctors. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Apr

Jensen, Morten Lind; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus

2007-01-01

145

Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM OF THE STUDY: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors' resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants' ALS-competence was assessed using the Advanced Life Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is conducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding resuscitation teaching issued by the university. RESULTS: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of the participants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites. CONCLUSION: Newly graduated doctors do not have sufficient competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests according to the current guidelines published by ERC. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between sites. Change in teaching and assessment practice in undergraduate emergency medicine courses is needed in order to increase the level of ALS-competence of newly graduated doctors Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4

Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.

2008-01-01

146

Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

1963-01-01

147

Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

Anastasiou, Charalampos; Furlan, Elisabetta; Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas

2011-01-01

148

Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

Furlan E.; Anastasiou, C.; Buehler, S.; Herzog, F.; Lazopoulos, A.

2011-07-12

149

Bioequivalence for locally acting nasal spray and nasal aerosol products: standard development and generic approval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for nasal spray/aerosol products for local action has been very challenging because the relationship between the drug in systemic circulation and the drug reaching the nasal site of action has not been well established. Thus, the current BE standard for these drug/device combination products is based on a weight-of-evidence approach, which contains three major elements: equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delivery. In addition, formulation sameness and device similarity are evidences to support BE. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the scientific rationale of the current BE standard and their development history for nasal spray/aerosol products, as well as the Food and Drug Administration's review and approval status of generic nasal sprays/aerosols with the application of these BE standard.

Li BV; Jin F; Lee SL; Bai T; Chowdhury B; Caramenico HT; Conner DP

2013-07-01

150

Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristics to the ISO 12207 activities and vers versa. Results: This study presented a set of comments and suggestions to improve the ISO 9126. Conclusion: The weaknesses of the cross-references between the two ISO standards had been highlighted. In addition, this study provided a number of comments and suggestions to be taken into account on the next version of the ISO 9126 international standard.

Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

2009-01-01

151

Draft Regulatory Analysis. Technical support document No. 1: energy efficiency standards for consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Draft Regulatory Analysis is presented that describes the analyses performed by DOE to arrive at proposed energy efficiency standards for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling only), and furnaces. Standards for dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiders are required to be published in the Federal Register no later than December 1981. Standards for central air conditioners (heat pumps) and home heating equipment are to be published in the Federal Register no later than January 1982. Accordingly, these products are not discussed in this Draft Regulatory Analysis.

1980-06-01

152

Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future.

Henrichs K

2011-03-01

153

Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors)

2011-01-01

154

Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. PMID:21212077

Henrichs, K

2011-01-06

155

A new approach to assessing sweat production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synopsis Since 1916 when Stillians (1) first reported that excessive axillary sweating could be reduced by the application of 25% aqueous aluminium chloride, sales of antiperspirant products have increased dramatically. In spite of many studies, the mechanism of action of these compounds has not been clearly elucidated (2). In most cases, investigations have been performed on animal foot pads, excised human biopsy specimens and skin samples in vivo (3). A model which eliminated problems encountered in whole body investigations (for example, influence of blood flow) would be preferable. One such method, introduced in part by Sato (3), has been investigated. Preliminary investigations suggest that this method could become useful in the evaluation of the mode of action of antiperspirants. Sweat production was induced using carbachol and methacholine in isolated rat plantar sweat glands. These were maintained in a suitable environment (modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate at 38 degrees C containing 30% w/v fresh rat serum). The output of sweat was measured every 5 minutes for 85 minutes and the maximal final volume obtained with any one gland was 23 nanolitres. Sweat production ceased on administration of appropriate concentrations of atropine or the withdrawal of calcium ions from the bathing fluid. PMID:19469994

Michniak, B B

1983-12-01

156

A new approach to assessing sweat production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Synopsis Since 1916 when Stillians (1) first reported that excessive axillary sweating could be reduced by the application of 25% aqueous aluminium chloride, sales of antiperspirant products have increased dramatically. In spite of many studies, the mechanism of action of these compounds has not been clearly elucidated (2). In most cases, investigations have been performed on animal foot pads, excised human biopsy specimens and skin samples in vivo (3). A model which eliminated problems encountered in whole body investigations (for example, influence of blood flow) would be preferable. One such method, introduced in part by Sato (3), has been investigated. Preliminary investigations suggest that this method could become useful in the evaluation of the mode of action of antiperspirants. Sweat production was induced using carbachol and methacholine in isolated rat plantar sweat glands. These were maintained in a suitable environment (modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate at 38 degrees C containing 30% w/v fresh rat serum). The output of sweat was measured every 5 minutes for 85 minutes and the maximal final volume obtained with any one gland was 23 nanolitres. Sweat production ceased on administration of appropriate concentrations of atropine or the withdrawal of calcium ions from the bathing fluid.

Michniak BB

1983-12-01

157

How to develop a competency-based examination blueprint for longitudinal standardized patient clinical skills assessments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs) with standardized patients (SPs) are commonly used in medical education to assess learners' clinical skills. However, assessments are often discrete rather than intentionally developmentally sequenced. Aims: We developed an examination blueprint to optimize assessment and feedback to learners with purposeful sequence as a series of longitudinally integrated assessments based on performance milestones. Integrated and progressive clinical skills assessments offer several benefits: assessment of skill development over time, systematic identification of learning needs, data for individualized feedback and learning plans, and baseline reference points for reassessment. Methods: Using a competency-based medical education (CBME) framework, we translated pre-determined competency milestones for medical students' patient encounters into a four-year SP-based OSCE examination blueprint. Results: Initial evaluation of cases using the blueprint revealed opportunities to target less frequently assessed competencies and to align assessments with milestones for each year. Conclusions: The examination blueprint can guide ongoing SP-based OSCE case design. Future iterations of examination blueprints can incorporate lessons learnt from evaluation data and student feedback.

Mookherjee S; Chang A; Boscardin CK; Hauer KE

2013-11-01

158

How to develop a competency-based examination blueprint for longitudinal standardized patient clinical skills assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs) with standardized patients (SPs) are commonly used in medical education to assess learners' clinical skills. However, assessments are often discrete rather than intentionally developmentally sequenced. Aims: We developed an examination blueprint to optimize assessment and feedback to learners with purposeful sequence as a series of longitudinally integrated assessments based on performance milestones. Integrated and progressive clinical skills assessments offer several benefits: assessment of skill development over time, systematic identification of learning needs, data for individualized feedback and learning plans, and baseline reference points for reassessment. Methods: Using a competency-based medical education (CBME) framework, we translated pre-determined competency milestones for medical students' patient encounters into a four-year SP-based OSCE examination blueprint. Results: Initial evaluation of cases using the blueprint revealed opportunities to target less frequently assessed competencies and to align assessments with milestones for each year. Conclusions: The examination blueprint can guide ongoing SP-based OSCE case design. Future iterations of examination blueprints can incorporate lessons learnt from evaluation data and student feedback. PMID:23848440

Mookherjee, Somnath; Chang, Anna; Boscardin, Christy K; Hauer, Karen E

2013-07-12

159

Mannequin or standardized patient: participants' assessment of two training modalities in trauma team simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple mannequins have been employed, to enable training without being dependent on expensive and advanced simulators. We wanted to assess the participants' assessment of using a standardized patient instead of a mannequin. Methods Trauma teams in five hospitals were randomly exposed to a mannequin or a standardized patient in two consecutive simulations for each team. In each hospital two teams were trained, with opposite order of simulation modality. Anonymous, written questionnaires were answered by the participants immediately after each simulation. The teams were interviewed as a focus group after the last simulation, reflecting on the difference between the two simulation modalities. Outcome measures were the participants' assessment of their own perceived educational outcome and comparison of the models, in addition to analysis of the interviews. Results Participants' assessed their educational outcome to be high, and unrelated to the order of appearance of patient model. There were no differences in assessment of realism and feeling of embarrassment. Focus groups revealed that the participants felt that the choice between educational modalities should be determined by the simulated case, with high interaction between team and patient being enhanced by a standardized patient. Conclusion Participants' assessment of the outcome of team training seems independent of the simulation modality when the educational goal is training communication, co-operation and leadership within the team.

Wisborg Torben; Brattebø Guttorm; Brinchmann-Hansen Åse; Hansen Kari

2009-01-01

160

Developing Product Quality Control for Standardization of Tsetse Mass Production. Working Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The recent Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) provides a mechanism within which SIT will be one of the major components of an integrated areawide approach to the establishment of tsetse fly-free areas. Currently world-wide tsetse production is 1/40 of the projected requirement in 2006. To achieve this objective it is essential that quality control (QC) measures suitable for the expanded production be in place. Therefore, improved QC methodology has become a top priority. Improvements in QC methodology will help to ensure the attainment of these production goals and improve quality of rearing, minimize production costs and generate trained QC and production staff required to successfully produce flies and monitor their quality and suitability for release. The proposed CRP is designed to address these issues.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Comparison of photographic and visual assessment of occlusal caries with histology as the reference standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic performance for the detection of caries using photographs with an established visual examination method and histological sections as the reference standard. Methods 50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods, diagnoses were made at “caries into dentine” level. The teeth were histologically sectioned and the diagnostic decisions using visual and photographic assessment were compared to the histological reference standard. Inter- and intra- examiner reliability for the methods was assessed and weighted kappa values were calculated. Results The visual examination method had a median sensitivity value of 65.6% and a median specificity value of 82.4%. The photographic assessments method had a median sensitivity of 81.3% and a median specificity of 82.4%. Conclusions The photographic assessments method had a higher sensitivity for caries detection than the visual examination. The two methods had comparable specificities and good intra- and inter- examiner reliability.

Boye Uriana; Walsh Tanya; Pretty Iain A; Tickle Martin

2012-01-01

162

Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio) between decoded original and modified video sequences.

Z. Mili?evi?; Z. Bojkovi?

2012-01-01

163

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle. (author)

Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

2009-12-15

164

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle.

Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

2009-01-01

165

[Hygienic assessment of food products in Krasnoyrsk region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents data on the prevalence of different types of sanitary violations, caused by failure to comply with sanitary regulations, on 573 enterprises that produce bakery products, confectionery, dairy, meat and fish products, drinks in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. It is shown that the greatest number of sanitary offenses are committed at manufactures of milk, fish and meat products. Finished goods at 21-37% of these enterprises do not meet the requirements of hygiene standards. The proportion of deposits of factors (such as type of food product, a form of ownership of the enterprise, the type of locality, where manufacture is) in the frequency of sanitary violations has been determined.

Vasilovski? AM; Kurkatov SV

2012-01-01

166

Assessment of hydrogen combustion effects in the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses General Electric's study of potential hydrogen combustion effects on the Standard Mark III containment during postulated severe accidents. This study was performed as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant. The methodology of determining the accident event sequence and modeling of the Boiling Water Reactor core response, including hydrogen generation by metal-water reaction, is described. Combustion of hydrogen released to the containment is analyzed and effects on the Mark III containment system are assessed. It is concluded that even for those cases where containment integrity may be lost, the containment function (i.e., limiting offsite doses) is maintained by the drywell and suppression pool.

1982-01-01

167

[Standard of postoperative risk assessment for resectable gastrointestinal stromal tumor and its evaluation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgery is the only possible cure protocol of gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST). But the risk of recurrence exists constantly. Risk assessment of relapse is very important to guide the targeted adjuvant therapy and predict the prognosis. Although the variables and grading in the risk assessment of recurrence after complete resection of primary local GIST have been identified, but either the F/NIH consensus, AFIP standards, modified NIH standards, or risk identification methods attempted to apply mathematical calculation model in recent years, including Jason S Gold risk nomogram, Rossi nomogram, Joensuu high Hotline Dengjun, are short of long-term, large-scale clinical trials without selection bias. Therefore, recurrence risk probability cannot be predicted accurately.

Liang XB

2013-03-01

168

Risk assessment of topically applied products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken skin associated with various skin disorders. BADGE and derivatives had a tendency to permeate pig skin membranes in vitro with higher fluxes in the tape stripped membranes compared to the non-treated membranes. Data from the in vitro skin permeation study and from the literature were used as input parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was foundto be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC. Both UV filters are endocrine disrupting compounds with 3-BC being the more potent. UV filters in sunscreen are often present in high concentrations, which potentially may lead to high systemic exposure dosages. Thus, the risk associated with use of 3-BC and 4-MBC containing sunscreen with regards to endocrine disrupting effects was found to be high and more data is urgently needed in order to fully assess the human risk of 3-BC and 4-MBC in commercial sunscreen.

SØborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen

2007-01-01

169

World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

2008-09-15

170

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

1993-06-01

171

Assessment of ethanol production options for corn products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of ethanol from corn fiber has the potential to increase ethanol yields by a maximum of 0.3 gal/bushel in a wet-milling process. Incremental yields would be 0.13 gal/bushel from hexose, 0.1 from D-xylose and 0.07 from L-arabinose, at 100% hydrolysis and fermentation efficiency. At 80% efficiency for hexose hydrolysis and fermentation, and 70 % for pentose, an incremental yield of 0.22 gallons/bushel of corn is expected. Of this total, 0.1 gal/bushel would be from hexoses, 0.07 from D-xylose, and 0.05 from L-arabinose. A maximum practical incremental yield would probably fall between 0.22 and 0.3 gallons/bushel. These calculations are based on published compositional analyses of cellulose, starch, mono-saccharides, hemicellulose, protein and oil as distributed between the compartmentalized components of the corn kernel and published yield factors for hexose and pentose fermentations. Experimental yield factors for xylose (0.36 g ethanol/g xylose) and arabinose (0.34) fermenting microorganisms are lower than that for glucose (0.45-0.50), and significantly less than the theoretical yield of 0.51 g ethanol/g pentose. Nonetheless, we estimate that a wet-milling facility which currently produces 100 million gallons/year of ethanol from starch could generate an additional $4-8 million of annual income if the fiber components were processed into ethanol. Hence, advances in fiber pretreatment and pentose fermentation are likely to have a major impact on enhancing productivity of corn ethanol plants. An engineering framework for assigning economic consequences of the additional utilization of fiber is presented. (Author)

Gulati, M.; Kohlmann, K; Ladisch, M.R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Hespell, R.; Bothast, R.J. [USDA-ARS-MWA, NCAUR, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

172

An impact assessment and critical appraisal of the ISO standard for wheelchair vocabulary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wheelchairs are, for users, a primary means of mobility and an important means of performing activities of daily living. A common, accepted vocabulary is required to support and foster evidence-based practice and communication amongst professionals and with users. The international standard for wheelchair vocabulary, ISO 7176-26:2007, specifies terms and definitions with the purpose of eliminating confusion from the duplication or inappropriate use of terms. The aim of this study was to assess its impact and, based on that assessment, critically appraise the standard. Two databases were searched returning 189 and 283 unique articles with wheelchair in the title published between 2004-2006 and 2009-2011 respectively. Compliance, based on title and abstract usage, was poor, ranging from 0 to 50% correct usage, with no significant difference between pre- and post-publication. A review of prescription forms found only 9% correct usage. A survey of NHS wheelchair managers found that only 30% were positive that they had a copy despite 67% agreeing that the standard is important. The ISO wheelchair vocabulary standard was found not to be achieving its stated purpose. It is recommended that it be revised taking into account the findings of this study including the need for targeted dissemination and increased awareness.

Dolan MJ; Henderson GI

2013-07-01

173

Towards the development of a standard test procedure for mouthguard assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

A simulated upper jaw, made from a rubber arch containing replaceable ceramic teeth and a renewable composite jawbone, offers promise in assessing the performance of custom made mouthguard designs. Impact tests, involving precise assessment of jaw and tooth fractures caused by projectiles of various energies and profiles, simulate conditions that approximate to common clinical observation. Such conditions offer the most sensitive indices for assessing both improved mouthguard designs and product quality and reliability. Damage caused by the dissipation of the impact energy may be transferred within this simulated oral cavity by minor changes to the impact conditions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

Greasley, A; Karet, B

1997-01-01

174

Energy production assessment of small wind farms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work investigates the performance and the energy production of a grid-connected wind farm during six years of operation. The layout and the single line diagram of this wind farm are shown. A complete record of operational data for five turbines is analysed to study the performance of the wind farm. The study illustrates the variation of the energy and wind speed on annual and monthly basis for the whole examined period. On the other hand, the annual growth in the local consumption of the wind farm is shown. As an important indicator, the capacity factor is analysed for single turbines and for the whole wind farm. Finally, the study attempts to correlate the results to the external and internal factors affecting the performance of these turbines using the available database. (author)

Abderrazzaq, M.H. [Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan). Power Engineering Div.

2004-12-01

175

Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

2008-07-01

176

Higgs production in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We study the production of Higgs-boson pairs at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC), in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. At the tree level this proceeds via qq annihilation and at the one loop level via gg fusion. These mechanisms are investigated for the production of neutral and charged Higgs-boson pairs as well as for W±H-+ associated production. We present full analytical results for these processes. For our numerical analysis, we adopt the SUGRA-inspired scenario. It turns out that the SUSY contribution enhances the cross section up to 50% in the case of H+H- production. In the case of W±H-+ associated production, this can make an effect of ± 10% depending on tan ? and mH±. In the case of neutral Higgs production, this can enhance or decrease the cross section depending on tan ? and the final-state Higgs masses. (orig.)

2000-01-01

177

The Noncommutative Standard Model and Polarization in Charged Gauge Boson Production at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

We study the pair production of charged gauge bosons at the LHC in a noncommutative extension of the standard model. We use angular distributions in the decays of the gauge bosons to partially reconstruct polarized cross sections. We use this, together with CP considerations, to construct more sensitive observables that allow to separate space-time from space-space noncommutativities.

Ohl, Thorsten

2010-01-01

178

Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

Figy, Terrance [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Palmer, Sophy [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). IThP; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2010-12-15

179

Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational work environmen...

Dul, J.; Vries, H.J. de; Verschoof, S.; Eveleens, W.; Feilzer, A.

180

W / Z + heavy flavor production and the standard model Higgs searches at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Searches for the Standard Model Higgs in WH and H {yields} WW channels by CDF and D0 collaborations are presented. The preliminary results are based on < 180 pb{sup -1} of data analyzed by each experiment. Important backgrounds to Higgs searches, such as heavy flavor production in association with massive vector bosons (W and Z) are studied in the process.

Choi, S.Y.; /UC, Riverside

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products) has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R Nakaoka, Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan. The scope of SC7 has been specified as 'Standardization for the general requirements and performance of tissue engineered medical products with the exclusion of gene therapy, transplantation and transfusion'.

Sadami Tsutsumi

2010-01-01

182

Comparison Of eMODIS And Standard MODIS NDVI Products For Alaska And Adjacent Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite observations of Alaska’s land surface characteristics are important in global change studies because of the vastness and remoteness of the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor provides high temporal resolution images, which are very useful for monitoring important environmental changes in Alaska. However, image distortions and other quality concerns in high latitude regions pose problems and limit the utility of standard MODIS products. To improve MODIS data utility, the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) produced an “eMODIS” data set that includes 7-day composites of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and associated surface reflectance at 250-m, 500-m, and 1-km resolutions for the conterminous United States and Alaska. Although the eMODIS products are processed from the same MODIS level-1B data as the standard MODIS products, enhanced algorithms improve their usefulness. In this study, sampled images of eMODIS and standard MODIS 250-m NDVI products were compared with 15-m resolution NDVI images derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of Alaska and adjacent Canada. The study demonstrates that standard MODIS NDVI images contain serious geometric distortions caused by remapping the images into and out of sinusoidally projected tiles. The new image product, eMODIS NDVI, shows significant improvements in the geometric features because the product is mapped directly from the original swath data. Regression and agreement analyses between MODIS NDVIs vs. the ASTER NDVI show that the eMODIS NDVI data have a lower unsystematic difference (i.e., random error), which is likely because of reduced eMODIS image noise. Pixel-by-pixel comparisons of the two MODIS data sets indicate that eMODIS NDVI data retained the original MODIS radiometric characteristics. We conclude that the eMODIS products offer improved image quality and preserved original spectral characteristics employed in our Alaskan vegetation investigations.

Ji, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ramachandran, B.; Jenkerson, C.

2009-12-01

183

A targeted method for standardized assessment of adverse drug events in surgical patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVES: This study demonstrates the development, reliability and outcome of a targeted method for standardized assessment of adverse drug events (ADEs) in surgical patients. METHODS: Initial practice evaluation of this ADE assessment method was carried out in a prospective single centre cohort study. In total, 262 electively admitted surgical patients were included. The surgical trigger tool was applied to patients' medical records by two independent reviewers, and subsequent assessment of causality, severity and preventability of ADEs was carried out by two independent expert panels consisting of a consultant surgeon and a clinical pharmacologist. The surgical trigger tool and causality assessment method were each tested on reliability in a separate group of 50 randomly selected patients using Fleiss and Cohen's kappa statistics and percentages of agreement. Comparison of this method with an existing trigger tool method for ADEs was performed. RESULTS: Our surgical trigger tool contains 51 triggers. The inter- and intra-rater calculations showed substantial to almost perfect levels of agreement (kappa range 0.71-0.83), with a 97.8-98.5% percentage of agreement. Fair to substantial levels of agreement were calculated for causality, severity and preventability (kappa range 0.38-0.79). The percentages of inter- and intra-rater agreement were 68.9 and 70.5% for causality, 67.0 and 82.0% for severity, and both 98.4% for preventability, respectively. Compared with the existing trigger tool method for ADEs, we found an additional 363 triggers, 18 ADEs (an extra 20%) and 3 preventable ADEs in our surgical cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This targeted trigger tool for standardized assessment of ADEs in surgical patients shows excellent agreement between reviewers. The assessment of medication-related harm had acceptable agreement. Compared with an existing ADE trigger tool method, the present method found almost 20% extra ADEs. This method can be a useful alternative to existing trigger tool methods, in particular to assess medication safety in surgical patients. PMID:23593984

de Boer, Monica; Kiewiet, Jordy J S; Boeker, Eveline B; Ramrattan, Maya A; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Boermeester, Marja A

2013-04-18

184

Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses.

2005-09-01

185

A standardized test to assess the impact of different organic challenges on the antimicrobial activity of antiseptics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a suggestion for determining the antimicrobial efficacy of antiseptics in a phase 2/step 1 assay. Emphasis is placed on specific organic challenges to evaluate the efficacy of antiseptics used to rinse the oral cavity, mucous membranes, or wounds for either prophylactic or therapeutic reasons. Basic data are given concerning ready-to-use products based on Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-)iodine-complex (PVP-iodine), chlorhexidine, octenidine, or cetylpyridinium chloride. Hydrogen peroxide (3.0%) was included to assess a product with known limited efficacy only. Using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Candida albicans, a 10(5)-fold reduction can be achieved in 10 min without interfering substances. In the presence of 10% albumin, 10% sheep blood, or 1% mucin, a 10(3)-fold reduction is yielded using products based on PVP-iodine, octenidine, or chlorhexidine. The combination of 4.5% albumin, 4.5% sheep blood, and 1% mucin was the most difficult organic challenge and only the products based on PVP-iodine, octenidine, or chlorhexidine remained active. The cetylpyridinium-based product and hydrogen peroxide were less effective. Based on these data, a proposal for a phase 2/step 1 assay for antiseptics is presented to promote the standardization efforts. PMID:14529634

Pitten, F-A; Werner, H-P; Kramer, A

2003-10-01

186

Plant protection products: assessing the risk for terrestrial plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fundamental data requirements for the authorization of plant protection products and the inclusion of active ingredients in Annex I of Council Directive 91/414/EEC (Council Directive of 15 July 1991 referring to placing plant protection products on the market (91/414/EEC). Official Journal of European Communities L 230, 19 August 1991) are described in the Annexes II and III of this Directive. Definite instructions with regard to preconditions for implementation and methodology (guidelines) concerning investigations with terrestrial plants are deficient. In addition to that, the uniform principles for the registration of plant protection products in the Member States described in Annex VI of the directive do not include any criteria concerning the risk assessment for non-target plants. However, plant protection products often show effects on non-target plants which need to be assessed as a requirement for the authorisation of the product. Hence, the German Federal Environmental Agency has developed a tiered approach to assess the effects of plant protection products on non-terrestrial plants. The risk is assessed using the effect-concentration evaluated in ecotoxicological tests and the environmental concentration predicted by validated exposure models. To protect non-target plants in terrestrial ecosystems assessment factors need to be considered. In the future, the risk for terrestrial plants needs to be addressed, also with regard to the revision of the Annexes of Directive 91/414/EEC. PMID:10819231

Füll, C; Jung, S; Schulte, C

2000-08-01

187

Standards data base for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Of New Production Reactors (ONPR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DOE Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) has the overall responsibility and authority to manage the development, design, construction, and initial operation of the next generation of production reactors and associated fuel and target cycle support facilities. Candidate new production reactors (NPRs) include the heavy-water reactor (NPR-HWR), the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (NPR-MHTGR), and the light-water reactor (NPR-LWR). Support facilities include fuel and target fabrication facilities, irradiated and unirradiated material storage facilities, target processing facilities, spent fuel processing facilities, and waste processing facilities. As part of the overall NPR project, the ONPR has established an integrated NPR Codes and Standards Task to support efforts related to this diverse set of reactor and nuclear facilities. This paper discusses a data base structure established to manage certain information regarding the application of standards, codes, and guides to the NPR project.

