WorldWideScience
1

Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

1980-05-23

2

Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

M. J. Russell

2006-06-01

3

Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

2007-06-12

4

Scientific and Regulatory Standards for Assessing Product Performance Using the Similarity Factor, f2.  

Science.gov (United States)

The similarity factor, f2, measures the sameness of dissolution profiles. The following commentary is an overview of discussions and presentations from a group of industry and US regulatory experts that have integrated the science and regulatory research and practice for assessing product performance, particularly for modified-release (MR) dosage forms, using f2. For a drug development sponsor or applicant with an orally complex dosage formulation, it is critical to understand dissolution methods and the similarity factor and how and/or when to apply it in their NDA, ANDA, or PMA submission. As part of any regulatory submission, it is critical to justify that the product performance has not been impacted by any change in the manufacturing process and/or the delayed and/or prolonged drug release characteristics compared to a similar conventional or another orally complex dosage form. The purposes of this document are (1) to provide a description of appropriate dissolution methods, how is the f2 calculated and how it can be used to justify product performance similarity, or not; (2) to provide an overview of alternative methods available for dissolution profile comparisons, and (3) to illustrate how applying these concepts in a focused way supports approval of submissions and regulatory dossiers and aligns them with on-going science and regulatory initiatives. A case study will be used as an example to demonstrate how dissolution testing and the f2 calculation results can impact regulatory outcomes from an NDA (505(b)(1)), NDA (505(b)(2)), ANDA (505(j)), supplemental NDAs/ANDAs, or PMA perspective. PMID:25669756

Stevens, Ruth E; Gray, Vivian; Dorantes, Angelica; Gold, Lynn; Pham, Loan

2015-03-01

5

48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment...Provisions and Clauses 52.223-16 IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment...1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental...

2010-10-01

6

Accuracy assessment of Terra/ASTER standard land-surface temperature and spectral emissivity products  

Science.gov (United States)

The ASTER instrument onboard NASA's Terra spacecraft contains a moderate-resolution (90 m) 5-channel (8-12 ?m) thermal imager used to estimate surface emissivity ?(?) and temperature T (Standard Products AST05 and AST08). It is necessary to know ?(?) to calculate T. Although global mosaics of ASTER ?(?) have been made from which T can be calculated from many kinds of thermal data, it is necessary to quantify the uncertainties if the data are to be useful. ASTER ?(?) data were predicted to be both accurate and precise within ×0.015, and T within ×1.5 K. Careful validation over water, for which ?(?) is known, indicates that T for such scenes commonly agrees with ground data within that limit for standard atmospheric conditions. However, for land surface scenes with unknown ?(?), achieving that goal can be problematic. There are three main sources of error: instrument calibration, which changes over time, atmospheric correction, which changes over space and time, and the inherent undetermined character of the inversion of measured radiance data for ?(?) and T. Under ideal conditions, Each source of error is about the same size, but in comparing recovered ?(?) to ground data in several experiments we discovered that, even for homogeneous, ~isothermal water targets errors sometimes exceeded ×0.015, and even appeared to be a function of T. A detailed study showed that atmospheric correction was the primary source of error. Standard ASTER products use interpolated NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data (1° grid, 6 hr interval) and a 1 km DEM, and these data do not characterize the boundary layer well. Rescaling atmospheric parameters derived from MODIS atmospheric data (5 km grid) using a new water-vapor scaling (WVS) method removed the apparent T dependency and also reduced uncertainty of ?(?) for water to within the prescribed limit. However, all approaches led to artifacts in rugged terrain and for high water-vapor loadings, or clouds. In this study we further test recovered ASTER ?(?) data over natural land surfaces with known (vegetation) and unknown (rock) ?(?) values to determine their reliability there. We use bare ~homogeneous test sites for which we have measured surface ?(?) for field samples as well as SURFRAD sites, for which a wide range of thermal radiance and weather parameters are measured routinely over the continental US. We also compare the ASTER T data, with and without the improvements in atmospheric correction using WVS, to MODIS T data, after first adjusting to a common spatial scale. A remaining source of uncertainty for bare land surfaces is the reliability of the assumption used in the ASTER TES algorithm used to scale ?(?). This assumption is related to the maximum ?(?) and spectral contrast for a particular rock type, and varies from place to place. Therefore, although uncertainties in recovered ?(?) can meet the ×0.015 accuracy, they may be larger for some rock surfaces.

Gillespie, A. R.; Hulley, G. C.; Abbott, E.

2013-12-01

7

Guitar Production Standards Blueprints  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF document provides a few blueprints for guitar production standards. The drawings include some cross-sections and close-up details. Measurements are also provided. The features illustrated are common to all 25-1/2" scale length guitars.

8

Emission- and product standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

9

Multilevel Assessments of Science Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The Multilevel Assessment of Science Standards (MASS) project is creating a new generation of technology-enhanced formative assessments that bring the best formative assessment practices into classrooms to transform what, how, when, and where science learning is assessed. The project is investigating the feasibility, utility, technical quality,…

Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.

2011-01-01

10

Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

11

Subsea production equipment standardization initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines Shell Expro`s work in simplifying and standardizing its subsea production systems on 10,000 psi, 300 F rated equipment through the use of proven technology and configured to meet common interface requirements. A modular ``building block`` approach to design was adopted, whereby trees are easily converted from one style to another (oil, water or gas lift) by the addition or removal of bolt-on, pre-engineered packages. Standardization of associated control systems has also been applied, together with series hook-up of trees for small developments. A common top-of-tree interface enables vendor interchangeability of tooling. The use of ROV compatible designs for choke and control module change out are expected to provide significant operational cost savings. Common interfaces allow cross-sharing of tooling systems between projects and potentially other operators, and are the catalyst for vendors to develop rental tooling pools.

George, N.

1996-12-31

12

Product Family Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

Kvist, Morten

2010-01-01

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Methods for the assessment of the efficacy of products and slimming treatments for cellulite according to the Italian Interdisciplinary Group for the standardization of efficacy tests on cosmetic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulite is a very common skin alteration with a complex pathogenesis; different degrees of severity of cellulite can be observed in most part of people after puberty, and numerous cosmetic or more invasive treatments have been proposed, with variable efficacy. Since reproducible methods of evaluation of the effectiveness of cellulite treatments are lacking, the purpose of our group was to define and set general testing principles for evaluating the efficacy of slimming products and treatments/remodeling methods for cellulite, to achieve a delineation of reliable and reproducible research steps following a well-designed and scientifically valid methodology. After a careful review of literature and textbooks and according to personal experience, we defined assessment protocols based on clinical and instrumental tools. In order to make studies reliable, reproducible and safe, a protocol standardization is needed. The sponsor is responsible for assuring quality and information concerning the product under investigation; moreover, investigators should be experienced on cellulite evaluation and treatment, and, finally, the duration and modalities of application of the product should be specified. A treated VS non treated area comparison can be performed, to evaluate the severity of cellulite and the clinical outcomes of the treatment. Besides clinical evaluation, instrumental methods should always be implemented to provide objective data for treatment outcome. PMID:23588148

Seidenari, S; Bassoli, S; Flori, M L; Rigano, L; Sparavigna, A; Vesnaver, R; Berardesca, E

2013-04-01

14

DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

L. Kovalev

2012-10-01

15

What standards do I need for my product or service?  

OpenAIRE

There are standards for most products and services. Sometimes dozens of them. Examples of standards for products: - Standards for connection to another product. - Safety standards. - Standard dimensions. - Standards with test methods to be able to demonstrate the quality of the product. Examples of standards for services: - Standards that lay down what service the customer may expect. - Requirements for staff training. - Standard procedures. Application of standa...

Vries, H. J.; Zwan, J.

2008-01-01

16

Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

17

Organic fish production and the standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish that are produced under natural conditions in accordance with the principles of organic agriculture without any use of preservative additives and without any genetic modifications, that are fed feed produced from natural raw materials, that are certified by a qualified institution are defined as “organic fish”. Organic fish production is a production model that emphasizes human health without using pesticides, chemical and genetically modified products, as well as ensuring animal welfare by decreasing the stocking density. This alternative model is used in many developed and developing countries in the world and the demand for this product has been the cause of increase in production amount and species variety in the market, although the model comprises 0.01% of the world aquaculture production. However, organic aquaculture production has not been developed as rapidly as organic agriculture. One of the most important reasons of this is the absence of international standards issued for organic aquaculture production. In this paper, the production principles of a number of authorized institutions certifying organic aquaculture are comparatively discussed.  

Yesim Ötles

2010-06-01

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Product Family Assessment  

OpenAIRE

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on cus...

Kvist, Morten; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

2010-01-01

19

40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.203 Standards for consumer products...date of the VOC standards specified in paragraph...from a solid into a gas without melting...the raw material supplier as long as...

2010-07-01

20

Technology assessment of RDX production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The known processes for producing RDX were assessed with the goal of identifying the process that would generate the least waste and pollution. It was concluded that the Bachman process employed at Holston AAP is the most economical process for producing RDX and that it probably produces less waste than any other process. It was generally agreed that the entire Holston operation is a very clean one that complies with all federal and state emission standards. In addition, a number of opportunities in which Holston could reduce their wastes were identified. Preliminary assessments of waste and pollution profiles for alternate materials, with emphasis on dual-use materials, were performed.

Coburn, M.D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

21

Implementing standardized modules in the production architecture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is an immense academic and managerial interest in modularization and platform-thinking within the New Product Development community these days – which has generated a lot of interesting research, a few well-documented success cases and a lot of anecdotic stories about the use of standardized modules in new product development. However, very few companies seem to be actually applying modularization and platform-thinking. This pegs the question “if modularization and platform-thinking is such a great idea, how come not everybody has already implemented it?” The Ph.D. research of Agnar Gudmundsson investigates and points towards part of the answer to this puzzle. The research is focused on the implementation of standardized modules in an organization and has followed the implementation process of a determined and convinced Danish company. The study points towards several factors inhibiting implementation of modularization and platform-thinking. On a general level, the very concepts related to modularization, platform, platform-thinking, and so on are often far from clearly defined. This makes the use of existing knowledge difficult. Furthermore, a contingent view of modularization and platform-thinking is much needed, as the concept cannot possible mean the same thing for Levi’s as for a Danish, medium-sized industrial firm. The study also uncovers a set of organizational factors inhibiting implementation all of which are related to the view of new product development applied in many organizations today. Hence, as its final normative contribution the research of Agnar Gudmundsson calls for a new view of new product development to be developed.

Gudmundsson, Agnar

2003-01-01

22

Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity; DOE Software Adopted as Standard for Analyzing Plant Process Heating Systems Company-Wide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study describes how the Kaiser Aluminum plant in Sherman, Texas, achieved annual savings of $360,000 and 45,000 MMBtu, and improved furnace energy intensity by 11.1% after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

2008-07-01

23

Evaluation of Updated Standard Operating Proceduresfor Residential Exposure Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Standard Operating Procedures for Residential Exposure Assessment (i.e., Residential SOPs) is a set of standard instructions for estimating exposure resulting from various non-occupational pesticide uses including lawn and garden care, foggers, and pet treatments....

24

Web Service Oriented Standard Product Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using standard components or modules is vital in product design, development and manufacturing. The current book type catalogues and those, in the form of electronic files together with CAD drawings distributed on disks or via web-based publication systems, can not meet industry requirements for collaborative engineering. Ideally, users could source competitive offers from different vendors and use their information over the Internet. The drawbacks in the current catalogues are platform dependency, and difficulties in version management, CAD file translation, and catalogue content updating. In this research, a novel “Web Service” oriented approach is proposed to address these limitations. Based on an in-house standard component and assembly library, a new method is proposed to engage a CAD modeler with Java Web Service technology. With such an approach, all the aforementioned drawbacks are eliminated. Moreover, the new method avoids hard coding of catalogues within CAD systems, facilitates the catalogue vendors to update their databases at any time. Taking injection molding design as an example, the authors discussed key mechanisms in its implementation and the feasibility of industrial applications.

Y. S. Ma

2007-06-01

25

Standards development in the assessment of radiological contamination of soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present standards available on sampling, measuring, analyzing, and assessing the presence of radionuclides in soil are reviewed. The review includes the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Environmental Methods Task Group's standards on soil sampling, sample preparation, and radionanalysis; US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radiological contamination at formerly utilized sites and remedial action programs; the Health Physics draft guide for assessment of radiation doses from plutonium and americium in soils; and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines for residual radiological contamination assessment. Draft standards under development and personel observations concerning the need for further standard development are also discussed

26

Competitiveness assessment of engineering products  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the problem of increasing the competitiveness of the engineering industry through the implementation of innovative projects. Based on the analysis of the features of innovative projects formulated a conclusion according to which the innovative projects effectiveness evaluation should take into account non-economic indicators such as social, ecological, resource, scientific and technological. We formulate the process and provide a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of innovative projects based on noneconomic indicators. This technique is aimed at assessing the projects increase the competitiveness of products, which is understood as a comprehensive line of products a whole range of different physical limitations of the essence, allowing the long run to get sustainable income.

Kharisova, A. R.; Puryaev, A. S.

2014-12-01

27

COST ASSESSMENT OF STANDARD SOIL SAMPLING  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, there has been increased interest in determining the potential for C sequestration with changes in land management. This paper will discuss the potential cost of standard soil sampling for this purpose. To determine the potential cost of soil C analysis on a field scale, many of the meth...

28

Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

Robert L. Linn

2003-09-01

29

21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC...Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14...Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee...

2010-04-01

30

75 FR 79354 - Assessment Technology Standards Request for Information (RFI)  

Science.gov (United States)

...as those that may be applied to the capture and reporting...permissions that could be applied to technology standards...particular those using ``artificial intelligence,'' Bayesian analysis...performance-based assessments, games, virtual worlds,...

2010-12-20

31

Developing Korean Standard for Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment  

OpenAIRE

Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetic, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including the manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufact...

Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yu, Il Je

2011-01-01

32

CIABUSCOLO: PROCESS AND PRODUCT STANDARD EVALUATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available in this study, samples of “Ciabuscolo”, a raw fermented meat product listed among the traditional products of the Marche Region, were collected from four meat processing plants and analysed to evaluate microbiological process and product’s standards.

G. Pezzotti

2008-09-01

33

Value impact assessment of standard review plan sections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding the value, in terms of the potential for risk reduction, of certain Standard Review Plan (SRP) sections. These values are compared with the impact, in terms of NRC manpower expended, related to each SRP section. The study applies standard probabilistic risk assessment techniques in a rather unique way to obtain a value impact assessment for the SRP sections. This work should aid the NRC in assessing the best use of limited manpower when reviewing safety analysis reports against the requirements of the SRP

34

Farmers Involved in the Production of Agricultural Standardization Factors Analysis  

OpenAIRE

This paper, uses the survey data of 104 households in the city of Sichuan by the method of Logistic regression analysis, has analysised factors of the farmers who involved in agricultural standardization of production or not. Research shows that the cognitive level of standardization, awareness of pesticides’ hazards, their own age and family numbers have significantly influenced on the famers who involved in standardization of agricultural production. Then there are some recommends for sol...

Qin Luo; Xiumin Wu; Hao Wang

2011-01-01

35

Reliability of standardized assessment for adults who are deafblind  

OpenAIRE

This study assessed the reliability of the interRAI Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA) and Deafblind Supplement (DbS). The interRAI CHA and DbS represents a multidimensional, standardized assessment instrument for use with adults (18 and older) who are deafblind. The interrater reliability of the instrument was tested through the completion of dual assessments with 44 individuals who were deafblind in the province of Ontario, Canada. Overall, nearly 50% of items had a kappa value of a...

Dawn M Guthrie, Phd; Robyn Pitman, Ma; Paul Stolee, Phd; Graham Strong, Od; Jeff Poss, Phd; Erin Y Tjam, Phd; Lindsay Bowman, Mph; Melody Ashworth, Msc; John P Hirdes, Phd

2011-01-01

36

Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas  

OpenAIRE

The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) operated onboard the Envisat platform, is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focusses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center-wavelength, sig...

Zibordi, G.; Me?lin, F.; -f Berthon, J.; Canuti, E.

2013-01-01

37

Pain assessment as a social transaction: beyond the "gold standard".  

Science.gov (United States)

Pain assessment conventionally has been viewed hierarchically with self-report as its "gold-standard." Recent attempts to improve pain management have focused on the importance of assessment, for example, the initiative to include pain as the "fifth vital sign." We question the focus in the conceptualization of pain assessment upon a "vital sign," not in terms of the importance of assessment, but in terms of the application of self-report as a mechanistic index akin to a biologic measure such as heart rate and blood pressure. We synthesize current inclusive models of pain and pain assessment and propose a more comprehensive conceptualization of pain assessment as a transaction based on an organismic interplay between the patient and clinician. PMID:20664341

Schiavenato, Martin; Craig, Kenneth D

2010-10-01

38

International Coordination of Quality Standards and Vertical Product Differentiation  

OpenAIRE

I study the influence of minimum quality standards in a partial-equilibrium model of vertical product differentiation and trade in which duopolistic firms face quality-dependent costs and compete in quality and price in two segmented markets. Three alternative standard setting arrangements are Full Harmonization, National Treatment and Mutual Recognition. Under either alternative, standards can be found that increase welfare in both regions. The analysis integrates the choice of a particular ...

Lutz, Stefan

2003-01-01

39

Assessing the Readability of Government Accounting Standards: The Cloze Procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues the cloze procedure is the appropriate method of assessing the readability of business writing. Uses this procedure to determine the readability of a statement issued by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB). Finds one important GASB statement unreadable by college-level readers. (NH)

Shaffer, Raymond J.; And Others

1993-01-01

40

Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

2010-01-29

41

Assessing Noninstructional Costs and Productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A college's administrative services and support units must give attention to improving quality and service just as instructional units do. Greater efficiency and productivity among noninstructional units can have a significant impact on institutional feasibility. Cost reduction is most effective when there is a common understanding of core…

Maydew, Mary Jo

1992-01-01

42

Ikonos Imagery Product Nonuniformity Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

During the early stages of the NASA Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program, three approximately equal vertical stripes were observable in the IKONOS imagery of highly spatially uniform sites. Although these effects appeared to be less than a few percent of the mean signal, several investigators requested new imagery. Over time, Space Imaging updated its processing to minimize these artifacts. This however, produced differences in Space Imaging products derived from archive imagery processed at different times. Imagery processed before 2/22/01 is processed with one set of coefficients, while imagery processed after that date requires another set. Space Imaging produces its products from raw imagery, so changes in the ground processing over time can change the delivered digital number (DN) values, even for identical orders of a previously acquired scene. NASA Stennis initiated studies to investigate the magnitude and changes in these artifacts over the lifetime of the system and before and after processing updates.

Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Smith, Charles

2002-01-01

43

48 CFR 23.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 23.705 Section 23.705 Federal...Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General . As required by...Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered electronic...

2010-10-01

44

Social Standards in Certification of Agri-Food Products  

OpenAIRE

The objective was to know the detailing level of social standards in third-party Agri-food certifiers. An exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted using secondary data collected from certifiers of Agri-food products. The results showed that most certifications did not address consumers’ values regarding social sustainability. Certifiers should deep efforts in describing social welfare standards to communicate with consumers clearly. This would improve the certification image, increase...

Lara Liboni; Julio Kyosen Nakatani; Luciana Oranges Cezarino

2012-01-01

45

Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

46

Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve success in adopting reach standards.

Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

2007-03-01

47

Software Productivity: Harmonization in ISO/IEEE Software Engineering Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The software productivity is an important key of software quality factors. The productivity measure has become a tool for managers since it is used to compare the performance between different companies (benchmarking and to compare the efficiency of different developers in the same company. Therefore, it allows doing strategic planning and decision making based on such measurement. A variety of international standardization bodies such as IEEE and ISO as well as software engineering researchers have proposed a set of factors which influence the software productivity attribute, and also a set of measures to evaluate it. However, there is no unique model that integrates all the software productivity best practices. The aim of this paper is to survey the available international standards and research work on software productivity and figure out the key differences in order to propose a standards-based model. Such model will include the set of quality attributes that could be used to reflect the software productivity, and a set of measures that allows evaluating the software developer’s productivity.

Laila Cheikhi

2012-02-01

48

Standardization of Service Delivery in Industrial Product-Service Systems  

OpenAIRE

Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²) provide the best value in use for the customer. The high demand for this product model in the future, will lead to a high number of service deliveries. These service deliveries need to be executed in a service network in industry, but are planned and organized by a central intelligence hosted by the OEM of the IPS². This article will describe the possibility to minimize the derivation of execution time by the standardization of the bo...

Meier, H.; Krug, C. M.

2009-01-01

49

40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam...

2010-07-01

50

Methods of production and measurement of standard sources and solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the collection of papers having presented at the symposium, results are stated of the work performed in the CMEA member - states in the field of development and application of new methods of production of standard sources and solutions as well as of measuring their activity. Some installations used for measurements have been described. Results of measurements have been stated

51

Institutional capacity for standards conformity assessment: A case study on spices in Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Local capacity for standards conformity assessment is an important component in accessing export markets. In theory, it will lead to lowered compliance costs on the part of local exporters. Moreover, it may provide local exporters with the ability to contest unfavourable foreign test results and thus avoid unnecessary losses. This is important in cases where product contamin-ation occurs outside their borders. This is however possible only where relevant local institutions are accredited and ...

Akyoo, Adam; Lazaro, Evelyne

2008-01-01

52

Student's Video Production as Formative Assessment  

CERN Document Server

Learning assessments are subject of discussions that envolve theoretical and practical approaches. To measure learning in physics by high school students, either qualitatively or quantitatively, is a process in which it should be possible to identify not only the concepts and contents students failed to achieve but also the reasons of the failure. We propose that students' video production offers a very effective formative assessment to teachers: as a formative assessment, it produces information that allows the understanding of where and when the learning process succeeded or failed, of identifying, as a subject or as a group, the defficiencies or misunderstandings related to the theme under analysis and their interpretation by students, and it provides also a different kind of assessment, related to some other life skills, like the ability to carry a project to its conclusion and to work cooperatively. In this paper, we describe the use of videos produced by high school students as an assessment resource. T...