Lobner, P.R.; Cooper, W.L. Jr. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

188

Development of an ASTM standard guide on performing vulnerability assessments for nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an effort undertaken by subcommittee C26.12 (Safeguards) of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop a standard guide for performing vulnerability assessments (VAs). VAs are performed to determine the effectiveness of safeguards and security systems for both domestic and international nuclear facilities. These assessments address a range of threats, including theft of nuclear material and sabotage, and use an array of methods. The approach to performing and documenting VAs is varied and is largely dependent upon the tools used to perform them. This diversity can lead to tools being misused, making validation of VAs more difficult. The development of a standard guide for performing VAs would, if generally accepted, alleviate these concerns. ASTM provides a forum for developing guides that includes a high level of peer review to assure that the result is acceptable to all potential users. Additionally, the ASTM is widely recognized for setting standards, and endorsement by the Society may increase the likelihood of acceptance by the nuclear community. The goal of this work is to develop a guide that is independent of the tools being used to perform the VA and applicable to the spectrum of threats described above.

Wilkey, D.D.

1995-09-01

189

Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s). It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish a reference standard of children’s competence to consent, combined with validation of an assessment instrument. Results can facilitate responsible involvement of children in clinical trials by further development of guidelines, health-care policies and legal policies.

Hein Irma M; Troost Pieter W; Lindeboom Robert; de Vries Martine C; Zwaan C; Lindauer Ramón J L

2012-01-01

190

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material. [Site Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

191

[Functional relationship between retinal sensitivity threshold values assessed by standard automated perimetry in glaucoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between the sensitivity threshold values of the different points assessed by the Humphrey visual field analyzer (24-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm [SITA] standard strategy) in glaucoma patients. SUBJECTS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cross-sectorial study. One-hundred and four eyes of 104 glaucoma patients, defined by the appearance of the optic nerve head, were evaluated. Retinal threshold sensitivity points of standard automated perimetry (SA) with SITA standard 24-2 program were obtained. The upper and the lower hemifields were studied separately. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the mean threshold sensitivity value at each point of the visual hemifield and the rest of the threshold points in the same hemifield. RESULTS: Perimetric correlation maps between retinal threshold sensitivity values in the same hemifield were obtained. Most of the points showed moderate to high correlations (r?0.65. P<0.001) with neighboring points and distant points in the same hemifield. CONCLUSIONS: There is a functional relationship between neighboring and distant points in Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer (SITA Standard 24-2) in glaucoma patients. This correlation is related to the anatomical arrangement of ganglion cell axons. This fact enables perimetric patterns of glaucoma defects to be obtained.

Güerri N; Polo V; Larrosa JM; Egea C; Ferreras A; Pablo LE

2013-06-01

192

Assessment of production regularity for subsea oil/gas production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for subsea oil/gas production systems, useful for carrying out production regularity studies, is presented. Formulas for calculating approximate (asymptotic) mean values of interesting reliability parameters within this model are derived. The use of these formulas is exemplified and discussed for a rather simple example. It is argued that the approximate formulas should be used in an interaction with Monte Carlo simulation, giving a powerful approach to the problem of assessing the availability (production regularity) of a subsea production system.

Hokstad, P.

1988-01-01

193

Improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care: the Role of Standard Based Participatory Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Gaps in quality of care are seriously affecting maternal and neonatal health globally but reports of successful quality improvement cycles implemented at large scale are scanty. We report the results of a nation-wide program to improve quality of maternal and neonatal hospital care in a lower-middle income country focusing on the role played by standard-based participatory assessments. Methods Improvements in the quality of maternal and neonatal care following an action-oriented participatory assessment of 19 areas covering the whole continuum from admission to discharge were measured after an average period of 10 months in four busy referral maternity hospitals in Uzbekistan. Information was collected by a multidisciplinary national team with international supervision through visit to hospital services, examination of medical records, direct observation of cases and interviews with staff and mothers. Scores (range 0 to 3) attributed to over 400 items and combined in average scores for each area were compared with the baseline assessment. Results Between the first and the second assessment, all four hospitals improved their overall score by an average 0.7 points out of 3 (range 0.4 to 1), i.e. by 22%. The improvements occurred in all main areas of care and were greater in the care of normal labor and delivery (+0.9), monitoring, infection control and mother and baby friendly care (+0.8) the role of the participatory action-oriented approach in determining the observed changes was estimated crucial in 6 out of 19 areas and contributory in other 8. Ongoing implementation of referral system and new classification of neonatal deaths impede the improved process of care to be reflected in current statistics. Conclusions Important improvements in the quality of hospital care provided to mothers and newborn babies can be achieved through a standard-based action-oriented and participatory assessment and reassessment process.

Tamburlini, Giorgio; Yadgarova, Klara; Kamilov, Asamidin; Bacci, Alberta

2013-01-01

194

Standardized dirts for testing the efficacy of workplace cleaning products: validation of their workplace relevance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the cleaning efficacy of occupational skin cleansers, standardized test dirts mimicking the spectrum of skin soiling at dirty workplaces are necessary. OBJECTIVES: To validate newly developed standardized test dirts (compliant with the EU Cosmetics Directive) for their occupational relevance. METHODS: In this single-blinded, monocentric questionnaire-based clinical trial, 87 apprentices of three trades (household management; house painting and varnishing; and metal processing) evaluated the cleanability of six standardized test dirts in relation to their workplace dirts. In addition, they judged the similarity of the test dirts to actual dirts encountered in their working environments. RESULTS: Most of the household management participants assessed the hydrophilic model dirt ('mascara'), the lipophilic model dirt ('W/O cream') and a film-forming model dirt ('disperse paint') as best resembling the dirts found at their workplaces. Most of the painters and varnishers judged the filmogenic model dirts ('disperse paint' and 'acrylic paint') as best resembling the dirts found at their workplaces. For the metal workers, the lipophilic and paste-like model dirts were most similar to their workplace dirts. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of standardized test dirts developed represents well the dirts encountered at various workplaces. The test dirts may be useful in the development and in?vivo efficacy testing of occupational skin cleansers.

Elsner P; Seyfarth F; Sonsmann F; Strunk M; John SM; Diepgen T; Schliemann S

2013-10-01

195

By-products in earth construction. Assessment of acceptability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 70 million tonnes of natural mineral aggregates are used each year in Finland for road construction and earthworks. Depletion of the best materials, the need for resource conservation and longer transport distances have all increased the need to introduce substitute materials for natural aggregates. At the same time industry, construction and other similar activities produce large quantities of potentially usable by-products. Current waste legislation also supports the use of wastes as substitutes for natural raw materials. The use of secondary products of industry and other activities requires that they be proven to be environmentally friendly and technically suitable. In the project 'By-products in earthworks - assessment of applicability' guidance was developed for the assessment of the environmental and technical applicability of secondary products for use in earthworks and road construction. The project was a part of the Finnish Ecogeo Technology Programme. The guide was prepared in collaboration between several research institutes. The guide presents the legislative requirements for the utilisation of secondary products in earthworks, recommendations for the investigation of environmental and technical applicability, recommendations for environmental and technical criteria of the utilisation in earthworks and recommendations for product quality control procedures. A tiered system is presented for the assessment of environ- mental compliance. The assessment levels are as follows: 1. Concentrations of harmful components. 2. Leaching of harmful components from unpaved and paved constructions. 3. Risk assessment. During the preparation of the guide, the environmental, legal and technical preconditions for the use of the secondary materials were extensively investigated. The results of these studies were published in separate reports. The following aspects, amongst others, were studied during the project: The environmental and health risks of the use of industrial by-products and the methodologies of risk assessment; The environmental criteria for the utilisation of industrial by-products in earth constructions; The methods for laboratory-scale functional testing of the secondary products used in earthworks: The life-cycle environmental impact of usage, and the methodologies of life-cycle environmental impact assessment; The binding and transport of harmful components in soil; The Finnish environmental permit practice and suggestions for the development of more adaptable legal measures and A quality control system for the production and use of secondary materials in earthworks. (orig.)

Mroueh, U.-M.; Maekelae, E.; Wahlstroem, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kauppila, J.; Sorvari, J. [Finnish Environmental Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, P.; Salminen, R. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Juvankoski, M.; Tammirinne, M. [VTT Communities and Infrastructures, Espoo (Finland)

2000-07-01

196

Standardizing the assessment of diarrhea in clinical trials: results of an interobserver agreement study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interobserver agreement was determined between nurses and parents using a standard method of assessing diarrheal stools. The study population consisted of patients less than three years of age hospitalized at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Stool samples were independently categorized by observer pairs within minutes of being obtained from children with and without diarrhea as: watery--liquid, no solid elements; loose--liquid with solid elements; pasty--like a paste; formed--normal solid. Watery and loose stools were regarded as abnormal and indicative of diarrhea. Teaching sessions were conducted for nursing shifts, while parents were instructed prior to each observation. In the nurses' agreement study, each stool specimen was examined by the nurse providing care to the patient from whom the stool was obtained and a nurse not looking after the patient. Parents' assessments were also compared with nurses' assessments. Finally, parents' assessments were compared with each other. In the first group, agreement beyond chance for presence or absence of diarrhea measured by kappa was 0.78 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.55-1.0). The observed agreement on 148 pairs of observations between parents and nurses was 75% (kappa = 0.5; 95% CI 0.36-0.64). Between-parent agreement on 30 other paired observations was 77% (kappa = 0.54; 95% CI 0.24-0.84). Teaching parents about the four categories is a potentially useful adjunct for assessment of diarrheal stools in children.

Allen UD; Deadman L; Wang EE

1994-02-01

197

Assessment of hygiene standards and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points implementation on passenger ships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value <0.001). All 34 microbiological water test results were found negative and, from the 17 food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships.

Mouchtouri V; Malissiova E; Zisis P; Paparizou E; Hadjichristodoulou C

2013-01-01

198

Comparison of functional fibrinogen assessment using thromboelastography with the standard von Clauss method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To compare assessment of fibrinogen by thromboelastography with the standard von Clauss method. METHODS: Observational prospective study. RESULTS: Thromboelastography provides direct and complex evaluation of the entire coagulation cascade based upon changes in blood viscosity. It affects both platelets and plasma components. New application of this method measures fibrinogen contribution to coagulation as opposed to fibrinogen antigen levels measured by immunoassay. Paired samples from 117 patients before cardiopulmonary bypass were compared. A moderate correlation was found between fibrinogen and functional fibrinogen with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.476. CONCLUSION: The functional fibrinogen test is a valid point-of-care method for fibrinogen assay with a moderate correlation to the standard method.

Fluger I; Maderova K; Simek M; Hajek R; Zapletalova J; Lonsky V

2012-09-01

199

Developing expert-derived rating standards for the peer assessment of lectures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: For peer review of teaching to be credible and reliable, peer raters must be trained to identify and measure teaching behaviors accurately. Peer rater training, therefore, must be based on expert-derived rating standards of teaching performance. The authors sought to establish precise lecture rating standards for use in peer rater training at their school. METHOD: From 2008 to 2010, a panel of experts, who had previously helped to develop an instrument for the peer assessment of lecturing, met to observe, discuss, and rate 40 lectures, using a consensus-building model to determine key behaviors and levels of proficiency for each of the instrument's 11 criteria. During this process, the panelists supplemented the original instrument with precise behavioral descriptors of lecturing. The reliability of the derived rating standards was assessed by having the panelists score six sample lectures independently. RESULTS: Intraclass correlation coefficients of the panelists' ratings of the lectures ranged from 0.75 to 0.96. There was moderate to high positive association between 10 of the 11 instrument's criteria and the overall performance score (r = 0.752-0.886). There were no statistically significant differences among raters in terms of leniency or stringency of scores. CONCLUSIONS: Two relational themes, content and style, were identified within the instrument's variables. Recommendations for developing expert-derived ratings standards include using an interdisciplinary group for observation, discussion, and verbal identification of behaviors; asking members to consider views that contrast with their own; and noting key teaching behaviors for use in future peer rater training.

Newman LR; Brodsky DD; Roberts DH; Pelletier SR; Johansson A; Vollmer CM Jr; Atkins KM; Schwartzstein RM

2012-03-01

200

Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS). However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years) with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41%) were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10%) had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89%) were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

Schnakers Caroline; Vanhaudenhuyse Audrey; Giacino Joseph; Ventura Manfredi; Boly Melanie; Majerus Steve; Moonen Gustave; Laureys Steven

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a W Boson at CDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson in proton-antiproton collisions (p(bar p) ? W±H ? (ell)?b(bar b)) at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The search employs data collected with the CDF II detector which correspond to an integrated luminosity of approximately 1 fb-1. We select events consistent with a signature of a single lepton (e±/?±), missing transverse energy, and two jets. Jets corresponding to bottom quarks are identified with a secondary vertex tagging method and a neural network filter technique. The observed number of events and the dijet mass distributions are consistent with the standard model background expectations, and we set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section times branching ratio ranging from 3.9 to 1.3 pb for Higgs boson masses from 110 to 150 GeV/c2, respectively.

2008-01-01

202

Application of quantitative risk assessment techniques to dragline productivity optimisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An application of quantitative risk assessment is presented by means of which dragline productivity in strip mining operations can be optimised. A risk assessment technique is proposed through which the causative components of dragline destabilising events are analyzed. These hazard events are introduced and discussed in the light of their likely individual fragility and through analysis of their combined risk profile, a technique proposed by which mine block data is merged with an expert system to manage and predict dragline bench instability risk and thereby improve productivity on a local basis. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Thompson, R.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

1994-12-31

203

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen fuel production processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel is gaining more and more acceptance as the environmental impact of hydrocarbons becomes more evident. A life cycle assessment study has been carried out to investigate the environmental aspects of hydrogen production. Production by natural gas steam reforming and production upon renewable energy sources are examined. Hydrogen is selected as a future alternative fuel because of the absence of CO{sub 2} emissions from its use, its high-energy content and its combustion kinetics. A very large number of environmental burdens result from the operation of the different hydrogen production routes. A complete and accurate identification and quantification of the environmental emissions has been attempted. The use of wind, hydropower and solar thermal energy for the production of hydrogen are the most environmental benign methods. The benefits and the drawbacks of the competing hydrogen production systems are presented. (author)

Koroneos, C.; Dompros, A.; Roumbas, G.; Moussiopoulos, N. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

2004-11-01

204

Gluon-Fusion zg and Zgg Productions in the Standard Model at the Lhc  

Science.gov (United States)

We report calculations of the gluon-induced Zg and Zgg productions in the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating at both 7 TeV and 14 TeV collision energies. We present total cross-sections and differential distributions of the processes and compare them with the leading and next-to-leading order QCD pp ? Z+1 jet, Z+2 jets results. Our results show that the gluon-induced Zg and Zgg productions contribute to pp ? Z+1 jet, Z+2 jets at 1% level.

Gao, Xiangdong; Li, Qiang; Lü, Cai-Dian

2013-08-01

205

TT = Top pair production. III: Testing the standard model in top quark decays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations the top quark completed the set of quarks expected by the Standard Model. It is predicted to have the same quantum numbers and couplings as the other up-type quarks. Albeit, only very few of these properties have been verified so far. This article summarizes the existing measurements of top quark properties in the pair production mode.

Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U.

2006-10-01

206

Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods?The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to screen for specialists. A social science survey was adopted, and 119 specialists were selected composing 98 specialists in recruitment of pilots and 21 aviation medical clinicians. A total of 359 standard items were evaluated for suitability approval, and then the reliability of evaluation results was analyzed. The final step was the formation of criteria for final judgment. The worthiness of the items was based on the specialists' opinions. When a certain item was deemed suitable by more than 80% of the specialists, it was considered as appropriate, and when a certain item was deemed suitable by less than 60% of the specialists, it was not appropriate. Results?A total of 134 survey brochures were sent out, and 128 out of 134 were retrieved. The positive index of specialist participation was 0.95, and the authority index was 0.86. 271 (75.5%) of the 359 items were generally accepted by specialists as appropriate, and 27 (7.5%) items were not accepted. Most of these rejected items involved function evaluation, the concept and essence of which could not be easily grasped. Conclusions?Although the majority of the items in the physical examination standards were deemed appropriate by the specialists, there were a few items not accepted. These standards should be revised after being applied in the future.

Zhi-gang JIAO; Zhi-jie WANG; Wei-min CAO; Ying-juan ZHENG; Yuan-yuan JIANG; Yan-ge ZHANG; Yong-sheng CHEN; Xi-jiang ZHOU

2012-01-01

207

Selection of elite microalgae for biodiesel production in tropical conditions using a standardized platform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four thermotolerant microalgae were isolated from tropical Taiwan and classified as members of Desmodesmus based on morphological and molecular studies. A platform was established to evaluate their biodiesel production-related traits, including thermotolerance, lipid productivity, lipid oxidative stability and auto-sedimentation. The findings demonstrated thermotolerance of all four species was at the same level, as all could live at 45°C for 24h and 50°C for 8h with mortality rates below 5% of cells. The lipid productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F2 reached 113mg/L/d. Its saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 75% of the FAMEs, and it required only 3.1h to achieve 85% sedimentation. Comparing these traits to those of the other three Desmodesmus and microalgae in the literature, Desmodesmus sp. F2 is one of the best candidates for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical areas. This platform effectively assessed traits of microalgae related to biodiesel production.

Ho SH; Lai YY; Chiang CY; Chen CN; Chang JS

2013-11-01

208

Selection of elite microalgae for biodiesel production in tropical conditions using a standardized platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four thermotolerant microalgae were isolated from tropical Taiwan and classified as members of Desmodesmus based on morphological and molecular studies. A platform was established to evaluate their biodiesel production-related traits, including thermotolerance, lipid productivity, lipid oxidative stability and auto-sedimentation. The findings demonstrated thermotolerance of all four species was at the same level, as all could live at 45°C for 24h and 50°C for 8h with mortality rates below 5% of cells. The lipid productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F2 reached 113mg/L/d. Its saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 75% of the FAMEs, and it required only 3.1h to achieve 85% sedimentation. Comparing these traits to those of the other three Desmodesmus and microalgae in the literature, Desmodesmus sp. F2 is one of the best candidates for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical areas. This platform effectively assessed traits of microalgae related to biodiesel production. PMID:23994959

Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chiang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chang, Jo-Shu

2013-08-13

209

Comparability of developmental cognitive assessments between standard and computer testing methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Substantial questions have been raised about the validity of using computer-based testing to assess cognitive development with young children. However, little work has been done to assess the comparability of performance elicited using computerized methods with performance garnered using standard testing methods. The purpose of this study was to establish whether computerized testing resulted in performance that was different than established performance norms for infant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) tested on four highly used cognitive tasks. Infants performed comparably on simple discrimination, reversal learning, and delayed nonmatch to sample rule learning. However, the infants tested in a computer testing-environment appeared to have difficulty on a task that required them to form response strategies. The results of the study reveal some apparent limitations of computer-based testing with infants, but do show that performance on several common cognitive tasks is comparable between the environments.

Mandell DJ; Sackett GP

2009-01-01

210

Natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria for DOE sites: DOE Standard DOE-STD-1023-95  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes hazard assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. The DOE has established policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE sites and facilities using a graded approach by DOE Order 5480.28. The graded approach is implemented by five performance categories established for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) at DOE facilities based on criteria provided by DOE-STD-1021-93. In applying the design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-94 for DOE facilities subjected to one of the natural phenomena hazards, the establishment of design basis load levels consistent with the corresponding performance category is required. This standard provides general criteria as well as specific criteria for natural phenomena hazard assessments to ensure that adequate design basis load levels are established for design and/or evaluation of DOE facilities.

Chen, J.C.; Lu, S.C.; Boissonnade, A.C. [and others

1995-03-24

211

Search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson at CDF  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a search for the standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson in proton-antiproton collisions (pp¯?W±H???bb¯) at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The search employs data collected with the CDF II detector which correspond to an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.7fb-1. We recorded this data with two kinds of triggers. The first kind required high-pT charged leptons and the second required both missing transverse energy and jets. The search selects events consistent with a signature of a single lepton (e±/?±), missing transverse energy, and two jets. Jets corresponding to bottom quarks are identified with a secondary vertex tagging method and a jet probability tagging method. Kinematic information is fed in an artificial neural network to improve discrimination between signal and background. The search finds that both the observed number of events and the neural network output distributions are consistent with the standard model background expectations, and sets 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section times branching ratio. The limits are expressed as a ratio to the standard model production rate. The limits range from 3.6 (4.3 expected) to 61.1 (43.2 expected) for Higgs masses from 100 to 150GeV/c2, respectively.

Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.

2012-03-01

212

[Supervision, administration and standard research related to tissue engineered medical products].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tissue engineering advance in supplying the reparative and reconstructive medicine with promising tissue engineered medical products(TEMPs) and the new therapy alternative. The related supervision and administration of TEMPs is being developed and the standard research of TEMPs is also in progress. The Food and Drug Administration(FDA) of the United States has treated TEMPs as combined products and supervised them according to the level of risk to patients. Lately, FDA has determined that the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) should take charge of examination and approval of TEMPs, with the cooperation of the Center for Biological Evaluations and Research(CBER). The regulatory controls have been established respectively in European Union and Japan. In China, TEMPs are identified as medical devices combined with cells. The Department of Medical Device of the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) is responsible for the examination and approval of TEMPs, and National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical & Biological Products(NICPBP) is responsible for evaluation tests. The standards of TEMPs are formulated mainly by the American Society of Testing Materials(ASTM) and International Standardization Organization(ISO). PMID:14663949

Xi, Ting-fei; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Peng

2003-11-01

213

Development of standardized methods for assessing biocidal efficacy of contact lens care solutions against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate experimental variables in the development of standardized methods to assess the efficacy of contact lens disinfection systems against the trophozoite and cysts of Acanthamoeba spp. METHODS: A. castellanii (ATCC 50370), A. polyphaga (ATCC 30461), and A. hatchetti (CDC: V573) were adapted to axenic culture and used to produce cysts either with Neff's encystment medium (NEM) or starvation on nonnutrient agar (NNA). Challenge test assays and a most probable number approach were used to compare the trophozoite and cysticidal efficacy of four multipurpose disinfectant solutions (MPDSs) and a one-step hydrogen peroxide system (with and without the neutralizing step). RESULTS: With trophozoites, four of four MPDSs and the one-step peroxide system gave ?3 log?? kill for all strains 6 hours, regardless of culture medium used. Greater resistance was found against cysts, with results for MPDSs varying by species and method of cyst production. Here, 1-3 log?? kill was found with NEM cysts for three of four MPDSs compared with one of four for the NNA cysts at 6 hours (A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, only). The one-step peroxide system gave 1-1.9 log?? kill with NEM cysts and 0.8-1.1 for NNA cysts. Only 3% hydrogen peroxide gave total kill (>3 log??) of NNA cysts at 6 hours. CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible method for determining the susceptibility of Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts to contact lens care systems has been developed. This will facilitate assay standardization for assessing the efficacy of such products against the organism and aid development of improved disinfectant and therapeutic agents.

Kilvington S; Lam A

2013-07-01

214

Objective scar assessment--a new method using standardized digital imaging and spectral modelling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Quantitative assessment of scars is needed in clinical practice and in scientific studies. To date, there have been no entirely objective methods available for these purposes. We introduce a new method developed for scar assessment combining standardized digital imaging (SDI) and spectral modelling (SpM). With this method, the estimated concentration changes (ECCs) of haemoglobin and melanin in the scar can be determined quantitatively. PATIENT AND METHODS: In the current study, 22 skin graft donor site (SGDS) wounds were treated with two alternative dressing materials, Suprathel® and Mepilex Transfer®, side by side on the same wound. The SGSD scars were assessed using SDI and SpM. The scars were given subjective ratings by three surgeons using the POSAS and the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). The correlations between the ECCs of melanin and haemoglobin and the corresponding subjective ratings were calculated as well as the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of the subjective ratings. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant correlation between the ECCs of melanin and haemoglobin and the subjective ratings. A single observer could reliably assess pigmentation with the POSAS scale (ICC = 0.75) but not vascularity (ICC = 0.51). The reliability ratings of the VSS were unacceptably low. CONCLUSIONS: The ECC values of haemoglobin and melanin give accurate documentation of the scar status. The results also show that the subjective ratings in this study were unreliable especially when interfering pigmentation and increased vascularity were both present at the same time.

Kaartinen IS; Välisuo PO; Alander JT; Kuokkanen HO

2011-02-01

215

Colon capsule endoscopy versus standard colonoscopy in assessing disease activity of ulcerative colitis: a prospective trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to compare colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) with standard colonoscopy (SC) in the assessment of mucosal disease activity and localization of inflammatory colonic mucosa in patients with known ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Thirteen symptomatic patients (8 males, 5 females, mean age 38.5 ± 12.0 years) with known UC (mean duration of colitis: 9.7 ± 8.1 years) and indication for endoscopy due to suspected disease activity were included. All patients underwent CCE (first generation capsule, Given Imaging Ltd., Yokneam, Israel) on day 1 followed by SC on day 2 in a single center non-randomized, non-placebo-controlled diagnostic study (NCT00837304). SC and CCE were video recorded, and analysis was independently performed by 6 experienced endoscopists. The modified Rachmilewitz score was calculated, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for analysis. Difference in recognition of disease activity by the endoscopists was assessed by application of the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Assessment of disease activity revealed a significantly higher Rachmilewitz score of 7.3 ± 2.9 in the SC group compared to 4.8 ± 3.4 in the CCE group. Significantly, more detection of vessel vulnerability, granulated mucosa and mucosal damage was seen by SC. Disease extension was underestimated by CCE compared to SC. Disease activity assessment by means of SC or CCE did not differ statistically between the investigators (p = 0.26 and p = 0.1, respectively). After CCE, the capsule egestion rate was 77 %. The overall acceptance of both procedures was similar. CONCLUSION: Considering the significantly different assessment of disease activity and significantly more appropriate assignment of the horizontal spread of inflammation by SC versus CCE, we recommend the preferential use of SC in the assessment of inflammation in UC patients.

Meister T; Heinzow HS; Domagk D; Dortgolz A; Lenze F; Ross M; Domschke W; Lügering A

2013-01-01

216

Standard radiography: untapped potential in the assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk is based primarily on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). METHODS: However, recent evidence indicates that the method is insufficient for accurate individual risk assessment; in addition to methodological inaccuracies related to DXA, the mechanical strength of bone is influenced not only by low BMD but also by other factors that are not captured by DXA. RESULTS: DXA-based BMD can provide information on the amount of bone but does not elucidate bone structure, which is significant for bone mechanical strength and for fracture risk. In order to achieve more a comprehensive assessment of fracture risk, recent efforts have been directed toward imaging techniques by which bone structural changes can be observed. In addition to novel three-dimensional imaging techniques, analysis of plain radiographs has also been investigated with promising results. CONCLUSION: As plain radiographs are cheap and widely available, it was considered of interest to discover how well plain radiography could be utilised for the assessment of bone mechanical competence and fracture risk. In this article, we review studies related to radiographic assessment of fracture risk in order to show the potential of this conventional methodology for screening subjects at risk. KEY POINTS: • Conventional radiography has sufficient theoretical requirements for assessment of bone structure. • Bone geometry and trabecular structure can be depicted by and evaluated from standard radiographs. • Texture-based analysis of radiographs discriminates postmenopausal women with and without fractures. • Such analysis can also predict fractures in individuals without frank osteoprosis. • Imaging and subsequent analysis should become more standardised to allow structural quantification.

Pulkkinen P; Saarakkala S; Nieminen MT; Jämsä T

2013-05-01

217

Colon capsule endoscopy versus standard colonoscopy in assessing disease activity of ulcerative colitis: a prospective trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to compare colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) with standard colonoscopy (SC) in the assessment of mucosal disease activity and localization of inflammatory colonic mucosa in patients with known ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Thirteen symptomatic patients (8 males, 5 females, mean age 38.5 ± 12.0 years) with known UC (mean duration of colitis: 9.7 ± 8.1 years) and indication for endoscopy due to suspected disease activity were included. All patients underwent CCE (first generation capsule, Given Imaging Ltd., Yokneam, Israel) on day 1 followed by SC on day 2 in a single center non-randomized, non-placebo-controlled diagnostic study (NCT00837304). SC and CCE were video recorded, and analysis was independently performed by 6 experienced endoscopists. The modified Rachmilewitz score was calculated, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for analysis. Difference in recognition of disease activity by the endoscopists was assessed by application of the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Assessment of disease activity revealed a significantly higher Rachmilewitz score of 7.3 ± 2.9 in the SC group compared to 4.8 ± 3.4 in the CCE group. Significantly, more detection of vessel vulnerability, granulated mucosa and mucosal damage was seen by SC. Disease extension was underestimated by CCE compared to SC. Disease activity assessment by means of SC or CCE did not differ statistically between the investigators (p = 0.26 and p = 0.1, respectively). After CCE, the capsule egestion rate was 77 %. The overall acceptance of both procedures was similar. CONCLUSION: Considering the significantly different assessment of disease activity and significantly more appropriate assignment of the horizontal spread of inflammation by SC versus CCE, we recommend the preferential use of SC in the assessment of inflammation in UC patients. PMID:23307507

Meister, T; Heinzow, H S; Domagk, D; Dortgolz, A; Lenze, F; Ross, M; Domschke, W; Lügering, A

2013-01-10

218

A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of these studies was twofold: - firstly to check the safety level of the French units in the international context. - secondly, and considerably more importantly, to develop an additional resource for help in decision-making, allowing assessment of the relative impact of modifications to installations or procedures and to detect, once again in relative terms, any weak points. The importance of this second objective is of course greatly increased by the fact that the French nuclear facilities are standardized. When probabilistic safety studies are mentioned, emphasis is frequently placed on the first objective. Although it may be reassuring to find that the French power plants are well placed internationally, the absolute values indicated by the different probabilistic assessments are too dependent on the domain covered, the techniques implemented and the data used for it to be possible to make comparisons of safety levels on the basis of global results alone. On the other hand, the use of probabilistic safety assessments can provide interesting insights towards relative comparison approaches offering the greatest improvements in safety. In this respect, it is encouraging to find that the design of the 1300 MWe series represents an overall improvement over that of the 900 MWe series. The two studies which have been carried out must not be seen as an end, but as a way forward. Furthermore, it is possible to improve and add to them. This opens up two lines of action for the French safety organizations in the field of probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, the latter plan to use the probabilistic safety assessments to help in the following fields: - grading safety problems and identifying any weak points; for instance, in carrying out the two assessments, two outage accident sequences were revealed whose relative importance had been underestimated. The international community has been kept well informed about them, - making periodic safety reassessments (earned out every ten years in France): this essentially consists of making a more quantitative assessment of the

1990-01-01

219

Current state of the fund of state standards for rare metal products and methods of their analytical control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the up-to-date state of the Fund of State Standards for rare metals and their compounds is performed. Elucidated are comparative data on the terms of development and requirement to the standards of quality of rare metals, their alloys and compounds, as well as on the standards for methods of analysis and requirements to metrological characteristics. Generalization of information indicates: 1) state standards for rare metal products correspond to modern level of serial production; 2) standards for methods of analysis should be revised according to the new regulations for the methods of chemical analysis accepted in domestic and international practice

2002-01-01

220

77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product...announcing that we have accepted the revised ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer...Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will become a mandatory...

2012-02-22

 
 
 
 
221

77 FR 45242 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full-Size Cribs AGENCY: Consumer...or toddler products, including infant bath seats and full-size cribs. These standards...revising the CPSC's standards for infant bath seats and full-size cribs to...

2012-07-31

222

Comparison of osteoporosis self assessment tool for Asian (OSTA) and standard assessment in Menopause Clinic, Chiang Mai.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare osteoporosis self assessment tool for Asian (OSTA) with the standard measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy x-rays absorptiometry (DXA) in- identifying the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Thai menopausal women who attended the Menopause Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The data was retrospectively collected from the medical records of women who had lumbar femoral neck and radius BMD t-score measurement by DXA (Hologic, QDR-4500C) between January 2004 and December 2005. The body weight and age ofpatients were calculated for the OSTA index score. The women with OSTA score < -1 and > or = -1 were classified as "moderate to high risk" and "low risk" for fracture, respectively. The BMD T-scores of < -1 and > or = -1 were classified as "osteopenia to osteoporosis " and "normal" respectively. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifteen menopausal women of the age of 45-87 years were included. The BMD T-scores assessment revealed that more than half of the subjects had osteopenia to osteoporosis (T-score < or = -1), 196 women (62%) at lumbar spine, 133 women (42.2%) at femur and a third, 114 women (36.2%) at radius respectively. The OSTA index at the standard cut-point of < -1 had a sensitivity and specificity of 36.2% and 71.4% respectively for the lumbar spine and 40.6% and 72.0% respectively for the neck of the femur in predicting osteopenia to osteoporosis status. CONCLUSION: The OSTA index score had a low sensitivity (36-48%) but a high specificity (71-75%) for identifying osteopenic to osteoporotic women among population of menopausal period Nevertheless, it is a useful screening tool in old age women (> 65 years).

Chaovisitsaree S; Namwongprom SN; Morakote N; Suntornlimsiri N; Piyamongkol W

2007-03-01

223

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

2012-01-01

224

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

Koerber, F.; Schulze Uphoff, U.; Koerber, S.; Maintz, D. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schoenau, E.; Semler, O. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Children' s Hospital

2012-08-15

225

Interprofessional differences in disposition decisions: results from a standardized web-based patient assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE This study examined differences in disposition decisions among mental health professionals using a standardized Web-based simulation. METHODS Using a Web-based simulation that described, across users, the same complex psychiatric patient, credentialed clinicians in a psychiatry department conducted a violence risk assessment and selected a level of follow-up care. RESULTS Of 410 clinicians who completed the simulation, 60% of psychiatrists were more likely than other types of clinicians to select higher levels of care (inpatient or emergency services) for the standardized virtual patient (odds ratio=2.67, 95% confidence interval=1.67-4.25), even after adjustment for other factors. Virtual actions taken, such as contracting with the patient for safety and discussing hospitalization, elucidated these training differences. CONCLUSIONS Training backgrounds were important determinants of clinicians' actions and the dispositions they recommended for a psychiatric patient at high risk of self-harm and harm to others in the educational setting and may suggest the need for further training to standardize and optimize care. PMID:23903607

Gorrindo, Tristan; Goldfarb, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Lydia; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Birnbaum, Robert J; Meller, Benjamin; Alpert, Jonathan E; Herman, John; Weiss, Anthony P

2013-08-01

226

CDER risk assessment exercise to evaluate potential risks from the use of nanomaterials in drug products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration was established to assess the possible impact of nanotechnology on drug products. The group is in the process of performing risk assessment and management exercises. The task of the working group is to identify areas where CDER may need to optimize its review practices and to develop standards to ensure review consistency for drug applications that may involve the application of nanotechnology. The working group already performed risk management exercises evaluating the potential risks from administering nanomaterial active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) or nanomaterial excipients by various routes of administration. This publication outlines the risk assessment and management process used by the working group, using nanomaterial API by the oral route of administration as an example.

Cruz CN; Tyner KM; Velazquez L; Hyams KC; Jacobs A; Shaw AB; Jiang W; Lionberger R; Hinderling P; Kong Y; Brown PC; Ghosh T; Strasinger C; Suarez-Sharp S; Henry D; Van Uitert M; Sadrieh N; Morefield E

2013-07-01

227

Assessing the bioequivalence of topical retinoid products by pharmacodynamic assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To develop a simple pharmacodynamic (PD) assay for the evaluation of the bioequivalence of topically applied retinoid products. METHODS: Daily applications of products containing tretinoin or adapalene were made to the forearms of human subjects for up to 21 days. Percutaneous absorption was enhanced through the use of polyethylene film occlusion (5 h). Pharmacologic activity was assessed through the daily measurement of three cutaneous responses intimately linked to retinoid-induced changes in epidermal differentiation: (1) erythema; (2) exfoliation (scaling/peeling), and (3) increased transepidermal water loss. RESULTS: The PD model exhibited the sensitivity and specificity required to function as a bioequivalence surrogate. It was possible to differentiate between: (1) three concentrations of tretinoin in a commercial cream product line; (2) two concentrations of tretinoin in a commercial gel product line; (3) different vehicles (gel vs. cream) containing the same concentration of tretinoin, and (4) tretinoin and adapalene at the same concentration. The applicability of this model for bioequivalence testing was established by showing that it had sufficient power to determine that three test tretinoin cream products and two approved generic tretinoin gel products were equivalent to their corresponding reference products. CONCLUSIONS: A surrogate PD model to assess retinoid bioequivalence has been developed.

Lehman PA; Franz TJ

2012-01-01

228

Qualitative risk assessment from gluten in dairy products for population with celiac disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People with celiac disease represent susceptible population that can be cured only by “gluten-free” diet, while dairy products have been recognized as exceptionally recommended. Therefore, it is very important for dairy products not to contain gluten in concentrations that could be harmful for them. The aim of this research was to investigate risk exposure to gluten from dairy products for the population with celiac disease in the Republic of Croatia by usage of referent analytical methods and scientifically based methods of risk assessment. Total number of 19 subgroups of standard dairy products (n=40) and four subgroups of “gluten-free” dairy products (n=53) labelled with crossed cereal or quotation “glutenfree” and without quantity of gluten labelled were analysed by ELISA-R5 method. Adult population with celiac disease (n=57) was interweaved on eating habits, while intake of dairy products for infants and children was calculated based on recommended intakes and menus. The results have shown that number of standard dairy products that according to their nature should not contain gluten, as well as “gluten-free” dairy products contain certain amount of gluten that can be estimated in certain unfavourable scenarios and in susceptible subpopulations as risky to sick individuals. Dairy products represent very low risk to adult population with celiac disease and can be consumed in quantities that do not differ from the recommended quantities for healthy population. On the other side, dairy products for infants in the age from 6 to 12 months represent increased risk for infants with celiac disease and require implementation of risk management activities in order to reduce risk. Dairy products for infants and children from 1 to 6 years represent moderate risk depending on eating habits. The obtained results point out neediness of risk management methods implementation through information and education of population with celiac disease, as well as producers of dairy products.

Lea Pollak; Boris Antunovi?; Vedran Poljak; Ines Panjkota Krbav?i?; Bela Njari; Mirjana Baban; Pero Miji?; Vesna Gantner; Vladan Bogdanovi?

2010-01-01

229

Determinants of agreement between the confocal scanning laser tomograph and standardized assessment of glaucomatous progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To estimate the agreement of confocal scanning laser tomograph (CSLT), topographic change analysis (TCA) with assessment of stereophotographs, and standard automated perimetry (SAP) for detecting glaucomatous progression and to identify factors associated with agreement between methods. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We included 246 eyes of 167 glaucoma patients, glaucoma suspects, and ocular hypertensives. METHODS: We included CSLT series (n ? 4 tests; mean follow-up, 4 years), stereophotographs, and SAP results in the analysis. The number of progressors by guided progression analysis (GPA, "likely progression"), progressors by masked stereophotographs assessment and progressors by TCA as determined for 3 parameters related to the number of progressed superpixels within the disc margin was determined. Agreement between progression by each TCA parameter, stereophotographs and GPA was assessed using the Kappa test. Analysis of variance with post hoc analysis was applied to identify baseline factors including image quality (standard deviation of the mean topography), disc size and disease severity (pattern standard deviation [PSD] and cup area) associated with agreement/nonagreement between methods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement in assessing glaucomatous progression between the methods including factors associated with agreement/nonagreement between methods. RESULTS: Agreement between progression by TCA and progression by stereophotographs and/or GPA was generally poor regardless of the TCA parameter and specificity cutoffs applied. For the parameters with the strongest agreement, cluster size in disc (CSIZE(disc)) and cluster area in disc (CAREA(disc)), kappa values were 0.16 (63.9%, agreement on 134 nonprogressing eyes and 23 progressing eyes) and 0.15 (64.1%, agreement on 135 nonprogressing eyes and 22 progressing eyes) at 99% cutoff. Most of the factors evaluated were not significantly associated with agreement/nonagreement between methods (all P > 0.07). However, SAP PSD was greater in the progressors by stereophotography only group compared with the progressors by TCA only group (5.8 ± 4.7 and 2.6 ± 2.2, respectively [P = 0.003] for CSIZE(disc) at 95% specificity and 5.4 ± 4.6 and 2.5 ± 2.3, respectively [P = 0.002] for CAREA(disc) at 99% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: Agreement for detection of longitudinal changes between TCA, stereophotography, and SAP GPA is poor. Progressors by stereophotography only tended to have more advanced disease at baseline than progressors by TCA only.

Vizzeri G; Bowd C; Weinreb RN; Balasubramanian M; Medeiros FA; Sample PA; Zangwill LM

2010-10-01

230

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables.

1984-11-15

231

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

1984-01-01

232

Guidelines on product liability for the hospital blood bank. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report aims to clarify the position of the hospital blood bank in the light of product liability legislation contained in the Consumer Protection Act of 1987. Blood has been defined a 'product' under this Act. The potential for the blood bank to be seen in the role of 'supplier', 'keeper' or even 'producer' in the chain of product supply to the patient is explained and advice given on the resulting implications for blood bank practice. It will be necessary to define, adopt and implement standard operating procedures (SOP) for all blood bank activities. Guidance is given on the format, preparation and content of SOPs and specimen examples offered. The fundamental importance of quality assurance is emphasized.

1990-01-01

233

Multi-Higgs boson production in the standard model and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a calculation of the loop-induced processes gg?HH and gg?HHH, and investigate the observability of multi-Higgs boson production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. While the SM cross sections are too small to allow observation at the LHC, we demonstrate that physics beyond the SM can lead to amplified, observable cross sections. Furthermore, the applicability of the heavy top quark approximation in two- and three-Higgs boson production is investigated. We conclude that multi-Higgs boson production at the SuperLHC is an interesting probe of Higgs sectors beyond the SM and warrants further study.

2006-12-01

234

A practical guide to using the World Federation for Medical Education Standards. WFME 3: assessment of students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Preparing a medical school for institutional review of all aspects of a medical school's programs requires an understanding of the international standards being used and adequate preparation and planning (MacCarrick et al. in Med Teach 32 (5):e227, 2010). This series examines each of the nine standards developed by the World Federation for Medical Education (World Federation for Medical Education Basic Medical Education WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement. WFME Office: University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 2003) with practical advice on their use in both self-review and independent accreditation processes. CONCLUSION: The WFME Standard 3 (Assessment of Students) examines in detail the manner in which student learning is assessed. Evidence of alignment between stated learning outcomes, methods of delivery and assessment is critical. Assessment methods should be regularly evaluated to ensure reliability and validity. Investment in faculty development will ensure necessary technical expertise which is maintained within the school.

MacCarrick GR

2011-06-01

235

Use of a standardized patient exercise to assess core competencies during fellowship training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires fellows in many specialties to demonstrate attainment of 6 core competencies, yet relatively few validated assessment tools currently exist. We present our initial experience with the design and implementation of a standardized patient (SP) exercise during gastroenterology fellowship that facilitates appraisal of all core clinical competencies. METHODS: Fellows evaluated an SP trained to portray an individual referred for evaluation of abnormal liver tests. The encounters were independently graded by the SP and a faculty preceptor for patient care, professionalism, and interpersonal and communication skills using quantitative checklist tools. Trainees' consultation notes were scored using predefined key elements (medical knowledge) and subjected to a coding audit (systems-based practice). Practice-based learning and improvement was addressed via verbal feedback from the SP and self-assessment of the videotaped encounter. RESULTS: Six trainees completed the exercise. Second-year fellows received significantly higher scores in medical knowledge (55.0?±?4.2 [standard deviation], P??=??.05) and patient care skills (19.5?±?0.7, P??=??.04) by a faculty evaluator as compared with first-year trainees (46.2?±?2.3 and 14.7?±?1.5, respectively). Scores correlated by Spearman rank (0.82, P??=??.03) with the results of the Gastroenterology Training Examination. Ratings of the fellows by the SP did not differ by level of training, nor did they correlate with faculty scores. Fellows viewed the exercise favorably, with most indicating they would alter their practice based on the experience. CONCLUSIONS: An SP exercise is an efficient and effective tool for assessing core clinical competencies during fellowship training.

Barry CT; Avissar U; Asebrook M; Sostok MA; Sherman KE; Zucker SD

2010-03-01

236

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

Ryan C Anthony; Walshe Nuala; Gaffney Robert; Shanks Andrew; Burgoyne Louise; Wiskin Connie M

2010-01-01

237

Estimation and comparison of effective dose (E) in standard chest CT by organ dose measurements and dose-length-product methods and assessment of the influence of CT tube potential (energy dependency) on effective dose in a dual-source CT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine effective dose (E) during standard chest CT using an organ dose-based and a dose-length-product-based (DLP) approach for four different scan protocols including high-pitch and dual-energy in a dual-source CT scanner of the second generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Organ doses were measured with thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) in an anthropomorphic male adult phantom. Further, DLP-based dose estimates were performed by using the standard 0.014mSv/mGycm conversion coefficient k. Examinations were performed on a dual-source CT system (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens). Four scan protocols were investigated: (1) single-source 120kV, (2) single-source 100kV, (3) high-pitch 120kV, and (4) dual-energy with 100/Sn140kV with equivalent CTDIvol and no automated tube current modulation. E was then determined following recommendations of ICRP publication 103 and 60 and specific k values were derived. RESULTS: DLP-based estimates differed by 4.5-16.56% and 5.2-15.8% relatively to ICRP 60 and 103, respectively. The derived k factors calculated from TLD measurements were 0.0148, 0.015, 0.0166, and 0.0148 for protocol 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for single-energy and dual-energy protocols show a difference of less than 0.04mSv. CONCLUSION: Estimates of E based on DLP work equally well for single-energy, high-pitch and dual-energy CT examinations. The tube potential definitely affects effective dose in a substantial way. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for both single-energy and dual-energy examinations differ not more than 0.04mSv.