Gama, Eduardo

2013-01-01

53

The new IAEA safety standards on probabilistic safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasingly wide application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) to support a variety of issues dealing with operation and design of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) imposes certain requirements on PSA quality in terms of its scope, level of detail, approaches, assumptions, and data used. If a unified set of balanced requirements is developed and consistently implemented, it would give confidence in using PSA results and insights in different applications and risk-informed decision making (RIDM); in addition, it would be possible to consistently compare PSA results for different plants. Such requirements are currently developed or being developed in several countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is in the process of development of several publications in the IAEA safety standards series that would provide guidance on the standard technical content of PSA. The paper discusses the latest developments at the IAEA in the area of PSA and provides a brief overview of the publications. (orig.)

54

The new IAEA safety standards on probabilistic safety assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasingly wide application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) to support a variety of issues dealing with operation and design of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) imposes certain requirements on PSA quality in terms of its scope, level of detail, approaches, assumptions, and data used. If a unified set of balanced requirements is developed and consistently implemented, it would give confidence in using PSA results and insights in different applications and risk-informed decision making (RIDM); in addition, it would be possible to consistently compare PSA results for different plants. Such requirements are currently developed or being developed in several countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is in the process of development of several publications in the IAEA safety standards series that would provide guidance on the standard technical content of PSA. The paper discusses the latest developments at the IAEA in the area of PSA and provides a brief overview of the publications. (orig.)

Kuzmina, Irina; Lyubarskiy, Artur [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

2009-05-15

55

Risk assessment of plant protection products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides in view of the future dialogue between risk managers and risk assessors during the next steps of the revision of the ecotoxicology guidance documents.

Hardy T

2012-10-01

56

Relevance of methods and standards for the assessment of measurement system performance in a High-Value Manufacturing Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements underpin the engineering decisions that allow products to be designed, manufactured, operated, and maintained. Therefore, the quality of measured data needs to be systematically assured to allow decision makers to proceed with confidence. The use of standards is one way of achieving this. This paper explores the relevance of international documentary standards to the assessment of measurement system capability in High Value Manufacturing (HVM) Industry. An internal measurement standard is presented which supplements these standards and recommendations are made for a cohesive effort to develop the international standards to provide consistency in such industrial applications.

Loftus, Pete; Giudice, Seb

2014-08-01

57

Toxicity assessment of tobacco products in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Driven by new regulatory demands to demonstrate risk reduction, the toxicity assessment of tobacco products increasingly employs innovative in vitro methods, including biphasic cell and tissue cultures exposed to whole cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface, cell transformation assays, and genomic analyses. At the same time, novel tobacco products are increasingly compared to traditional cigarettes. This overview of in vitro toxicology studies of tobacco products reported in the last five years provides evidence to support the prioritisation of in vitro over in vivo methods by industry and their recommendation by regulatory authorities. PMID:25802997

Manuppello, Joseph R; Sullivan, Kristie M

2015-03-01

58

[The EU Bathing Water Directive. Risk assessment and standards].  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to reduce the risk of infection in natural bathing waters the European Union is in the process of improving the Bathing Water Directive 76/160/EWG, which regulates the safety of such waters. The proposal contains several positive innovations which will improve the protection of the bathers: (1) health-related indicators, (2) harmonized detection methods, (3) requirements for active bathing water management, and (4) stricter standards for coastal waters. One of the most salient features of the current draft is the introduction of bacterial standards that are more stringent for coastal than for fresh waters. This decision on different standards seems unjustified: it was taken solely on the grounds that in two epidemiological studies-one carried out in coastal, the other in fresh waters-the maximum excess rate of gastroenteritis among bathers in coastal waters was higher than among bathers in fresh waters. However, it was not taken into account that the concentrations of bacterial indicators at which the gastroenteritis rate began to increase was nearly identical in both studies. The ratio between the standard concentrations of E. coli and intestinal enterococci in the draft was set at 2.5. This value does not correspond to the ratio found in German surface waters with low pollution levels, with ratios ranging from 2.7 to 4.0, and to the even higher ratios found in raw and treated sewage effluents. As a consequence in a majority of cases the non-compliance of bathing waters in Germany would be caused exclusively by a violation of E. coli standards. In assessing risks of infection it must also be taken into account that the adequacy of E. coli and intestinal enterococci for signaling the presence of viruses in water is far from optimal. The decay of viruses in water-estimated by the decay of bacteriophages-was found to be substantially slower than the die-off of indicator bacteria. PMID:15887074

Dizer, H; Wolf, S; Fischer, M; López-Pila, J M; Röske, I; Schmidt, R; Szewzyk, R; Wiedenmann, A

2005-05-01

59

Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern. PMID:24875152

Mellor, D J

2015-01-01

60

Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371–9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

2014-11-01

61

Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

62

77 FR 7547 - Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products...conservation standards for residential wine chillers and other residential refrigeration products...Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

2012-02-13

63

Standard Reference Rainfall Products Used in the TRMM Ground Efforts  

Science.gov (United States)

The Primary goal of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) effort is to provide basic validation of satellite-derived precipitation measurements over monthly climatologies. To this end, the Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County produces monthly rainfall accumulation reference products for each of the four primary TRMM GV sites. These products, standard methodology for deriving monthly, gauge-adjusted rainfall products, are utilized for each primary site. The monthly rainfall GV reference products are developed in discrete, modular steps with distinct intermediate products. These developmental steps, which will be fully discussed, include: (1) extracting radar data over locations of rain gauges, (2) merging rain gauge and radar data in time and space with user-defined options, (3) quality control of radar and gauge merged data by tracking accumulations from each instrument, and (4) deriving Z_R relationship from quality-controlled merged data over monthly time scales. A summary of all gauge statistics and GV rainfall reference products available for TRMM science users will be presented. Basic reference product results and trends involving monthly accumulation, Z-R relationship, and gauge statistics for primary GV site will be discussed. Finally, the sample impact on monthly rainfall reference products, through varying the time interval between intermediate rainfall accumulations, will be analyzed and presented.

Marks, David A.; Kulie, Mark S.; Robinson, Mike; Ferrier, Brad S.; Amitai, Eyal

1999-01-01

64

An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

2012-01-01

65

Development of systems performance standards based on probabilistic risk assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of nuclear reactors now represent a substantial data base which describes relative plant accident potentials, plant failure modes, and plant system failure probabilities. The PRA analyses can be used to make design related decisions. In the past, however, nuclear plant design relied primarily on traditional engineering approaches along with quality control and regulatory review. In this study, the authors try to see whether system and subsystem performance standards can be extracted from a set of existing PRAs using contribution to core melt as the primary attribute of interest. The approach taken uses system and plant failure data from six pressurized water reactor PRAs. Importance measures are developed and applied to gage the impact of various systems on plant core melt. These measures are also applied to modified plant configurations which meet a dominant sequence core melt contribution limit of 1.0 x 10-5 core melts per plant per reactor year. In addition, plant failure modes are put into functional groups, and sequences are placed into accident classes. Together, these approaches define the failure characteristics of the six plants and seek to discern failure patterns and the defacto existence of performance standards. A method of limiting the sensitivity of the plant (measured as an increase in core melt frequency) to hypothetical increases in event unavailabilities is proposed. Bounding estimates of the effect ofposed. Bounding estimates of the effect of the standard pairs on plant core melt frequency are derived

66

Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yrrength within 1 yr

67

Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

Veskovi?-Mora?anin Slavica

2011-01-01

68

Predicting the stability of biological standards and products.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high level of stability is essential for any biological standard and is desirable in most other biological products. It is in general impossible to observe directly the rate of degradation of a biological standard since no independent scale of measurement is available. An indirect method is therefore required. The most common approach is the accelerated degradation test in which samples are stored for a time at elevated temperatures and then compared with samples stored continuously at low temperature. The relative degradation rates are used to fit the Arrhenius equation (relating degradation rate to temperature) and hence to predict stability under normal storage conditions. Previous statistical work on this problem is reviewed and a maximum likelihood ML approach is suggested which overcomes some of the limitations of the existing methodology. The accelerated degradation test also finds wide application in the shelf-life prediction of biological products where the same statistical methods are appropriate. PMID:588659

Kirkwood, T B

1977-12-01

69

Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.

Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

2003-01-01

70

On risk assessment of energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

71

The development of an Arctic standard for floating production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry uses floating offshore structures to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store and offload the product to an export tanker or pipeline system. The floating structure can include the hull, marine systems, accommodation, hydrocarbon processing facilities, storage and offloading systems, a mooring system to hold the structure on location, the flow lines or risers connecting the unit to the well head, and the subsea installations and the flowlines that collect the hydrocarbons from the wells. This paper discussed the development of ISO 19906, a new standard for the design of floating oil and gas production facilities in the Arctic. Ice management will play a prominent role in the standard, which is due to be published in 2009. The authors presented their views on some of the rationale that went into the development of requirements for floating structures in this standard, with reference to ship-shaped hull or barge units; column stabilized and buoy type units; and, tension leg platform units. The standard deals with design principles and functional requirements applicable to the life cycle of the floating structure, such as the construction phases; transportation, installation, and move-off phases; the operating phase; and, the decommissioning phase. The same principles should be used for both steel hulled floating structures and structures fabricated from other materials. This paper also reviewed another standard which is under development for the design of floating production systems, namely ISO 19904 for materials, equipment, and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries. Ice action and hull design issues were discussed along with the requirements for the design, construction and operation of a hull with respect to the considerations of the Arctic environment. The requirements for establishing an ice management system that addresses the detection, threat evaluation and implementation of active mitigation measures to deal with hazardous ice situations, including both glacial ice features and sea ice were also reviewed. The entire production system of a floating production facility should be designed appropriately for the geographical location and environmental conditions. This could potentially involve seasonal operation, special operating procedures, ice management or even disconnection. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Makrygiannis, M. [BP Norway AS, Stavanger (Norway); McKenna, R. [R. McKenna Consultant, Wakefield, PQ (Canada); Wright, B. [B. Wright Associates, Canmore, AB (Canada); Allyn, N. [Westmar Consultants, North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sildnes, T. [Det Norske Veritas, Hovik (Norway); Jolles, W. [Agip KCO, Den Haag (Netherlands); Morland, M. [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway); Grant, R. [Grantec, Halifax, NS (Canada)

2006-11-15

72

Food and drug administration. Radiation protection standards and recommendations for electronic products: the development process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for maintaining a national program to protect the public health from unnecessary and harmful radiation emitted by radiation products. This program involves the promulgation and implementation of mandatory and voluntary standards to promote safe and effective design and use of such products. This paper describes the process by which electronic product radiation safety standards and recommendations are developed. To assist the agency in the development effort and to achieve a sound technological and scientific basis and risk/benefit assessment, it is important that knowledgeable professionals, industrial representatives, and consumers participate in that process. This paper is designed to provide useful information to aid anyone wishing to participate more effectively. (author)

73

Non-standard isotope production and applications at Washington University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The positron emitting radionuclides, oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 have been produced at Washington University for many years utilizing two biomedical cyclotrons; a Cyclotron Corporation CS15 and a Japan Steel Works 16/8 cyclotron. In recent years we have become interested in the production of non-standard PET isotopes. We were initially interested in copper-64 production using the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu nuclear reaction, but now apply this technique to other positron emitting copper isotopes, copper-60 and copper-61. Copper-64 is being produced routinely and made available to other institutions. In 1999 over ten Curies of copper-64 were produced, making copper available to thirteen institutions, as well as research groups at Washington University. We are currently developing methods for the routine productions of other PET radioisotopes of interest, these include; bromine-76, bromine-77, iodine-124, gallium-66, and technetium-94m

74

Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production  

OpenAIRE

The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the sp...

Ruban, Anna

2012-01-01

75

Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variatio...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

76

Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment. Operational Guide to the ISO Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1992 the Centre of Environmental Science (CML) at Leiden University, The Netherlands, published a Guide on Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, setting the standard for a long time. Since then LCA methodology has progressed enormously and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a series of Standards on LCA. These developments have now been incorporated into a new Handbook on LCA authored by CML in cooperation with a number of other important institutes in the area of LCA. The general aim of this Handbook on LCA is to provide a stepwise 'cookbook' with operational guidelines for conducting an LCA study step-by-step, justified by a scientific background document, based on the ISO Standards for LCA. The different ISO elements and requirements are made operational to the 'best available practice' for each step. CML is strongly involved in the development of a standard methodology to determine environmental impacts of products, i.e., LCA. This is done within international fora such as the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

Guinee, J.B. [Centre of Environmental Studies, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

2002-04-01

77

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.  

CERN Multimedia

Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

ATLAS, collaboration

2012-01-01

78

Assessing product image quality for online shopping  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

2012-01-01

79

48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations...Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures for granting exceptions to the...

2010-10-01

80

Portfolio Assessment: Production and Reduction of Complexity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last two decades, the education system has witnessed a shift from summative, product-oriented assessment towards formative, process-oriented assessment. Among the different learning and assessment initiatives introduced in the slipstream of this paradigmatic turn, the portfolio seems to have become one of the most popular. By re-describing the portfolio from a systems theoretical point of view, this article discusses established expectations of the portfolio in relation to transparency in learning, reflection and self-assessment. It shows that the majority of the literature deals with what-questions and that the portfolio is expected to handle a number of challenges with regard to the documentation of learning processes and achievements as well as the conditioning of learning activities. Furthermore, is becomes clear that descriptions of how the portfolio works are sparse. Based on systems theory, the paper adopts a how-perspective: How does the portfolio re-describe learning? How does it scaffold and organise communication? The conclusion is that systems theory allows us to re-describe the portfolio as a teaching technology, which, by scaffolding both reflection and reflexivity, produces unique conditions for the stimulation and observation of learning, thus increasing the complexity of learning observation.

Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

2014-01-01

81

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

2011-10-31

82

High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection toASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select the preferred designation, and that either designation can be acceptable.

83

Delivered dose estimate to standardize airway hyperresponsiveness assessment in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Airway hyperresponsiveness often constitutes a primary outcome in respiratory studies in mice. The procedure commonly employs aerosolized challenges, and results are typically reported in terms of bronchoconstrictor concentrations loaded into the nebulizer. Yet, because protocols frequently differ across studies, especially in terms of aerosol generation and delivery, direct study comparisons are difficult. We hypothesized that protocol variations could lead to differences in aerosol delivery efficiency and, consequently, in the dose delivered to the subject, as well as in the response. Thirteen nebulization patterns containing common protocol variations (nebulization time, duty cycle, particle size spectrum, air humidity, and/or ventilation profile) and using increasing concentrations of methacholine and broadband forced oscillations (flexiVent, SCIREQ, Montreal, Qc, Canada) were created, characterized, and studied in anesthetized naïve A/J mice. A delivered dose estimate calculated from nebulizer-, ventilator-, and subject-specific characteristics was introduced and used to account for protocol variations. Results showed that nebulization protocol variations significantly affected the fraction of aerosol reaching the subject site and the delivered dose, as well as methacholine reactivity and sensitivity in mice. From the protocol variants studied, addition of a slow deep ventilation profile during nebulization was identified as a key factor for optimization of the technique. The study also highlighted sensitivity differences within the lung, as well as the possibility that airway responses could be selectively enhanced by adequate control of nebulizer and ventilator settings. Reporting results in terms of delivered doses represents an important standardizing element for assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. PMID:25637610

Robichaud, Annette; Fereydoonzad, Liah; Schuessler, Thomas F

2015-04-15

84

Safety standards for near surface disposal and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the safety standards for near surface disposal (ICRP guidance and IAEA standards) and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards. Special attention is paid to the recommendations for disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The requirements are based on the principle for the same level of protection of future individuals as for the current generation. Two types of exposure are considered: human intrusion and natural processes and protection measures are discussed. Safety requirements for near surface disposal are discussed including requirements for protection of human health and environment, requirements or safety assessments, waste acceptance and requirements etc

85

77 FR 31190 - Revised Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 121 Revised Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule...conceptual proposal to revise service standards for market-dominant products.\\1\\ After...

2012-05-25

86

24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards...FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.943 Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product...

2010-04-01

87

24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard...FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.954 Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product...

2010-04-01

88

24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards...FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.940 Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product...

2010-04-01

89

24 CFR 200.952 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards...FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.952 Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product...

2010-04-01

90

Energy Saving Recommended: Delivering improved product standards, market presence and quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the home equate to 27 % of UK total emissions. In order for consumers to use less energy, and reduce their environmental impact, the Energy Saving Recommended (ESR) voluntary product labelling scheme for domestic energy saving products was established to direct the consumer to choose better products and make smarter choices. With over 2000 certified products, ESR is present across 5 sectors and covers 24 product categories; 9 sets of standards were reviewed and revised in 2005/6 and a further 13 were delivered in 2006/7. ESR is now implementing existing and developing new standards in consumer electronics - from integrated digital televisions and recorders, to intelligent mains sockets and set-top-boxes, as well as assessing the feasibility of endorsing domestic ICT equipment. The Energy Saving Trust, through its marketing activities, acts as an enabler to make energy saving action simpler, easier and cheaper for the consumer to undertake. Using a variety of communication strategies the trade is engaged through the provision of value added member benefits; a holistic approach is taken with key partners to integrate energy efficiency throughout their businesses. Merchandising support helps product standards to be implemented in the market place; evaluation and research work demonstrates that markets can be changed and shows a 1 in 3 label recognition rate. The credibility and integrity of the label are reinforced through compliance testing, in-store and online label monitoring and legal enforcement, frequent data checks and the integration of ISO best practice standards through the certification system.

Lock, Tom; Galvanoni, Frances [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

91

Assessment and Next Generation Standards: An Interview with Olivia Gude  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a transcript of an interview with Olivia Gude, member of the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards Writing Team. In the interview, Gude provides an overview of the process for writing the new visual arts standards.

Sweeny, Robert

2014-01-01

92

The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

93

The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: an early assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas were well exceeded by the end of 2001, with 915 MW of wind installed in that year alone. RPS compliance costs appear negligible with new wind projects reportedly contracted for well under 3(US) cents/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US) cents/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

94

Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production  

Science.gov (United States)

Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

2009-04-01

95

Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains : Reflections on the “Dark Side” of Impact Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing countries. However, much less attention has been paid to the “dark side” of impact assessment – the ethical and political dilemmas that arise in the process of carrying out impact studies. This paper addresses this gap in literature, arguing that impact assessments of CSR standards may do more harm than good to the intended beneficiaries - developing country firms, farmers, workers, and communities - unless these ethical and political dilemmas are given serious consideration.

Lund-Thomsen, Peter

2013-01-01

96

CDER Risk Assessment Exercise to Evaluate Potential Risks from the Use of Nanomaterials in Drug Products  

OpenAIRE

The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration was established to assess the possible impact of nanotechnology on drug products. The group is in the process of performing risk assessment and management exercises. The task of the working group is to identify areas where CDER may need to optimize its review practices and to develop standards to ensure review consistency for drug applica...

Cruz, Celia N.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Velazquez, Lydia; Hyams, Kenneth C.; Jacobs, Abigail; Shaw, Arthur B.; Jiang, Wenlei; Lionberger, Robert; Hinderling, Peter; Kong, Yoon; Brown, Paul C.; Ghosh, Tapash; Strasinger, Caroline; Suarez-sharp, Sandra; Henry, Don

2013-01-01

97

Integration of the International Standards Evaluation into a Global Data Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the methods employed in the GANDR system to perform a global assessment of nuclear data. We then describe the integration of the International Standards Evaluation into a recently initiated global data assessment

98

RE/H2 Production Micro-System Based on Standard Alkaline Electrolytic Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first task of a more comprehensive research project focused on the development of micro-scale (1-20 kW) Renewable Hydrogen (RE/H2) production systems oriented to carry on a wide campaign of educational and demonstration projects. The paper proposes to rely on low-cost and rugged 'standard' alkaline electrolytic technology, well suited for decentralized hydrogen production, but requiring a certain R and D effort to get technical competitiveness. An electrolyser test facility has been designed and carried out. Then performance assessment of a commercial electrolyser and its sub-systems has been accomplished. First experimental results stated that the unit under test gets an average production efficiency of 51%, versus a stack (cell) efficiency of about 62%, while the aged AC/DC power converter, to be removed or replaced to adapt the unit to DC link with renewables, requires more than 16% of the incoming power. (authors)

99

Product unconformable in the light of legal regulations and the ISO 9001:2000 standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.

Justyna Górna

2009-01-01

100

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Standardized Assessment Tools in the Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia and in the Assessment of Fibromyalgia Severity  

OpenAIRE

Standard assessments for fibromyalgia (FM) diagnosis and core FM symptom domains are needed for biomarker development and treatment trials. Diagnostic and symptom assessments are reviewed and recommendations are made for standards. Recommendations for existing assessments include the American College of Rheumatology FM classification criteria using the manual tender point Survey for diagnosis, the brief pain inventory average pain visual analogue scale for pain intensity, the function subscal...

Boomershine, Chad S.

2012-01-01

101

Neuropsychological assessment and cerebral vascular disease: the new standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) includes vascular dementia (VaD), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) and mixed dementia. In clinical practice, VCI concerns patients referred for clinical stroke or cognitive complaint. To improve the characterization of VCI and to refine its diagnostic criteria, an international group has elaborated a new standardized evaluation battery of clinical, cognitive, behavioral and neuroradiological data which now constitutes the reference battery. The adaption of the battery for French-speaking subjects is reported as well as preliminary results of the on-going validation study of the GRECOG-VASC group [Clinical Trial NCT01339195]. The diagnostic accuracy of various screening tests is reviewed and showed an overall sub-optimal sensitivity (<0.8). Thus, the general recommendation is to perform systematically a comprehensive assessment in stroke patients at risk of VCI. Furthermore,the use of a structured interview has been shown to increase the detection of dementia. In addition to the well known NINDS-AIREN criteria of VaD, criteria of VCI have been recently proposed which are based on the demonstration of a cognitive disorder by neuropsychological testing and either history of clinical stroke or presence of vascular lesion by neuroimaging suggestive of a link between cognitive impairment and vascular disease. A memory deficit is no longer required for the diagnosis of VaD as it is based on the cognitive decline concerning two or more domains that affect activities of daily living. Both VaMCI and VaD are classified as probable or possible. These new criteria have yet to be validated. Considerable uncertainties remain regarding the determinant of VCI, and especially the lesion amount inducing VCI and VaD. The interaction between lesion amount and its location is currently re-examined using recent techniques for the analysis of MRI data. The high frequency of associated Alzheimer pathology is now assessable in vivo using amyloid imaging. The first studies showed that about a third of patients with VaD due to small vessel disease or with poststroke dementia have amyloid PET imaging suggestive of AD. These new techniques will examine the interaction between vascular lesions and promotion of amyloid deposition. Although results of these on-going studies will be available in few years, these data indicate that efforts should be done in clinical practice to reduce underdiagnosis of VCI; VCI should be examined using a specific protocol which will be fully normalized soon for French-speaking patients; the sub-optimal sensitivity of screening tests prompts to use a structured interview to grade Rankin scale and to perform systematically a comprehensive assessment in stroke patients at risk of VCI; poststroke dementia occurring after 3 months poststroke may be preventable by treatment of modifiable vascular risk factors and secondary prevention of stroke recurrence according to recent recommendations. PMID:23999023

Godefroy, O; Leclercq, C; Bugnicourt, J-M; Roussel, M; Moroni, C; Quaglino, V; Beaunieux, H; Taillia, H; Nédélec-Ciceri, C; Bonnin, C; Thomas-Anterion, C; Varvat, J; Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Assal, F

2013-10-01

102

Standard Cosmic Ray Energetics and Light Element Production  

CERN Document Server

The recent observations of Be and B in metal poor stars has led to a reassessment of the origin of the light elements in the early Galaxy. At low it is metallicity ([O/H] < -1.75), it is necessary to introduce a production mechanism which is independent of the interstellar metallicity (primary). At higher metallicities, existing data might indicate that secondary production is dominant. In this paper, we focus on the secondary process, related to the standard Galactic cosmic rays, and we examine the cosmic ray energy requirements for both present and past epochs. We find the power input to maintain the present-day Galactic cosmic ray flux is about 1.5e41 erg/s = 5e50 erg/century. This implies that, if supernovae are the sites of cosmic ray acceleration, the fraction of explosion energy going to accelerated particles is about 30%, a value which we obtain consistently both from considering the present cosmic ray flux and confinement and from the present 9Be and 6Li abundances. Using the abundances of 9Be (an...

Fields, B D; Cassé, M; Vangioni-Flam, E; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Casse, Michel; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

2001-01-01

103

Exposure assessment of JAVELIN missile combustion products  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization and analysis of combustion products resulting from firing the JAVELIN missile were performed. Of those combustion products analyzed, it was determined that airborne lead concentrations exceeded the OSHA PEL of 50 micrograms each time the missile was fired while in the enclosure. Since the OSHA PEL standard is based upon a continuous rather than a short-term exposures blood lead concentrations were sought to ascertain the relationship between a short duration airborne exposure and its physiological effect on the body. Blood lead levels were taken on 49 test subjects prior to various JAVELIN missile test firings. Of those 49, 21 were outfitted With personal sampling equipment to determine airborne concentrations at the Assistant Gunner and Gunner positions. Periodic blood sampling after a single exposure showed an average increase of 2.27 micrograms/dL for all test subjects. Recommendations were made to consider changes in the positioning of the enclosure inhabitants to minimize airborne lead concentrations, to limit the number of missiles fired (situation dependent), and replacement of the lead B-resorcyolate with a non-lead containing burn rate modifier for the launch motor.

Lundy, Donald O.; Langford, Roland E.

1994-02-01

104

Standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (CRP) is an advanced and modern facility that encompasses two essential components: radioisotope research, and radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing. Radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program is not only quite unique, but also an essential component of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) in providing quality patient care for the population of the Kingdom. Accurate diagnosis and therapy with medical imaging equipment requires quality radiopharmaceuticals that are available readily and with reliability. The CRP Department provides that quality and reliability. Research activities of the CRP Department are focused on developing new radiotracers with potential usefulness in biomedical research and clinical applications. Research projects consist of: developing cyclotron targetry for radioisotope production; developing synthesis methods for radiolabeling biomolecules; and developing analytical methods for quality control. The CRP Department operates a semi-commercial radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program that supplies the diagnostic radioactive products to several hospitals in the Kingdom and neighboring countries. These products for clinical applications are produced according to the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices of quality and efficacy. At the heart of the radioisotope program is a medium energy cyclotron capable of accelerating a number of particles for transformation of non-radioactive atoms into radionuclides that are the primary sources for research and development activities, and for preparing radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to having the only cyclotron facility in the region, KFSH and RC also has the only Positron Emission Tomography Center (PET) in this part of the world. This combination of cyclotron and the ultra modern PET facility translates into advanced and specialized care for the patients at KFSH and RC

105

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

106

Occupational health impacts of climate change: current and future ISO standards for the assessment of heat stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current system of International Standards (ISO) is assessed to consider whether standards are fit for purpose for the future in the context of climate change. ISO 7243, ISO 7933 and ISO 9886 provide the current ISO system for the assessment of heat stress. These involve a simple monitoring index, an analytical approach and physiological monitoring, respectively. The system relies on accurate measurement of the thermal conditions experienced by the worker (ISO 7726); and estimations of metabolic heat production due to work (ISO 8996) and the thermal properties of clothing (ISO 9920). As well as standards for heat stress assessment, the full range of ISO standards and the physical environment is listed as well as current work and proposed standards. A particular 'gap' in anticipating requirements for ISO standards in the future is the link between meteorological data and ISO standards. This is important for predicting the global consequences of a changing climate and anticipating potential impacts on occupational health across countries and cultures. PMID:23411759

Parsons, Ken

2013-01-01

107

Social Moderation, Assessment and Assuring Standards for Accounting Graduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidencing student achievement of standards is a growing imperative worldwide. Key stakeholders (including current and prospective students, government, regulators and employers) want confidence that threshold learning standards in an accounting degree have been assured. Australia's new higher education regulatory environment requires that…

Watty, Kim; Freeman, Mark; Howieson, Bryan; Hancock, Phil; O'Connell, Brendan; de Lange, Paul; Abraham, Anne

2014-01-01

108

76 FR 77942 - Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...Market-Dominant Mail Products AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Proposed...conceptual proposal to revise service standards for market-dominant products.\\1\\ The comment...stated that all Postal Service products could experience...

2011-12-15

109

The Role of Assessment in Meeting the NASPE Physical Education Content Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the essential link among content standards, curriculum, instruction, professional development, and assessment in elementary physical education, discussing the National Association for Sport and Physical Education standards for physical education and emphasizing the importance of assessment in monitoring student progress, improving…

DeJong, Glenna; Kokinakis, C. Lee; Kuntzleman, Charles

2002-01-01

110

Uncertainty in assessing risks from current radioactive surface contamination standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Release standards for materials with radioactive surface contamination have been in existence in the United States for about two decades. Such standards include those issued by the American National Standards Institute, (ANSI), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The standards were based on the measured surface concentrations; in other words, they were open-quotes instrumentation based.close quotes However, significant advancement has taken place in the area of radiation protection in the past two decades, The more stringent regulatory environment has resulted in lower dose limits; newer and more sophisticated dosimetric models have also been made available for more accurate estimates of human exposures and health risks. Moreover, the trend of standard setting has moved toward the open-quotes risk-basedclose quotes approach away from the traditional open-quotes instrumentation-basedclose quotes approach. It is thus necessary to reevaluate the current standards with the risk-based approach. Results of such evaluation would enable the future standard-setting activities

111

Measurement and standardization of eye safety for optical radiation of LED products  

Science.gov (United States)

The blue light hazard (BLH) to human eye's retina is now a new issue emerging in applications of artificial light sources. Especially for solid state lighting sources based on the blue chip-LED(GaN), the photons with their energy more than 2.4 eV show photochemical effects on the retina significantly, raising damage both in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The photobiological safety of artificial light sources emitting optical radiation has gained more and more attention worldwide and addressed by international standards IEC 62471-2006(CIE S009/E: 2002). Meanwhile, it is involved in IEC safety specifications of LED lighting products and covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to artificial optical radiation. In practical applications of the safety standards, the measuring methods of optical radiation from LED products to eyes are important in establishment of executable methods in the industry. In 2011, a new project to develop the international standard of IEC TR62471-4,that is "Measuring methods of optical radiation related to photobiological safety", was approved and are now under way. This paper presents the concerned methods for the assessment of optical radiation hazards in the standards. Furthermore, a retina radiance meter simulating eye's optical geometry is also described, which is a potential tool for blue light hazard assessment of retinal exposure to optical radiation. The spectroradiometric method integrated with charge-coupled device(CCD) imaging system is introduced to provide more reliable results.

Mou, Tongsheng; Peng, Zhenjian

2013-06-01

112

Assessing changes in drought characteristics with standardized indices  

OpenAIRE

Standardized drought indices like the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are more and more frequently adopted for drought reconstruction, monitoring and forecasting, and the SPI has been recently recommended by the World Meteorological Organization to characterize meteorological droughts. Such indices are based on the statistical distribution of a hydrometeorological variable (e.g., precipitation) in a given reference climate, and a drought event is defined as a period with continuously n...

Vidal, J. P.; Najac, J.; Martin, E.; Franchiste?guy, L.; Soubeyroux, J. M.

2010-01-01

113

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS)

114

Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

2012-01-01

115

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers

116

Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas  

OpenAIRE

The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (b...

Rosalia Filippini; Elisa Marraccini; Sylvie Lardon; Enrico Bonari

2014-01-01

117

[Pay attention to physical test and drafting product standards of the centrifuge apparatus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Compare and analyze the standards related to centrifuge apparatus and make corresponding suggestions in allusion to the problems existed in the test method and physical performance during product standard drafting process. PMID:20540298

Xu, Hui; Jia, Yufei; Li, Haixin; Song, Jinzi

2010-03-01

118

75 FR 66734 - Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood  

Science.gov (United States)

...Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood AGENCY: National Institute of Standards...biological agents. Applications for structural plywood other than construction sheathing and...requirements for sheathing were based on thin plywood panels made with Group 4 species....

2010-10-29

119

78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...energy conservation standards for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal...

2013-05-02

120

Aligning science assessment items from the Iowa Testing Program batteries and the State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards with the National Science Education Content Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

This research study determined the nature and extent of alignment between science content standards and standardized assessments used to measure science proficiency. The alignment process involved external expert blind review and document analysis. Documents reviewed included the National Science Education Content Standards (NSECS), the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED) and the State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (SCASS). Webb's alignment criteria of Categorical Concurrence, Depth of Knowledge, Range of Knowledge Correspondance and Balance of Representation were used to determine acceptable alignment. A pilot study was conducted on Form B ITBS and ITED items and Phase II SCASS items. Inter-rater reliability was determined and consensus building dialogs were conducted. The three research questions were: What is the nature and extent of alignment between the NSECS and Form A ITBS, Levels 9--14? What is the nature and extent of alignment between the NSECS and Form ITED, Levels 15--17/18? What is the nature and extent of alignment between the NSECS and Phase III SCASS Science items? The major findings indicated that none of the assessments had comprehensive alignment of all of the NSECS. However, most did have acceptable categorical concurrence with Science as Inquiry, Physical Science, Life Science, Earth and Space Science. Most did not have acceptable Categorical Concurrence with Science and Technology, Science in Personal and Social Perspectives and History and Nature of Science. More than half of the assessment items were categorized Beyond Knowledge level of Bloom's Taxonomy (Depth of Knowledge). Of the standards with acceptable Categorical Concurrence between 43% and 86% of the fundamental components aligned (Range of Knowledge Correspondence). And the Index of Balance of representation indicated an equal distribution of the items across all of the fundamental components of the NSECS with acceptable alignment. Further implications and future research questions, in addition to an elaboration of the fundamental components assessed by each standardized assessment analyzed are explored in the paper.

Larson, Erica Dee

121

Standards and Self-Assessment: What's the Big Deal?  

Science.gov (United States)

Guidelines for self evaluation of campus programing propose standards for program mission, goals, leadership and management, organization and administration, use of human resources, funding, facilities, legal responsibility, equal opportunity/access and affirmative action, campus and community relations, multicultural programing and services,…

Arminio, Jan

1993-01-01

122

Design and logistics IT federation through Product Lifecycle Support standard  

OpenAIRE

Wide diffusion of methodologies and software relevant to Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) in industrial companies faces heterogeneity of IT systems. Especially, the lack of interoperability between Product Data Management (PDM) systems, that drive virtual product development, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), which manages real product, cannot lead to a coherent description of the product development process. We show that a "mediator" approach is pertinent for the coordination of thes...

Paviot, Thomas; Cheutet, Vincent; Lamouri, Samir

2009-01-01

123

A Standardized Tool for Assessing the Quality of Classroom-Based Shared Reading: Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR)  

Science.gov (United States)

Participation in shared-reading experiences is associated with children's language and literacy outcomes, yet few standardized assessments of shared-reading quality exist. The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric characteristics of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR), an observational tool designed to characterize…

Pentimonti, Jill M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

2012-01-01

124

Couplings and beyond the Standard Model Higgs production at LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large centre-of-mass energy and luminosity provided by the Large Hadron Collider will provide a unique opportunity to search for evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. This talk will focus on the potential to discover and measure the properties of the Higgs bosons expected in models, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

125

Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education  

Science.gov (United States)

This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

Gassant, Lunes

126

76 FR 61052 - Service Standards for Market-Dominant Special Services Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...Service Standards for Market-Dominant Special Services Products AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule...for stand-alone market- dominant special services products set forth in our regulations. DATES:...

2011-10-03

127

Wolbachia detection: an assessment of standard PCR protocols.  

OpenAIRE

Wolbachia is a large monophyletic genus of intracellular bacteria, traditionally detected using PCR assays. Its considerable phylogenetic diversity and impact on arthropods and nematodes make it urgent to assess the efficiency of these screening protocols. The sensitivity and range of commonly used PCR primers and of a new set of 16S primers were evaluated on a wide range of hosts and Wolbachia strains. We show that certain primer sets are significantly more efficient than others but that no ...

Simo?es, P. M.; Mialdea, G.; Reiss, D.; Sagot, Marie-france; Charlat, S.

2011-01-01

128

Standardization of In vitro Macrophotography for Assessment of Cutaneous Responses  

OpenAIRE

The increased popularity of commercially available 3-dimensional human skin equivalents in recent years has allowed for assessment of melanogenesis modulated by compounds topically applied to the skin or directly incorporated from the medium. These skin equivalents provide a suitable model for elucidating the mechanisms of action of various factors that modulate skin pigmentation or other properties of the skin. As such, researchers need to objectively quantify cutaneous responses at the macr...

Coelho, Sergio G.; Koo, Eubee; Hearing, Vincent J.

2009-01-01

129

Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01

130

Assessment of Usability Benchmarks: Combining Standardized Scales with Specific Questions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The usability of Web sites and online services is of rising importance. When creating a completely new Web site, qualitative data are adequate for identifying the most usability problems. However, changes of an existing Web site should be evaluated by a quantitative benchmarking process. The proposed paper describes the creation of a questionnaire that allows a quantitative usability benchmarking, i.e. a direct comparison of the different versions of a Web site and an orientation on general standards of usability. The questionnaire is also open for qualitative data. The methodology will be explained by the digital library services of the ZBW.

Stephanie Bettina Linek

2011-12-01

131

Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

1989-06-01

132

Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?  

OpenAIRE

This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students), and low socio-economi...

Stephen Agnew

2010-01-01

133

An overview of failure assessment methods in codes and standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the assessment of the integrity of engineering structures containing crack-like flaws, in the absence of effects of creep at elevated temperatures (see volume 5) and of environment (see volume 6). Key methods are extensively reviewed and background information as well as validation is given. However, it should be kept in mind that for actual detailed assessments the relevant documents have to be consulted. In classical engineering design, an applied stress is compared with the appropriate material resistance expressed in terms of a limit stress, such as the yield strength or fatigue endurance limit. As long as the material resistance exceeds the applied stress, integrity of the component is assured. It is implicitly assumed that the component is defect-free but design margins provide some protection against defects. Modern design and operation philosophies, however, take explicit account of the possible presence of defects in engineering components. Such defects may arise from fabrication, e.g., during casting, welding, or forming processes, or may develop during operation. They may extend during operation and eventually lead to failure, which in the ideal case occurs beyond the design life of the component. Failure assessment methods are based upon the behavior of sharp cracks in structures, and for this reason all flaws or defects found in structures have to be treated as if they are sharp planar cracks. Hated as if they are sharp planar cracks. Hence the terms flaw or defect should be regarded as being interchangeable with the term crack throughout this volume. (orig.)

134

INEL advanced test reactor plutonium-238 production feasibility assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of a preliminary neutronics assessment indicate the feasibility of 238Pu production in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Based on the results of this assessment, an annual production of 11.3 kg 238Pu can be achieved in the ATR. An annual loading of 102 kg 237Np is required for the particular target configuration and irradiation scenario examined. The 236Pu contaminant level is approximately 6 parts per million at zero cooling time. The product quality is about 90% 238Pu. Neptunium feedstock requirements, 238Pu production rates, or product purity can be optimized depending on their relative importances.

Schnitzler, Bruce G.

1993-01-01

135

Standard Sources of Particle Production in Heavy Ion Collisions  

OpenAIRE

We describe particle production in the framework of an independent string model: the dual parton model. We show that an improved version of this model, containing a diquark breaking component, allows to describe the bulk of particle production and, in particular, baryon stopping and most of the observed enhancement of strange baryons. Only for very rare processes, such as $\\Omega$ or $J/\\psi$ production, the model has to be supplemented with final state interaction (comovers...

Capella, A.

1999-01-01

136

Sequential product on standard effect algebra E(H)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantum effect is an operator A on a complex Hilbert space H that satisfies 0?A?I,E(H) is the set of all quantum effects on H. In this paper, first, we characterize some algebraic properties of the abstract sequential product on E(H), second, we present a general method for constructing sequential products on E(H) and, finally, we study some properties of the sequential products constructed by the method.

137

The use of standardized assessment procedures in the evaluation of patients with multiple injuries.  

OpenAIRE

The accuracy of diagnosis in multiple trauma can be greatly improved by the use of standardized assessment routines and standard documentation. In the two groups of patients reviewed the diagnostic error rate fell from 23% in the period 1979-1980 to 8% for the period 1981-1982.

Murat, J. E.; Huten, N.; Mesny, J.

1985-01-01

138

Assessing MBA Student Teamwork under the AACSB Assurance of Learning Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 2003 release of the AACSB's Assurance of Learning standards, outcomes assessment has been a required practice for business schools wishing to receive their endorsement. While most accredited institutions had been dabbling with the measurement of student learning, the new standards raised the bar considerably. It is now necessary to…

Procino, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

139

Medical image registration algorithms assessment: Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine  

OpenAIRE

Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grid...

Glatard, Tristan; Montagnat, Johan; Pennec, Xavier

2006-01-01

140

Standards: a key element of optical design, engineering productivity, and time to market  

Science.gov (United States)

Standards provide a conduit for understanding and communication in the global optics industry. Proper use and knowledge of standards is beneficial to global commerce and increases productivity. In this paper the design utility and efficiency afforded by standards is shown with examples that are congruent with current ANSI and ISO published documents.

Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.; Aikens, David M.

2014-12-01

141

78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2013)] [Notices] [Pages 34340-34342] [FR Doc No: 2013-13566...A-489-501] Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products...duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products...Tube Company, United States Steel Corporation, and Erbosan...

2013-06-07

142

Assessing the total factor productivity of cotton production in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this paper is to decompose the productivity growth of Egyptian cotton production. We employ the stochastic frontier approach and decompose the changes in total factor productivity (CTFP) growth into four components: technical progress (TP), changes in scale component (CSC), changes in allocative efficiency (CAE), and changes in technical efficiency (CTE). Considering a situation of scarce statistical information, we propose four alternative empirical models, with the purpose of looking for convergence in the results. The results provide evidence that in this production system total productivity does not increase, which is mainly due to the negative average contributions of CAE and TP. Policy implications are offered in light of the results. PMID:25625318

Rodríguez, Xosé A; Elasraag, Yahia H

2015-01-01

143

Setting Standards for English Foreign Language Assessment: Methodology, Validation, and a Degree of Arbitrariness  

Science.gov (United States)

Cut-scores were set by expert judges on assessments of reading and listening comprehension of English as a foreign language (EFL), using the bookmark standard-setting method to differentiate proficiency levels defined by the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Assessments contained stratified item samples drawn from extensive item…

Tiffin-Richards, Simon P.; Pant, Hans Anand; Koller, Olaf

2013-01-01

144

Comparing State High School Assessments to Standards for Success in Entry-Level University Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

States have moved rapidly over the past 20 years to institute systems of standards and assessments. State assessments in particular take on added importance at the high school level as they are required for graduation by an increasing number of states. Federal legislation mandating testing in high school also serves to increase the stakes and…

Brown, Richard S.; Conley, David T.

2007-01-01

145

Validating a Standards-Based Classroom Assessment of English Proficiency: A Multitrait-Multimethod Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of standards-based classroom assessments to test English learners' language proficiency is increasingly prevalent in the United States and many other countries. In a large urban school district in California, for example, a classroom assessment is used to make high-stakes decisions about English learners' progress from one level to the…

Llosa, Lorena

2007-01-01

146

40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA...

2010-07-01

147

Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

148

Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

149

Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China  

OpenAIRE


This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china) to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate enviro...