Paul J; Banckwitz R; Krauss B; Vogl TJ; Maentele W; Bauer RW

2012-04-01

238

A standardized aortic aneurysm model for the assessment of endovascular stent-graft technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reliable models of aortic aneurysms are required to test endovascular stent-graft technology prior to human use. We describe the creation of a standardized prosthetic aneurysm in an ovine model to assess endovascular technology. In an adult ovine model under general anesthesia, a polyester sphere measuring 6 cm across was sutured onto the infrarenal aorta following aortotomy. Two weeks later an endovascular stent-graft was deployed in the aorta. Exclusion was confirmed on monthly ultrasound duplex and during angiography at three months and under terminal anesthesia at six months. Autopsy along with histology of the specimen were then performed. A total of 10 sheep underwent aneurysm implantation. Nine received a straight tube endovascular stent-graft (Lombard Medical, Abingdon, Oxon, UK) and seven completed the study. Five prosthetic aneurysms shrank during serial imaging with duplex ultrasound and angiography. However, two remained the same size. One of these had a type I endoleak whereas the other had endotension (type I endoleak confirmed at autopsy). This animal model provides a reliable and reproducible method of creating prosthetic aneurysms for assessing endovascular stent-grafts. It was possible to assess aneurysm exclusion non-invasively using duplex ultrasound. Aneurysms effectively excluded from the circulation shrank whereas those with an endoleak did not.

Macierewicz JA; Albertini JN; Hinchliffe RJ

2011-04-01

239

Higgs production and decay with a fourth standard-model-like fermion generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

State-of-the-art predictions for the Higgs-boson production cross section via gluon fusion and for all relevant Higgs-boson decay channels are presented in the presence of a fourth Standard-Model-like fermion generation. The qualitative features of the most important differences to the genuine Standard Model are pointed out, and the use of the available tools for the predictions is described. For a generic mass scale of 400-600 GeV in the fourth generation explicit numerical results for the cross section and decay widths are presented, revealing extremely large electroweak radiative corrections, e.g., to the cross section and the Higgs decay into WW or ZZ pairs, where they amount to about -50 % or more. This signals the onset of a non-perturbative regime due to the large Yukawa couplings in the fourth generation. An estimate of the respective large theoretical uncertainties is presented as well. (orig.)

Denner, A.; Uccirati, S. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dittmaier, S. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Mueck, A. [RWTH Aachen, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, Aachen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sturm, C.; Weber, M.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany)

2012-05-15

240

Standard full-scale chamber test conditions for examination of mineral wool products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eurima, the European Insulation Manufacturers` Association, has carried through a project on standardisation of a full-scale chamber method for regulation purposes by simulation of building site fibre emission from mineral wool products during installation. For some years five Eurima member companies have worked with individual full-scale chamber measurements, using different chamber sizes and installation procedures. Due to different test conditions, the previous test results obtained are not comparable and thus form an unreliable basis for determination of a standard method. The chamber size and several other parameters seem to influence the fibre concentration. During the project in question all relevant parameters, which are considered to have a measurable impact on the fibre concentration, have been examined, and suitable standard test conditions have been defined according to the test results. (orig.)

Juhl, H.D. [Glasuld, Vamdrup (Denmark); Husemoen, T. [Rockwool International A/S, Hedehusene (Denmark); Lindqvist, H. [Gullfiber AB, Billisholm (Sweden); Nordh, I. [Partek Insulation AB, Skoevde (Sweden); Trappmann, J. [Gruenzweig und Hartmann AG, Ladenburg (Germany)

1998-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Higgs production and decay with a fourth standard-model-like fermion generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

State-of-the-art predictions for the Higgs-boson production cross section via gluon fusion and for all relevant Higgs-boson decay channels are presented in the presence of a fourth Standard-Model-like fermion generation. The qualitative features of the most important differences to the genuine Standard Model are pointed out, and the use of the available tools for the predictions is described. For a generic mass scale of 400-600 GeV in the fourth generation explicit numerical results for the cross section and decay widths are presented, revealing extremely large electroweak radiative corrections, e.g., to the cross section and the Higgs decay into WW or ZZ pairs, where they amount to about -50 % or more. This signals the onset of a non-perturbative regime due to the large Yukawa couplings in the fourth generation. An estimate of the respective large theoretical uncertainties is presented as well. (orig.)

2012-01-01

242

Models and standards for production systems integration: Technological process and documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic business demands from production companies to collaborate with customers, suppliers and end users and start electronic manufacturing. To achieve this goal companies have to integrate their subsystems (Application to Application-A2A) and they have to collaborate with their business partners (Business to Business - B2B). For this purpose models and unique standards for integration are necessary. In this paper, ebXML and OAGI specifications have been used to present metamodel process by UML class diagram and standardized model of document Working Order for technological process in the form of OAGI BOD XML document. Based on it, from an example, model of technological process is presented by activity diagram (DA) in XML form and an appearance of document Working Order. Just as well, rules of transformation DA to XML are presented.

Le?i? Danica

2005-01-01

243

Assessment and management of acute poisoning by petroleum products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Petroleum products are highly complex chemical mixtures consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons. Their composition varies with source and intended use of the product. Virtually all are blended products that come into contact with man in a wide range of circumstances. Their toxicity for man is generally low and the use of additives rarely affects the toxicity of the final product. Because products are blended to meet performance, and not chemical specifications, their composition varies significantly. Management of toxicity benefits from simplified guidelines that consider the product by its type. Management in most cases is symptomatic, but the doctor needs to be aware of the potential for development of sequelae such as aspiration pneumonia and central nervous system (CNS) depression. Local and systemic effects of exposure to hydrocarbons are reviewed, as are immediate assessment and recommended management of acute exposure to petroleum products. Because of the large scope of this subject, this paper limits itself to acute toxicity of petroleum products encountered inthe public domain. It does not address topics such as chronic toxicity, solvent abuse, petrochemicals, or pesticides.

Seymour FK; Henry JA

2001-11-01

244

Photon production assessment for the MCNP trademark data libraries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The goal of the Multispectral Neutron Logging project was to estimate minimum detection thresholds for environmental contaminants using nuclear well-logging techniques. The specific method was to identify and quantify contaminants from the discrete photons from thermal neutron capture reactions in the formation. Computer simulations using MCNP4A were used to benchmark the computer code against experimental data, and then to predict minimum detection thresholds for other contaminants. High quality photon-production data for MCNP was required for this project. The goal of this work was to assess photon production at thermal neutron energies. This work was extended to include higher energy neutron reactions, En = 1--14 MeV. Additionally, the assessment was expanded to include all nuclides and not only the contaminants of interest. This report documents the results of the assessment, and makes general recommendations for the user. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of all users to ensure that the data they are using is appropriate for their particular application. This assessment process reinforced the need for higher quality photon-production spectra for use in the Multispectral Neutron Logging project, as well as for other applications

1996-01-01

245

Photon production assessment for the MCNP{trademark} data libraries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the Multispectral Neutron Logging project was to estimate minimum detection thresholds for environmental contaminants using nuclear well-logging techniques. The specific method was to identify and quantify contaminants from the discrete photons from thermal neutron capture reactions in the formation. Computer simulations using MCNP4A were used to benchmark the computer code against experimental data, and then to predict minimum detection thresholds for other contaminants. High quality photon-production data for MCNP was required for this project. The goal of this work was to assess photon production at thermal neutron energies. This work was extended to include higher energy neutron reactions, E{sub n} = 1--14 MeV. Additionally, the assessment was expanded to include all nuclides and not only the contaminants of interest. This report documents the results of the assessment, and makes general recommendations for the user. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of all users to ensure that the data they are using is appropriate for their particular application. This assessment process reinforced the need for higher quality photon-production spectra for use in the Multispectral Neutron Logging project, as well as for other applications.

Frankle, S.C.

1996-03-01

246

Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

Bruinen de Bruin Y; Hakkinen PB; Lahaniatis M; Papameletiou D; Del Pozo C; Reina V; Van Engelen J; Heinemeyer G; Viso AC; Rodriguez C; Jantunen M

2007-12-01

247

Development of a standard for consumption of materials, fuel and energy in the production of bentonite and perlite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technique is presented for developing scientifically substantiated standards of consumption of materials, fuel and energy in the production of bentonite and perlite. The calculations were made based on statistical data for the period 1976-1980 regarding the actual quantity of produced products and the corresponding consumption of raw material, fuel and electricity. Empirical formulas are derived for definite consumptions of materials and calculated-statistical standards of consumption. A system of standardization and conclusions concerning the dynamics of development of the specific standards for consumption are examined. An attempt is made to evaluate the system of standardization. In this case the variational series for each specific consumption and its statistical characteristics are taken into consideration. The authors use the methods of mathematical modeling to develop for the scientific-production combine ''Rudopi'' a project of consumption standards for the Eighth Five-Year Plan which stimulates the achievement of a considerable economic effect.

Tsanov, B.; Zheleva, Zh.

1981-01-01

248

Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

2010-07-01

249

Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for In vitro biofilm production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 14 Escherichia coli isolates were assessed for their ability to produce biofilm in-vitro by slime production on Congo red agar medium (CRA) and microtitre plate assay. Out of 14 isolates tested, 12 were slime producing on CRA as indicated by black colonies. The isolates of E.coli varied in their ability to produce biofilm on the surface of microtitre plate ranging from 0.101 to 0.543 ODm. Out of 14 isolates tested, 10 were positive for biofilm production employing criterion of blank corrected ODs9s > 0.1. Two of slime negative isolated were also negative for biofilm production where as the two slime positive isolates were found to be negative for biofilm production. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000): 364-366

A.I. Dadawala; Chauhan H.C.; Chandel; B.S.; Ranaware; P.; Patel Sandip S; Khushboo Singh; Rathod P.H.; Shah N.M. and Kher; H.N.

2010-01-01

250

Life Cycle Assessment of Willow Production; Livscykelanalys av Salixproduktion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study is to make a life cycle assessment (LCA) of willow production (Salix) based on current cultivation practices and commercial clones. The purpose is to describe the environmental impact of the different phases in the production system and identify phases which have a significant impact on the total life cycle emissions. The production of willow is assumed to take place in southern Sweden on good agricultural soils. The results show that the production of willow is an energy efficient biomass production system which gives 20 times more energy in the form of biomass than the required energy input. In comparison with cultivation of annual energy crops, such as rape and wheat, the energy balance (energy output/energy input) of willow production is more than 3 times higher. The emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants leading to eutrophication, acidification and creation of photochemical oxidants are often 2 to 4 times lower in willow production. The phase in willow production which requires the highest energy input, some 50 %, is fertilisation. Fertilisation also causes the highest emissions, often between 50 to 80 %, of the total life cycle emissions. Thereafter comes harvesting, with about 30 % of the energy input and 7 to 15 % of the emissions (except for the emissions leading to the creation of photochemical oxidants, some 50%), followed by establishment and transportation which normally contribute to 2 to 10 % of the total life cycle emissions. A measure to efficiently reduce the life cycle emissions of willow production is through a higher efficiency in the production of commercial fertilisers including flue-gas cleaning, leading to reduced emissions, particularly of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Other alternatives are utilising nutrient-rich organic waste products, such as sewage sludge and municipal waste water as fertilisers, which are already in practice in some willow cultivations today. Changed biomass yields, transportation distances and nitrogen leaching will have a somewhat lower impact on the total life cycle emissions.

Boerjesson, Paal

2006-05-15

251

24 CFR 200.947 - Building product standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board.  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board. 200...standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All polystyrene foam insulation board...

2009-04-01

252

Novel population pharmacokinetic method compared to the standard noncompartmental approach to assess bioequivalence of iron gluconate formulations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose: Iron-containing products are atypical in terms of their pharmacokinetic properties because iron is only removed by plasma sampling and is non-linear. This study aims to present a novel way of assessing the relative bioavailability of two sodium ferric gluconate complex (SFGC) formulations and compare this approach to a standard previously published noncompartmental approach. Methods: Data were from open-label, randomized, single-dose studies (Study 1 was parallel whereas Study 2 was crossover). Subjects with low but normal iron levels were infused IV SFGC in sucrose by GeneraMedix Inc. and/or Ferrlecit ® Injection (Watson Laboratories Inc.). In Study 1 (n=240), 125 mg was infused over 10 minutes. In Study 2 (n=29), 62.5 mg was infused over 30 minutes. Samples were assayed for total iron (TI) and transferrin-bound iron (TBI) over 36 hours (Study 1) or 72 hours (Study 2) post-dose. Studies 1 and 2 used standard noncompartmental analysis. Study 2 also used population PK (PPK) analyses with ADAPT 5®. The final model predicted SFGC area-under-the-curve (AUCpred) and maximal concentration (Cmaxpred). Analyses of variance was conducted on ln-transformed PK parameters. Ratios of means and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Bioequivalence was demonstrated if values were within 80-125%. Results: For Study 1, ratios and 90% CIs for TI baseline-corrected Cmax and AUC0-36 were 100.4 (96.5 - 104.5) and 99.7 (94.2 - 105.5). For TBI, results for TI baseline-corrected Cmax and AUC0-36 were 86.8 (82.7 - 91.1) and 92.4 (85.6 - 99.7). For Study 2, a multi-compartmental model simultaneously described the PK of TI, TBI and SFGC. Ratios and 90% CIs for SFGC Cmaxpred and AUCpred were 89.9 (85.9 - 94.0) and 89.7 (85.7 - 93.9), while ratios and 90% CI obtained from the noncompartmental analysis of Study 2 did not meet BE criteria because of low power. Conclusions: Both the standard and PPK modeling approach suggested bioequivalence between the iron products. However, with the PPK method, less subjects were required to meet study objectives compared to the standard noncompartmental approach which required considerably more subjects (29 vs 240). This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

Seng Yue C; Gallicano K; Labbé L; Ducharme MP

2013-01-01

253

The explicit equivalence between the standard and the logarithmic star product for Lie algebras  

CERN Multimedia

The purpose of this short note is to establish an explicit equivalence between the two star products $\\star$ and $\\star_{\\log}$ on the symmetric algebra $\\mathrm S(\\mathfrak g)$ of a finite-dimensional Lie algebra $\\mathfrak g$ over a field $\\mathbb K\\supset\\mathbb C$ of characteristic 0 associated with the standard angular propagator and the logarithmic one: the differential operator of infinite order with constant coefficients realizing the equivalence is related to the incarnation of the Grothendieck-Teichm\\"uller group considered by Kontsevich.

Rossi, Carlo A

2012-01-01

254

Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

255

Standard criteria and methods to assess the reclamation of native vegetation on mined land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is currently much interest in the re-establishment of native (semi-natural) vegetation in mineral workings in the UK. It is expected that future planning consents will have conditions attached which require evidence that the proposed communities have been achieved. At present there is no standard approach. This paper describes a formal sample based method which enables assessment of plant community, species richness and species of particular interest at any point in time and their course of development. The method is illustrated by use of data collected for sown grassland on a restored opencast coal site in South Wales. Further development work is likely to be necessary and comparison with other recently recommended methods is suggested.

Humphries, R.N.; Benyon, P.R.

1999-07-01

256

Experience with IEC standard 544 to assess radiation damage of organic insulating materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essential topics of IEC Standard 544 are presented which contains four parts: I Radiation interaction, II Procedures for irradiation, III Test procedures for permanent effects and IV Classification system for Service in radiation environments. The topics described include test procedures, critical parameters and end-point criteria, dose rate and the Radiation Index. Experience at CERN is reported which is based on radiation testing of many hundreds of organic insulating materials supplied by a large number of different manufacturers. The experience with rigid plastics, eg. epoxy resins, were extremely positive, whereas with flexible plastics, mainly cable insulation and sheath materials, several difficulties did occur. It was however found that the recommended procedure to assess the dose rate effect clearly allows to identify materials where this effect is of importance and that the Radiation Index is a simple and clearly defined tool to rank materials according to their radiation resistance. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs.

1990-01-01

257

A standardized assessment of thyroid nodules in children confirms higher cancer prevalence than in adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Context: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, but due to its rare occurrence in the pediatric population, the cancer risk of childhood thyroid nodules is incompletely defined, and optimal management of children with suspected nodules is debated. Objective: The aim was to study the presenting features and cancer risk of sporadic childhood thyroid nodules using a standardized clinical assessment and management plan. Design and Setting: Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital collaborated to create a multidisciplinary pediatric thyroid nodule clinic and implement a standardized assessment plan. Upon referral for a suspected nodule, serum TSH was measured and hypothyrotropinemic patients underwent (123)I scintigraphy. All others underwent thyroid ultrasonography, and if this confirmed nodule(s) ? 1 cm, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and compared to a control population of 2582 adults evaluated by identical methods. Patients and Results: Of 300 consecutive children referred for the initial evaluation of suspected thyroid nodules from 1997 to 2011, 17 were diagnosed with autonomous nodules by scintigraphy. Neck ultrasonography performed in the remainder revealed that biopsy was unnecessary in over half, either by documenting only sub-centimeter nodules or showing that no nodule was present. A total of 125 children met criteria for thyroid biopsy, which was performed without complication. Their rate of cancer was 22%, significantly higher than the adult rate of 14% (P = .02). Conclusions: Neck ultrasonography and biopsy were key to the evaluation of children with suspected thyroid nodules. Although the relative cancer prevalence of sonographically confirmed nodules ? 1 cm is higher in pediatric patients than adults, most children referred for suspected nodules have benign conditions, and efforts to avoid unnecessary surgery in this majority are warranted.

Gupta A; Ly S; Castroneves LA; Frates MC; Benson CB; Feldman HA; Wassner AJ; Smith JR; Marqusee E; Alexander EK; Barletta J; Doubilet PM; Peters HE; Webb S; Modi BP; Paltiel HJ; Kozakewich H; Cibas ES; Moore FD Jr; Shamberger RC; Larsen PR; Huang SA

2013-08-01

258

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

2010-03-01

259

Capturing Tacit Knowledge for Assessing Employees' Competency and Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Organization has to evaluate the competencies of their workers to improve organizational productivity. However, this is difficult because organizations have difficulties to capture and retain knowledge especially tacit knowledge of their employees. Approach: The study reviewed selected literature on management knowledge and employers competencies. It also reviewed existing frameworks in knowledge management focusing on the capturing and storing tacit knowledge. Results: Results of this study will include theoretical concept for capturing tacit knowledge and storing them besides developing a model for measuring employee?s competencies in the organization. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study contributes in assessing knowledge workers performance to improve their productivity in an organization.

M. A. Jabar; F. Sidi; M. H. Selamat; A. A.A. Ghani; H. Ibrahim; S. Baharom

2011-01-01

260

Assessment of technology for production of liquid fuels from biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technologies for liquid fuel production from biomass vary widely in states of development and extent of need for government action. Ethanol produced from grain (principally corn), for use in gasohol blends, is the most widely used and accepted biomass-based energy source in the U.S. at present. Several practical factors strongly point to needed government emphasis on research and development to advance ethanol-production technology. Liquid fuels produced from soybeans, sunflowers, Euphorbia and similar crops, or from aquatic plants, remain as longer-term potential requiring further assessment. 6 refs.

Sheppard, A.P.; Spurlock, J.M.; Birchfield, J.L.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Using unannounced standardized patients to assess residents' competency in asthma severity classification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an educational intervention would increase the competency of pediatric residents in classifying asthma severity as assessed using unannounced standardized patients (SPs). METHODS: Six SPs were trained to represent mild-intermittent, mild-persistent, moderate-persistent, and severe-persistent asthma. Data from a control group were obtained in 2002-2003. In 2003-2004, after an intervention, data were collected from an intervention group. The intervention consisted of a didactic session and posting the criteria for asthma severity classification. During precepting, faculty obtained a commitment from residents (N = 12) regarding the severity classification. Faculty and residents were blinded to the presence of SPs. The assigned severity of each SP was used as the criterion standard. Residents' severity classification was compared with the criterion standard. To test whether competency improved postintervention, we compared residents' performance by using intervention group versus control group and within-subject control comparisons. Bivariate analyses tested differences in proportions of categorical variables. RESULTS: Fifty resident-SP encounters were analyzed. The intervention group performed significantly better than controls at each level of training in identifying persistent asthma: postgraduate year 3 (PGY3, 100% vs 71%), PGY2 (71% vs 50%), and PGY1 (50% vs 43%). They also performed significantly better in determining subclassifications of persistent asthma: PGY3 (87% vs 40%), PGY2 (67% vs 33%), and PGY1 (50% vs 33%). All had P < .05. Similarly, for within-subject control comparison, residents performed significantly better postintervention at identification and subclassification of persistent asthma than did the same residents at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: An educational intervention resulted in significant improvements in the competency of residents in asthma severity classification.

Ozuah PO; Reznik M

2008-03-01

262

Defining Plant Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi: A Standardized Approach to Assessment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytophthora cinnamomi is a soil?borne plant pathogen that causes devastating disease in agricultural and natural systems worldwide. While a small number of species survive infection by the pathogen without producing disease symptoms, the nature of resistance, especially under controlled conditions, remains poorly understood. At present, there are no standardized criteria by which resistance or susceptibility to P. cinnamomi can be assessed, and we have used five parameters consisting of plant fresh weight, root growth, lesion length, relative chlorophyll content of leaves and pathogen colonization of roots to analyse responses to the pathogen. The parameters were tested using two plant species, Zea mays and Lupinus angustifolius, through a time course study of the interactions and resistance and susceptibility defined 7?days after inoculation. A scoring system was devised to enable differentiation of these responses. In the resistant interaction with Z. mays, there was no significant difference in fresh weight, root length and relative chlorophyll content in inoculated compared with control plants. Both lesion size and pathogen colonization of root tissues were limited to the site of inoculation. Following inoculation L. angustifolius showed a significant reduction in plant fresh weight and relative leaf chlorophyll content, cessation of root growth and increased lesion lengths and pathogen colonization. We propose that this technique provides a standardized method for plant–P. cinnamomi interactions that could be widely used to differentiate resistant from susceptible species.

Allardyce JA; Rookes JE; Cahill DM

2012-06-01

263

Assessment of Acetylcholinesterase Activity Using Indoxylacetate and Comparison with the Standard Ellman’s Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity plays an important role in diagnostic, detection of pesticides and nerve agents, in vitro characterization of toxins and drugs including potential treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. These experiments were done in order to determine whether indoxylacetate could be an adequate chromogenic reactant for AChE assay evaluation. Moreover, the results were compared to the standard Ellman’s method. We calculated Michaelis constant Km (2.06 × 10?4 mol/L for acetylthiocholine and 3.21 × 10?3 mol/L for indoxylacetate) maximum reaction velocity Vmax (4.97 × 10?7 kat for acetylcholine and 7.71 × 10?8 kat for indoxylacetate) for electric eel AChE. In a second part, inhibition values were plotted for paraoxon, and reactivation efficacy was measured for some standard oxime reactivators: obidoxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM) and HI-6. Though indoxylacetate is split with lower turnover rate, this compound appears as a very attractive reactant since it does not show any chemical reactivity with oxime antidots and thiol used for the Ellman’s method. Thus it can be advantageously used for accurate measurement of AChE activity. Suitability of assay for butyrylcholinesterase activity assessment is also discussed.

Miroslav Pohanka; Martina Hrabinova; Kamil Kuca; Jean-Pierre Simonato

2011-01-01

264

HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

2010-10-01

265

Standardized Clinical Assessment And Management Plans (SCAMPs) provide a better alternative to clinical practice guidelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variability in medical practice in the United States leads to higher costs without achieving better patient outcomes. Clinical practice guidelines, which are intended to reduce variation and improve care, have several drawbacks that limit the extent of buy-in by clinicians. In contrast, standardized clinical assessment and management plans (SCAMPs) offer a clinician-designed approach to promoting care standardization that accommodates patients' individual differences, respects providers' clinical acumen, and keeps pace with the rapid growth of medical knowledge. Since early 2009 more than 12,000 patients have been enrolled in forty-nine SCAMPs in nine states and Washington, D.C. In one example, a SCAMP was credited with increasing clinicians' rate of compliance with a recommended specialist referral for children from 19.6 percent to 75 percent. In another example, SCAMPs were associated with an 11-51 percent decrease in total medical expenses for six conditions when compared with a historical cohort. Innovative tools such as SCAMPs should be carefully examined by policy makers searching for methods to promote the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective care.