Yang, Li-li; Zhang, Shao-jie; Gao, Ge

2006-01-01

150

Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island. PMID:16856752

Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

2006-07-01

151

Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. PMID:24657525

Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

2014-05-16

152

Assessing Operational Total Lightning Visualization Products  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 2003, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program successfully provided total lightning data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) to the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, Alabama. The major accomplishment was providing the observations in real-time to the NWS in the native Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) decision support system. Within days, the NALMA data were used to issue a tornado warning initiating seven years of ongoing support to the NWS' severe weather and situational awareness operations. With this success, SPoRT now provides real-time NALMA data to five forecast offices as well as working to transition data from total lightning networks at Kennedy Space Center and the White Sands Missile Range to the surrounding NWS offices. The only NALMA product that has been transitioned to SPoRT's partner NWS offices is the source density product, available at a 2 km resolution in 2 min intervals. However, discussions with users of total lightning data from other networks have shown that other products are available, ranging from spatial and temporal variations of the source density product to the creation of a flash extent density. SPoRT and the Huntsville, Alabama NWS are evaluating the utility of these variations as this has not been addressed since the initial transition in 2003. This preliminary analysis will focus on what products will best support the operational warning decision process. Data from 19 April 2009 are analyzed. On this day, severe thunderstorms formed ahead of an approaching cold front. Widespread severe weather was observed, primarily south of the Tennessee River with multiple, weak tornadoes, numerous severe hail reports, and wind. This preliminary analysis is the first step in evaluation which product(s) are best suited for operations. The ultimate goal is selecting a single product for use with all total lightning networks to streamline training and science sharing.

Stano, Geoffrey T.; Darden, Christopher B.; Nadler, David J.

2010-01-01

153

Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA, a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157 was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran. The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

M Afshari

2012-05-01

154

Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

155

Assessing English Learners' Progress: Longitudinal Invariance of a Standards-Based Classroom Assessment of English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing and monitoring student progress is becoming increasingly important in classrooms and for accountability purposes. Yet, in order to interpret changes in assessment results from one year to the next as reflecting differences in underlying ability rather than as variations in the measurement, the assessments used should be measuring the…

Llosa, Lorena

2012-01-01

156

DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

157

Strategic environmental assessment for energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

158

78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...reduces formaldehyde emissions, e.g. aging. EPA is proposing to define the term...can be applied to resins or composite wood products to reduce the amount of formaldehyde...requests comment on processes other than aging that could be used to reduce...

2013-06-10

159

DOE [Department of Energy]-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

160

Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production  

Science.gov (United States)

Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel–oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel–methanol samples, respectively.

Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M.

2015-02-01

161

Assessment of new tropospheric real time product at GOP  

Science.gov (United States)

A benchmark campaign was started in February 2013 at the Geodetic observatory Pecny (GOP) for the assessing of Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) estimated from GNSS data in real time in order to support nowcasting or severe weather events monitoring. For this purpose, we developed the Tefnut application which is derived from the G-Nut software library. Our solution is based on the Precise Point Positioning technique (PPP) exploiting the real time precise orbits and clocks provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). Since February 2013, real time ZTDs have been continuously derived for 36 stations selected worldwide for the benchmark campaign. Resulted ZTDs can be characterized by the standard deviation of 6-9 mm when compared to the EUREF and IGS final tropospheric products. The precision requirement for the nowcasting, initially defined during the EU TOUGH project, has been thus already accomplished. Site-specific biases of up to 15 mm (from a monthly statistics) are however still observed being caused by incomplete precise models in the software. These biases are stable enough to be effectively reduced before a usage of real time ZTDs in meteorological applications. The benchmark campaign included both static and kinematic coordinate solutions. The latter resulted in a slightly worse ZTD precision only, which might be encouraging to develop a system for exploiting also receivers on moving platforms for this type of applications. The G-Nut/Tefnut software is being enhanced steadily and we will focus on further improvements towards higher accuracy of estimated tropospheric parameters as well as an for extensions towards multi-GNSS and advanced tropospheric products monitoring the atmospheric asymmetry too.

Vaclavovic, Pavel; Dousa, Jan

2014-05-01

162

Enabling consistency in pluripotent stem cell-derived products for research and development and clinical applications through material standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThere is a need for physical standards (reference materials) to ensure both reproducibility and consistency in the production of somatic cell types from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) sources. We have outlined the need for reference materials (RMs) in relation to the unique properties and concerns surrounding hPSC-derived products and suggest in-house approaches to RM generation relevant to basic research, drug screening, and therapeutic applications. hPSCs have an unparalleled potential as a source of somatic cells for drug screening, disease modeling, and therapeutic application. Undefined variation and product variability after differentiation to the lineage or cell type of interest impede efficient translation and can obscure the evaluation of clinical safety and efficacy. Moreover, in the absence of a consistent population, data generated from in vitro studies could be unreliable and irreproducible. Efforts to devise approaches and tools that facilitate improved consistency of hPSC-derived products, both as development tools and therapeutic products, will aid translation. Standards exist in both written and physical form; however, because many unknown factors persist in the field, premature written standards could inhibit rather than promote innovation and translation. We focused on the derivation of physical standard RMs. We outline the need for RMs and assess the approaches to in-house RM generation for hPSC-derived products, a critical tool for the analysis and control of product variation that can be applied by researchers and developers. We then explore potential routes for the generation of RMs, including both cellular and noncellular materials and novel methods that might provide valuable tools to measure and account for variation. Multiparametric techniques to identify "signatures" for therapeutically relevant cell types, such as neurons and cardiomyocytes that can be derived from hPSCs, would be of significant utility, although physical RMs will be required for clinical purposes. PMID:25650438

French, Anna; Bravery, Christopher; Smith, James; Chandra, Amit; Archibald, Peter; Gold, Joseph D; Artzi, Natalie; Kim, Hae-Won; Barker, Richard W; Meissner, Alexander; Wu, Joseph C; Knowles, Jonathan C; Williams, David; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Sipp, Doug; Oh, Steve; Loring, Jeanne F; Rao, Mahendra S; Reeve, Brock; Wall, Ivan; Carr, Andrew J; Bure, Kim; Stacey, Glyn; Karp, Jeffrey M; Snyder, Evan Y; Brindley, David A

2015-03-01

163

Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisoion about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses

164

The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: To assess the extent and nature of claims regarding improved sports performance made by advertisers for a broad range of sports-related products, and the quality of the evidence on which these claims are based. METHODS: The authors analysed magazine adverts and associated websites of a broad range of sports products. The authors searched for references supporting the performance and/or recovery claims of these products. The authors critically appraised the methods in the retrieved...

Heneghan, C.; Howick, J.; O Neill, B.; Gill, Pj; Lasserson, Ds; Cohen, D.; Davis, R.; Ward, A.; Smith, A.; Jones, G.; Thompson, M.

2012-01-01

165

Assessing output and productivity growth in the banking industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper assesses the evolution of output and productivity in the Greek banking industry for the period 1990-2006. Three main categories of bank output were estimated based on modern theoretical approaches, while for the aggregation and estimation of output and inputs and the estimation of productivity (partial and total factor) we relied on the index number method (Tornqvist index). Additionally, we considered the effect of labor quality on banks’ productivity and using a...

Athanasoglou, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Evangelia; Staikouras, Christos

2008-01-01

166

24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product...FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.937 Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building...

2010-04-01

167

76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...Parts 160, 180, and 199 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0048] RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing on pages 62962-63015 in the issue...

2011-11-10

168

Risk assessment of topically applied products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken skin associated with various skin disorders. BADGE and derivatives had a tendency to permeate pig skin membranes in vitro with higher fluxes in the tape stripped membranes compared to the non-treated membranes. Data from the in vitro skin permeation study and from the literature were used as input parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was foundto be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC. Both UV filters are endocrine disrupting compounds with 3-BC being the more potent. UV filters in sunscreen are often present in high concentrations, which potentially may lead to high systemic exposure dosages. Thus, the risk associated with use of 3-BC and 4-MBC containing sunscreen with regards to endocrine disrupting effects was found to be high and more data is urgently needed in order to fully assess the human risk of 3-BC and 4-MBC in commercial sunscreen.

SØborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen

2007-01-01

169

Algorithms, clinical practice guidelines, and standardized clinical assessment and management plans: evidence-based patient management standards in evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this issue, Farias and colleagues describe how to develop a clinical care pathway by using a structured, continuous learning process embedded within the day-to-day delivery of care. Their method is called Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs). A care pathway, such as a SCAMP, includes multiple decision points and related recommendations. The SCAMP process can test the validity of each decision point if clinicians document patient data and record their reasoning when they deviate from the recommended action at a decision point. The unique feature of SCAMPs is that they encourage dissent, unlike clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), algorithms, and bundled electronic health record protocols, which are designed to be followed. If a clinician deviates from the recommended action at a decision point, an explanation is required. This feedback, which should explain why a patient does not precisely "fit" the logic of the care pathway, may lead the SCAMP developers to modify the decision point.The authors of this Commentary argue that SCAMPs and CPGs, two approaches to developing clinical standards of care, are fundamentally equivalent. The key link between them is the recently described process of deconstructing a CPG into the many steps that are necessary to consistently apply it to clinical practice. The SCAMP process puts these steps to the test of daily practice.The Commentary ends with a list of foundational principles for developing standards of clinical care. These principles should apply to care pathways, algorithms, practice guidelines, or SCAMPs. PMID:25295966

Sox, Harold C; Stewart, Walter F

2015-02-01

170

Standards-Based Classroom Assessments of English Proficiency: A Review of Issues, Current Developments, and Future Directions for Research  

Science.gov (United States)

With the United States' adoption of a standards-based approach to education, most attention has focused on the large-scale, high-stakes assessments intended to measure students' mastery of standards for accountability purposes. Less attention has been paid to the role of standards-based assessments in the classroom. The purpose of this paper is to…

Llosa, Lorena

2011-01-01

171

Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards  

OpenAIRE

In designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational work environments. This paper gives an overview of the 174 international ISO and European CEN standards in this field, and discusses their applicability in design processes. The available standards include genera...

Dul, J.; Vries, H. J.; Verschoof, S.; Eveleens, W.; Feilzer, A.

2004-01-01

172

Production and radiometric measurements of the large particle plutonium oxide non-destructive assay standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Analytical Chemistry Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has produced several sets of working reference materials (WRMs) for the National TRU Waste Program (NTWP) NDA PDP (Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program). This paper describes the first example of production of traceable, certified standards containing plutonium oxide in large particle form for the DOE complex. Discussion of the production and radiometric measurements of these NDA standards is included herein

173

Quality control and quality standards for the production of bone allografts in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a rapid progress of tissue banking especially Bone Banking in China, In order to strengthen the control on medical devices, Ministry of Public Health (MPH) issued the 'Regulation on Supervision of Critical Medical Devices, MPH Decree No. 54' in 1997. The SPTB was requested to submit new application for the approval of production and providing of tissue allografts. The needed documents are clinical reports, package insert, quality standards of product, Quality System Regulation (QSR) and audit report. Quality System Regulation document adopted the GMP standard for medical devices of FDA, US (21 CFR 620-1997). SPTB will amend the existed Quality Manual to suit the requirement of QSR. Referring to the AATB Standards, SPTB established 'Technical Standards' for Tissue Banking and was approved by the local government, which will be the supplement of the submitted QSR document. Considering the need of market control, MPH requested to submit a 'Quality Standard of Product' and the method of inspection. SPTB has completed such standards for final inspection of bone products, which includes the test for residual water, microbiology, bone species, colour and structure. In addition, the Tissue Bank has completed standards for in process inspection, which includes residual blood, radiation sterilization, initial bioburden, package leakage and biomechanics. In-process inspection is important for the control of non-conforming final products to assure the safety and efficacyproducts to assure the safety and efficacy of bone grafts. Methods of in process inspection and final inspection are described and discussed in this paper

174

Assignment of mental health diagnoses and severity :effectiveness and reliability of online standardized assessment instruments  

OpenAIRE

During the last decade, child psychiatry has been a focus of the Norwegian government's plan to improve mental health care. Psychiatric assessment of children and adolescents is more complex than that of adults, and rating scales and diagnostic instruments have become increasingly important tools in both research and clinical practice. This dissertation investigates standardized assessment instruments used in routine clinical practice to assign diagnoses and severity of mental health problems...

Brøndbo, Per Ha?kan

2012-01-01

175

Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

2008-07-01

176

77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

...ASTM F963-07, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for...or by statute) mandatory consumer product safety standards under section 9 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA...formerly the American Society for Testing and...

2012-02-22

177

Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

2013-01-01

178

Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

LaBelle, S. J.

1978-10-01

179

Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

2012-02-01

180

By-products in earth construction. Assessment of acceptability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 70 million tonnes of natural mineral aggregates are used each year in Finland for road construction and earthworks. Depletion of the best materials, the need for resource conservation and longer transport distances have all increased the need to introduce substitute materials for natural aggregates. At the same time industry, construction and other similar activities produce large quantities of potentially usable by-products. Current waste legislation also supports the use of wastes as substitutes for natural raw materials. The use of secondary products of industry and other activities requires that they be proven to be environmentally friendly and technically suitable. In the project 'By-products in earthworks - assessment of applicability' guidance was developed for the assessment of the environmental and technical applicability of secondary products for use in earthworks and road construction. The project was a part of the Finnish Ecogeo Technology Programme. The guide was prepared in collaboration between several research institutes. The guide presents the legislative requirements for the utilisation of secondary products in earthworks, recommendations for the investigation of environmental and technical applicability, recommendations for environmental and technical criteria of the utilisation in earthworks and recommendations for product quality control procedures. A tiered system is presented for the assessment of environ- mental compliance. The assessment levels are as follows: 1. Concentrations of harmful components. 2. Leaching of harmful components from unpaved and paved constructions. 3. Risk assessment. During the preparation of the guide, the environmental, legal and technical preconditions for the use of the secondary materials were extensively investigated. The results of these studies were published in separate reports. The following aspects, amongst others, were studied during the project: The environmental and health risks of the use of industrial by-products and the methodologies of risk assessment; The environmental criteria for the utilisation of industrial by-products in earth constructions; The methods for laboratory-scale functional testing of the secondary products used in earthworks: The life-cycle environmental impact of usage, and the methodologies of life-cycle environmental impact assessment; The binding and transport of harmful components in soil; The Finnish environmental permit practice and suggestions for the development of more adaptable legal measures and A quality control system for the production and use of secondary materials in earthworks. (orig.)

Mroueh, U.-M.; Maekelae, E.; Wahlstroem, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kauppila, J.; Sorvari, J. [Finnish Environmental Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, P.; Salminen, R. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Juvankoski, M.; Tammirinne, M. [VTT Communities and Infrastructures, Espoo (Finland)

2000-07-01

181

Assessment of the Draft AIAA S-119 Flight Dynamic Model Exchange Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of a draft AIAA standard for flight dynamics model exchange, ANSI/AIAA S-119-2011, was conducted on behalf of NASA by a team from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The assessment included adding the capability of importing standard models into real-time simulation facilities at several NASA Centers as well as into analysis simulation tools. All participants were successful at importing two example models into their respective simulation frameworks by using existing software libraries or by writing new import tools. Deficiencies in the libraries and format documentation were identified and fixed; suggestions for improvements to the standard were provided to the AIAA. An innovative tool to generate C code directly from such a model was developed. Performance of the software libraries compared favorably with compiled code. As a result of this assessment, several NASA Centers can now import standard models directly into their simulations. NASA is considering adopting the now-published S-119 standard as an internal recommended practice.

Jackson, E. Bruce; Murri, Daniel G.; Hill, Melissa A.; Jessick, Matthew V.; Penn, John M.; Hasan, David A.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Falck, Robert D.; McCarthy, Thomas G.; Vuong, Nghia; Zimmerman, Curtis

2011-01-01

182

Characteristics of and Implications for Students Participating in Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Little research has precisely defined the population of students participating in alternate assessments based on alternate academic achievement standards (AA-AAAS). Therefore, the purpose of this article is twofold: (a) explicate the findings of a multistate study examining the characteristics of the population of students participating in…

Kearns, Jacqueline Farmer; Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Harold L.; Kleinert, Jane O'Regan; Thomas, Megan Kleine-Kracht

2011-01-01

183

Training and Validation of Standardized Patients for Unannounced Assessment of Physicians' Management of Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Standardized patients (SPs) have been developed to measure practitioner performance in actual practice settings, but results have not been fully validated for psychiatric disorders. This study describes the process of creating reliable and valid SPs for unannounced assessment of general-practitioners' management of depression disorders…

Shirazi, Mandana; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami, A.; Kashani, A. Sabouri; Parikh, Sagar; Alaeddini, F.; Arbabi, Mohammad; Wahlstrom, Rolf

2011-01-01

184

The Centrality of Teachers' Judgement Practice in Assessment: A Study of Standards in Moderation  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a strong quest in several countries including Australia for greater national consistency in education and intensifying interest in standards for reporting. Given this, it is important to make explicit the intended and unintended consequences of assessment reform strategies and the pressures to pervert and conform. In a policy context that…

Wyatt-Smith, Claire; Klenowski, Val; Gunn, Stephanie

2010-01-01

185

Proficiency Assessment Standards in Second Language Acquisition Research: "Clozing" the Gap  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to sensitize SLA researchers to the importance of documenting and controlling for their participants' proficiency in the target language, with the goal of establishing more robust proficiency assessment standards in experimental research. First, this article presents a survey of recent (2000-2008) foreign and second-language…

Tremblay, Annie

2011-01-01

186

Development and Psychometric Properties of a Standardized Assessment for Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind  

Science.gov (United States)

The internal consistency and validity of the interRAI Community Health Assessment and Deafblind Supplement were tested with 182 persons with deaf-blindness. All subscales demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency, and expected associations provided evidence of convergent validity. This instrument can facilitate standardized service…

Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody

2009-01-01

187

Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

2014-01-01

188

Developing a Modern Standard to Define and Assess Professionalism in Trainees  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Assessing professionalism in medical education poses many challenges. The authors discuss common themes and principles in managing professionalism in medical education. Methods: The authors review the development of standards of professionalism in medical education. They define educational goals for professionalism and also discuss the…

Schwartz, Ann C.; Kotwicki, Raymond J.; McDonald, William M.

2009-01-01

189

Standard setting in complex performance assessments: An approach aligned with cognitive diagnostic models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increased interest in student-level diagnostic information from multiple performance assessments, it becomes possible to create multivariate classifications of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs. In this paper, a systematic, multivariate and non-compensating standard setting approach, called the cognitive analytical approach (CAA, is proposed for performance assessment with complex tasks. CAA is based on the framework of evidence-centered design (Mislevy, Steinberg, & Almond, 2003 that supports a chain of reasoning from design and development to delivery of an assessment. In CAA, the performance standards are established simultaneously with domain-modeling, test specifications, and item writing rather than after the assessment has been completed; the cut scores are evaluated iteratively along with the test design and development phases. CAA has the benefits of ensuring the validity of the performance standards, reducing the cognitive load of standard setting, including the complexity of the tasks, and facilitating the vertical articulation of KSAs. In this paper, we elucidate the theoretical and practical rationale of CAA and demonstrate its proce-dures and results with an illustrative example.

Robert W. Lissitz

2011-12-01

190

Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment. PMID:18289760

Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

2008-05-01

191

An Analysis of the Impact of Federated Search Products on Library Instruction Using the ACRL Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Federated search products are becoming more and more prevalent in academic libraries. What are the implications of this phenomenon for instruction librarians? An analysis of federated search products using the "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" and a thorough review of the literature offer insight concerning whether…

Cox, Christopher

2006-01-01

192

Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

K. Hollenstein

2005-01-01

193

Adherence of pain assessment to the German national standard for pain management in 12 nursing homes  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Pain is very common among nursing home residents. The assessment of pain is a prerequisite for effective multiprofessional pain management. Within the framework of the German health services research project, ‘Action Alliance Pain-Free City Muenster’, the authors investigated pain assessment adherence according to the German national Expert Standard for Pain Management in Nursing, which is a general standard applicable to all chronic/acute pain-affected persons and highly recommended for practice. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the state of pain assessment and to identify need for improvement in 12 nursing homes in a German city. METHODS: In the present study, the authors used an ex-post-facto design (survey methodology). Available written policies for routine pain assessment in residents ?65 years of age were reviewed and a standardized online survey completed by 151 of 349 nurses in 12 nursing home facilities was conducted between September 2010 and April 2011. RESULTS: Most of the included nursing homes provided written policies for pain assessment, and the majority of nurses reported that they assess and regularly reassess pain. However, observational tools for residents with severe cognitive impairment and written reassessment schedules were lacking in many facilities or were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Essentially, pain assessment appeared to be feasible in the majority of the German nursing homes studied. However, the absence or inconsistency of reassessment schedules indicate that pain management guidelines should include a detailed and explicit reassessment schedule for the heterogenic needs of nursing home residents. For residents with severe cognitive impairment, assessment tools are needed that are simple to use and clearly indicate the presence or absence of pain. PMID:24851238

Osterbrink, Jürgen; Bauer, Zsuzsa; Mitterlehner, Barbara; Gnass, Irmela; Kutschar, Patrick

2014-01-01

194

Assessment of Progressive Product Innovation on Key Environmental Indicators: Pampers® Baby Wipes from 2007–2013  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Companies are increasingly conducting life cycle assessments (LCA of their products to understand potential product impacts on the environment, prioritize areas of innovation to create more sustainable products, and determine valid claims. This case study shows the results of product innovation by comparing an older (2007 and new (2013 version of a common hygiene product in Europe and the U.S. The standard methodology follows the ISO 14040/44 Guidelines for LCA. Results are reported for the impact indicators with high relevance for the product category: primary energy, global warming, particulates, agricultural land occupation, fossil fuel depletion, and solid waste generation. Generally, raw material supply chains for product and packaging contribute most (up to 82% to the calculated environmental impact indicators. Improvements vs. the 2007 baby wipe range between 4% and 14% in Europe and between 15% and 36% in the U.S. The improvement is driven by a new substrate technology that provides more surface area for cleaning, which results in lower use of resources. This case study illustrates three key environmental drivers behind this innovation: the corporate focus on R&D capability to design for environmentally improved products, the increased interest from retailers and consumers requiring accurate and relevant information on the performance and sustainability of products, and the company’s interest in deeper technical understanding of contributions from upstream material and process innovations on a product’s environmental profile.

Gert Van Hoof

2014-08-01

195

Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ? Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ? Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ? Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ? Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

196

Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. Materials and methods: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants’ ALS- competence was assessed using the Advanced Life Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is con- ducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding resuscitation teaching issued by the university. Results: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of theparticipants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites.