Farias M; Jenkins K; Lock J; Rathod R; Newburger J; Bates DW; Safran DG; Friedman K; Greenberg J

2013-05-01

266

The Turkish Standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|The article present results of standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students (Meadow, 1983), school-age version, for use in Turkey. The SEAI is a 59-item measure for assessing socioemotional adjustment of school-age deaf and hearing impaired students. A sample of 1,097 deaf…

Polat, Filiz

2006-01-01

267

The Turkish standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for deaf and hearing-impaired students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

THE ARTICLE present results of standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students (Meadow, 1983), school-age version, for use in Turkey. The SEAI is a 59-item measure for assessing socioemotional adjustment of school-age deaf and hearin...

Polat, F

268

Validity of the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility assessment in retinal patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To assess the validity of the time trade-off (TTO) and standard reference gamble (SRG) techniques of utility assessment in patients with retinal disease. A cross section of eligible patients was studied and validity was determined through their relation with two logical constructs, visual acuit...

Sharma, S; Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hollands, H; Robins, R; Shah, G K

269

The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

Fullmer, Patricia

2009-01-01

270

Higgs Boson Production via Gluon Fusion in the Standard Model with four Generations  

CERN Multimedia

Higgs bosons can be produced copiously at the LHC via gluon fusion induced by top and bottom quark loops, and can be enhanced strongly if extra heavy quarks exist. We present results for Higgs +zero-, one- and two-jet production at the LHC, in both the Standard Model and the 4th generation model, by evaluating the corresponding heavy quark triangle, box and pentagon Feynman diagrams. We compare the results by using the effective Higgs-gluon interactions in the limit of heavy quarks with the cross sections including the full mass dependences. NLO effects with full mass dependence are included in the inclusive Higgs boson production rate. Our results improve the theoretical basis for fourth generation effects on the Higgs boson search at the LHC.

Li, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng

2010-01-01

271

Standard-model predictions for W-pair production in electron-positron collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the status of the theoretical predictions for W-pair production in e+e- collisions within the electroweak standard model (SM). We first consider for on-shell W-bosons the lowest-order cross-section within the SM, the general effects of anomalous couplings, the radiative corrections within the SM, and approximations for them. Then we discuss the inclusion of finite-width effects in lowest order and the existing results for radiative corrections to off-shell W-pair production, and we outline the general strategy to calculate radiative corrections within the pole scheme. We summarize the theoretical predictions for the total and partial W-boson widths including radiative corrections and discuss the quality of an improved Born approximation. Finally we provide a general discussion of the structure-function method to calculate large logarithmic higher-order corrections associated with collinear photon radiation. (orig.).

1994-01-01

272

Estimating costs of programme services and products using information provided in standard financial statements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The financial viability of programme services and product offerings requires that revenue exceeds expenses. Revenue includes payments for services and products as well as donor cash and in-kind contributions. Expenses reflect consumption of purchased or contributed time and materials and utilization (depreciation) of physical plant facilities and equipment. Standard financial reports contain this revenue and expense information, complemented when necessary by valuation and accounting of in-kind contributions. Since financial statements are prepared using consistent and accepted accounting practices, year-to-year and organization-to-organization comparisons can be made. The use of such financial information is illustrated in this article by determining the unit cost of cataract surgery in two hospitals in Nepal. The proportion of unit cost attributed to personnel, medical supplies, administrative materials, and depreciation varied significantly by institution. These variations are accounted for by examining differences in operational structure and capacity utilization.

Ellwein LB; Thulasiraj RD; Boulter AR; Dhittal SP

1998-01-01

273

Estimating costs of programme services and products using information provided in standard financial statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The financial viability of programme services and product offerings requires that revenue exceeds expenses. Revenue includes payments for services and products as well as donor cash and in-kind contributions. Expenses reflect consumption of purchased or contributed time and materials and utilization (depreciation) of physical plant facilities and equipment. Standard financial reports contain this revenue and expense information, complemented when necessary by valuation and accounting of in-kind contributions. Since financial statements are prepared using consistent and accepted accounting practices, year-to-year and organization-to-organization comparisons can be made. The use of such financial information is illustrated in this article by determining the unit cost of cataract surgery in two hospitals in Nepal. The proportion of unit cost attributed to personnel, medical supplies, administrative materials, and depreciation varied significantly by institution. These variations are accounted for by examining differences in operational structure and capacity utilization. PMID:9868836

Ellwein, L B; Thulasiraj, R D; Boulter, A R; Dhittal, S P

1998-01-01

274

Target registration and target positioning errors in computer-assisted neurosurgery: proposal for a standardized reporting of error assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Assessment of errors is essential in development, testing and clinical application of computer-assisted neurosurgery. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive overview of the different methods to assess target registration error (TRE) and target positioning error (TPE) and to develop a proposal for a standardized reporting of error assessment. METHODS: A PubMed research on phantom, cadaver or clinical studies on TRE and TPE has been performed. Reporting standards have been defined according to (a) study design and evaluation methods and (b) specifications of the navigation technology. RESULTS: The proposed standardized reporting includes (a) study design (controlled, non-controlled), study type (non-anthropomorphic phantom, anthropomorphic phantom, cadaver, patient), target design, error type and subtypes, space of TPE measurement, statistics, and (b) image modality, scan parameters, tracking technology, registration procedure and targeting technique. CONCLUSIONS: Adoption of the proposed standardized reporting may help in the understanding and comparability of different accuracy reports.

Widmann G; Stoffner R; Sieb M; Bale R

2009-12-01

275

Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated.

González-García S; Castanheira EG; Dias AC; Arroja L

2013-01-01

276

Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

2012-11-22

277

Evaluación de nutrición parenteral estandarizada en niños Assessment of standard parenteral nutrition in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad existe un mayor consenso en el proceso de soporte nutricional con Nutrición Parenteral (NP) en pediatría, en los estándares de la prescripción, formulación, elaboración y en los requerimientos nutricionales, para mejorar la calidad del proceso y seguridad en el paciente. La utilización de soluciones estandarizadas de NP en niños es minoritaria por la dificultad de adaptación a las distintas situaciones fisiopatológicas. Para hacerlo viable, en el 2006 diseñamos y validamos un amplio rango de soluciones estandarizadas para niños mayores de 10 kg y/o mayores de 1 año. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilización e idoneidad de las soluciones de NP estandarizadas en un Hospital de Tercer Nivel desde su implantación. Método: Analizamos todas las prescripciones y formulaciones de NP de los niños desde enero de 2006 hasta junio de 2008: la frecuencia de prescripción de soluciones estándar según edad, peso e indicación y sus modificaciones. Comparamos los nutrientes aportados con las soluciones NP individualizados frente a las recomendacionesde las Guías de referencia y las NP estandarizadas. Resultados: 47 niños con un peso medio de 26,6 kg (9-50) y edad media 6,8 años (1-14) recibieron 539 unidades de NP. Las NP estandarizadas (437) fueron utilizadas en el 83% de los pacientes. Sus requerimientos totales energéticos se alcanzaron de1 a 3 días , utilizando de una a tres tipos fórmulas . De ellas solo tuvieron modificación un 4% (22), con cambios fácilmente aplicables : aumento del volumen (16), disminución de la glucosa (3), y aumento del potasio (3). El análisis de las NP individualizadas en 8 niños, muestran una misma tendencia, menor aporte calórico en un 33% al recomendado. Conclusión: Las soluciones de PN estandarizadas se adecuaron a las necesidades nutricionales de la mayoría de los pacientes, según su estado y patología, destacando su adaptabilidad y versatilidad. Su utilización, ha agilizado el circuito prescripción-validación-preparación y ha mejorado la eficiencia del proceso.Introduction: Nowadays, there is a stronger consensus on the proceedings of nutritional support with parenteral nutrition (PN) in paediatrics, the prescription standards, its formulation, elaboration, and nutritional requirements in order to improve the process quality and the patient's safety. The use of standardized PN solutions in children is rare due to the difficulty to adapt them to every pathophysiologic condition. In order to do so, in 2006 we designed and validated a big range of standard solutions for children weighing more than 10 kg or being older than 1 year. Objective: To assess the use of standard PN solutions and their suitability in children from January of 2006 until June of 2008: the frequency of prescription of standard solutions by age, weight, and indication, as well as their modifications. We compared the nutrients given by individualized PN solutions versus the recommendations of the Reference Guidelines and standardised PN. Results: 47 children with a mean weight of 26.6 kg (9-50) and mean age 6.8 years (1-14) received 539 units of PN. Standardized PN (437) were used in 83% of the patients. Their total energy requirements were reached within 1-3 days by using one to three types of formulas. Only 4% (22) of them were modified, with easily feasible changes: volume increase (16), glucose lowering (3), and potassium increase (3). The analysis of the individualized PN in 8 children shows the same trend, with a caloric intake lower than 33% of the recommended one. Conclusion: Standardized PN meet the nutritional requirements in most of the patients according to their morbid condition, highlighting their adaptability and versatility. Their use has eased the prescription-validation-preparation circuit and has improved the efficiency of the process.

I. Caba Porras; A. Cabello Muriel; B. Oya Álvarez de Morales; J. F. Marín Pozo; J. García Aranda; C. Llácer Pérez

2010-01-01

278

Evaluación de nutrición parenteral estandarizada en niños/ Assessment of standard parenteral nutrition in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: En la actualidad existe un mayor consenso en el proceso de soporte nutricional con Nutrición Parenteral (NP) en pediatría, en los estándares de la prescripción, formulación, elaboración y en los requerimientos nutricionales, para mejorar la calidad del proceso y seguridad en el paciente. La utilización de soluciones estandarizadas de NP en niños es minoritaria por la dificultad de adaptación a las distintas situaciones fisiopatológicas. Para hacer (more) lo viable, en el 2006 diseñamos y validamos un amplio rango de soluciones estandarizadas para niños mayores de 10 kg y/o mayores de 1 año. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilización e idoneidad de las soluciones de NP estandarizadas en un Hospital de Tercer Nivel desde su implantación. Método: Analizamos todas las prescripciones y formulaciones de NP de los niños desde enero de 2006 hasta junio de 2008: la frecuencia de prescripción de soluciones estándar según edad, peso e indicación y sus modificaciones. Comparamos los nutrientes aportados con las soluciones NP individualizados frente a las recomendacionesde las Guías de referencia y las NP estandarizadas. Resultados: 47 niños con un peso medio de 26,6 kg (9-50) y edad media 6,8 años (1-14) recibieron 539 unidades de NP. Las NP estandarizadas (437) fueron utilizadas en el 83% de los pacientes. Sus requerimientos totales energéticos se alcanzaron de1 a 3 días , utilizando de una a tres tipos fórmulas . De ellas solo tuvieron modificación un 4% (22), con cambios fácilmente aplicables : aumento del volumen (16), disminución de la glucosa (3), y aumento del potasio (3). El análisis de las NP individualizadas en 8 niños, muestran una misma tendencia, menor aporte calórico en un 33% al recomendado. Conclusión: Las soluciones de PN estandarizadas se adecuaron a las necesidades nutricionales de la mayoría de los pacientes, según su estado y patología, destacando su adaptabilidad y versatilidad. Su utilización, ha agilizado el circuito prescripción-validación-preparación y ha mejorado la eficiencia del proceso. Abstract in english Introduction: Nowadays, there is a stronger consensus on the proceedings of nutritional support with parenteral nutrition (PN) in paediatrics, the prescription standards, its formulation, elaboration, and nutritional requirements in order to improve the process quality and the patient's safety. The use of standardized PN solutions in children is rare due to the difficulty to adapt them to every pathophysiologic condition. In order to do so, in 2006 we designed and validat (more) ed a big range of standard solutions for children weighing more than 10 kg or being older than 1 year. Objective: To assess the use of standard PN solutions and their suitability in children from January of 2006 until June of 2008: the frequency of prescription of standard solutions by age, weight, and indication, as well as their modifications. We compared the nutrients given by individualized PN solutions versus the recommendations of the Reference Guidelines and standardised PN. Results: 47 children with a mean weight of 26.6 kg (9-50) and mean age 6.8 years (1-14) received 539 units of PN. Standardized PN (437) were used in 83% of the patients. Their total energy requirements were reached within 1-3 days by using one to three types of formulas. Only 4% (22) of them were modified, with easily feasible changes: volume increase (16), glucose lowering (3), and potassium increase (3). The analysis of the individualized PN in 8 children shows the same trend, with a caloric intake lower than 33% of the recommended one. Conclusion: Standardized PN meet the nutritional requirements in most of the patients according to their morbid condition, highlighting their adaptability and versatility. Their use has eased the prescription-validation-preparation circuit and has improved the efficiency of the process.

Caba Porras, I.; Cabello Muriel, A.; Oya Álvarez de Morales, B.; Marín Pozo, J. F.; García Aranda, J.; Llácer Pérez, C.

2010-06-01

279

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of milk production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Milk is one of the most important food products in human nutrition. Consequently, the environmental impact of its production is of high relevance. This topic is especially important for Switzerland, where 70 % of the agricultural area is covered by grassland, which can be exploited only by ruminants, and where milk contributes 24 % of the economic output of agriculture (2008). In the present study, the environmental impact of Swiss milk production was assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories as non-renewable energy demand (NRED), global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP) as well as terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity potential (TEP and AEP) were investigated in detail. Over two years, data from 66 dairy farms of very different sizes and production types with conventional and organic farming systems in different regions were analysed. The environmental impacts per kg milk varied widely. A great number of positions (the most important being purchase of foodstuff, animal emissions - first enteric methane emissions and ammonia emissions in stable, and then by manure spreading, fertilisers, energy carriers, infrastructure - and pesticides) play a role in the environmental impact. With the exception of the non-use of pesticides for the production of feedstuff in organic farming and the significantly higher values for NRED and GWP of farms in the mountain region compared to farms in the plain region, there is no correlation between the farming systems, the production region or the production volume with the environmental impact analysed. Consequently, the present study shows the importance of the individual decisions of the farmers. For the future, we need to investigate in a very detailed way those milk farms which succeeded in all environmental impacts, in order to clearly understand the rationale behind the observed success, rather than try to find better correlations to explain respectively to justify the good or bad environmental results of milk farms.

Gaillard, Gerard; Alig, Martina; Mieleitner, Johanna [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon ART, Zurich (Switzerland)

2011-07-01

280

The standardized psychometric assessment of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The APZ questionnaire was developed in order to explore hypotheses on ASCs. First -- in a series of 11 experiments using different induction methods on N = 393 healthy subjects -- the hypothesis was tested that ASCs have major dimensions in common irrespective of the mode of their induction. In the International Study on Altered States of Consciousness (ISASC) the external validity of the experimental results was assessed. The ISASC was carried out on a total of N = 1133 subjects in six countries. The main results of the experimental studies were corroborated in the field studies. The results can be summarized as follows: the common denominator of ASCs is described by three oblique dimensions, designated as "Oceanic Boundlessness (OSE)", "Dread of Ego Dissolution (AIA)" and "Visionary Restructuralization (VUS)". The reliability and validity of the scales are satisfactory. Tested versions of the APZ scales are available in English (UK, USA), German, Italian and Portuguese. Psychometrically as yet untested versions exist in Dutch, Finnish, French, Greek, Spanish and Russian. The APZ questionnaire has become the international standard for the assessment of ASCs, thus helping to integrate research. A psychometrically improved version exists in German (OAV questionnaire). The BETA questionnaire, which measures the dimensions "Vigilance Reduction (VIR)" and "Auditive Alteration (AVE)" is also available in German. These dimensions are most likely etiology-dependent. PMID:9754838

Dittrich, A

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Characterization of in vivo antioxidant constituents and dual-standard quality assessment of Danhong injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antioxidants and oxidative stress play a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. Danhong injection (DHI) is a well prescribed cardiovascular medication in China, but its detailed chemical basis and mechanisms of action remain unknown. To prove the antioxidant activity of DHI, its free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) spectrophotometric assay. The 50% radical scavenging activity value was 1:129.2 mL/mL, against 0.95 mM DPPH. To further identify the antioxidant compounds, modified thin-layer chromatography combined with DPPH bioautography assay was used. Compared with vitamin C, 11 of 16 available compounds displayed strong antioxidant activity, which were also detected in rat serum after intravenous administration of DHI by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, except for hydroxysafflor yellow A. Therefore, 10 antioxidants remaining in the blood as key markers, and six other compounds as general markers, were employed to perform the quality control of DHI by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection after systematic methodological validation. The analytical results indicate a high correlation (r = 0.9) between the total content of those antioxidants remaining in blood and RSC of DHI among 10 batches. Further, the antioxidant profiling and chemical marker quantification as dual-standard quality assessment was successfully applied to evaluate Danshen and safflower injections. PMID:23233112

Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yue-Fei; Olaleye, Olajide; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Kang, Li-Yuan; Zhao, Tao

2012-12-11

282

Characterization of in vivo antioxidant constituents and dual-standard quality assessment of Danhong injection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antioxidants and oxidative stress play a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. Danhong injection (DHI) is a well prescribed cardiovascular medication in China, but its detailed chemical basis and mechanisms of action remain unknown. To prove the antioxidant activity of DHI, its free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) spectrophotometric assay. The 50% radical scavenging activity value was 1:129.2 mL/mL, against 0.95 mM DPPH. To further identify the antioxidant compounds, modified thin-layer chromatography combined with DPPH bioautography assay was used. Compared with vitamin C, 11 of 16 available compounds displayed strong antioxidant activity, which were also detected in rat serum after intravenous administration of DHI by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, except for hydroxysafflor yellow A. Therefore, 10 antioxidants remaining in the blood as key markers, and six other compounds as general markers, were employed to perform the quality control of DHI by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection after systematic methodological validation. The analytical results indicate a high correlation (r = 0.9) between the total content of those antioxidants remaining in blood and RSC of DHI among 10 batches. Further, the antioxidant profiling and chemical marker quantification as dual-standard quality assessment was successfully applied to evaluate Danshen and safflower injections.

Liu HT; Wang YF; Olaleye O; Zhu Y; Gao XM; Kang LY; Zhao T

2013-05-01

283

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

2009-04-07

284

Egg Production Performance and Prediction of Standard Limits for Traits of Economic Importance in Broiler Breeders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted on broiler breeders maintained in 24 different farms located in Mansehra and Abbotabad to investigate egg production performance and develop standard limits for production traits of economic importance. Average number of day-old chicks received at a broiler breeder farm was 19076.29, out of which 16449.08 birds attained sexual maturity and were housed in laying houses. Total hens housed represented 14037.32 females and 1559.70 males (a male to female ratio of 1:9). Reserved male stock (852.06 birds) was 5.18% of the total population. Average mortality during 323.46 days of growth and production period was 13.77%, representing 2.97, 4.99 and 5.81% mortality during brooding, growing and laying periods, respectively. Average age at point-of-lay, age at peak-of-lay and egg laying period were 164.67, 232.83 and 155.46 days. Age at point-of-lay (r = 0.227) and age at peak-of-lay (r = 0.333) were found positively but non-significantly correlated with total mortality in a flock. On the other hand flock size was found negatively correlated with age at point (r = -0.052) and age at peak-of lay (r = -0.415; p<0.04). Egg laying period was found negatively but non-significantly correlated with flock size (r = -0.147) and positively correlated with total mortality in a flock (r = 0.255). Egg laying period was found positively and significantly (P<0.027) associated with percent lay (b = 5.770). Average peak percent lay and percent lay was 83.09 and 59.67%, respectively. Percent lay was found non-significantly and positively correlated with flock size (r=0.184) and mortality ( = 0.085). Similar findings were observed for peak percent lay. Percent lay was found positively and significantly (P<0.033) associated with peak percent lay (b = 0.625). Peak percent lay was found negatively associated with age at peak of lay (b = -0.324; P<0.001) and positively associated with age at point of lay (b = 0.891; P<0.001). Average hen-day and hen-housed egg production was 103.32 and 95.10 eggs, respectively. Hen-day (r = -0.067) and hen-housed egg production (r = -0.074) was found negatively and non-significantly correlated with flock size. Hen-day egg production was found positively associated with peak percent lay (b = 1.600; P<0.035) and egg laying period (b = 0.627; P<0.001). Percent lay, peak percent lay, egg laying period and hen-day and hen-housed egg production was lower than that reported in the literature. Standard limits for minimum number of hens to be housed, maximum level of mortality, maximum age at point of lay, maximum age at peak of lay, minimum peak percent lay, minimum percent lay, egg laying period in response to percent lay and egg laying period in response to hen-day production were 4172.21 birds, 13.11%, 164.36 days, 35.33 weeks, 79.99%, 67.64%, 28.06 weeks and 65.54 weeks, respectively. The standard limits mentioned for various traits shall be maintained in order to make broiler farming more productive.

Murad Ali; M. Farooq; F. R. Durrani; N. Chand; K. Sarbiland; A. Riaz

2003-01-01

285

System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S), a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

Philip F. Henshaw; Carey King; Jay Zarnikau

2011-01-01

286

The premie-neuro: opportunities and challenges for standardized neurologic assessment of the preterm infant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the interrater and test-retest reliabilities and construct validity of the Premie-Neuro, a standardized neurologic assessment tool for preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-four preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth 29 ± 3.7 weeks, mean birth weight 1343.2 ± 696.3 g) participated in the study. DESIGN: A prospective repeated-measures design was used to assess the reliability and validity of the Premie-Neuro. METHODS: The Premie-Neuro was administered twice on consecutive days and then weekly through 37-weeks postmenstrual age or hospital discharge. At discharge, infants' medical histories were reviewed and a Neurobiologic Risk Score (NBRS) was used to determine risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Premie-Neuro raw scores and classifications were analyzed to determine the tool's reliability. Construct validity was measured by determining whether the Premie-Neuro could discriminate between infants identified as high-risk or low-risk for neurodevelopmental delays by using a NBRS of 5 as the cutoff for high- and low-risk infants. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater and test-retest reliability varied from 0.391 to 0.556 and from 0.493 to 0.592, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed that the Premie-Neuro raw scores for infants with NBRS > 5 were significantly worse than those for infants with NBRS < 5 (P = .000-.010). CONCLUSIONS: The Premie-Neuro is a valid assessment tool for discriminating between preterm infants at high and low risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Interrater reliability of the Premie-Neuro was poor, and test-retest reliability of the Premie-Neuro was fair to moderate. The Premie-Neuro may be acceptable for assessing groups of infants, but there is no evidence that reliability is sufficient for clinical decision-making for individual infants. More research needs to be done to improve the reliability of the Premie-Neuro and assess other facets of the Premie-Neuro's reliability.

Gagnon K; Cannon S; Weatherstone KB

2012-10-01

287

Life cycle assessment of products and technologies. LCA Symposium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland organised a Symposium 'Life Cycle Assessment of Products and Technologies' on the 6th of October, 2009. The Symposium gave a good overview of methods, tools and applications of Life Cycle Assessment developed and utilised in several technology fields of VTT. The 12 Symposium papers deal with recent LCA studies on products and technologies. The scope ranges from beverage cups to urban planning, from inventory databases to rating systems. Topical issues relating to climate change concern biorefineries and the overall impacts of the utilisation of biomass. The calculation of carbon footprints is also introduced through paper products and magazines. One example of LCA tools developed at VTT addresses cement manufacturing. VTT's transport emission database, LIPASTO, was introduced in detail. The use of LCA methods and life cycle thinking is described in various contexts: product development in relation to precision instruments; selection of materials and work processes in relation to sediment remediation project; and procedures of sustainability rating through VTT's office building Digitalo. The Climate Bonus project presented a demonstrated ICT support that informs about the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprints of households. (orig.)

Koukkari, H.; Nors, M. (eds.)

2009-12-15

288

Modeling issues associated with production reactor safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes several Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modeling issues that are related to the unique design and operation of the production reactors. The identification of initiating events and determination of a set of success criteria for the production reactors is of concern because of their unique design. The modeling of accident recovery must take into account the unique operation of these reactors. Finally, a more thorough search and evaluation of common-cause events is required to account for combinations of unique design features and operation that might otherwise not be included in the PSA. It is expected that most of these modeling issues also would be encountered when modeling some of the other more unique reactor and nonreactor facilities that are part of the DOE nuclear materials production complex. 9 refs., 2 figs

1990-01-01

289

Modeling issues associated with production reactor safety assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes several Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modeling issues that are related to the unique design and operation of the production reactors. The identification of initiating events and determination of a set of success criteria for the production reactors is of concern because of their unique design. The modeling of accident recovery must take into account the unique operation of these reactors. Finally, a more thorough search and evaluation of common-cause events is required to account for combinations of unique design features and operation that might otherwise not be included in the PSA. It is expected that most of these modeling issues also would be encountered when modeling some of the other more unique reactor and nonreactor facilities that are part of the DOE nuclear materials production complex. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Stack, D.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Thomas, W.R. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

290

ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED STRAW PULP AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new, straw-based fibre manufacturing technology integrated to bioenergy and biofuels production. The process is based on a novel hot water treatment and subsequent mechanical refining, both of which are performed at a high temperature. Soda process, ethanol production, and chemical defibration based on hot water treatment and subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching were selected as references. The idea is to utilise the fibre fraction for packaging and the dissolved solids and the formed fines for energy. The investment costs of this process are significantly lower than those of a soda process. Additionally, a chemicals recovery process is unnecessary. Furthermore, the process offers an attractive alternative for biogas production. However, the assessment showed that the process could only be economical in some terms. Subsidies for investment would probably be needed to promote the acceptance of this environmentally safe process.

Anja Paula Maria Leponiemi; Esa Sipilä; Allan Johansson

2011-01-01

291

Utilization of internal standard response factors to estimate the concentration of organic compounds leached from pharmaceutical packaging systems and application of such estimated concentrations to safety assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substances from packaging systems that are leached into packaged medical products may have a safety impact on patients to whom such medical products are administered. The potential safety impact depends on the identity and concentration of the leached substances. The concentration above which a leachable must be identified in order to assess its safety impact is frequently estimated using an internal standard to "calibrate" the analytical response of a chromatographic system. Such an estimate is accurate to the extent that the responses of the internal standard and leachables are similar. To establish the accuracy of the internal standard approach, a database of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) responses was generated for thirty-eight leachables and eight internal standard candidates. Although the FID and MS responses of many of the leachables and internal standards fell within a narrow band, acidic and basic compounds produced responses that were discernibly different from those of neutral analytes. While most of the internal standards were suited for concentration estimation, three of the candidates, dimethylphthalate, triphenylphosphate and 4,4-dibromobiphenyl, produced the smallest mean error in estimated concentration for the analytes examined. As the FID and MS responses were linear, internal standards could be used to estimate leachables concentrations even when the difference in leachable versus internal standard concentrations was as great as a factor of 25. A multiplier may be appropriate to adjust an estimated concentration to its greatest possible value, and it is this value that is used to convert an estimated Analytical Evaluation Threshold (AET) into a working or final AET. PMID:22337797

Jenke, Dennis; Odufu, Alex

2012-03-01

292

Utilization of internal standard response factors to estimate the concentration of organic compounds leached from pharmaceutical packaging systems and application of such estimated concentrations to safety assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Substances from packaging systems that are leached into packaged medical products may have a safety impact on patients to whom such medical products are administered. The potential safety impact depends on the identity and concentration of the leached substances. The concentration above which a leachable must be identified in order to assess its safety impact is frequently estimated using an internal standard to "calibrate" the analytical response of a chromatographic system. Such an estimate is accurate to the extent that the responses of the internal standard and leachables are similar. To establish the accuracy of the internal standard approach, a database of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) responses was generated for thirty-eight leachables and eight internal standard candidates. Although the FID and MS responses of many of the leachables and internal standards fell within a narrow band, acidic and basic compounds produced responses that were discernibly different from those of neutral analytes. While most of the internal standards were suited for concentration estimation, three of the candidates, dimethylphthalate, triphenylphosphate and 4,4-dibromobiphenyl, produced the smallest mean error in estimated concentration for the analytes examined. As the FID and MS responses were linear, internal standards could be used to estimate leachables concentrations even when the difference in leachable versus internal standard concentrations was as great as a factor of 25. A multiplier may be appropriate to adjust an estimated concentration to its greatest possible value, and it is this value that is used to convert an estimated Analytical Evaluation Threshold (AET) into a working or final AET.

Jenke D; Odufu A

2012-03-01

293

Small scale production of biofuels: a feasibility assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current public policy fails to adequately address one of the most exigent concerns of the agricultural producer: the cost and availability of energy. Specifically, they are interested in energy production alternatives that are feasible and economic for implementation by smaller agricultural producers. After an extended review of much of the available popular and technical literature, as well as conducting interviews with numerous individuals knowledgeable in the field of alternative energy production, the Roosevelt-Custer Regional Council for Development has prepared this preliminary feasibility assessment on the small scale production of biofuels in North Dakota. The production of energy from renewable sources is not commerical; it is reality. Currently, North Dakotan's rely on energy produced from agricultural products to run their automobiles and to heat their homes, as well as to dry the crops on which much of the North Dakota economy depends. Over the next 20 years, this reliance on renewable energy sources is expected to triple. Unfortunately, most of the processes currently used to produce these biofuels are not adaptable for use by the smaller producer/consumer. Today, economics simply preclude the small scale production of biofuels. A deplorable consequence of this lag between demand and technical feasibility is the appearance of the quick-buck consultant. These individuals have not limited their activities to North Dakota but, in fact, they have appeared over the length and breadth of this nation. This report then is an assessment of the feasibility of producing biofuels in North Dakota by the small scale producer. Specific types of biofuels to be critiqued are: alcohol; vegetable oils; biogas/methane; and biomass briquettes.

Geyler, J.

1980-01-01

294

Small scale production of biofuels: a feasibility assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current public policy fails to adequately address one of the most exigent concerns of the agricultural producer: the cost and availability of energy. Specifically, they are interested in energy production alternatives that are feasible and economic for implementation by smaller agricultural producers. After a extended review of much of the available popular and technical literature, as well as conducting interviews with numerous individuals knowledgeable in the field of alternative energy production, the Roosevelt-Custer Regional Council for Development has prepared this preliminary feasibility assessment on the small scale production of biofuels in North Dakota. The production of energy from renewable sources is not chimerical; it is reality. Currently, North Dakotan's rely on energy produced from agricultural products to run their automobiles and to heat their homes, as well as to dry the crops on which much of the North Dakota economy depends. Over the next 20 years, this reliance on renewable energy sources is expected to triple. Unfortunately, most of the processes currently used to produce these biofuels are not adaptable for use by the smaller producer/consumer. Today, economics simply preclude the small scale production of biofuels. A deplorable consequence of this lag between demand and technical feasibility is the appearance of the quick-buck consultant. These individuals have not limited their activities to North Dakota but, in fact, they have appeared over the length and breadth of this Nation. This report then is an assessment of the feasibility of producing biofuels in North Dakota by the small scale producer. Specific types of biofuels to be critiqued are: alcohol; vegetable oils; biogas/methane; and biomass briquettes.

Geyler, J.

1980-01-01

295

Towards a life cycle sustainability assessment: making informed choices on products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this introduction to the concept of life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), we acknowledge the foundations laid by previous works and initiatives. One such initiative has been the ISO 14040 series (Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework), which in addition to the ISO 26000: Social Responsibility Guidance Standard, and the contribution of a number of international initiatives (Appendix A) have been essential for the development of this publication. The life cycle of a product involves flows of material, energy and money. Nonetheless, the picture is not complete unless we look also at the production and consumption impacts on all actors along the 'value chain' -- workers, local communities, consumers and society itself. Different life cycle assessment techniques allow individuals and enterprises to assess the impact of their purchasing decisions and production methods along different aspects of this value chain. An (Environmental) life cycle assessment (LCA) looks at potential impacts to the environment as a result of the extraction of resources, transportation, production, use, recycling and discarding of products; life cycle costing (LCC) is used to assess the cost implications of this life cycle; and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) examines the social consequences. However, in order to get the 'whole picture', it is vital to extend current life cycle thinking to encompass all three pillars of sustainability: (i) environmental, (ii) economic and (iii) social. This means carrying out an assessment based on environmental, economic and social issues -- by conducting an overarching life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). This publication shows how all three techniques -- which all share similar methodological frameworks and aims -- can be combined to make the move towards an overarching LCSA possible. Because it is holistic, systemic and rigorous, (environmental) LCA is the preferred technique when it comes to compiling and assessing information about potential environmental impacts of a product. It has been standardized in the ISO 14040 and 14044 and is applied by practitioners globally. Life cycle costing as a technique to calculate and manage costs, especially for large investments has been used to support decision-makers in procurement for decades, with a rigorous focus on private costs. Prerequisites for better alignment with (environmental) LCA are currently being researched and will help the further development of the method. As an emerging technique, S-LCA will play a key role in complementing material- and energy-flow-related information. Since the late 1990s, the Life Cycle Initiative partnership of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has enhanced the role of life cycle based approaches and thinking in several ways. Two examples are the partnership's contributions to the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and inputs for the development of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP). This current publication, Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, expands this work by bringing the concept of LCSA methods to the fore. In doing so, it will contribute to the sustainable development discussions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Summit) in 2012 ('Rio+20'). The text will also contribute to the UNEP Green Economy Initiative -- which strives to build economies that bring improved human well-being, reduce inequalities over the long term and which keep future generations safe from environmental risk and ecological scarcity. The publication includes eight case studies to illustrate how current and emerging life cycle assessment techniques are being implemented worldwide from Asia through Europe and Latin America.

Ciroth, Andreas [GreenDeltaTC, Berlin (Germany); Finkbeiner, Matthias; Traverso, Marzia [TU Berlin (Germany); Hildenbrand, Jutta [Chalmers University (United States); Kloepffer, Walter [Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (Germany); Mazijn, Bernard [Ghent University (Belgium); Prakash, Siddharth [Oeko-Institut (Germany); Sonnemann, Guido; Valdivia, Sonia [UNEP (France); Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie [Technological Federal University of Parana, ACV (Brazil); Vickery-Niederman, Gina [University of Arkansas (United States)

2011-07-01

296

Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories to include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques. It illustrates a Danish example of establishing data of such reference systems. Finally, it provides an overview of approaches used to estimate emissions based on knowledge of manure composition throughout the stages of the livestock production system.

Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

2011-01-01

297

78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2009-P-0147] Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products AGENCY: Food...Foods Association (IDFA) and the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) have filed...

2013-02-20

298

Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1988-01-01

299

Ecological footprint accounting in the life cycle assessment of products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present and discuss ecological footprint (EF) calculations for a large number of products and services consumed in the western economy. Product-specific EFs were calculated from consistent and quality-controlled life cycle information of 2630 products and services, including energy, materials, transport, waste treatment and infrastructural processes. We formed 19 homogeneous product/process subgroups for further analysis, containing in total 1549 processes. Per group, the average contribution of two types of land occupation (direct and energy related) to the total EF was derived. It was found that the ecological footprint of the majority of products is dominated by the consumption of non-renewable energy. Notable exceptions are the EFs of biomass energy, hydro energy, paper and cardboard, and agricultural products with a relatively high contribution of direct land occupation. We also compared the ecological footprint results with the results of a commonly used life cycle impact assessment method, the Ecoindicator 99 (EI). It was found that the majority of the products have an EF/EI ratio of around 30 m{sup 2}-eq. yr/ecopoint {+-} a factor of 5. The typical ratio reduces to 25 m{sup 2} yr/ecopoints by excluding the arbitrary EF for nuclear energy demand. The relatively small variation of this ratio implies that the use of land and use of fossil fuels are important drivers of overall environmental impact. Ecological footprints may therefore serve as a screening indicator for environmental performance. However, our results also show that the usefulness of EF as a stand-alone indicator for environmental impact is limited for product life cycles with relative high mineral consumption and process-specific metal and dust emissions. For these products the EF/EI ratio can substantially deviate from the average value. Finally, we suggest that the ecological footprint product data provided in this paper can be used to improve the footprint estimates of production, import and export of products on a national scale and footprint estimates of various lifestyles. (author)

Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hellweg, Stefanie [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Frischknecht, Rolf [ecoinvent Centre, Empa, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical- and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2008-02-01

300

Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis. PMID:11382983

Salter, E; Ford, J

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis.

Salter E; Ford J

2001-01-01

302

Standardized assessment of complications in a contemporary series of European patients undergoing radical cystectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine postoperative complications in a contemporary series of patients after radical cystectomy using a standardized reporting system, and to identify readily available preoperative risk factors. METHODS: Using the modified Clavien-Dindo classification, we assessed the 90-day postoperative clinical course of 535 bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion (ileal conduit n?=?349, ileal neobladder n?=?186) between June 2003 and February 2012 at a single institution. All Martin criteria for standardized reporting of complications were met. Uni- and multivariable analyses for prediction of complications were carried out; covariates included body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists Score, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, prior abdominal or pelvic surgery, localized tumor and urinary diversion type. RESULTS: The 90-day rates for overall (Clavien-Dindo classification I-V) and high-grade complications (Clavien-Dindo classification III-V), as well as mortality (Clavien-Dindo classification V), were 56.4, 18.7 and 3.9%, respectively. Infections (16.4%), bleeding (14.2%) and gastrointestinal complications (10.7%) were the most common adverse outcomes. Independent risk factors for overall complications were body mass index (odds ratio 1.08) and Charlson Comorbidity Index ?3 (odds ratio 1.93). Risk factors for high-grade complications were Charlson Comorbidity Index ?3 (odds ratio 1.86), American Society of Anesthesiologists Score ?3 (odds ratio 1.92) and body mass index (odds ratio 1.07, all P?

Roghmann F; Trinh QD; Braun K; von Bodman C; Brock M; Noldus J; Palisaar J

2013-08-01

303

GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD) have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD); pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40?mg) for 4?weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48?hours, wireless pH metry. Methods All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ) and acid exposure was determined by 48?hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO). In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40?mg q.d. for 4?weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40?mg b.i.d. Results 31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48?hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71%) had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%). Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40?mg q.d. after 4?weeks (88%). Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms. Conclusions Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.

Kandulski Arne; Peitz Ulrich; Mönkemüller Klaus; Neumann Helmut; Weigt Jochen; Malfertheiner Peter

2013-01-01

304

GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD) have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD); pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40?mg) for 4?weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48?hours, wireless pH metry. METHODS: All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ) and acid exposure was determined by 48?hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO). In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40?mg q.d. for 4?weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40?mg b.i.d. RESULTS: 31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48?hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71%) had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%). Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40?mg q.d. after 4?weeks (88%). Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.

Kandulski A; Peitz U; Mönkemüller K; Neumann H; Weigt J; Malfertheiner P

2013-01-01

305

Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost.

Araujo VK; Hamacher S; Scavarda LF

2010-06-01

306

Reduced-dose chest CT with 3D automatic exposure control vs. standard chest CT: quantitative assessment of emphysematous changes in smokers' lung parenchyma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the capability of reduced-dose chest CT with three-dimensional (3D) automatic exposure control (AEC) on quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in smoker' lung parenchyma, compared to standard chest CT. METHODS: Twenty consecutive smoker patients (mean age 62.8 years) underwent CT examinations using a standard protocol (150 mAs) and a protocol with 3D-AEC. In this study, the targeted standard deviations number was set to 160. For quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in lung parenchyma in each subject using the standard protocol, a percentage of voxels less than -950 HU in the lung (%LAA(-950)) was calculated. The 3D-AEC protocol's %LAA was computed from of voxel percentages under selected threshold CT value. The differences of radiation doses between these two protocols were evaluated, and %LAAs(-950) was compared with the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. RESULTS: Mean dose length products were 780.2 ± 145.5 mGy cm (standard protocol), and 192.0 ± 95.9 (3D-AEC protocol). There was significant difference between them (paired Student's t test, p<0.00001). Meanwhile, only setting -960 HU yielded no significant difference (paired Student's t test, p=0.32) between %LAAs(-950) and 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. In adopting the feasible threshold CT values of the 3D-AEC protocol, the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs were significantly correlated with %LAAs(-950) (r = 0.98, p<0.001) and limits of agreement from Bland-Altman analysis was 0.52 ± 4.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Changing threshold CT values demonstrated that reduced-dose chest CT with 3D-AEC can substitute for the standard protocol in assessments of emphysematous change in smoker' lung parenchyma.

Koyama H; Ohno Y; Yamazaki Y; Matsumoto K; Onishi Y; Takenaka D; Yoshikawa T; Nishio M; Matsumoto S; Murase K; Nishimura Y; Sugimura K

2012-06-01

307

Developments in integrated assessment. The co-productive approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The widespread concern about the costs of climate policy (which are reflected in the outcome of the Kyoto process) means there is an urgent need to assess the benefits of decarbonization including: (1) avoided damages, (2) ancillary advantages, and (3) role models for participatory action and global partnership in facilitating holistic assessments involving both key users and our best scientists. There is a difficulty in properly assessing these genuinely complex benefits: even factual damage costs of recent climate-related disasters like the August 2002 flood in Central Europe are hard to calculate. Further dimensions of complexity are added if: (1) mankind's potential to adapt to climate change is taken into account; (2) the climate issue is embedded in a sustainability context; (3) the assessment is carried out at multiple spatial scales; (4) the assessment allows for the use of different paradigms; (5) the assessment simulates the behaviour of various interacting actors. Integrated assessment (IA) is, in principle, the only mode of scientific analysis that can cope with this complexity. However existing knowledge production systems based on IA rapidly approach their inherent limits, namely (1) the impossibility of building monolithic all-purpose models that assemble a comprehensive array of components at a single site, and (2) the impossibility of providing responses to policy-relevant questions with a turn-around time that is acceptable to policy-makers. The solution posed in this paper is a radically new system. It can be considered as a hybrid approach that combines and extends the mutual learning method with an advanced version of a dialogue method. It is a radical step beyond previous IA projects, because here users are involved at a fundamental level in conceiving and prioritising, the policy questions which should be addressed, before the integrated model has been constructed, and iteratively influencing the direction of model design as it evolves. This is particularly useful for the highly controversial area of climate change where a wide array of users pose a multitude of different questions. Users are also involved in assisting modelers by providing data and other knowledge for the model, and in advising on the most relevant or immediately comprehensible manner of presenting model results. Hence the approach also holds a strong component of mutual learning. Society has yet to find a solution to the climate change problem, owing (in part) to the large number of different user views involved, and the complexity and multi-disciplinary nature of the problem. Thus climate change is the issue for which a structured participatory approach is vital. This paper outlines a formal structure for a co-production of climate change wisdom through an interactive, distributed modular IA system (Community - or Co-productive - Integrated Assessment System CIAS). The term 'co-production' is used to illustrate (a) how the scientific and the user communities contribute to evolving design of the CIAS, and (b) how different parts of the scientific community, resident at different institutions, contribute to the construction of the CIAS system. The resultant matching of demand and supply (of our understanding of the climate change issue) is represented as a non-linear medium. Section 2 describes the proposed system in some detail, and section 3 goes on to describe how this might be applied to assess the benefits of climate policy.

Schellnhuber, J.; Warren, R.; Haxeltine, A.; Naylor, L. [The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

2003-07-01

308

From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP) is substantiated describing the different tools of the IPP. An overview is given on Design for Environment (DFE), presenting central findings from the latest decade of research and reviewing different DFE tools which have been developed. Describing the DFX's of Design for environment, a specific focus is devoted to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the eco-efficiency of the industry. The role of industry in meeting the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current drivers seem insufficient to create a strong move of particularly the small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of sustainability, and the need for stronger legislation and particularly for education and attitude building among future citizens and engineers is identified.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack

2005-01-01

309

New semiquantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT by an anatomical standardization method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated a new semiquantitative procedure to more easily and objectively estimate the striatal uptake of 123I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET), using an anatomical standardization method, the Neurostat. Eleven patients with PS and 8 with ET were examined by clinical assessment and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were used to assess the stage and severity of the disease. The co-registered MR and SPECT images were created with fusion software included in Neurostat. On the cross section, which shows the largest area of striate, irregular shaped regions of interest corresponding to the striate and occipital cortex were drawn. Then the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(F), was calculated. Another calculation was done by VOIClassic, which is a software included in Neurostat to estimate the counts per voxel of anatomically defined regions such as caudate nucleus, putamen, occipital cortex, and total cortex. Using these count data, the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(OC), and total cortex, V3''(TC), was calculated. A fair linear correlation was observed between V3''(OC) and V3''(F) (y=1.53x+1.40; r=0.756; ps=-0.816). However, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC) correlated less with UPDRS (rs=-0.667 and -0.645, respectively). Semiquantitative parameters, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC), calculated by VOIClassic including the Neurostat system are useful and easily calculable parameters as well as V3''(F) for the differential diagnosis of PS from ET. (author)

2006-01-01

310

78 FR 22369 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR Part 63 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...FRL-9682-8] RIN 2060-AQ90 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air...

2013-04-15

311

Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to asses how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of cost and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organisations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognise that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent Spar case study high-lights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis. (Author)

Salter, Edward; Ford, John [Heriot-Watt Univ., Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

312

Production and decay of neutralinos in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) we study neutralino production e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{chi}{sup 0}{sub i}{chi}{sup 0}{sub j} (i, j=1,.., 5) at center-of-mass energies between 100 and 600 GeV and the decays of the heavier neutralinos into the LSP plus a fermion pair, a photon or a Higgs boson. For representative gaugino/higgsino mixing scenarios, where the light neutralinos have significant singlet components, we find some striking differences between the NMSSM and the minimal supersymmetric model. Since in the NMSSM neutralino and Higgs sector are strongly correlated, the decay of the second lightest neutralino into a Higgs boson and the LSP often is kinematically possible and even dominant in a large parameter region of typical NMSSM scenarios. Also, the decay rates into final states with a photon may be enhanced. (orig.). With 11 figs., 6 tabs.

Franke, F. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Fraas, H. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

1996-10-01

313

Production and Decay of Neutralinos in the Next-To-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Within the framework of the Next-To-Minimal SupersymmetricStandard Model (NMSSM)we study neutralino production e+eGammaGamma! ~0i ~0j (i; j = 1; : : : ; 5) at center-of-mass energiesbetween 100 and 600 GeV and the decays of the heavier neutralinos into the LSP plusa fermion pair, a photon or a Higgs boson. For representative gaugino/higgsino mixingscenarios, where the light neutralinos have significant singlet components, we find somestriking differences between the NMSSM and the minimal supersymmetric model. Sincein the NMSSM neutralino and Higgs sector are strongly correlated, the decay of the secondlightest neutralino into a Higgs boson and the LSP often is kinematically possibleand even dominant in a large parameter region of typical NMSSM scenarios. Also, thedecay rates into final states with a photon may be enhanced.December 1995email: fabian@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de1 IntroductionSupersymmetry (SUSY) [1] may provide a solution to the hierarc...