Jensen, Morten Lind; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus

2008-01-01

197

An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and implemented to maximize benefits for biodiversity conservation. PMID:25363833

Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Rikxoort, Henk Van; Zrust, Michal

2015-04-01

198

Life cycle assessment of innovative hydrogen production path  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Roughly 38% of the world wide hydrogen production is accomplished by steam reforming of natural gas and naphta, 24% by partial oxidation of fossil energy carriers. However, a number of more innovative production paths exist. In order to assess these production paths, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of these supply chains has been carried out. Life Cycle assessment considers the extraction of the primary energy carrier, the transportation to the hydrogen production plant, the conversion to hydrogen and the transportation to the end user. A number of hydrogen production methods were the object of this study, such as the CB and H-Process of the Norwegian Kvaerner AS with parallel carbon black production, electrolysis from solar thermal power plants and hydro electricity and the steam reforming of natural gas as a reference. In addition, different transport scenarios were analysed, such as pipeline transport of gaseous hydrogen (GH{sub 2}), transport of liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) by bargen carriers and road-trailers and high voltage direct current (HVDC) transportation of electricity with hydrogen conversion close to the end user. The LCA procedure will be explained using the Kvaerner CB and H process as an example supply chain. Finally, the results of the assessed supply chains will be presented and discussed. It turns out that hydrogen production by electrolysis with electricity from hydro power plants leads to the most favourable environmental impacts. Electrolysis based on solar thermal power yields slightly less favourable results, mainly caused by longer transportation distances to Germany. The LCA results of the Kvaerner CB and H-process concerning air pollution are favourable, too, due to the substitution of conventionally produced carbon black. For transportation processes, pipeline transport turns out to be favourable, closely followed by HVDC. Shipping of liquified hydrogen is unfavourable, due to the high emissions of the ship engines. Substituting the diesel fuel with hydrogen lowers LCA results significantly, but is economically questionable. (orig.)

Finkenwirth, O.; Pehnt, M. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Inst. for Technical Thermodynamics (ITT), Stuttgart (Germany); Marheineke, T. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), Stuttgart (Germany)

2000-07-01

199

Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003–2007 using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01 in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

H. Norouzi

2014-09-01

200

Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work is to inter-compare a number of global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. Ultimately, the discrepancies between the studied emissivity products will help interpreting the divergences among numerical weather prediction models in which land emissivity is a key surface boundary parameter. The intercompared retrieved land emissivity products were generated over five-year period (2003-2007) using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Windsat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity values from four products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to the changes in land surface conditions. Results show that systematic differences among products exist and variation of emissivities at each product has similar frequency dependency at any land cover type. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower across various land cover condition which may be attributed to the 1.30 a.m./p.m. overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analysed products was the lowest (less than 0.01) in rain forest regions for all products and the highest in northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and NDVI values showed similar spatial distribution across the products with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Prigent, C.; Turk, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Tian, Y.; Furuzawa, F.; Masunaga, H.

2014-09-01

201

Assessment of the consistency among global microwave land surface emissivity products  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work is to intercompare four global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. The intercompared land emissivity products were generated over a 5-year period (2003-2007) using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), and WindSat. First, all products were reprocessed in the same projection and spatial resolution as they were generated from sensors with various configurations. Then, the mean value and standard deviations of monthly emissivity values were calculated for each product to assess the spatial distribution of the consistencies/inconsistencies among the products across the globe. The emissivity products were also compared to soil moisture estimates and a satellite-based vegetation index to assess their sensitivities to changes in land surface conditions. Results show the existence of systematic differences among the products. Also, it was noticed that emissivity values in each product have similar frequency dependency over different land-cover types. Monthly means of emissivity values from AMSR-E in the vertical and horizontal polarizations seem to be systematically lower than the rest of the products across various land-cover conditions which may be attributed to the 01:30/13:30 LT overpass time of the sensor and possibly a residual skin temperature effect in the product. The standard deviation of the analyzed products was lowest (less than 0.01) in rain forest regions for all products and highest at northern latitudes, above 0.04 for AMSR-E and SSM/I and around 0.03 for WindSat. Despite differences in absolute emissivity estimates, all products were similarly sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation. The correlation between the emissivity polarization differences and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed similar spatial distribution across the products, with values close to the unit except over densely vegetated and desert areas.

Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Prigent, C.; Turk, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Tian, Y.; Furuzawa, F. A.; Masunaga, H.

2015-03-01

202

Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in reports

203

Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors) in the very near future. (authors)

204

Comparison of the China growth charts with the WHO growth standards in assessing malnutrition of children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To compare the difference between the China growth reference and the WHO growth standards in assessing malnutrition of children under 5?years. Settings The households selected from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China (except Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao). Participants Households were selected by using a stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling. Children under 5?years of age in the selected households were recruited (n=15?886). Primary and secondary outcome measures Underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity. Results According to the China growth reference, the prevalence of underweight (8.7% vs 4.8%), stunting (17.2% vs 16.1%) and wasting (4.4% vs 3%) was significantly higher than that based on the WHO growth standards, respectively (p<0.001); the prevalence of overweight was lower than that based on the WHO growth standards (9.4% vs 10.2%, p<0.001). In most cases, the prevalence of undernutrition assessed by using the China growth reference was significantly higher. However, the prevalence of overweight was significantly lower by using China charts for boys aged 3–4, 6, 8, 10, 12–18 and 24?months. Conclusions The WHO growth standards could be more conservative in undernutrition estimation and more applicable for international comparison for Chinese children. Future researches are warranted for using the WHO growth standards within those countries with local growth charts when there are distinct differences between the two. PMID:25716173

Yang, Zhenyu; Duan, Yifan; Ma, Guansheng; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yin, Shian

2015-01-01

205

Influence of standardized activities on validity of Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC is an observation-based clinical tool that evaluates ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand during bimanual activities. Two validity aspects were investigated: potential bias interaction between prosthesis users and activities performed during assessment, and potential bias interaction between activities and different user characteristics (sex or prosthetic side. Six activities were standardized for the ACMC. Upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis users (47 congenital, 11 acquired; 31 male, 27 female, average age 19.9 yr performed three standardized activities, each on one occasion. Bias-interaction analysis in the many-facet Rasch model identified inconsistent patterns in the interactions of individual users and activity facets and between activities and user characteristics. The standardized activities had no significant influence on measures of user ability. The activities functioned similarly across both sexes (p-value greater than or equal to 0.12 and across both prosthetic sides in persons with upper-limb reduction deficiency (p-value greater than or equal to 0.50 and persons with acquired amputation (p-value greater than or equal to 0.13. The results provide evidence for the validity of the ACMC across the standardized activities and support use of the ACMC in prosthesis users of both sexes and prosthetic sides. The newly standardized activities are recommended for future ACMC use.

Helen Y. N. Lindner, MSc

2014-02-01

206

ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries’ advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries, which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.

Pierre-Yves Renard

2007-11-01

207

Developing standards for malaria microscopy: external competency assessment for malaria microscopists in the Asia-Pacific  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years, associated with the increasing accessibility of accurate diagnosis through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and new World Health Organization guidelines recommending parasite-based diagnosis prior to anti-malarial therapy. However, light microscopy, established over 100 years ago and frequently considered the reference standard for clinical diagnosis, has been neglected in control programmes and in the malaria literature and evidence suggests field standards are commonly poor. Microscopy remains the most accessible method for parasite quantitation, for drug efficacy monitoring, and as a reference of assessing other diagnostic tools. This mismatch between quality and need highlights the importance of the establishment of reliable standards and procedures for assessing and assuring quality. This paper describes the development, function and impact of a multi-country microscopy external quality assurance network set up for this purpose in Asia. Methods Surveys were used for key informants and past participants for feedback on the quality assurance programme. Competency scores for each country from 14 participating countries were compiled for analyses using paired sample t-tests. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants including the programme facilitators and national level microscopists. Results External assessments and limited retraining through a formalized programme based on a reference slide bank has demonstrated an increase in standards of competence of senior microscopists over a relatively short period of time, at a potentially sustainable cost. The network involved in the programme now exceeds 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific, and the methods are extended to other regions. Conclusions While the impact on national programmes varies, it has translated in some instances into a strengthening of national microscopy standards and offers a possibility both for supporting revival of national microcopy programmes, and for the development of globally recognized standards of competency needed both for patient management and field research.

Ashraf Sania

2012-10-01

208

AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

209

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

1993-06-01

210

Contribution to Risk Analysis of a Standard Brewery: Application of a Hygiene Assessment System Survey  

OpenAIRE

"Beer is a food product with a high consumption in Gran Canaria and the brewery industry is also present in this island. In order to carry out this study, it was designed a survey to assist in the assessment of risks from the facilities and infrastructures of the brewery, the raw materials used in the beer production and the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plan.

Raposo, Anto?nio; Salazar, Jairo; Pe?rez, Esteban; Sanjua?n, Esther; Carrascosa, Conrado; Saavedra, Pedro; Milla?n, Rafael

2013-01-01

211

Controlling Product Risks when Consumers are Heterogeneously Overconfident: Producer Liability vs. Minimum Quality Standard Regulation  

OpenAIRE

Contributing to the literature on the consequences of behavioral biases for market outcomes and institutional design, we contrast producer liability and minimum quality standard regulation as alternative means of social control of product-related torts when consumers are heterogeneously overconfident about the risk of harm. We elucidate the role of factors shaping the relative desirability of strict liability vis-à-vis minimum quality standard regulation from a social welfare standpoint. We ...

Baniak, Andrzej; Grajzl, Peter

2014-01-01

212

Assessing the productivity of advanced practice providers using a time and motion study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale is widely used to measure healthcare provider productivity and to set payment standards. The scale, however, is limited in its assessment of pre- and postservice work and other potentially non-revenue-generating healthcare services, what we have termed service-valued activity (SVA). In an attempt to quantify SVA, we conducted a time and motion study of providers to assess their productivity in inpatient and outpatient settings. Using the Standard Time and Motion Procedures checklist as a methodological guide, we provided personal digital assistants (PDAs) that were prepopulated with 2010 Current Procedural Terminology codes to 19 advanced practice providers (APPs). The APPs were instructed to identify their location and activity each time the PDA randomly alarmed. The providers collected data for 3 to 5 workdays, and those data were separated into revenue-generating services (RGSs) and SVAs. Multiple inpatient and outpatient departments were assessed. The inpatient APPs spent 61.6 percent of their time on RGSs and 35.1 percent on SVAs. Providers in the outpatient settings spent 59.0 percent of their time on RGSs and 38.2 percent on SVAs. This time and motion study demonstrated an innovative method and tool for the quantification and analysis of time spent on revenue- and non-revenue-generating services provided by healthcare professionals. The new information derived from this study can be used to accurately document productivity, determine clinical practice patterns, and improve deployment strategies of healthcare providers. PMID:23821897

Ogunfiditimi, Folusho; Takis, Lisa; Paige, Virginia J; Wyman, Janet F; Marlow, Elissa

2013-01-01

213

Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

Denis Helic

2009-10-01

214

Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

M. G. Pereira

2011-10-01

215

Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

Z. Mili?evi?

2012-11-01

216

Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristics to the ISO 12207 activities and vers versa. Results: This study presented a set of comments and suggestions to improve the ISO 9126. Conclusion: The weaknesses of the cross-references between the two ISO standards had been highlighted. In addition, this study provided a number of comments and suggestions to be taken into account on the next version of the ISO 9126 international standard.

Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

2009-01-01

217

Draft Regulatory Analysis. Technical support document No. 1: energy efficiency standards for consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Draft Regulatory Analysis is presented that describes the analyses performed by DOE to arrive at proposed energy efficiency standards for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling only), and furnaces. Standards for dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiders are required to be published in the Federal Register no later than December 1981. Standards for central air conditioners (heat pumps) and home heating equipment are to be published in the Federal Register no later than January 1982. Accordingly, these products are not discussed in this Draft Regulatory Analysis.

None

1980-06-01

218

Neutral Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative extension of the standard model using the Seiberg-Witten map of this to the first order of the noncommutative parameter ???. Unlike the standard model (where the process is forbidden) here the Higgs boson pair directly interacts with the photon. We find that the pair production cross section can be quite significant for the noncommutative scale ? lying in the range 0.5 TeV to 1.0 TeV. Using the experimental (LEP 2, Tevatron, and global electroweak fit) bound on the Higgs mass, we obtain 626 GeV???974 GeV.

219

The series production in a standardized fabrication line for silicide fuels and commercial aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUKEM has been responsible for the development and fabrication of LEU fuel elements for MTR reactors under the frame of the German AF program since 1979. The AF program is part of the international RERTR efforts, which were initiated by the INFCE Group in 1978. This paper describes the actual status of development and the transition from the prototype to the series production in a standardized manufacturing line for silicide fuels at NUKEM. Technical provisions and a customer oriented standardized product range aim at an economized manufacturing. (Author)

220

Development of EMPRO: a tool for the standardized assessment of patient-reported outcome measures.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to develop a tool for the standardized assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to assist the choice of instruments. METHODS: An expert panel adapted the eight attributes proposed by the Medical Outcomes Trust as evaluation review criteria, created items to evaluate them, and included a response scale for each item. A pilot test was designed to test the new tool's feasibility and to obtain preliminary information concerning its psychometric properties. Th...

Valderas, Jm; Ferrer, M.; Mendi?vil, J.; Garin, O.; Rajmil, L.; Herdman, M.; Alonso, J.

2008-01-01

221

Development of standardized inspections in restaurants using visual assessments and microbiological sampling to quantify the risks.  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between visual inspections carried out by environmental health officers and microbiological examination was studied in 89 restaurants. Using 30 variables a standardized inspection procedure was developed and each of the premises was assessed in six main areas-structure and design, cleaning and cleanliness, personal hygiene, risk of contamination, temperature control, and training and knowledge about food hygiene. Selected foods and specimens from hands, surfaces, and wiping c...

Tebbutt, G. M.

1991-01-01

222

A standardized conjugation protocol to assess antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species  

OpenAIRE

Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAMbeta1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laboratory experiments involving five laboratories from different countries. The ultimate goal of the study was to assess the microbial potential of antibiotic resistance transfer among Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB...

Lampkowska, J.; Feld, L.; Monaghan, A.; Toomey, N.; Schjørring, S.; Jacobsen, B.; Voet, H.; Andersen, S. R.; Bolton, D.; Aarts, H. J. M.; Krogfelt, K. A.; Wilcks, A.; Bardowski, J. K.

2008-01-01

223

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in...

Burgoyne Louise; Shanks Andrew; Gaffney Robert; Walshe Nuala; Anthony, Ryan C.; Wiskin Connie M

2010-01-01

224

Photon production assessment for the MCNP trademark data libraries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the Multispectral Neutron Logging project was to estimate minimum detection thresholds for environmental contaminants using nuclear well-logging techniques. The specific method was to identify and quantify contaminants from the discrete photons from thermal neutron capture reactions in the formation. Computer simulations using MCNP4A were used to benchmark the computer code against experimental data, and then to predict minimum detection thresholds for other contaminants. High quality photon-production data for MCNP was required for this project. The goal of this work was to assess photon production at thermal neutron energies. This work was extended to include higher energy neutron reactions, En = 1--14 MeV. Additionally, the assessment was expanded to include all nuclides and not only the contaminants of interest. This report documents the results of the assessment, and makes general recommendations for the user. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of all users to ensure that the data they are using is appropriate for their particular application. This assessment process reinforced the need for higher quality photon-production spectra for use in the Multispectral Neutron Logging project, as well as for other applications

225

World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

2008-09-15

226

OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS OF ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS OF ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The questions addressed to the definition of the objectives and methodology for assessing the quality of information systems (IS have been considered. The ??basic justification motives of assessing the quality of IS at the enterprise have been made. On the basis of analysis of existing metho­do­logies of IS monitoring and control the main aims and objectives of assessing the quality of IS have been defined. The structural model of the quality of IS, based on all IS support subsystems used at an enterprise has been deve­loped. To assess the quality of the exploited or the newly acquired information systems it is proposed to use a methodology, based on the standards, because they enable a comprehensive assessment of the status of all IT-enterprise resources, including personnel, application software, computer equipment, information. The results of the research and the comparative analysis of existing methodologies for monitoring and management of information systems and technologies at an enterprise has shown that the most effective and appropriate methodology for monitoring and evaluating the quality of IS is Cobit methodology, which the authors of this work assumed as a basis for the research. The structure and characteristics of the functional components of the information system, which most accurately describe the actual state of automation of information processing and traditionally used at many enterprises for management purposes have been described. The resulting structure is used to develop a model of assessing the quality of IS. Having determined the quality of each component, one can talk about the quality of IS in general. Thus, it is possible to obtain the adequate data on the state of an enterprise information system to determine its level of compliance with the standards and to evaluate its quality. The results of this work can be used to develop practical methods based on experts estimates, which will adapt the Cobit standard to Ukrainian reality and will allow more objective and fair evaluation of the quality of enterprises' IS. On the ground of the methodology based on standards it is expected to develop a model of information systems quality management at an enterprise, providing two control loops: for the executive director and director of infor­mation technology. This approach will improve the theoretical developments in the field of quality assessment of enterprise information systems and develop a practical methodology for evaluating the quality of IS.

A. Pushkar

2013-12-01

227

Developing Product Quality Control for Standardization of Tsetse Mass Production. Working Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) provides a mechanism within which SIT will be one of the major components of an integrated areawide approach to the establishment of tsetse fly-free areas. Currently world-wide tsetse production is 1/40 of the projected requirement in 2006. To achieve this objective it is essential that quality control (QC) measures suitable for the expanded production be in place. Therefore, improved QC methodology has become a top priority. Improvements in QC methodology will help to ensure the attainment of these production goals and improve quality of rearing, minimize production costs and generate trained QC and production staff required to successfully produce flies and monitor their quality and suitability for release. The proposed CRP is designed to address these issues.

228

Estimating costs of programme services and products using information provided in standard financial statements.  

OpenAIRE

The financial viability of programme services and product offerings requires that revenue exceeds expenses. Revenue includes payments for services and products as well as donor cash and in-kind contributions. Expenses reflect consumption of purchased or contributed time and materials and utilization (depreciation) of physical plant facilities and equipment. Standard financial reports contain this revenue and expense information, complemented when necessary by valuation and accounting of in-ki...

Ellwein, L. B.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Boulter, A. R.; Dhittal, S. P.

1998-01-01

229

DEVELOPING USABLE SOFTWARE PRODUCT USING USABILITY RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Usability is an important factor in ensuring development of quality and usable software product. Ignorance and unawareness about the concept of usability and failure to address usability during software development process has led to usability problems in software product. Many efforts has been suggested in literature to overcome usability problem in software products but current practices faces challenges in reducing these usability problems. Alternatively, the concept of risk management can be used to control usability problems even though these problems cannot be eliminated totally. The concept of risk management is important to deal with usability problem before it occurs. Unfortunately, there is still lack of proper definition of usability risk and a proper model to identify, analyze and prioritize potential usability risk during Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC. This paper presents comprehensive study on the need for Usability Risk Assessment Model to reduce usability problems in software products.

Jayaletchumi T. Sambantha Moorthy

2014-03-01

230

Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

231

Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

1980-01-01

232

Hybrid life-cycle assessment of algal biofuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work is to establish whether algal bio-crude production is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. To this end, an economic multi-regional input-output model of Australia was complemented with engineering process data on algal bio-crude production. This model was used to undertake hybrid life-cycle assessment for measuring the direct, as well as indirect impacts of producing bio-crude. Overall, the supply chain of bio-crude is more sustainable than that of conventional crude oil. The results indicate that producing 1million tonnes of bio-crude will generate almost 13,000 new jobs and 4billion dollars' worth of economic stimulus. Furthermore, bio-crude production will offer carbon sequestration opportunities as the production process is net carbon-negative. PMID:25465782

Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; Ralph, Peter J; Tamburic, Bojan

2015-05-01

233

Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

2010-07-01

234

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlighand aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

235

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle.

Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

2009-01-01

236

Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against labour-intensive production methods and hence against typical developing country exports. In contrast, PCF standards and schemes did not discriminate against products from distant countries, since emissions from long-distance transport were not treated differently from those generated by other activities in the product life cycle. (author)

Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

2009-12-15

237

Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

Coggins, J.L.