F. Franke; H. Fraas

314

System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

CERN Document Server

A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

2011-01-01

315

Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in associated production with w boson at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron is presented in this dissertation. The process of interest is the associated production of W boson and Higgs boson, with the W boson decaying leptonically and the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of bottom quarks. The dataset in the analysis is accumulated by the D0 detector from April 2002 to April 2008 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}. The events are reconstructed and selected following the criteria of an isolated lepton, missing transverse energy and two jets. The D0 Neural Network b-jet identification algorithm is further used to discriminate b jets from light jets. A multivariate analysis combining Matrix Element and Neural Network methods is explored to improve the Higgs boson signal significance. No evidence of the Higgs boson is observed in this analysis. In consequence, an observed (expected) limit on the ratio of {sigma} (p{bar p} {yields} WH) x Br (H {yields} b{bar b}) to the Standard Model prediction is set to be 6.7 (6.4) at 95% C.L. for the Higgs boson with a mass of 115 GeV.

Chun, Xu; /Michigan U.

2009-11-01

316

Relationship between clinical competence and interpersonal and communication skills in standardized-patient assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between clinical competence and interpersonal and communication skills, in an attempt to clarify current thinking about these two dimensions as measured with standardized-patient (SP) examinations. METHOD: Simple Pearson correlations were computed between total examination scores for clinical competence and interpersonal and communication skills. Three sets of different types of data involving 15 separate examinations were used to explore the generality of the findings. To control for a within-case halo effect and measurement error, corrected cross-half correlations and corrected cross-case correlations were also computed. RESULTS: The simple correlations and the corrected cross-half and cross-case correlations showed moderate and above relationships between these two dimensions in the clinical context. The simple correlations centered around .50, and the corrected cross-half and cross-case correlations were slightly higher, centering around .65 and .70, respectively. CONCLUSION: The authors' thinking is that the moderate relationship between clinical competence and interpersonal and communication skills is not due to a flaw in the measurement of clinical competence, as has been suggested, but rather is a natural consequence of the clinical encounter, which exacts an interdependence of these two dimensions. At least, this possibility must be seriously considered so medical educators can think and act appropriately in the assessment of clinical performance.

Colliver JA; Swartz MH; Robbs RS; Cohen DS

1999-03-01

317

Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

2011-04-01

318

Standardization of the neutron probe for the assessment of masonry deterioration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The repair of the infrastructure will require nondestructive methods to assess the condition of existing buildings and other structures, many of which are constructed of masonry. One possible technology is the neutron probe, a prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) technique that can perform non- destructive elemental analyses in the field. It is based on a very low intensity 252Cf neutron source and a high-purity germanium detector for the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture within the material. The thermal neutron capture cross sections for hydrogen and chlorine are very large, and in masonry, these elements are found primarily in moisture and chlorides. These are major causes of deterioration in porous materials such as brick masonry. The moisture damages the material through expansive stresses during freeze-thaw cycles. Chlorides also generate expansive stresses through periodic cycles of dissolution and recrystallization in response to relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere. Similar problems also occur in reinforced concrete, where chlorides cause additional damage through corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The sensitivity of the neutron probe to hydrogen and chlorine thus means it can be used to map the distribution of these agents of deterioration. Preliminary field work at Colonial Williamsburg and Venice, Italy, showed that the technique could yield useful qualitative information. However, to be a quantitative method, the neutron probe had to be standardized in the laboratory on materials of known composition and specified moisture and chloride content

1992-01-01

319

Validation of the exposure assessment for veterinary medicinal products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Under the EU Directive 2004/28/EC, an environmental risk assessment of new veterinary medicinal products is required. Given the nature of risk assessment for new applications, there is a need to model exposure concentrations. Critical evaluations are essential to ensure that the use of models by regulators does not result in the propagation of misleading information. The empirical validations of soil exposure models, previously discussed in this journal, indicate that it is impossible to analyse the contribution of every model parameter to the variability in the predictions. In particular, the prediction of the slurry concentration is challenged by uncertainties concerning dilution, mixing and dissipation of residues. Surface water and groundwater models generated highly deviating results compared to the field results, questioning the usefulness of the available screening models. Animal husbandry, slurry handling and environmental conditions throughout Europe are considered in order to define realistic worst case scenarios, to be used in conjunction with distribution models for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products at registration. Given the variability in manure management practice throughout Europe, a deterministic approach for the manure-to-soil model was selected. Both worst case and best case scenario were developed. Several modelling assumptions applied in the surface water exposure model for fish nursery effluent were validated against newly available data. Since the available data give no proof that a settling tank contributes to the removal of pesticides from waste water, it is recommended for risk assessment purposes to consider the contribution of the settling tank to removal of pesticides and medicines to be negligible. Surface water dilution factors may be considered to be rather small, a factor of 2, for low flow situations.

Montforts MH

2006-04-01

320

Validation of the exposure assessment for veterinary medicinal products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the EU Directive 2004/28/EC, an environmental risk assessment of new veterinary medicinal products is required. Given the nature of risk assessment for new applications, there is a need to model exposure concentrations. Critical evaluations are essential to ensure that the use of models by regulators does not result in the propagation of misleading information. The empirical validations of soil exposure models, previously discussed in this journal, indicate that it is impossible to analyse the contribution of every model parameter to the variability in the predictions. In particular, the prediction of the slurry concentration is challenged by uncertainties concerning dilution, mixing and dissipation of residues. Surface water and groundwater models generated highly deviating results compared to the field results, questioning the usefulness of the available screening models. Animal husbandry, slurry handling and environmental conditions throughout Europe are considered in order to define realistic worst case scenarios, to be used in conjunction with distribution models for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products at registration. Given the variability in manure management practice throughout Europe, a deterministic approach for the manure-to-soil model was selected. Both worst case and best case scenario were developed. Several modelling assumptions applied in the surface water exposure model for fish nursery effluent were validated against newly available data. Since the available data give no proof that a settling tank contributes to the removal of pesticides from waste water, it is recommended for risk assessment purposes to consider the contribution of the settling tank to removal of pesticides and medicines to be negligible. Surface water dilution factors may be considered to be rather small, a factor of 2, for low flow situations. PMID:15907974

Montforts, Mark H M M

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Biodegradation and ecotoxicological assessment of pectin production wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of pectin production wastewater and its toxicity during biological treatment were investigated. Samples of wastewater from different steps of a pectin production wastewater biological treatment plant were investigated including the influent of the treatment (1), after denitrification tank (2), after anaerobic treatment (3) and final effluent (4). The conventional physicochemical characteristics of samples did not indicate wastewater toxicity. However, toxicity assessments carried out on Vibrio fischeri and Scenedesmus subspicatus indicated low EC50 values. The fractionation of the samples using an XAD resin showed that the toxicity was associated with the organic matter. Wastewater apparent molecular mass distributions were 14.3, 25.0, 24.4 and 29.6 kDa for samples 1-4, respectively. Finally, characteristics of the sample by pyrolisis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-CG-MS) demonstrated its polyphenolic nature and a 23% increase in the levels of such compounds after the first biological treatment step. PMID:20108698

Reginatto, V; Amante, E R; Gerhardy, K; Kunst, S; Duran, N

2009-01-01

322

Biodegradation and ecotoxicological assessment of pectin production wastewater.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical composition of pectin production wastewater and its toxicity during biological treatment were investigated. Samples of wastewater from different steps of a pectin production wastewater biological treatment plant were investigated including the influent of the treatment (1), after denitrification tank (2), after anaerobic treatment (3) and final effluent (4). The conventional physicochemical characteristics of samples did not indicate wastewater toxicity. However, toxicity assessments carried out on Vibrio fischeri and Scenedesmus subspicatus indicated low EC50 values. The fractionation of the samples using an XAD resin showed that the toxicity was associated with the organic matter. Wastewater apparent molecular mass distributions were 14.3, 25.0, 24.4 and 29.6 kDa for samples 1-4, respectively. Finally, characteristics of the sample by pyrolisis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-CG-MS) demonstrated its polyphenolic nature and a 23% increase in the levels of such compounds after the first biological treatment step.

Reginatto V; Amante ER; Gerhardy K; Kunst S; Duran N

2009-01-01

323

Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

2009-06-30

324

An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

2009-01-01

325

Development and Quality Assessment of Date Chocolate Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Date chocolate products were produced by processing cocoa bean into cocoa powder (fermentation, milling, alkalization, press cake to cocoa butter, grinding, sifting and cocoa powder) and Date fruit into date powder (cleaning, sorting, drying, milling and sifting). The powders (Cocoa and Date) were used in the formulation of four different samples of chocolate mixes. The chemical analysis of the Date chocolates showed that sample C had the highest pH value, this was followed by sample B, while sample A had the lowest value. Sample B had high moisture content, with sample D having the highest. The four samples contained trace amount of fat; the carbohydrate contents of the samples were high, with sample B having the highest, while the protein contents were a bit close with sample D having the highest. Microbiological analysis showed the mesophilic aerobic bacteria plate count and the yeast and mould count are within the range of the standard. The sensory evaluation showed that samples A and B significantly differed (p<0.05) in taste, while samples A and D differed in texture significantly (p<0.05). There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in flavor, color, firmness and overall acceptability for the 4 samples. The use of Date-palm in chocolate production improved the taste and flavor of the product. The use of Date palm with or without sugar produces chocolate with a different texture and sweetness.

A.J. Ajiboye; O.L. Erukainure; T.I. Egagah; P.T. Bolaji

2010-01-01

326

Growing Awareness, Growing Support: Teacher and Voter Understanding of the Common Core State Standards & Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Since June 2010, 46 states and Washington DC have chosen to adopt the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)--K-12 standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy developed through a multi-state initiative led by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. As implementation of the standards is…

Achieve, Inc., 2012

2012-01-01

327

Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research highlights: ? The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. ? As the power increases, the NSEF increases. ? Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. ? It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. ? There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MWe and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MWe. So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

2011-01-01

328

Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

1996-03-01

329

An assessment of academic productivity in pediatric neurosurgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Object Various bibliometric indices are now commonly used to assess academic productivity in medicine. Some evidence suggests that these measures are specific to subspecialty areas. The authors' goal was to measure the h index of academic pediatric neurosurgeons and compare it with previously reported results for academic neurosurgeons in general. Methods Programs with an Accreditation Council for Pediatric Neurosurgery Fellowships-approved fellowship were identified, and the h and g indices of each of their surgeons were calculated. These were correlated with academic rank and compared with published literature on academic neurosurgical departments. Results Seventy-two pediatric neurosurgeons had a mean h index of 16.6 and a mean g index of 29.5. Both indices increased with progressive academic rank. The rank-specific mean index for academic pediatric neurosurgeons was similar to that of neurosurgeons from academic departments in general. Conclusions Overall, the authors conclude that the h index metric is a reasonable measure of academic productivity in the pediatric neurosurgery arena that provides a robust measure of an individual's contribution to the pediatric neurosurgery literature. Like its counterpart in neurosurgery in general, the h index for pediatric neurosurgeons correlates with institutional rank. The h index calculation also reveals the productivity of the pediatric neurosurgeons to be on par with the productivity of neurosurgeons in general. PMID:23870040

Kalra, Ricky R; Kestle, John R W

2013-07-19

330

An assessment of academic productivity in pediatric neurosurgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: Various bibliometric indices are now commonly used to assess academic productivity in medicine. Some evidence suggests that these measures are specific to subspecialty areas. The authors' goal was to measure the h index of academic pediatric neurosurgeons and compare it with previously reported results for academic neurosurgeons in general. METHODS: Programs with an Accreditation Council for Pediatric Neurosurgery Fellowships-approved fellowship were identified, and the h and g indices of each of their surgeons were calculated. These were correlated with academic rank and compared with published literature on academic neurosurgical departments. RESULTS: Seventy-two pediatric neurosurgeons had a mean h index of 16.6 and a mean g index of 29.5. Both indices increased with progressive academic rank. The rank-specific mean index for academic pediatric neurosurgeons was similar to that of neurosurgeons from academic departments in general. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the authors conclude that the h index metric is a reasonable measure of academic productivity in the pediatric neurosurgery arena that provides a robust measure of an individual's contribution to the pediatric neurosurgery literature. Like its counterpart in neurosurgery in general, the h index for pediatric neurosurgeons correlates with institutional rank. The h index calculation also reveals the productivity of the pediatric neurosurgeons to be on par with the productivity of neurosurgeons in general.

Kalra RR; Kestle JR

2013-09-01

331

Application of established standards in communications for distributed power production; Anwendung etablierter Standards in der Kommunikation fuer verteilte Erzeugung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distributed power production will drastically change the structure of the electricity supply in the coming years. According to the goals of the EU Commission the contributions of distributed power supply are due to drastically increase, as follows: (a) renewable energies 22%, (b) cogeneration 18%. This is expected to amount to a 400 TWh/a increase in distributed power production, one feature of which is that it is not centrally dispatchable. Some 100 TWh/a of this increase will be accounted for by the growth of wind power, especially from large-scale wind parks, while 300 TWh/a will come from small-scale power plants scattered throughout the distribution grid. Most distributed power producers today operate their plants at full load, their primary motive being to profit from EEC subsidies as provided by the Electricity Feed Law. If the share of distributed power production rises by 40% at the European level, this practice will lead to serious problems of supply security. For this reason it must be demanded that every power plant including small-scale distributed plants are subjected to the rules of grid operation control. [German] Die verteilte Erzeugung wird die Struktur der Elektroenergieversorgung in den kommenden Jahren drastisch veraendern. Geht man von den Zielen der EU-Kommission aus, werden die Anteile verteilter Erzeugung bis zum Jahre 2010 durch folgende Vorgaben drastisch erhoeht: (a) Erneuerbare Energien 22%, (b) Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung (KWK) 18%. Damit werden etwa 400 TWh/a Zuwachs an verteilter Erzeugung erwartet, zu deren Merkmalen gehoert, dass sie nicht zentral dispatchbar ist. Davon werden etwa 100 TWh/a auf den weiteren Ausbau der Windkraft - insbesondere in grossen Windparks - sowie 300 TWh/a auf kleinere, in den Verteilnetzen verstreute Erzeugeranlagen fallen. Heute produzieren die verteilten Erzeuger in der Regel das moegliche Maximum an Leistung insbesondere auch, um von den Subventionen nach EEG und KWK-Gesetz zu profitieren. Bei einem steigenden Anteil verteilter Erzeugung von europaweit 40% wird ein solches Vorgehen ernsthafte Probleme in der Sicherheit der Stromversorgung bringen. Es besteht daher die Forderung, dass jede Erzeugeranlage - auch kleine verteilte Anlagen sich den Regeln der Netzfuehrung unterordnen. (orig.)

Buchholz, B.M. [Siemens AG, PTD SE NC, Erlangen (Germany); Schubert, H. [Siemens AG, PTD PA SIT, Nuernberg (Germany)

2003-07-01

332

A Total Productivity PCA Model for Assessment and Improvement of Electrical Manufacturing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a framework for assessment of electrical manufacturing systems based on a total machine productivity approach and multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the total model is developed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and validated and verified by Numerical Taxonomy (NT) and non-parametric correlation methods, namely, Spearman correlation experiment and Kendall Tau. To achieve the objectives of this study, a comprehensive study was conducted to locate the most important economic and technical indicators which influence machine performance. These indicators are related to machine productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and profitability. Six major electrical machinery sectors are selected according to the format of International Standard for Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC). Then, a comparative study is conducted through PCA among the electrical machinery sectors by considering the six sectors. This in turn shows the weak and strong points of electrical machinery and apparatus manufacturing sectors with respect to machine productivity. Furthermore, PCA identified which machine indicators have the major impacts on the performance of electrical machinery sectors. The modeling approach of this study could be used for ranking and analysis of other electrical sectors. This study is the first to introduce a total productivity model for assessment and improvement of total machine performance in electrical manufacturing sectors.

Ali Azadeh; Farid Ghaderi

2005-01-01

333

Evaluation of a standard test method and material for low-activity waste product acceptance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution behavior of a candidate reference glass has been measured under a range of test conditions. The data base from these tests can be used to evaluate the credibility and validity of test results reported by Private Contractors as part of the acceptance process for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products for DOE wastes. The LRM-1 glass that was used in the tests was formulated to be compositionally representative of anticipated ILAW products for Hanford and other Department of Energy sites. Replicate tests with this glass were used to measure the variability in the response (i.e., the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si) under different test conditions. The glass was further evaluated for possible use as a standard material by analysis of its composition, microstructure, density, and compressive strength. In addition, the Na leachability index was measured with the ANS 16.1 test, and the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure was run. The results of those tests and analyses are summarized

1998-01-01

334

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines--2010 update.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) published the "Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines," which was to be implemented in forthcoming clinical practice guidelines (CPG). This protocol formally incorporated subjective factors and evidence-based medicine (EBM) methods that tightly mapped evidence levels to recommendation grades. A uniform publication template and multilevel review process were also outlined. Seven CPG have been subsequently published with use of this 2004 AACE protocol. Recently, growing concerns about the usefulness of CPG have been raised. The purposes of this report are to address shortcomings of the 2004 AACE protocol and to present an updated 2010 AACE protocol for CPG development. AACE CPG are developed without any industry involvement. Multiplicities of interests among writers and reviewers that might compromise the usefulness of CPG are avoided. Three major goals are to (1) balance transparently the effect of rigid quantitative EBM methods with subjective factors, (2) create a less onerous, less time-consuming, and less costly CPG production process, and (3) introduce an electronic implementation component. The updated 2010 AACE protocol emphasizes "informed judgment" and hybridizes EBM descriptors (study design type), qualifiers (study flaws), and subjective factors (such as risk, cost, and relevance). In addition, by focusing on more specific topics and clinical questions, the expert evaluation and multilevel review process is more transparent and expeditious. Lastly, the final recommendations are linked to a new electronic implementation feature. PMID:20350905

Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Camacho, Pauline M; Cobin, Rhoda H; Garber, Alan J; Garber, Jeffrey R; Gharib, Hossein; Petak, Steven M; Rodbard, Helena W; Trence, Dace L

335

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines--2010 update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2004, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) published the "Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines," which was to be implemented in forthcoming clinical practice guidelines (CPG). This protocol formally incorporated subjective factors and evidence-based medicine (EBM) methods that tightly mapped evidence levels to recommendation grades. A uniform publication template and multilevel review process were also outlined. Seven CPG have been subsequently published with use of this 2004 AACE protocol. Recently, growing concerns about the usefulness of CPG have been raised. The purposes of this report are to address shortcomings of the 2004 AACE protocol and to present an updated 2010 AACE protocol for CPG development. AACE CPG are developed without any industry involvement. Multiplicities of interests among writers and reviewers that might compromise the usefulness of CPG are avoided. Three major goals are to (1) balance transparently the effect of rigid quantitative EBM methods with subjective factors, (2) create a less onerous, less time-consuming, and less costly CPG production process, and (3) introduce an electronic implementation component. The updated 2010 AACE protocol emphasizes "informed judgment" and hybridizes EBM descriptors (study design type), qualifiers (study flaws), and subjective factors (such as risk, cost, and relevance). In addition, by focusing on more specific topics and clinical questions, the expert evaluation and multilevel review process is more transparent and expeditious. Lastly, the final recommendations are linked to a new electronic implementation feature.

Mechanick JI; Camacho PM; Cobin RH; Garber AJ; Garber JR; Gharib H; Petak SM; Rodbard HW; Trence DL

2010-03-01

336

High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.

Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

1996-09-30

337

Ready-For-Use-module full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, the somatostatin imaging using DOTA conjugated peptides like DOTA-TOC, -NOC and -TATE are the common applications. Different 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and synthesis modules are described separately. We describe a new full automated and standardized production of 68Ga-DOTATOC. Methods: The module has to fit with components like the pre-conditioned C18 purifications cartridge and the DOTATOC precursor solute in HEPES buffer. The generator was fractionally eluted in time steps of 30 sec. An elution profile was created and the time frame of the middle fraction was adjusted with the basis software and the flow rate of the peristaltic pump. The reaction vial was charged with 30 µg DOTATOC solved in 100µl HEPES buffer (150-200mg / 0.1 ml) and placed in the heating block. The generator was eluted with 0.6 N HCl and the reaction volume (~ 1ml) was collected at the reaction vial after switching the valves V2 and V3 for 40 s. The labeling was performed under 95°C for 12 min at pH 3.5-4. Purification was achieved by injecting the reaction mixture onto the C18cardridge, washing with 1,5 ml H2O and 10 ml air. The 68Ga-DOTATOC was transferred over a sterile filter to the product vial by elution with 1 ml ethanol and 9 ml of saline. Results: The tin dioxide generator we used was specified with an elution yield in 5 ml not less than 80%. The rule of thumb prognosticates a durability of 200 elutions or 10 month. After ~ 70 elution the yield of our systems fall below the value of 80%. The typical overall elution, labeling and purification procedure took less than 25 min.The non-ionic buffer HEPES was most effective and the optimal amount was ~ 160 mg. Using 33 µg (23 nmol),the labeling yield was 60%-65% and their radiochemical purity was > 97%. Conclusion: The combination of a 68Ge/68Ga generator, produced under cGMP guidelines and a "Ready for use" automated module allows a standardized production with high radiochemical yields for 68Ga-DOTATOC. This combination of both will provide the user with facile and reliable package for the preparation in routine clinical applications, especially und the aspect of cGLP and cGMP

Stephan Maus; Mathias Schreckenberger

2010-01-01

338

Analysis provided to assist the development of a certification and enforcement program for consumer-product efficiency standards. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) authorized DOE to implement an energy-conservation program for major household consumer products. Included in this legislation is a mandate to establish minimum energy-efficiency standards for each type or class of covered consumer product. In order to assure compliance by all manufacturers, procedures must be developed and implemented to permit DOE to verify that each manufacturer's products meet or exceed the prescribed efficiency standard. Vitro Laboratories performed analysis to assist DOE in developing a Certification/Enforcement Program for Consumer-Product Efficiency Standards meeting the requirements of EPCA. The specific work performed was defined by three tasks under the orginal contract and five tasks under a subsequent modification of the contract. Each task is described.

1981-02-16

339

Next Generation Landsat Products Delivered Using Virtual Globes and OGC Standard Services  

Science.gov (United States)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the next in the series of Landsat satellite missions and is tasked with the objective of delivering data acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI). The OLI instrument will provide data continuity to over 30 years of global multispectral data collected by the Landsat series of satellites. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS) Center has responsibility for the development and operation of the LDCM ground system. One of the mission objectives of the LDCM is to distribute OLI data products electronically over the Internet to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at no cost. To ensure the user community and general public can easily access LDCM data from multiple clients, the User Portal Element (UPE) of the LDCM ground system will use OGC standards and services such as Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Geographic encoding of Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) feeds for both access to and delivery of LDCM products. The USGS has developed and tested the capabilities of several successful UPE prototypes for delivery of Landsat metadata, full resolution browse, and orthorectified (L1T) products from clients such as Google Earth, Google Maps, ESRI ArcGIS Explorer, and Microsoft's Virtual Earth. Prototyping efforts included the following services: using virtual globes to search the historical Landsat archive by dynamic generation of KML; notification of and access to new Landsat acquisitions and L1T downloads from GeoRSS feeds; Google indexing of KML files containing links to full resolution browse and data downloads; WMS delivery of reduced resolution browse, full resolution browse, and cloud mask overlays; and custom data downloads using WCS clients. These various prototypes will be demonstrated and LDCM service implementation plans will be discussed during this session.

Neiers, M.; Dwyer, J.; Neiers, S.