1979-12-14

238

Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

239

Towards a Quantitative Performance Measurement Framework to Assess the Impact of Geographic Information Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decennia, the use of Geographic Information (GI) has gained importance, in public as well as in private sector. But even if many spatial data and related information exist, data sets are scattered over many organizations and departments. In practice it remains difficult to find the spatial data sets needed, and to access, obtain and prepare them for using in applications. Therefore Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) haven been developed to enhance the access, the use and sharing of GI. SDIs consist of a set of technological and non-technological components to reach this goal. Since the nineties many SDI initiatives saw light. Ultimately, all these initiatives aim to enhance the flow of spatial data between organizations (users as well as producers) involved in intra- and inter-organizational and even cross-country business processes. However, the flow of information and its re-use in different business processes requires technical and semantic interoperability: the first should guarantee that system components can interoperate and use the data, while the second should guarantee that data content is understood by all users in the same way. GI-standards within the SDI are necessary to make this happen. However, it is not known if this is realized in practice. Therefore the objective of the research is to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impact of GI-standards on the performance of business processes. For that purpose, indicators are defined and tested in several cases throughout Europe. The proposed research will build upon previous work carried out in the SPATIALIST project. It analyzed the impact of different technological and non-technological factors on the SDI-performance of business processes (Dessers et al., 2011). The current research aims to apply quantitative performance measurement techniques - which are frequently used to measure performance of production processes (Anupindi et al., 2005). Key to reach the research objectives is a correct design of the test cases. The major challenge is: to set-up the analytical framework for analyzing the impact of GI-standards on the process performance, to define the appropriate indicators and to choose the right test cases. In order to do so, it is proposed to define the test cases as 8 pairs of organizations (see figure). The paper will present the state of the art of performance measurement in the context of work processes, propose a series of SMART indicators for describing the set-up and measure the performance, define the test case set-up and suggest criteria for the selection of the test cases, i.e. the organizational pairs. References Anupindi, R., Chopra, S., Deshmukh, S.D., Van Mieghem, J.A., & Zemel, E. (2006). Managing Business Process Flows: Principles of Operations Management. New-Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. Dessers, D., Crompvoets, J., Janssen, K., Vancauwenberghe, G., Vandenbroucke, D. & Vanhaverbeke, L. (2011). SDI at work: The Spatial Zoning Plans Case. Leuven, Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Vandenbroucke, D.; Van Orshoven, J.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

2012-12-01

240

Current methodology to assess bioequivalence of levothyroxine sodium products is inadequate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levothyroxine sodium is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index for which an individual patient must have his or her dose carefully titrated to achieve the necessary therapeutic effect. In addition, exogenous levothyroxine cannot be distinguished from the endogenously produced hormone. Since 2004, generic formulations have been approved for the most frequently prescribed brands of levothyroxine sodium. This review examines the methodology and statistical acceptance criteria and summarizes findings of a previously published relative bioavailability study that brings into question the use of standard criteria to assess bioequivalence of levothyroxine sodium. The key findings reviewed were the following: (1) in the absence of baseline correction for endogenous T4 levels, products that differed by as much as 25% to 33% would be declared bioequivalent; (2) the use of baseline correction reduced the likelihood of declaring products bioequivalent when they actually differed by 25% to 33%; (3) even with baseline correction, products that differed by 12.5% would be declared bioequivalent; and (4) there was evidence of significant carryover from one dosing period to the next even with washout periods of up to 53 days. In conclusion, the current recommended methodology in the United States to assess bioequivalence for levothyroxine sodium products is inadequate to differentiate products that differ by 12.5%, a clinically relevant difference. Recommendations are made for modifications to the criteria that could improve the likelihood that products that differ by a clinically significant amount in their bioavailability would not be accepted as bioequivalent. PMID:16146348

Blakesley, Vicky A

2005-01-01

241

Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (beef and lamb in the urban region of Pisa, a medium-sized Italian city. The capacity of periurban livestock farms for meat production to fulfil urban demand was assessed on the basis of meat supply and demand. We derived meat demand from statistical data, whereas we calculated meat supply on the basis of three estimates (i.e. potential, current, actual meat supply taking into account both statistical and on-farm survey data. In particular, the potential meat supply was estimated from statistical data on slaughtered livestock, the current meat supply was estimated from meat production data of on-farm surveys, while the actual meat supply was estimated from the amount of meat sold by farmers on the local market from onfarm surveys. For the urban region of Pisa, we estimated that the potential meat supply met is equal to 16% of the beef demand and 62% of the lamb demand. This data could change, if the on-farm data is taken into account in the current supply, as was the case with lamb, which decreased to 37%, whereas beef remained almost unchanged (14%. The actual supply was 70% and 10% of the current supply for beef and lamb respectively. We identified some gaps between the three estimates, particularly for lamb production, suggesting that it may have some constraints in terms of production and commercialisation. Our results can contribute to assess local food systems and their drivers at the farm level. Furthermore these results also highlight the need for an agronomical approach to food systems based on the analysis of farm activities located in periurban areas in order to quantify the food supply that is actually produced for the local market. Food planning policies, as well as studies at the local level, could take advantage from this method.

Rosalia Filippini

2014-04-01

242

Capturing Tacit Knowledge for Assessing Employees' Competency and Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Organization has to evaluate the competencies of their workers to improve organizational productivity. However, this is difficult because organizations have difficulties to capture and retain knowledge especially tacit knowledge of their employees. Approach: The study reviewed selected literature on management knowledge and employers competencies. It also reviewed existing frameworks in knowledge management focusing on the capturing and storing tacit knowledge. Results: Results of this study will include theoretical concept for capturing tacit knowledge and storing them besides developing a model for measuring employee?s competencies in the organization. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study contributes in assessing knowledge workers performance to improve their productivity in an organization.

M. A. Jabar

2011-01-01

243

Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

2013-01-01

244

Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

245

W / Z + heavy flavor production and the standard model Higgs searches at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Searches for the Standard Model Higgs in WH and H {yields} WW channels by CDF and D0 collaborations are presented. The preliminary results are based on < 180 pb{sup -1} of data analyzed by each experiment. Important backgrounds to Higgs searches, such as heavy flavor production in association with massive vector bosons (W and Z) are studied in the process.

Choi, S.Y.; /UC, Riverside

2004-08-01

246

Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

Figy, Terrance [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Palmer, Sophy [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). IThP; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2010-12-15

247

Production and decay of the standard model Higgs boson at LEP200  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collect and update theoretical predictions for the production rate and decay branching fractions of the Standard Model Higgs boson that will be relevant for the Higgs search at LEP200. We make full use of the present knowledge of radiative corrections. We estimate the systematics arising from theoretical and experimental uncertainties. (orig.)

248

Review of central exclusive production of the Higgs boson beyond the Standard Model.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 29, ?. 28 (2014), "1446012-1"-"1446012-21". ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LHC * Higgs boson * central exclusive production * beyond Standard Model * forward detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.086, year: 2013

Taševský, Marek

2014-01-01

249

Review of central exclusive production of the Higgs boson beyond the Standard Model  

Science.gov (United States)

We review activities in the field of theoretical, phenomenological and experimental studies related to the production of the Higgs boson in central exclusive processes at LHC in models beyond Standard Model. Prospects in the context of the Higgs boson discovery at LHC in 2012 and of proposals to build forward proton detectors at ATLAS and CMS side are summarized.

Taševský, Marek

2014-11-01

250

An update on GOSAT standard products at five-and-a-half years after the launch  

Science.gov (United States)

GOSAT has been operated more than 5.5 years after its launch on January 23, 2009. Receiving TANSO-FTS Level 1A/1B data and TANSO-CAI Level 1A data from JAXA (FTS: Fourier Transform Spectrometer; CAI: Cloud and Aerosol Imager, JAXA: Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has provided various kinds of Standard data products such as FTS SWIR Level 2 (XCO2 and XCH4: column concentrations of CO2 and CH4), FTS TIR Level 2 (vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 concentration), FTS Level 4A (global CO2 flux), FTS Level 4B (global CO2 distribution), CAI Level 1B/1B+, and CAI Level 2 (cloud flag). After the latest updates of FTS Level 1 products to V161.160 (Version 161.160) by JAXA in 2013, now FTS SWIR Level 2 products are available as V02.21 (Version 02.21) for the entire period from April 2009 to May 2014. In March 2014, FTS Level 4 products of CO2 (V02.02) were processed with FTS Level 2 (V02.21) for the period of June 2009 to October 2011. FTS Level 4 products of CH4 (V01.01) were newly added to the Standard products and are available for 2 years from June 2009. FTS TIR Level 2 products (V01.0x) were updated in August 2014 and delivered to general users for 2.5 years from January 2010. There were some minor changes in their data format. After improving product search functions with an interactive map operation in GUIG (GUIG: GOSAT User Interface Gateway), general users are able to find and download these Standard products for their concerning area much easily.

Ajiro, Masataka; Kawazoe, Fumie; Yokota, Tatsuya

2014-11-01

251

Comparison Of eMODIS And Standard MODIS NDVI Products For Alaska And Adjacent Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite observations of Alaska’s land surface characteristics are important in global change studies because of the vastness and remoteness of the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor provides high temporal resolution images, which are very useful for monitoring important environmental changes in Alaska. However, image distortions and other quality concerns in high latitude regions pose problems and limit the utility of standard MODIS products. To improve MODIS data utility, the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) produced an “eMODIS” data set that includes 7-day composites of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and associated surface reflectance at 250-m, 500-m, and 1-km resolutions for the conterminous United States and Alaska. Although the eMODIS products are processed from the same MODIS level-1B data as the standard MODIS products, enhanced algorithms improve their usefulness. In this study, sampled images of eMODIS and standard MODIS 250-m NDVI products were compared with 15-m resolution NDVI images derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of Alaska and adjacent Canada. The study demonstrates that standard MODIS NDVI images contain serious geometric distortions caused by remapping the images into and out of sinusoidally projected tiles. The new image product, eMODIS NDVI, shows significant improvements in the geometric features because the product is mapped directly from the original swath data. Regression and agreement analyses between MODIS NDVIs vs. the ASTER NDVI show that the eMODIS NDVI data have a lower unsystematic difference (i.e., random error), which is likely because of reduced eMODIS image noise. Pixel-by-pixel comparisons of the two MODIS data sets indicate that eMODIS NDVI data retained the original MODIS radiometric characteristics. We conclude that the eMODIS products offer improved image quality and preserved original spectral characteristics employed in our Alaskan vegetation investigations.

Ji, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ramachandran, B.; Jenkerson, C.

2009-12-01

252

Assessment of Potential Milk Production of Chinese Hesitan  

OpenAIRE

This study was aimed to assess a potentiality of milk production for a recently established dairy farm. A total of 201 Chinese Hesitan cows and 21 calves were raised in stall feeding system. The cows were respectively divided into area A (lactating only), B (late pregnant only), C (early pregnant only) and D (calves only). The study period lasted for 60 days which initially involved only 19 lactating cows and ended with 102 lactating cows. Physical observation of daily milk collection (twice ...

Abdullahi, A. Y.; Yang, J. B.

2012-01-01

253

Assessing the productivity function of soils. A review  

OpenAIRE

The development and survival or disappearance of civilizations has been based on the performance of soils to provide food, fibre, and further essential goods for humans. Amongst soil functions, the capacity to produce plant biomass (productivity function) remains essential. This function is closely associated with the main global issues of the 21st century like food security, demands of energy and water, carbon balance and climate change. A standardised methodology for assessing the productiv...

Mueller, Lothar; Schindler, Uwe; Mirschel, Wilfried; Graham Shepherd, T.; Ball, Bruce C.; Helming, Katharina; Rogasik, Jutta; Eulenstein, Frank; Wiggering, Hubert

2010-01-01

254

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of milk production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Milk is one of the most important food products in human nutrition. Consequently, the environmental impact of its production is of high relevance. This topic is especially important for Switzerland, where 70 % of the agricultural area is covered by grassland, which can be exploited only by ruminants, and where milk contributes 24 % of the economic output of agriculture (2008). In the present study, the environmental impact of Swiss milk production was assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories as non-renewable energy demand (NRED), global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP) as well as terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity potential (TEP and AEP) were investigated in detail. Over two years, data from 66 dairy farms of very different sizes and production types with conventional and organic farming systems in different regions were analysed. The environmental impacts per kg milk varied widely. A great number of positions (the most important being purchase of foodstuff, animal emissions - first enteric methane emissions and ammonia emissions in stable, and then by manure spreading, fertilisers, energy carriers, infrastructure - and pesticides) play a role in the environmental impact. With the exception of the non-use of pesticides for the production of feedstuff in organic farming and the significantly higher values for NRED and GWP of farms in the mountain region compared to farms in the plain region, there is no correlation between the farming systems, the production region or the production volume with the environmental impact analysed. Consequently, the present study shows the importance of the individual decisions of the farmers. For the future, we need to investigate in a very detailed way those milk farms which succeeded in all environmental impacts, in order to clearly understand the rationale behind the observed success, rather than try to find better correlations to explain respectively to justify the good or bad environmental results of milk farms.

Gaillard, Gerard; Alig, Martina; Mieleitner, Johanna [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon ART, Zurich (Switzerland)

2011-07-01

255

Towards a life cycle sustainability assessment: making informed choices on products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this introduction to the concept of life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), we acknowledge the foundations laid by previous works and initiatives. One such initiative has been the ISO 14040 series (Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework), which in addition to the ISO 26000: Social Responsibility Guidance Standard, and the contribution of a number of international initiatives (Appendix A) have been essential for the development of this publication. The life cycle of a product involves flows of material, energy and money. Nonetheless, the picture is not complete unless we look also at the production and consumption impacts on all actors along the 'value chain' -- workers, local communities, consumers and society itself. Different life cycle assessment techniques allow individuals and enterprises to assess the impact of their purchasing decisions and production methods along different aspects of this value chain. An (Environmental) life cycle assessment (LCA) looks at potential impacts to the environment as a result of the extraction of resources, transportation, production, use, recycling and discarding of products; life cycle costing (LCC) is used to assess the cost implications of this life cycle; and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) examines the social consequences. However, in order to get the 'whole picture', it is vital to extend current life cycle thinking to encompass all three pillars of sustainability: (i) environmental, (ii) economic and (iii) social. This means carrying out an assessment based on environmental, economic and social issues -- by conducting an overarching life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA). This publication shows how all three techniques -- which all share similar methodological frameworks and aims -- can be combined to make the move towards an overarching LCSA possible. Because it is holistic, systemic and rigorous, (environmental) LCA is the preferred technique when it comes to compiling and assessing information about potential environmental impacts of a product. It has been standardized in the ISO 14040 and 14044 and is applied by practitioners globally. Life cycle costing as a technique to calculate and manage costs, especially for large investments has been used to support decision-makers in procurement for decades, with a rigorous focus on private costs. Prerequisites for better alignment with (environmental) LCA are currently being researched and will help the further development of the method. As an emerging technique, S-LCA will play a key role in complementing material- and energy-flow-related information. Since the late 1990s, the Life Cycle Initiative partnership of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has enhanced the role of life cycle based approaches and thinking in several ways. Two examples are the partnership's contributions to the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and inputs for the development of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP). This current publication, Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, expands this work by bringing the concept of LCSA methods to the fore. In doing so, it will contribute to the sustainable development discussions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Summit) in 2012 ('Rio+20'). The text will also contribute to the UNEP Green Economy Initiative -- which strives to build economies that bring improved human well-being, reduce inequalities over the long term and which keep future generations safe from environmental risk and ecological scarcity. The publication includes eight case studies to illustrate how current and emerging life cycle assessment techniques are being implemented worldwide from Asia through Europe and Latin America.

Ciroth, Andreas [GreenDeltaTC, Berlin (Germany); Finkbeiner, Matthias; Traverso, Marzia [TU Berlin (Germany); Hildenbrand, Jutta [Chalmers University (United States); Kloepffer, Walter [Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (Germany); Mazijn, Bernard [Ghent University (Belgium); Prakash, Siddharth [Oeko-Institut (Germany); Sonnemann, Guido; Valdivia, Sonia [UNEP (France); Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie [Technological Federal University of Parana, ACV (Brazil); Vickery-Niederman, Gina [University of Arkansas (United States)

2011-07-01

256

Multi-Higgs boson production in the Standard Model and beyond  

CERN Document Server

We present a calculation of the loop-induced processes gg -> HH and gg -> HHH, and investigate the observability of multi-Higgs boson production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. While the SM cross sections are too small to allow observation at the LHC, we demonstrate that physics beyond the SM can lead to amplified, observable cross sections. Furthermore, the applicability of the heavy top quark approximation in two- and three-Higgs boson production is investigated. We conclude that multi-Higgs boson production at the SuperLHC is an interesting probe of Higgs sectors beyond the SM and warrants further study.

Binoth, T; Kauer, N; Rückl, R

2006-01-01

257

Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1. promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. LCA Center Denmark was presented at the SETAC Europe conference in Hamburg in 2003 where it had just been launched. This presentation will follow up on the progress and activities of the center and report from an independent evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cyclethinking in industry will be presented.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; RØpke, Inge

2004-01-01

258

Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering.

Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie

2014-01-01

259

Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering. PMID:24905856

Nielsen, Morten T; Madsen, Karina M; Seppälä, Susanna; Christensen, Ulla; Riisberg, Lone; Harrison, Scott J; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Nørholm, Morten H H

2015-03-20

260

Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

2015-02-01

261

Trilepton production at the CERN LHC: SUSY Signals and Standard Model Backgrounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Events with three or more isolated leptons in the final state are known to be signatures of new physics phenomena at high energy collider physics facilities. Standard model sources of isolated trilepton final states include gauge boson pair production such as W Z and W?*, and t(bar)t production. We demonstrate that leptons from heavy flavor decays, such as b ? l X and c ? l X, provide sources of trileptons that can be orders-of-magnitude larger after cuts than other standard model backgrounds to new physics processes. We explain the physical reason heavy flavor backgrounds survive isolation cuts. We propose new cuts to control the backgrounds in the specific case of chargino plus neutralino pair production in supersymmetric models. After these cuts are imposed, we show that it should be possible to find at least a 4 sigma excess for supersymmetry parameter space point LM9 with 30 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. (author)

262

Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from their widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from the literature review is carried out. The following section of the chapter discusses some practices and approaches that should beconsidered when performing cereal-based LCAs in order to achieve the best possible results. Conclusions are drawn in the final part of the chapter and some indications are given of the main hot spots in the cereal supply chain.

Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo

2015-01-01

263

Exposure dose assessment and discussion on radioisotope production and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposure dose status on radioisotope production on application in China has been assessed in the paper. The average annual occupational exposure dose received by workers in the radioisotope production is about one tenth of the annual dose limit in normal situation. It less than one twentieth for workers in the radioisotope applications. However, the annual collective dose for the latter is higher than the former by one oder magnitude due to the larger number of workers in the application field. Although the output of radioisotopes increased doubly in 1980's as compared with 1970's the increase on the annual collective dose was not obivous. For exposure to the public, 131I for example, the collective dose in the radioisotope production decreased by one to two orders of magnitude and the releasing factor reduced by two orders of magnitude. Therefore, the exposure dose received by workers in radioisotope production and application is lower in normal situation. However, the facts worth paying attention to are that there were many events and accidents which happened in the radioisotope applications, especially at the irradiation facilities. The probability of fatal accident was as high as 10-3 per irradiator year. In order to improve the radiation safety situation, it is imperative to conduct the safety assessment for irradiation facilities, to enhance management of the radioactive wastes and spent sources and to establish the experience feedback and to establish the experience feedback system. (author). 23 refs., 8 tabs

264

Development of an ASTM standard guide on performing vulnerability assessment for nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes an effort undertaken by subcommittee C26.12 (Safeguards) of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop a standard guide for performing vulnerability assessments (VAs). VAs are performed to determine the effectiveness of safeguards and security systems for both domestic and international nuclear facilities. These assessments address a range of threats, including theft of nuclear material and sabotage, and use an array of methods. The approach to performing and documenting VAs is varied and is largely dependent upon the tools used to perform them. Ibis diversity can lead to tools being misused, making validation of VAs more difficult. The development of a standard guide for performing VAs would, if generally accepted, alleviate these concerns. ASTM provides a forum for developing guides that includes a high level of peer review to assure that the result is acceptable to all potential users. Additionally, the ASTM is widely recognized for setting standards, and endorsement by the Society may increase the likelihood of acceptance by the nuclear community. The goal of this work is to develop a guide that is independent of the tools being used to perform the VA and applicable to the spectrum of threats described above

265

Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s. It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish a reference standard of children’s competence to consent, combined with validation of an assessment instrument. Results can facilitate responsible involvement of children in clinical trials by further development of guidelines, health-care policies and legal policies.

Hein Irma M

2012-09-01

266

Implementing a standardized community-based cardiovascular risk assessment program in 20 Ontario communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to describe the implementation of the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program (CHAP) in 20 mid-sized communities across Ontario, Canada, and identify key factors in the successful multi-site delivery of a collaborative cardiovascular risk assessment and management program. Lead organizations were identified and contracted following a request for proposals. An Implementation Guide detailed steps in community mobilization and delivery of volunteer-led pharmacy-based cardiovascular risk assessment sessions. Process data were collected through final reports; a debriefing meeting; and interviews with program staff. All 20 communities successfully implemented CHAP. Overall, 99% (338/341) of family physicians agreed to receive assessment results and 89% (129/145) of pharmacies held sessions. Five hundred and seventy-seven volunteers conducted 27,358 risk assessments for 15,889 unique participants. Essential program components were consistently included, however, variations in materials, processes and support occurred. Factors in program success included: local expertise, centralized support, identification and engagement of local physician and pharmacist opinion leaders and a balance of standardization and flexibility. Monitoring delivery of a multi-community cardiovascular risk assessment program yielded key factors in program success to inform development of a sustainable and transferable model. PMID:19819896

Carter, Megan; Karwalajtys, Tina; Chambers, Larry; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Dolovich, Lisa; Gierman, Tracy; Cross, Dana; Laryea, Stephanie

2009-12-01

267

Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

2010-01-01

268

ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED STRAW PULP AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new, straw-based fibre manufacturing technology integrated to bioenergy and biofuels production. The process is based on a novel hot water treatment and subsequent mechanical refining, both of which are performed at a high temperature. Soda process, ethanol production, and chemical defibration based on hot water treatment and subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching were selected as references. The idea is to utilise the fibre fraction for packaging and the dissolved solids and the formed fines for energy. The investment costs of this process are significantly lower than those of a soda process. Additionally, a chemicals recovery process is unnecessary. Furthermore, the process offers an attractive alternative for biogas production. However, the assessment showed that the process could only be economical in some terms. Subsidies for investment would probably be needed to promote the acceptance of this environmentally safe process.

Anja Paula Maria Leponiemi

2011-04-01

269

Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

1996-07-01

270

Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

2009-12-01

271

Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories to include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques. It illustrates a Danish example of establishing data of such reference systems. Finally, it provides an overview of approaches used to estimate emissions based on knowledge of manure composition throughout the stages of the livestock production system.

Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

2011-01-01

272

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and compeasy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

273

Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyzffects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

274

Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are also exploring the Global Change Information System ontology, BCO-DMO Ocean Data Ontology, and other relevant published ontologies (e.g., Integrated Ocean Observing System ontology). We are also using the mapping of ISO 19115-2 Lineage to PROV-O and comparing both strategies for traceability of marine ecosystem indicators. The use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR will enable the transparency, and ultimately reproducibility, endorsed in the recent NOAA Information Quality Guidelines. Semantically enabling not only the provenance but also the data products will yield a better understanding of the connected web of relationships between marine ecosystem and ocean health assessments conducted by different stakeholder groups.

Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

2013-12-01

275

Assessments on energy and efficiency calibration of an alpha spectrometry system using standard sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies and evaluations of the main parameters of a high resolution multi-chamber alpha spectrometer and its full calibration using standard sources of 241Am, 233U and 244Cm are presented for the validation of the complex method of characterization of an alpha spectrometer dedicated for alpha radioactive concentration measurements of various environmental samples. The resolution and efficiency were determined at all possible source-detector distances for all eight solid state ORTEC ULTRA-AS detectors. In addition, the solid angles associated to different measurement geometries and the repeatability of the results were assessed. A detailed inter-comparison of the results was performed drawing important conclusions regarding the quality of the alpha detector response to the alpha radiation of the standard sources used in measurements. (author)

276

Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

Majerus Steve

2009-07-01

277

National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

278

Incurred sample accuracy assessment: design of experiments based on standard addition.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is commonly acknowledged that random and systematic analytical errors contribute to poor data quality, and moreover, to imprecise and inaccurate pharmacokinetic parameters. To investigate the random errors in GLP bioanalysis, common ground has been found in today's bioanalysis to assess the reproducibility of the method by reanalyzing part of the incurred samples. The undesired systematic errors in bioanalysis affecting the trueness of the method and leading to inaccurate data remain relatively unattended so far. In order to obtain both precise and accurate data it is suggested in this paper to apply standard addition experiments to calculate the relative systematic errors as an estimate for the incurred sample accuracy. This approach, which can be seen as an important extension to current guidelines in GLP bioanalysis, is illustrated by assessing the accuracy of the bioanalytical results for a bioequivalence study for alendronate. PMID:21545346

de Boer, Theo; Wieling, Jaap

2011-05-01

279

Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. PMID:20153167

Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

2010-06-01

280

Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products. PMID:25249274

Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

2015-01-01

281

The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To assess the extent and nature of claims regarding improved sports performance made by advertisers for a broad range of sports-related products, and the quality of the evidence on which these claims are based. Methods The authors analysed magazine adverts and associated websites of a broad range of sports products. The authors searched for references supporting the performance and/or recovery claims of these products. The authors critically appraised the methods in the retrieved references by assessing the level of evidence and the risk of bias. The authors also collected information on the included participants, adverse events, study limitations, the primary outcome of interest and whether the intervention had been retested. Results The authors viewed 1035 web pages and identified 431 performance-enhancing claims for 104 different products. The authors found 146 references that underpinned these claims. More than half (52.8%) of the websites that made performance claims did not provide any references, and the authors were unable to perform critical appraisal for approximately half (72/146) of the identified references. None of the references referred to systematic reviews (level 1 evidence). Of the critically appraised studies, 84% were judged to be at high risk of bias. Randomisation was used in just over half of the studies (58.1%), allocation concealment was only clear in five (6.8%) studies; and blinding of the investigators, outcome assessors or participants was only clearly reported as used in 20 (27.0%) studies. Only three of the 74 (2.7%) studies were judged to be of high quality and at low risk of bias. Conclusions The current evidence is not of sufficient quality to inform the public about the benefits and harms of sports products. There is a need to improve the quality and reporting of research, a move towards using systematic review evidence to inform decisions. PMID:22815461

Howick, Jeremy; O'Neill, Braden; Gill, Peter J; Lasserson, Daniel S; Cohen, Deborah; Davis, Ruth; Ward, Alison; Smith, Adam; Jones, Greg; Thompson, Matthew

2012-01-01

282

Estimation and comparison of effective dose (E) in standard chest CT by organ dose measurements and dose-length-product methods and assessment of the influence of CT tube potential (energy dependency) on effective dose in a dual-source CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The dual-energy protocol delivers the lowest effective dose of the investigated protocols for standard chest CT examinations, thus enabling functional imaging (like dual-energy perfusion) and can produce weighted images without dose penalty. ? The high-pitch protocol goes along with a 16% increase in dose compared to the standard 120 kV protocol and thus should preferably be used in pediatric, acute care settings (e.g. pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and the like) or restless patients. ? The difference in effective dose estimates between ICRP 60 and 103 is minimal. ? Tube potential definitely has an effect on estimates of effective dose. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine effective dose (E) during standard chest CT using an organ dose-based and a dose-length-product-based (DLP) approach for four different scan protocols including high-pitch and dual-energy in a dual-source CT scanner of the second generation. Materials and methods: Organ doses were measured with thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) in an anthropomorphic male adult phantom. Further, DLP-based dose estimates were performed by using the standard 0.014 mSv/mGycm conversion coefficient k. Examinations were performed on a dual-source CT system (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens). Four scan protocols were investigated: (1) single-source 120 kV, (2) single-source 100 kV, (3) high-pitch 120 kV, and (4) dual-energy with 100/Sn140 kV with equivalent CTDIvol and no automated tube currenDIvol and no automated tube current modulation. E was then determined following recommendations of ICRP publication 103 and 60 and specific k values were derived. Results: DLP-based estimates differed by 4.5–16.56% and 5.2–15.8% relatively to ICRP 60 and 103, respectively. The derived k factors calculated from TLD measurements were 0.0148, 0.015, 0.0166, and 0.0148 for protocol 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for single-energy and dual-energy protocols show a difference of less than 0.04 mSv. Conclusion: Estimates of E based on DLP work equally well for single-energy, high-pitch and dual-energy CT examinations. The tube potential definitely affects effective dose in a substantial way. Effective dose estimations by ICRP 103 and 60 for both single-energy and dual-energy examinations differ not more than 0.04 mSv.

283

The broiler chicken as a model for immunotoxicity assessment. 1. Standardization of in vitro immunological assays.  

Science.gov (United States)

The broiler chicken was developed as an alternative animal model to laboratory rodents for immunotoxicologic assessment. In vivo treatment with 100-200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CY) was used as a known immunosuppressive treatment to standardize the assay systems. Protocols for assessing specific immunological functions were developed in specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers to measure lymphocyte blastogenesis to T-cell (concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin) and B-cell (Staphylococcus aureus cells) mitogens, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to tuberculin, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and serum antibody titers to SRBC. CY was an effective immunosuppressant in the broiler system for assessment of lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogenic stimulation, DTH reactivity, and the antibody response to SRBC as assessed by PFC and serum antibody titers. NK cytotoxicity was not altered on a cellular level following treatment with CY at a dose that produced greater than 75% depletion of spleen cellularity. However, under these conditions, it must be assumed that the capacity of CY-treated birds to mediate NK effector functions would be reduced. These results demonstrate the applicability of the broiler chicken as an animal model for immunotoxicity testing. PMID:2787254

Baecher-Steppan, L; Nakaue, H S; Matsumoto, M; Gainer, J H; Kerkvliet, N I

1989-05-01

284

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

Precision measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC will be presented. Measurements of production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative QCD in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of the interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the LHC.

Vincter, M; The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

285

A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of these studies was twofold: - firstly to check the safety level of the French units in the international context. - secondly, and considerably more importantly, to develop an additional resource for help in decision-making, allowing assessment of the relative impact of modifications to installations or procedures and to detect, once again in relative terms, any weak points. The importance of this second objective is of course greatly increased by the fact that the French nuclear facilities are standardized. When probabilistic safety studies are mentioned, emphasis is frequently placed on the first objective. Although it may be reassuring to find that the French power plants are well placed internationally, the absolute values indicated by the different probabilistic assessments are too dependent on the domain covered, the techniques implemented and the data used for it to be possible to make comparisons of safety levels on the basis of global results alone. On the other hand, the use of probabilistic safety assessments can provide interesting insights towards relative comparison approaches offering the greatest improvements in safety. In this respect, it is encouraging to find that the design of the 1300 MWe series represents an overall improvement over that of the 900 MWe series. The two studies which have been carried out must not be seen as an end, but as a way forward. Furthermore, it is possible to improve and add to them. This opens up two lines of action for the French safety organizations in the field of probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, the latter plan to use the probabilistic safety assessments to help in the following fields: - grading safety problems and identifying any weak points; for instance, in carrying out the two assessments, two outage accident sequences were revealed whose relative importance had been underestimated. The international community has been kept well informed about them, - making periodic safety reassessments (earned out every ten years in France): this essentially consists of making a more quantitative assessment of the

286

Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods?The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to screen for specialists. A social science survey was adopted, and 119 specialists were selected composing 98 specialists in recruitment of pilots and 21 aviation medical clinicians. A total of 359 standard items were evaluated for suitability approval, and then the reliability of evaluation results was analyzed. The final step was the formation of criteria for final judgment. The worthiness of the items was based on the specialists' opinions. When a certain item was deemed suitable by more than 80% of the specialists, it was considered as appropriate, and when a certain item was deemed suitable by less than 60% of the specialists, it was not appropriate. Results?A total of 134 survey brochures were sent out, and 128 out of 134 were retrieved. The positive index of specialist participation was 0.95, and the authority index was 0.86. 271 (75.5% of the 359 items were generally accepted by specialists as appropriate, and 27 (7.5% items were not accepted. Most of these rejected items involved function evaluation, the concept and essence of which could not be easily grasped. Conclusions?Although the majority of the items in the physical examination standards were deemed appropriate by the specialists, there were a few items not accepted. These standards should be revised after being applied in the future.

Zhi-gang JIAO

2012-03-01

287

Criteria of an Advanced Assessment of the Reclamation Process Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclamation of spent moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of used moulding refractory materials, enabling a recoveryof at least one of the components - of properties similar to the ones of the fresh component - and its reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied for each type of moulding sands and reclaims. The most important criteria of the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials, which should be used, in order to determine the reclamation degree of spent moulding sands originated from the most often used foundry technologies, are presented in the hereby paper.

J. Da?ko

2010-07-01

288

Environmental life cycle assessment of bioethanol production from wheat straw  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethanol produced from lignocelluloses is expected to make a major contribution on transportation fuel markets. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was carried out to assess the environmental burdens of ethanol production from wheat straw and its use as ethanol blend fuels. Two ethanol based fuel E15 (a mixture of 15% ethanol and 85% petrol by volume) and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% petrol by volume) were assessed and results were compared to those of conventional petrol (PT) in 1 km driven by an equivalent car. The environmental performance was studied using ReCiPe methodology and includes global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, water depletion and fossil depletion. The results show that, compared to petrol, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are lower for ethanol blends, with a 73% reduction for an E85-fuelled car and 13% reduction with E15. A modest savings of 40% in fossil depletion was also found when using E85 and 15% when using E15. Similar results are also observed for ozone depletion. The findings highlight a number of environmental issues such as acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity and water depletion for which areas ethanol blend use does not offer any advantages compared with petrol. A further analysis of ethanol production at well to gate level helps identify the key areas in the ethanol production life cycle. The results indicate where effort needs to be placed to improve the technology performance and process design which can help in lowering the environmental impacts in the whole life cycle. -- Highlights: ? The paper examines environmental impact of two ethanol blend fuel from wheat straw. ? Reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel can be achieved by ethanol blend fuel. ? Ethanol blend fuel has disadvantage in environmental issues such as water use. ? We show significant environmental impacts occur during the prehydrolysis phase. ? The use of sulphuric acid, steam and electricity is identified as the main source.

289

Top Pair Production at Hadron Colliders in non-minimal Standard Models  

OpenAIRE

The cross section of top pair production in hadronic collisions to O(alpha \\alpha_s^2) is calculated within the General 2-Higgs-Doublet Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. At the parton level the O(alpha) one-loop corrections to the main production mechanisms, quark-antiquark annihilation and gluon fusion, significantly modify the Born-cross sections: in the threshold region \\sqrt{\\hat s}>~2 m_t they are enhanced up to 50 % and with increasing cm energy \\sqr...

Hollik, W.; Moesle, W. M.; Wackeroth, D.

1997-01-01

290

Wireless networks. Standard ZigBee (on the example of products of Atmel Corp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The situation and prospects of wireless radio receivers and radio transmitters which use standard ZigBee is examined in this work. The specification of ZigBee is developed on the base of international standard of IEEE 802.15.4 for creation inexpensive wireless networks for transmission small amount of information with low-power consumption. Main feature of ZigBee is support of not only simple topologies of wireless connection but also difficult wireless networks at relatively low energy consumption. Products of company Atmel have the best support of ZigBee technology. ZigBee is used in the industrial monitoring systems, in a medical equipment, can be integrated in the systems of production process automation.

O. M. Lyashuk

2011-03-01

291

Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate ofrom the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

292

Validation of the exposure assessment for veterinary medicinal products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the EU Directive 2004/28/EC, an environmental risk assessment of new veterinary medicinal products is required. Given the nature of risk assessment for new applications, there is a need to model exposure concentrations. Critical evaluations are essential to ensure that the use of models by regulators does not result in the propagation of misleading information. The empirical validations of soil exposure models, previously discussed in this journal, indicate that it is impossible to analyse the contribution of every model parameter to the variability in the predictions. In particular, the prediction of the slurry concentration is challenged by uncertainties concerning dilution, mixing and dissipation of residues. Surface water and groundwater models generated highly deviating results compared to the field results, questioning the usefulness of the available screening models. Animal husbandry, slurry handling and environmental conditions throughout Europe are considered in order to define realistic worst case scenarios, to be used in conjunction with distribution models for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products at registration. Given the variability in manure management practice throughout Europe, a deterministic approach for the manure-to-soil model was selected. Both worst case and best case scenario were developed. Several modelling assumptions applied in the surface water exposure model for fish nursery effluent were validated against newly available data. Since the available data give no proof that a settling tank contributes to the removal of pesticides from waste water, it is recommended for risk assessment purposes to consider the contribution of the settling tank to removal of pesticides and medicines to be negligible. Surface water dilution factors may be considered to be rather small, a factor of 2, for low flow situations. PMID:15907974

Montforts, Mark H M M

2006-04-01

293

Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

1981-01-01

294

Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products  

OpenAIRE

Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v) and (1:5 w/v) for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the de...

Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef; Fawzy Abd El-Kader El-Fishawy; El-Sayed Abd El-Naby Ramadan; Asmaa Mohamed Abd El-Rahman

2013-01-01

295

Geolocation Assessment of MERIS GlobCover Orthorectified Products  

OpenAIRE

The GlobCover project has developed a service dedicated to the generation of multiyear global land cover maps at 300-m spatial resolution using as its main source of data the full-resolution full-swath (300 m) data (FRS) acquired by the MERIS sensor on-board the ENVISAT satellite. As multiple single daily orbits have to be combined in one single data set, an accurate relative and absolute geolocation of GlobCover orthorectified products is required and needs to be assessed. We describe in thi...

Patrice, Bicheron; Amberg, Virginie; Bourg, Ludovic; Petit, David; Huc, Mireille; Miras, Bastien; Brockmann, Carsten; Hagolle, Olivier; Delwart, Steven; Ranera, Franck; Arino, Olivier

2011-01-01

296

Higgsstrahlung and pair production in $e^{+}e^{-}$ collision in the noncommutative standard model  

OpenAIRE

The higgsstrahlung process $e^+e^-\\to Z H$ and pair production process $e^+e^- \\to H H$ are studied in the framework of the minimal noncommutative (NC) standard model. In particular, the Feynman rules involving all orders of the noncommutative parameter $\\theta$ are derived using reclusive formation of Seiberg-Witten map. It is shown that the total cross section and angular distribution can be significantly affected because of spacetime noncommutativity when the collision en...

Wang, Weijian; Tian, Feichao; Sheng, Zheng-mao

2011-01-01

297

Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

Koerber, F.; Schulze Uphoff, U.; Koerber, S.; Maintz, D. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schoenau, E.; Semler, O. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Children' s Hospital

2012-08-15

298

Evaluation of cold workplaces: an overview of standards for assessment of cold stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many persons world wide are exposed to cold environments, either indoors for example in cold stores, or outdoors. Cold is a hazard to health and may affect safety and performance of work. Basis for the creation of safe and optimal working conditions may be obtained by the application of relevant international standards. ISO 11079 presents a method for evaluation of whole body heat balance. On the basis of climate and activity a required clothing insulation (IREQ) for heat balance is determined. For clothing with known insulation value an exposure time limited is calculated. ISO 11079 also includes criteria for assessment of local cooling. Finger temperatures should not be below 24 degrees C during prolonged exposures or 15 degrees C occasionally. Wind chill temperature indicates the risk of bare skin to freeze for combinations of wind and low temperatures. Special protection of airways is recommended at temperatures below -20 degrees C, in particular during heavy work. Additional standards are available describing evaluation strategies, work place observation checklists and checklist for medical screening. Risks associated with contact with cold surfaces can be evaluated with ISO 13732. The strategy and principles for assessment and prevention of cold stress are reviewed in this paper. PMID:19531908

Holmér, Ingvar

2009-07-01

299

An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

300

A Total Productivity PCA Model for Assessment and Improvement of Electrical Manufacturing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a framework for assessment of electrical manufacturing systems based on a total machine productivity approach and multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the total model is developed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA and validated and verified by Numerical Taxonomy (NT and non-parametric correlation methods, namely, Spearman correlation experiment and Kendall Tau. To achieve the objectives of this study, a comprehensive study was conducted to locate the most important economic and technical indicators which influence machine performance. These indicators are related to machine productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and profitability. Six major electrical machinery sectors are selected according to the format of International Standard for Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC. Then, a comparative study is conducted through PCA among the electrical machinery sectors by considering the six sectors. This in turn shows the weak and strong points of electrical machinery and apparatus manufacturing sectors with respect to machine productivity. Furthermore, PCA identified which machine indicators have the major impacts on the performance of electrical machinery sectors. The modeling approach of this study could be used for ranking and analysis of other electrical sectors. This study is the first to introduce a total productivity model for assessment and improvement of total machine performance in electrical manufacturing sectors.

Ali Azadeh

2005-01-01

301

Life cycle assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the preceding project 'Life Cycle Assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects' for the first time the risks of deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment have been taken into account in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This was performed by a risk assessment in addition to a quantitative impact assessment. As from a methodological perspective this was not satisfactory, the Federal Environment Agency commissioned the C.A.U. GmbH and the Institute of Applied Ecology Freiburg to further develop the impact assessment methodology for the risks of GMOs. Any further development of the methodology of impact assessment in LCAs has to be performed on the basis of the standard EN/ISO 14042. There are 2 options for taking into account risks of deliberate release of GMOs: 1. allocation of the potential effects resulting from the genetic modification on human beings and the environment to existing categories of the impact assessment and attempt to quantify within those existing methods of characterization; 2. development of a new category, e.g. 'effects of genetically modified crop plants'. In order to asses the possibilities under option 1 various models of characterization within the categories human toxicity, ecotoxicity and land use (appropriation of environmental space) have been analyzed. The risks of GMOs identified and dealt with in the preceding study were alldealt with in the preceding study were allocated to these categories. It seemed to be impossible to integrate the risks in existing models of characterization for human toxicity and ecotoxicity, as these are based on exposure and impact factors. The development of a factor for exposure seems possible for GMOs, however a suitable impact factor is not possible to generate. In addition it was analyzed if in other impact categories which are difficult to quantify any solutions for operationalization exist. This does not seem to be the case. As a result, first steps to develop a new category, e.g. 'genetic engineering' were undertaken. This impact category shall enable to take into account the risks of the deliberate release of genetically modified crop plants in the course of agricultural production and the comparison of different genetically modified crop plants. For the calculation of a factor for characterizing a specific genetically modified crop plant, a risk number is determined on the basis of the likelihood of each risk category being realized. This depends on the likelihood of dissemination in a specific climate zone as well as on the number of transferred or modified genes. This risk number is combined with the number of the potentially affected areas of protection. The data are gained from the respective notification dossiers for the specific genetically modified plant. In the inventory analysis the agricultural production area (or the result of the area and the duration of application) of the genetically modified plant, relating to the functional unit, is determined. The resulting indicator is calculated by multiplying with the respective characterizing factor. This is shown taking the 2 model products Bt-maize 176 and herbicide tolerant winter oilseed rape as examples. The results of this study show that it is possible to operationalize the risks of the planting of genetically modified crop plants for the impact assessment in a LCA via a new category. The calculation of the characterizing factors is possible on the basis of the available data sources. (author)

302

Current state of the fund of state standards for rare metal products and methods of their analytical control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the up-to-date state of the Fund of State Standards for rare metals and their compounds is performed. Elucidated are comparative data on the terms of development and requirement to the standards of quality of rare metals, their alloys and compounds, as well as on the standards for methods of analysis and requirements to metrological characteristics. Generalization of information indicates: 1) state standards for rare metal products correspond to modern level of serial production; 2) standards for methods of analysis should be revised according to the new regulations for the methods of chemical analysis accepted in domestic and international practice

303

Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

1996-03-01

304

Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: abotterud@anl.gov; Yildiz, Bilge [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2008-10-15

305

Nuclear hydrogen. An assessment of product flexibility and market viability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies. (author)

Botterud, Audun; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Yildiz, Bilge [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2008-10-15

306

Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

307

Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

2010-01-01

308

Assessing the sound quality of a grand piano for different tuning standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Grand pianos are tuned to a standard frequency of 440 Hz for a4. Eighty years ago, the tuning standard was lower, around 432 Hz. In Germany, a group of music lovers insists that the sound quality of a grand piano when tuned to 432 Hz is much superior to that of the same instrument when tuned to 440 Hz. Therefore, well-controlled psychoacoustic experiments were performed to check the validity of that argument. Using a Welte-Steinway reproduction grand piano of the Deutsches Museum Muenchen, with the exception of the tuning, all other features of the pieces of music used as stimuli could be kept the same. The advantage of using the Welte-Steinway lies in the fact that reproductions of the music of famous (deceased) artists are available, who at their time performed at a lower tuning standard. Recordings of the music played at 432 vs 440 Hz were made on DAT and presented to the subjects via headphones for sound quality evaluation. Psychophysical procedures like semantic differential or preference scaling by ``random access'' that have proven successful for the assessment of sound quality in the context of car interior sounds were used in the experiments.