2008-12-01

340

Life cycle assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the preceding project 'Life Cycle Assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects' for the first time the risks of deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment have been taken into account in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This was performed by a risk assessment in addition to a quantitative impact assessment. As from a methodological perspective this was not satisfactory, the Federal Environment Agency commissioned the C.A.U. GmbH and the Institute of Applied Ecology Freiburg to further develop the impact assessment methodology for the risks of GMOs. Any further development of the methodology of impact assessment in LCAs has to be performed on the basis of the standard EN/ISO 14042. There are 2 options for taking into account risks of deliberate release of GMOs: 1. allocation of the potential effects resulting from the genetic modification on human beings and the environment to existing categories of the impact assessment and attempt to quantify within those existing methods of characterization; 2. development of a new category, e.g. 'effects of genetically modified crop plants'. In order to asses the possibilities under option 1 various models of characterization within the categories human toxicity, ecotoxicity and land use (appropriation of environmental space) have been analyzed. The risks of GMOs identified and dealt with in the preceding study were allocated to these categories. It seemed to be impossible to integrate the risks in existing models of characterization for human toxicity and ecotoxicity, as these are based on exposure and impact factors. The development of a factor for exposure seems possible for GMOs, however a suitable impact factor is not possible to generate. In addition it was analyzed if in other impact categories which are difficult to quantify any solutions for operationalization exist. This does not seem to be the case. As a result, first steps to develop a new category, e.g. 'genetic engineering' were undertaken. This impact category shall enable to take into account the risks of the deliberate release of genetically modified crop plants in the course of agricultural production and the comparison of different genetically modified crop plants. For the calculation of a factor for characterizing a specific genetically modified crop plant, a risk number is determined on the basis of the likelihood of each risk category being realized. This depends on the likelihood of dissemination in a specific climate zone as well as on the number of transferred or modified genes. This risk number is combined with the number of the potentially affected areas of protection. The data are gained from the respective notification dossiers for the specific genetically modified plant. In the inventory analysis the agricultural production area (or the result of the area and the duration of application) of the genetically modified plant, relating to the functional unit, is determined. The resulting indicator is calculated by multiplying with the respective characterizing factor. This is shown taking the 2 model products Bt-maize 176 and herbicide tolerant winter oilseed rape as examples. The results of this study show that it is possible to operationalize the risks of the planting of genetically modified crop plants for the impact assessment in a LCA via a new category. The calculation of the characterizing factors is possible on the basis of the available data sources. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Upper-bound fission product release assessment for large break LOCA in CANFLEX bundle reactor core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quarter-core gap inventory assessment for CANDU-6 reactor core loaded with CANFLEX fuel bundles has been performed as one of the licensing safety analyses required for 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundle irradiation in CANDU-6 reactor. The quarter-core gap inventory for the CANFLEX bundle core is 5 - 10 times lower than that for the standard bundle core, depending on the half-life of the isotope. The lower gap inventory of the CANFLEX bundle core is attributed to the lower linear power of the CANFLEX bundle compared with the standard bundle. However, the whole core total inventories for both the CANFLEX and standard bundle cores are nearly the same. The 6 - 8 times lower upper-bound fission product releases of the CANFLEX bundle core for large break LOCA than those of the standard bundle core imply that the loading of 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundles would improve the predicted consequences of the postulated accident described in the Wolsung 2 safety report. 2 tabs., 6 figs., 3 refs. (Author).

Oh, Duk Ju; Lee, Kang Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-07-01

342

Upper-bound fission product release assessment for large break LOCA in CANFLEX bundle reactor core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quarter-core gap inventory assessment for CANDU-6 reactor core loaded with CANFLEX fuel bundles has been performed as one of the licensing safety analyses required for 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundle irradiation in CANDU-6 reactor. The quarter-core gap inventory for the CANFLEX bundle core is 5 - 10 times lower than that for the standard bundle core, depending on the half-life of the isotope. The lower gap inventory of the CANFLEX bundle core is attributed to the lower linear power of the CANFLEX bundle compared with the standard bundle. However, the whole core total inventories for both the CANFLEX and standard bundle cores are nearly the same. The 6 - 8 times lower upper-bound fission product releases of the CANFLEX bundle core for large break LOCA than those of the standard bundle core imply that the loading of 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundles would improve the predicted consequences of the postulated accident described in the Wolsung 2 safety report. 2 tabs., 6 figs., 3 refs. (Author).

1996-01-01

343

New ammonia lyases and amine transaminases: Standardization of production process and preparation of immobilized biocatalysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: New enzymes for biotransformations can be obtained by different approaches including directed mutagenesis and in vitro evolution. These mutants have to be efficiently produced for laboratory research on bioreactions as well as for process development. In the framework of a European ERA-IB project, two different types of enzymes (ammonia lyases and aminotransferases) have been selected as biocatalysts for the synthesis of industrially relevant amines. New mutan (more) t enzymes have been obtained: a) aspartases able to recognize ?-amino acids; b) ?-transaminases with improved activity. The objectives are to find out a common operational strategy applicable to different mutants expressed in E. coli with the same initial genetic background, the development of an integrated process for production and the preparation of stable useful biocatalysts. Results: Mutant enzymes were expressed in E. coli BL21 under the control of isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible promoter. The microorganisms were grown in a formulated defined medium and a high-cell density culture process was set up. Fed-batch operation at constant specific growth rate, employing an exponential addition profile allowed high biomass concentrations. The same operational strategy was applied for different mutants of both aspartase and transaminase enzymes, and the results have shown a common area of satisfactory operation for maximum production at low inducer concentration, around 2 ?mol IPTG/g DCW. The operational strategy was validated with new mutants and high-cell density cultures were performed for efficient production. Suitable biocatalysts were prepared after recovery of the enzymes. The obtained aspartase was immobilized by covalent attachment on MANA-agarose, while ?-transaminase biocatalysts were prepared by entrapping whole cells and partially purified enzyme onto Lentikats (polyvinyl alcohol gel lens-shaped particles). Conclusions: The possibility of expressing different mutant enzymes under similar operation conditions has been demonstrated. The process was standardized for production of new aspartases with ?-amino acid selectivity and new ?-transaminases with improved substrate acceptance. A whole process including production, cell disruption and partial purification was set up. The partially purified enzymes were immobilized and employed as stable biocatalysts in the synthesis of chiral amines.

Casablancas, Antoni; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Álvaro, Gregorio; Benaiges, Maria Dolors; Caminal, Glòria; Mas, Carles de; González, Glòria; López, Carmen; López-Santín, Josep

2013-05-01

344

The use of heart rate variability in assessing precompetitive stress in high-standard judo athletes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study is to examine the sensitivity to and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) in stressful situations before judo competitions and to observe the differences among judo athletes according to their competitive standards in both official and unofficial competitions. 24 (10 male and 14 female) national- and international-standard athletes were evaluated. Each participant answered the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2R) and their HRV was recorded both during an official and unofficial competition. The MANOVA showed significant main effects of the athlete's standard and the type of competition in CSAI-2R, in HRV time domain, in HRV frequency domain and in HRV nonlinear analysis (p<0.05). International-standard judo athletes have lower somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, heart rate and low-high frequency ratio than national-standard athletes (p<0.05). International-standard athletes have a higher confidence, mean RR interval, standard deviation of RR, square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR intervals, number of consecutive RR that differ by more than 5 ms, short-term variability, long-term variability, long-range scaling exponents and short-range scaling exponent than national-standard judo athletes. In conclusion, international-standard athletes show less pre-competitive anxiety than the national-standard athletes and HRV analysis is sensitive to changes in pre-competitive anxiety.

Morales J; Garcia V; García-Massó X; Salvá P; Escobar R; Buscà B

2013-02-01

345

A epidemiologia na avaliação da qualidade: uma proposta Epidemiological standards for assessing quality: a proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma estratégia de definição de indicadores para avaliar a qualidade do processo de assistência, baseada na identificação dos objetivos dessa assistência e na verificação da existência de normas técnicas que a norteiem. Simultaneamente, aplica esta metodologia ao processo de assistência ao nascimento e parto, adotando enfoque de risco, tanto para a saúde individual, como para a coletiva. Utiliza para tal um banco de dados de 4.558 Histórias Clínicas Perinatais Simplificadas de 12 hospitais. Os indicadores selecionados foram: sorologia para sífilis, tipagem sanguínea Rh, vacinação antitetânica, taxa de cesáreas, recepção do bebê por pediatra na sala de partos, boletim de Apgar, avaliação de idade gestacional por exame físico, alojamento conjunto, aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta, encaminhamento para consulta de puerpério. Para classificação dos hospitais, foram utilizadas a soma simples, padrão-ouro, e hierarquização. A metodologia proposta permitiu identificar um hospital com qualidade excelente, cinco com qualidade boa, dois com qualidade regular e quatro com desempenho completamente insatisfatório.This paper proposes a strategy for defining indicators to assess the quality of the process of health care, based on the identification of the objectives of the care being delivered and on the verification of whether the technical guidelines for the procedures are being enforced. The article goes on to apply the proposed methodology to the process of health care during childbirth, based on a perspective of comprehensive care and adopting both an individual and collective risk approach. It uses a data bank of 4,558 Simplified Perinatal Clinical Histories (CLAP/PAHO/WHO) from 12 hospitals.The indicators selected were: V.D.R.L., Rh blood typing, antitetanus vaccination, rate of cesarean sections, reception of the baby by a pediatrician at birth, Apgar score, evaluation of the gestational age by physical exam, rooming-in, exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge, and referral for a puerperal consultation. Methods for classification of hospitals were the sum of their scores for each indicator, gold standard, and ranking. This methodology warranted identification of one hospital with excellent quality of care, five with good care, two with fair care, and four whose performances were completely unsatisfactory. Finally, some remarks on the assessment of quality of health care are made and future developments are proposed.

Daphne Rattner

1996-01-01

346

Productivity assessment of an integrated voice/data workstation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 500 management information systems are used by the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) to help keep the US Air Force's aerospace weapon systems in combat-readiness throughout the world. To accomplish its logistics mission, the AFLC helps manage and track $113 billion in assets and some 460,000 annual contracts. Major assets include 915,835 different supply items and the maintenance of 9418 aircraft. A staff of 102,600 in the AFLC handles these assets through four primary functions: Procurement, Material Management, Distribution, and Maintenance. Most of the information systems used in the massive logistics effort were designed 20 years ago for a batch-processing environment. To take advantage of new developments in automated office systems, the AFLC has established a Logistics Management System (LMS) modernization plan. Under this plan the AFLC will update and automate its functional processes, ADP hardware, software, and communication networks. As part of the program, the AFLC is studying what changes occur in human productivity through the use of an automated office information system that integrates voice and data. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was engaged to study a prototype ''Integrated Voice/Data System'' (IVDS) to assess these changes. For the prototype assessment, the survey used an off-the-shelf departmental IVDS system supporting 64 workstations. Through a ''survey/questionnaire'' method, users at AFLC's staff (management) level were asked to estimate ''work time'' saved. This report presents the results of the productivity study associated with implementation of an integrated voice and data system. These results will provide AFLC decision-makers with sample estimates of productivity improvements that may be expected by an advanced integrated voice and data system.

Banks, W.W.; Prassinos, P.G.

1987-03-01

347

Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

1985-01-01

348

Nutritional state of Polish prepubertal children assessed by population-specific and international standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of obesity, overweight and underweight (thinness) in Polish 7-9-year-old children using a population specific definition as compared to the French, US and IOTF references based on body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated in a randomly selected representative sample of 7-9-year-old Polish children (N = 2916; 1445 girls; 1471 boys) to define their nutritional status. Overweight (including obesity) was estimated according to four and underweight (thinness) according to three definitions Polish national references; French references; United States references and International Obesity Task Force references. RESULTS: According to Polish, French, U.S. and IOTF references overweight (including obesity) was found in 12.1, 14.3, 20.7 and 15.4% of children, respectively; 3.5, 9.4 and 3.6% of children were obese according to national, U.S. and IOTF references, respectively while underweight (thinness) was present in 6.9, 2.6 and 4.2% of children according to Polish, French and U.S. references, respectively. A trend of decreasing overweight and increasing underweight through age classes was observed. CONCLUSION: The rates of underweight (thinness), overweight and obesity in Polish 7-9-year-old children calculated according to the national, French, U.S. and IOTF references were significantly different. Therefore even if the IOTF reference is considered superior for international epidemiological studies, population specific standards should probably coexist for clinical practice.

Matusik P; Malecka-Tendera E; Klimek K

2007-02-01

349

Automating standard alcohol use assessment instruments via interactive voice response technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Interactive voice response (IVR) technology integrates touch-tone telephones with computer-automated data processing. IVR offers a convenient, efficient method for remote collection of self-report data. METHODS: Twenty-six subjects recruited from an outpatient alcohol treatment center completed IVR and paper/pencil versions of a demographic and drinking history questionnaire, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale, Drinker Inventory of Consequences, Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, Alcohol Dependence Scale, and two numerical rating scales of craving and desire to drink during the prior week. Administration of the instruments in both formats was repeated 1 week later. The order of administration method was counterbalanced between subjects and reversed across data collection sessions. Scale and subscale scores from both methods were correlated within sessions. Test-retest correlations were also calculated for each method. A criterion of alpha = 0.01 was used to control type I statistical error. RESULTS: Intermethod correlations within each session were significant for all of the instruments administered. Test-retest correlations for both methods were also significant, except for the numerical ratings. Scores on the Alcohol Dependence Scale obtained via IVR were significantly lower than those collected by paper/pencil. Other differences between the data collection methods or across the sessions were inconsistent. The average IVR call length was 34 min and 23 sec. Paper/pencil forms required an average of 18 min and 38 sec to complete and an additional 10 min and 17 sec for data entry. CONCLUSIONS: IVR technology provides a convenient alternative to collecting self-report measures of treatment outcomes. Both paper/pencil and IVR assessments provide highly convergent data and demonstrate good test-retest reliability. Alcohol Dependence Scale score differences between methods highlight special considerations for IVR adaptation of existing paper/pencil instruments. Benefits of IVR include procedural standardization, automatic data scoring, direct electronic storage, and remote accessibility from multiple locations.

Mundt JC; Bohn MJ; King M; Hartley MT

2002-02-01

350

Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve.

1998-01-01

351

Towards standardized 3DTV QoE assessment: Cross-lab study on display technology and viewing environment parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subjective assessment of Quality of Experience in stereoscopic 3D requires new guidelines for the environmental setup as existing standards such as ITU-R BT.500 may no longer be appropriate. A first step is to perform cross-lab experiments in different viewing conditions on the same video sequences....

Barkowsky, Marcus; Li, Jing; Han, Taehwan; Youn, Sungwook; Ok, Jiheon; Lee, Chulhee; Hedberg, Christer; Ananth, Indirajith Vijai

352

Life Cycle Assessment and sustainability methodologies for assessing industrial crops, processes and end products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Providing food, energy and materials for the rising global population is a challenge which is compounded by increased pressure on natural resources such as land, water and fossil sources of raw materials. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activities have increased with industrial development and population expansion, and it is anticipated that resulting climate change might further limit agricultural productivity, through changes to weather patterns and global availability/distribution of agriculturally productive land. Growing crops as feedstocks for industrial uses is seen as one way of reducing GHG emissions and dependency on fossil resources. However, determining the extent to which the development of crops for industrial use will effect GHG balances and provide for a more energy efficient manufacturing system requires the development and use of appropriate calculation methodologies. Research at the Porter Institute has identified over 250 different scenarios for bioenergy production systems using commodity crops. In order to rationalise this complexity and diversity, a modular approach to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and sustainability analysis has been taken. This allows characterisation of discrete sections of supply chains and enables comparisons to be made between different crop production systems, different process systems and different end product uses. The purposes of this paper are to introduce the concepts of biofuel GHG and sustainability metrics, to introduce the approach taken by our organization and to use the example of UK grown willow in a lignocellulosic ethanol production system to demonstrate how GHG emission outcomes can be reviewed for “new” crops and technologies. The results show a range of variation, in both growing and process systems and how outcomes such as energy and GHG balances can be affected by various activities. LCA methodologies provide data to inform governments and industry of the potential specific supply chains may have for energy and GHG saving. However, methodological approaches can also affect assessment outcomes. Unresolved issues in LCA methodology must also be evaluated e.g. impacts resulting from land use change. Sustainability assessments of crop growing systems, irrespective of the end use, also assist in the assessment of environmental impacts of supply chains. However, it is critical that data continue to be collected, analysed and reviewed, to ensure that the most appropriate crops are grown and processed for the most appropriate end use.

Black MJ; Whittaker C; Hosseini SA; Diaz-Chavez R; Woods J; Murphy RJ

2011-09-01

353

Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with unwanted impurities. All in all, more insight should be gained into the magnitude of iLUC impacts associated with energy crops. Their quantification is the key factor determining a beneficial or detrimental GHG performance of bioenergy systems based on energy crops. If energy crops are introduced, combined heat and power production should be prioritized based on the results of this research. Production of liquid biofuels for transport should be limited as the overall energy conversion efficiency is significantly lower thereby leading to decreased GHG performances. On this basis, recovery of energy, materials and resources from waste such as residual agricultural/forestry biomass and municipal/commercial/industrial waste should be seen as the way ahead. Highly-efficient combustion and incineration offer robust energy and environmental performances. Innovative waste refineries may achieve si

Tonini, D.

2013-02-15

354

Assessment of the technical specifications for a flip-standard TRIGA core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Technical Specifications for the Texas A and M University mixed, FLIP-Standard TRIGA core were the first submitted and approved under the draft version of Standard ANS-15.1. According to one AEC official these were the best Technical Specifications ever issued to a Research Reactor. The Technical Specifications are evaluated after operating under them for over seven months. (author)

1974-01-01

355

What Can the Common Core State Standards Initiative Learn from the National Assessment Governing Board?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) is a bit like the underdog candidate who wins the election when few think it possible. "Now what?" is the question facing the surprised victor. With an initial agreement for the Common Core State Standards to be developed, and visible progress toward their development and promulgation, what will…

Musick, Mark

2010-01-01

356

Communication Skills in Standardized-Patient Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students: A Psychometric Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this study is to investigate the content-specificity of communication skills. It investigates the reliability and dimensionality of standardized patient (SP) ratings of communication skills in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE) for final year medical students. An OSCE consisting of seven standardized patient(SP)…

Guiton, Gretchen; Hodgson, Carol S.; Delandshere, Ginett; Wilkerson, Luann

2004-01-01

357

Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat under Smallholders Production System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic) factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female), type of birth (singles, twins, triplets) and dam’s parity (1-7). Data were analysed statistically according to the analysis of variance procedure using the General Linear Model (GLM). Least squares analysis revealed that dam’s parity, birth type, and sex of kid were significant sources of variation for birth and weaning weight and pre weaning growth in Kacang kids. The average birth weight, weaning weight and pre weaning growth of males (2.07±0.02 kg; 10.457±0.1 kg; 69.35±0.73 g/d) were found to be higher than females (1.95±0.02 kg; 9.15±0.09 kg; 60.73±0.71 g/d). Kid production traits increased with parity, with the largest values at the fourth parity and then slightly decreased thereafter. The average male and female birth weight (2.18+0.03 kg; 2.02+0.03 kg), weaning weight (10.72+0.11 and 9.39+0.13 kg) and pre weaning growth (71.63+0.79 and 62.21+0.96 g/d ) of single kids were heavier than twins, and triplets indicating the influence of the mothering ability of doe. It was recommended, the farmers should consider maternal ability for improvement of weaning weight and growth rate of Kacang kids. (Animal Production 12(2): 111-116 (2010)Key Words: Kacang goat, kid production, birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate

Akhmad Sodiq; A Priyono; ES Tawfik

2010-01-01

358

Construction and standardization of a bioreactor for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis (NCIM-2044)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standardization of a Bioreactor for Industrial purpose is of prime importance. The construction ofthe Bioreactor needs a proper understanding of the different parts of the bioreactor and how they could beused. Hence the basic focus of this work was the Construction and the Standardization of the Bioreactor.The Production of Protease was done by altering the pH and checking the KL a level in the fermentationProcess.

Vamsi K.K.; Boraste A.; Jhadav A.; Khairnar Y.; Gupta N.; Trivedi S.; Patil P.; Gupta G.; Gupta M.; Mujapara A.K.; Joshi B.

2009-01-01

359

Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend.

Reckmann K; Traulsen I; Krieter J

2012-09-01

360

Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. PMID:22595076

Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

2012-05-16

 
 
 
 
361

Economic Assessment Of The Industrial Solar Production Of Lime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of concentrated solar energy in place of fossil fuels for driving the endothermic calcination reaction CaCO{sub 3} ? CaO + CO{sub 2} at above 1300 K has the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20% in a state-of-the-art lime plant and up to 40% in a conventional cement plant. An economic assessment for an industrial solar calcination plant with 25 MWth solar input indicates that the cost of solar produced lime ranges between 128-157 $/ton, about twice the current selling price of conventional lime. The solar production of high purity lime for special sectors in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry might be competitive with conventional fossil fuel based calcination processes at current fuel prices. (author)

Meier, A.; Gremaud, N. [Schindler Lifts Ltd. (Switzerland); Steinfeld, A. [PSI and ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2005-03-01

362

Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development.

Liang S; Xu M; Zhang T

2013-02-01

363

In-vessel hydrogen production assessment during severe accident sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991 the Design Division of Electricite de France (EdF) acquired the MAAP license (modular accident analysis program) to contribute to the assessment of severe accident concerns both on its 56 operating (EdF) pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants (including two N4 plants), and for future projects, mainly the European pressurized reactor (EPR). EdF checked the MAAP code consistency with CATHARE (until the beginning of core overheating) and ESCADRE (severe accident code system of CEA-IPSN, the technical support of the French Safety Authority) results, mainly on thermal-hydraulic aspects. This paper presents results on studies concerned with the MAAP4 code simulation of hydrogen production during severe accidents and the resulting core degradation phase on a French four-loop 1300-MW PWR.

1996-01-01

364

Standardization of /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ production procedure from organic matter for mass spectrometric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the ways and means by which /sup 13/Co/sub 2/ production procedure from organic matter can be standardized. Optimum sample preparation conditions were determined to get reproducible results. Plant combustion for six minutes at 900-1000 degree C with pure O/sub 2/ and ten minutes for conversion of CO to CO/ sub 2/ over CUO gauze at 850 degree C have been found optimum conditions. Internal standards: PINSTECH wheat straw, PINSTECH grass sample, Glucose-D glaxo PINSTECH and polyethylene foil PINSTECH were selected, and calibrated against IAEA Sucrose and polyethylene foil standards. These internal standards have been used for correction of delta 13 C results. The mechanisms for the correction of results has been described. Causes of isotope fractionation of plant samples were determined. Statistical summary of measured results for delta /sup 13/C standards has also been given. (author).

1993-01-01

365

Teaching Writing in the Shadow of Standardized Writing Assessment: An Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploratory study results from interviews with five high school English teachers regarding their writing instruction. The researcher sought to answer these questions: (1) How had the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program's (TCAP) Writing Assessment affected their teaching as gauged by the teachers' statements regarding the assessment,…

Brimi, Hunter

2012-01-01

366

Epigenetic screening in product safety assessment: are we there yet?  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a growing concern that epigenetic events, that is, heritable changes in gene expression superimposed on DNA nucleotide sequences, may be involved in chemically and/or nutritionally mediated adverse health outcomes, such as reproductive toxicity and cancer. This concern has been driven by an increasing number of studies reporting toxicant-induced alterations to the epigenome in the form of changes in DNA methylation, histone/chromatin remodeling, and altered expression of non-coding RNAs. These three major mechanisms of epigenetic modifications may have coordinated, independent, or potentially antagonistic influences on gene expression. Complicating this understanding is the incomplete understanding of the normal state and dynamic variation of the epigenome, which differs widely between cells, tissues, developmental state, age, strain, and species. This review serves as a framework to outline characteristics composing an ideal epigenetic screen(s) for hazard identification in product safety assessment. In order to implement such a screen, first there needs to be a better understanding of adaptive versus adverse changes in the epigenome, which includes identification of robust and reproducible causal links between epigenetic changes and adverse apical end points, and second development of improved reporter assay tools to monitor such changes. An ideal screen would be in vitro-based, medium- to high-throughput, and assess all three branches of epigenome control (i.e. methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNAs), although also being quantitative, objective, portable (i.e. lab to lab), and relevant to humans. PMID:21495868

Rasoulpour, Reza J; LeBaron, Matthew J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Klapacz, Joanna; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

2011-05-01