Fastl, Hugo

2003-10-01

309

ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

SECAN Cristina

2014-05-01

310

Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

Burgoyne Louise

2010-03-01

311

Combining life cycle assessment and qualitative risk assessment: the case study of alumina nanofluid production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the authors propose a framework for combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) to support the sustainability assessment of emerging technologies. This proposal includes four steps of analysis: technological system definition; data collection; risk evaluation and impacts quantification; results interpretation. This scheme has been applied to a case study of nanofluid alumina production in two different pilot lines, "single-stage" and "two-stage". The study has been developed in the NanoHex project (enhanced nano-fluid heat exchange). Goals of the study were analyzing the hotspots and highlighting possible trade-off between the results of LCA, which identifies the processes having the best environmental performance, and the results of RA, which identifies the scenarios having the highest risk for workers. Indeed, due to lack of data about exposure limits, exposure-dose relationships and toxicity of alumina nanopowders (NPs) and nanofluids (NF), the workplace exposure has been evaluated by means of qualitative risk assessment, using Stoffenmanager Nano. Though having different aims, LCA and RA have a complementary role in the description of impacts of products/substances/technologies. Their combined use can overcome limits of each of them and allows a wider vision of the problems to better support the decision making process. PMID:25068795

Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

2014-10-15

312

Evaluation of a standardized sedation assessment for opioid administration in the post anesthesia care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of opioid-related sedation progressing to respiratory depression in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) can be extensive; however, there is a paucity of research on the subject of standardized assessment tools to prevent adverse events. The purposes of this study were: (1) to measure the efficacy of a standardized method of assessing sedation and administering opioids for pain management via the Pasero Opioid-Induced Sedation Scale (POSS) with interventions in the PACU; (2) to increase PACU nurses' confidence in assessing sedation associated with opioid administration for pain management and in the quality of care provided in their clinical area; and (3) to facilitate PACU and postoperative clinical unit nurses' communications during patient handoffs regarding safe opioid administration. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the POSS protocol. Two PACUs and six nursing units receiving postsurgical patients in a Midwestern inner-city hospital served as the setting for this research. Medical records were surveyed for outcome data to evaluate the efficacy of the care protocol in two patient cohorts before and after implementation of the POSS protocol. Nurses completed a written survey to identify changes in satisfaction with nurse-to-nurse communication, perceptions of quality of care, and confidence with opioid administration. The final sample included 842 PACU patients and 67 nurses from the PACU and clinical units. The intervention did not significantly change PACU length of stay or amount of administered opioids and patients were noted to be more alert at time of discharge from the PACU. Nurses reported increased perceptions of quality of care and confidence in opioid administration. The findings from this study support the use of the POSS Scale with interventions in the PACU care protocols. PMID:24461253

Kobelt, Paula; Burke, Karen; Renker, Paula

2014-09-01

313

Development and Quality Assessment of Date Chocolate Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Date chocolate products were produced by processing cocoa bean into cocoa powder (fermentation, milling, alkalization, press cake to cocoa butter, grinding, sifting and cocoa powder and Date fruit into date powder (cleaning, sorting, drying, milling and sifting. The powders (Cocoa and Date were used in the formulation of four different samples of chocolate mixes. The chemical analysis of the Date chocolates showed that sample C had the highest pH value, this was followed by sample B, while sample A had the lowest value. Sample B had high moisture content, with sample D having the highest. The four samples contained trace amount of fat; the carbohydrate contents of the samples were high, with sample B having the highest, while the protein contents were a bit close with sample D having the highest. Microbiological analysis showed the mesophilic aerobic bacteria plate count and the yeast and mould count are within the range of the standard. The sensory evaluation showed that samples A and B significantly differed (p<0.05 in taste, while samples A and D differed in texture significantly (p<0.05. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in flavor, color, firmness and overall acceptability for the 4 samples. The use of Date-palm in chocolate production improved the taste and flavor of the product. The use of Date palm with or without sugar produces chocolate with a different texture and sweetness.

T.I. Egagah

2010-01-01

314

Assessing the Quality of Decision Support Technologies Using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument (IPDASi)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To describe the development, validation and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to measure the quality of patient decision support technologies (decision aids). Design Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. Setting There has been increasing use of decision support technologies – adjuncts to the discussions clinicians have with patients about difficult decisions. A global interest in developing these interventions exists among both for-profit and not-for-profit organisations. It is therefore essential to have internationally accepted standards to assess the quality of their development, process, content, potential bias and method of field testing and evaluation. Methods Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. Participants Twenty-five researcher-members of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration worked together to develop the instrument (IPDASi). In the fourth Stage (reliability study), eight raters assessed thirty randomly selected decision support technologies. Results IPDASi measures quality in 10 dimensions, using 47 items, and provides an overall quality score (scaled from 0 to 100) for each intervention. Overall IPDASi scores ranged from 33 to 82 across the decision support technologies sampled (n?=?30), enabling discrimination. The inter-rater intraclass correlation for the overall quality score was 0.80. Correlations of dimension scores with the overall score were all positive (0.31 to 0.68). Cronbach's alpha values for the 8 raters ranged from 0.72 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas based on the dimension means ranged from 0.50 to 0.81, indicating that the dimensions, although well correlated, measure different aspects of decision support technology quality. A short version (19 items) was also developed that had very similar mean scores to IPDASi and high correlation between short score and overall score 0.87 (CI 0.79 to 0.92). Conclusions This work demonstrates that IPDASi has the ability to assess the quality of decision support technologies. The existing IPDASi provides an assessment of the quality of a DST's components and will be used as a tool to provide formative advice to DSTs developers and summative assessments for those who want to compare their tools against an existing benchmark. PMID:19259269

Elwyn, Glyn; O'Connor, Annette M.; Bennett, Carol; Newcombe, Robert G.; Politi, Mary; Durand, Marie-Anne; Drake, Elizabeth; Joseph-Williams, Natalie; Khangura, Sara; Saarimaki, Anton; Sivell, Stephanie; Stiel, Mareike; Bernstein, Steven J.; Col, Nananda; Coulter, Angela; Eden, Karen; Härter, Martin; Rovner, Margaret Holmes; Moumjid, Nora; Stacey, Dawn; Thomson, Richard; Whelan, Tim; van der Weijden, Trudy; Edwards, Adrian

2009-01-01

315

Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more `tender', `short' and `crumbly' and less `hard' and `stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product `I 657' was less `juicy' than the rest. Products `I 657' and `L 40' were more `cohesive' and tasted more `sourish' and less of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron/liver' and `fat' aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat `tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

316

Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes ‘chicken’, ‘bouillon’ and ‘fat’ scored highest and the ‘iron/liver’ aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more ‘tender’, ‘short’ and ‘crumbly’ and less ‘hard’ and ‘stringy’ in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product ‘I 657’ was less ‘juicy’ than the rest. Products ‘I 657’ and ‘L 40’ were more ‘cohesive’ and tasted more ‘sourish’ and less of ‘sweet/maize’ than the standard products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly higher for the ‘K 8’ product than for the ‘Standard A’ and ‘L 40’ products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of ‘chicken’, ‘umami/bouillon’, ‘iron/liver’ and ‘fat’ aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat ‘tenderness’ for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

317

CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

Baker, David P.

2002-01-01

318

Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team. UPSAT. An international peer review service for uranium production facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to improve the safe operation of uranium production facilities. This programme facilitates the exchange of knowledge and experience between team members and industry personnel. An UPSAT mission is an international expert review, conducted outside of any regulatory framework. The programme is implemented in the spirit of voluntary co-operation to contribute to the enhancement of operational safety and practices where it is most effective, at the facility itself. An UPSAT review supplements other facility and regulatory efforts which may have the same objective

319

Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy aled LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation associations. One central aim of such a criteria is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy resources. Increased use of renewable energy resources is considered to be an essential mean to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The liberalisation of energy markets makes it possible to reinforce and enlarge incentives, which improve the environmental quality of energy products, covering both renewable and non-renewable components. This requires the production of as comparative, transparent, modular and updateable information as possible. Such information promotes effectively the communication between energy producers and their customers and other interest groups and would thus also promote a more even distribution of environmental responsibility of choices and decision-making among different parties. (orig.)

320

78 FR 29134 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

...exist (i.e., no standard is available or harmonization...because more than one standard exists) and identify potential organizations that...dates when the HIT Standards Committee is expected...standards and related topics which the HIT...

2013-05-17

321

States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75  

Science.gov (United States)

All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is…

Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

2010-01-01

322

States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71  

Science.gov (United States)

Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the…

Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.

2008-01-01

323

The Turkish Standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The article present results of standardization of the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students (Meadow, 1983), school-age version, for use in Turkey. The SEAI is a 59-item measure for assessing socioemotional adjustment of school-age deaf and hearing impaired students. A sample of 1,097 deaf…

Polat, Filiz

2006-01-01

324

The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

Fullmer, Patricia

2009-01-01

325

Using GENOVA and FACETS to Set Multiple Standards on Performance Assessment for Certification in Medical Translation from Japanese into English  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a standard-setting procedure for performance assessment in a foreign language, through which some of the major problems facing performance assessment in criterion-referenced testing can be addressed. The procedure, which was geared to revealing and accommodating inter-judge variability, employed the synergy of multiple…

Kozaki ,Y.

2004-01-01

326

Building and Supporting a Validity Argument for a Standards-Based Classroom Assessment of English Proficiency Based on Teacher Judgments  

Science.gov (United States)

Using an argument-based approach to validation, this study examines the quality of teacher judgments in the context of a standards-based classroom assessment of English proficiency. Using Bachman's (2005) assessment use argument (AUA) as a framework for the investigation, this paper first articulates the claims, warrants, rebuttals, and backing…

Llosa, Lorena

2008-01-01

327

Trilepton production at the CERN LHC: SUSY Signals and Standard Model Backgrounds  

CERN Document Server

Events with isolated leptons and missing energy in the final state are known to be signatures of new physics phenomena at high energy collider physics facilities. Standard model (SM) sources of isolated trilepton final states include gauge boson pair production such as WZ and W gamma^{*}, and t-bar t production. Symbol gamma^* represents a virtual photon. Our new contribution is the demonstration that bottom and charm meson decays, b to l X and c to l X$, produce isolated lepton (l) events that can overwhelm the effects of other processes. We compute contributions from a wide range of SM heavy flavor processes. In all these cases, one or more of the final observed isolated leptons comes from a heavy flavor decay. We propose new cuts to control the heavy flavor backgrounds in the specific case of chargino plus neutralino pair production in supersymmetric models.

Berger, Edmond L

2009-01-01

328

Multi-Higgs boson production in the standard model and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a calculation of the loop-induced processes gg?HH and gg?HHH, and investigate the observability of multi-Higgs boson production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. While the SM cross sections are too small to allow observation at the LHC, we demonstrate that physics beyond the SM can lead to amplified, observable cross sections. Furthermore, the applicability of the heavy top quark approximation in two- and three-Higgs boson production is investigated. We conclude that multi-Higgs boson production at the SuperLHC is an interesting probe of Higgs sectors beyond the SM and warrants further study

329

Top pair production at hadron colliders in non-minimal standard models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cross section of top pair production in hadronic collisions to O(??s2) is calculated within the general 2-Higgs doublet model and the minimal supersymmetric standard model. At the parton level the O(?) one-loop corrections to the main production mechanisms, qq?tt and gg?tt, significantly modify the Born cross sections: in the threshold region ?(s)>or?2 mt they are enhanced up to 50% and with increasing cm energy ?(s), they can be reduced by up to the same order of magnitude. In a wide range of the parameter space of the models under consideration the observable hadronic cross sections for top pair production at the Tevatron pp?ttX and at the LHC pp?ttX are typically reduced by several percent (+; t?0, the radiative corrections are considerably enhanced, comparable in size to QCD effects. (orig.)

330

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of electroweak interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs-boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements presented in this note are based on approximately 5 fb-1 of data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 with the ATLAS detector based at the CERN Laboratory.

Vincter Manuella G.

2013-11-01

331

ATLAS measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production as probes of the Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of Drell-Yan lepton-pair production cross sections and associated angular correlations can provide unique insight into perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in the absence of colour flow between initial and final states, the V-A nature of electroweak interactions, as well as enhance the knowledge of parton distribution functions in the proton. Drell-Yan production is also an important source of background for other Standard-Model processes such as Higgs-boson production as well as for new phenomena, particularly at high dilepton invariant mass, and so must be evaluated precisely at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements presented in this note are based on approximately 5~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7~TeV in 2011 with the ATLAS detector based at the CERN Laboratory.

Vincter, MG

2013-01-01

332

Assessing the Symptoms of Cancer Using Patient-Reported Outcomes (ASCPRO): searching for standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2006 draft guidance on "Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Use in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling Claims" has engendered wide discussion about patient-reported outcome (PRO) domains that should be endpoints in clinical trials. Reducing the severity and impact of symptoms is a natural intervention endpoint for cancer, a condition associated with considerable symptom burden. Because symptoms are best described by patients who have them, including PROs as measures of treatment effectiveness or the differences among treatments provides essential information about the efficacy and toxicity of a treatment and its effects on function. The FDA guidance provides a framework for addressing such issues as clinical significance, study design, and statistical methods as they relate to applications for labeling claims; however, no set of recommended approaches for assessing specific symptoms by patient report in clinical trials exists, other than for pain. Accordingly, an interdisciplinary workgroup, Assessing the Symptoms of Cancer using Patient-Reported Outcomes (ASCPRO), has been formed to generate evidence-based recommendations for the assessment of patient-reported cancer-related symptoms and the use of that information to facilitate clinical research and decision making. ASCPRO is among the first working groups to focus primarily on nonpain symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, appetite loss, depression, cognitive impairment, and shortness of breath. ASCPRO members are stakeholders in optimal symptom assessment, including patient advocates, academics, clinicians, those who pay for symptom control and monitor quality of care, and those who produce products that palliate cancer-related symptoms but that may also engender treatment-related symptoms. PMID:20538189

Cleeland, Charles S; Sloan, Jeff A

2010-06-01

333

Improvement of in vivo genotoxicity assessment: combination of acute tests and integration into standard toxicity testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A working group convened at the 2009 5th IWGT to discuss possibilities for improving in vivo genotoxicity assessment by investigating possible links to standard toxicity testing. The working group considered: (1) combination of acute micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays into a single study, (2) integration of MN assays into repeated-dose toxicity (RDT) studies, (3) integration of Comet assays into RDT studies, and (4) requirements for the top dose when integrating genotoxicity measurements into RDT studies. The working group reviewed current requirements for in vivo genotoxicity testing of different chemical product classes and identified opportunities for combination and integration of genotoxicity endpoints for each class. The combination of the acute in vivo MN and Comet assays was considered by the working group to represent a technically feasible and scientifically acceptable alternative to conducting independent assays. Two combination protocols, consisting of either a 3- or a 4-treament protocol, were considered equally acceptable. As the integration of MN assays into RDT studies had already been discussed in detail in previous IWGT meetings, the working group focussed on factors that could affect the results of the integrated MN assay, such as the possible effects of repeated bleeding and the need for early harvests. The working group reached the consensus that repeated bleeding at reasonable volumes is not a critical confounding factor for the MN assay in rats older than 9 weeks of age and that rats bled for toxicokinetic investigations or for other routine toxicological purposes can be used for MN analysis. The working group considered the available data as insufficient to conclude that there is a need for an early sampling point for MN analysis in RDT studies, in addition to the routine determination at terminal sacrifice. Specific scenarios were identified where an additional early sampling can have advantages, e.g., for compounds that exert toxic effects on hematopoiesis, including some aneugens. For the integration of Comet assays into RDT studies, the working group reached the consensus that, based upon the limited amount of data available, integration is scientifically acceptable and that the liver Comet assay can complement the MN assay in blood or bone marrow in detecting in vivo genotoxins. Practical issues need to be considered when conducting an integrated Comet assay study. Freezing of tissue samples for later Comet assay analysis could alleviate logistical problems. However, the working group concluded that freezing of tissue samples can presently not be recommended for routine use, although it was noted that results from some laboratories look promising. Another discussion topic centred around the question as to whether tissue toxicity, which is more likely observed in RDT than in acute toxicity studies, would affect the results of the Comet assay. Based on the available data from in vivo studies, the working group concluded that there are no clear examples where cytotoxicity, by itself, generates increases or decreases in DNA migration. The working group identified the need for a refined guidance on the use and interpretation of cytotoxicity methods used in the Comet assay, as the different methods used generally lead to inconsistent conclusions. Since top doses in RDT studies often are limited by toxicity that occurs only after several doses, the working group discussed whether the sensitivity of integrated genotoxicity studies is reduced under these circumstances. For compounds for which in vitro genotoxicity studies yielded negative results, the working group reached the consensus that integration of in vivo genotoxicity endpoints (typically the MN assay) into RDT studies is generally acceptable. If in vitro genotoxicity results are unavailable or positive, consensus was reached that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is acceptable as the top dose in RDT studies in many cases, such as when the RDT study MTD or exposure is close (50% or greater) to an acute study MTD or exposure. Finally, the group

Rothfuss, Andreas; Honma, Masamitu; Czich, Andreas; Aardema, Marilyn J; Burlinson, Brian; Galloway, Sheila; Hamada, Shuichi; Kirkland, David; Heflich, Robert H; Howe, Jonathan; Nakajima, Madoka; O'Donovan, Mike; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Recio, Leslie; Schuler, Maik; Uno, Yoshifumi; Martus, Hans-Jörg

2011-08-16

334

Upper-bound fission product release assessment for large break LOCA in CANFLEX bundle reactor core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quarter-core gap inventory assessment for CANDU-6 reactor core loaded with CANFLEX fuel bundles has been performed as one of the licensing safety analyses required for 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundle irradiation in CANDU-6 reactor. The quarter-core gap inventory for the CANFLEX bundle core is 5 - 10 times lower than that for the standard bundle core, depending on the half-life of the isotope. The lower gap inventory of the CANFLEX bundle core is attributed to the lower linear power of the CANFLEX bundle compared with the standard bundle. However, the whole core total inventories for both the CANFLEX and standard bundle cores are nearly the same. The 6 - 8 times lower upper-bound fission product releases of the CANFLEX bundle core for large break LOCA than those of the standard bundle core imply that the loading of 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundles would improve the predicted consequences of the postulated accident described in the Wolsung 2 safety report. 2 tabs., 6 figs., 3 refs. (Author)

335

Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

336

Assessing the populations at risk of variations in vegetation productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving the understanding of the impact of ENSO phenomena on vegetation productivity can be used to identify the regions mostly at risk of extreme meteorological events such as floods or droughts during El Niño. A global assessment of the regions at higher risk from the effects of climatic variability and of the size of the populations involved could be of great aid to policymakers and managers in planning for aid and assisting societies to cope with the adverse effects of El Niño. In this paper we identify the regions of significant teleconnections by correlating 18 years (1982-1999) of estimated global monthly terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) at 0.5 degree spatial resolution with the corresponding monthly Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). Overlaying a 0.5 degree digital representation of population distribution derived from LandScan and demographic growth rates from tabular data, we provide coarse estimates of the number of people vulnerable to recurring ENSO-related swings in vegetation productivity. The analysis indicates that a third of the world population (2.2 billion people) lives in areas with strong ENSO teleconnections, with the number of people that tend to suffer a decline in NPP being almost twice the size of the populations of regions showing an increase in NPP. High rates of population growth in these regions will increase the vulnerability even in the absence of an intensification of extreme climatic events.

Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.; Running, S. W.

2003-04-01

337

Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

Steele, Philp; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

2012-02-01

338

Standards and measurements for assessing bone health-workshop report co-sponsored by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports and discusses the results of the recent ISCD-NIST Workshop on Standards and Measurements for Assessing Bone Health. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the status of efforts to standardize and compare results from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, and then to identify and prioritize ongoing measurement and standards needs. PMID:17097524

Bennett, Herbert S; Dienstfrey, Andrew; Hudson, Lawrence T; Oreskovic, Tammy; Fuerst, Thomas; Shepherd, John

2006-01-01

339

Life cycle assessment of production in the control system of the environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The control system of the environment and the inventory analysis on the basis of Standard ISO of the series 14000 are considered. The International Standards Organization establishes the international quality standards (series ISO 9000 for production at the interethnic level. Series ISO 14000 sets itself as an object is to establish ecological standards for products and services at the interethnic level, first of all, for those that are used in international trade.

?.?. ?????????

2005-04-01

340

Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with unwanted impurities. All in all, more insight should be gained into the magnitude of iLUC impacts associated with energy crops. Their quantification is the key factor determining a beneficial or detrimental GHG performance of bioenergy systems based on energy crops. If energy crops are introduced, combined heat and power production should be prioritized based on the results of this research. Production of liquid biofuels for transport should be limited as the overall energy conversion efficiency is significantly lower thereby leading to decreased GHG performances. On this basis, recovery of energy, materials and resources from waste such as residual agricultural/forestry biomass and municipal/commercial/industrial waste should be seen as the way ahead. Highly-efficient combustion and incineration offer robust energy and environmental performances. Innovative waste refineries may achieve si

Tonini, D.

2013-02-15

341

Standardization of laboratory performance. Approaches to the design of external quality assessment schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Special Programme for Research in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization sponsors clinical trials involving immunoassay measurements by laboratories in different countries. These trials present significant problems of standardization of results. The performance of different laboratories is monitored by means of external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). The design of appropriate EQAS for differing analytes is affected by the number of participating centres, and whether the analyte is measured on a regular basis. Three different EQAS designs are discussed: The first is the WHO EQAS for reproductive hormones, which is intended for analytes measured on a regular basis by a large number of centres. The second design is for unusual analytes that are measured infrequently and at irregular intervals. The third design is for studies where small differences between treatments or subject groups are expected. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

342

Experience with IEC standard 544 to assess radiation damage of organic insulating materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essential topics of IEC Standard 544 are presented which contains four parts: I Radiation interaction, II Procedures for irradiation, III Test procedures for permanent effects and IV Classification system for Service in radiation environments. The topics described include test procedures, critical parameters and end-point criteria, dose rate and the Radiation Index. Experience at CERN is reported which is based on radiation testing of many hundreds of organic insulating materials supplied by a large number of different manufacturers. The experience with rigid plastics, eg. epoxy resins, were extremely positive, whereas with flexible plastics, mainly cable insulation and sheath materials, several difficulties did occur. It was however found that the recommended procedure to assess the dose rate effect clearly allows to identify materials where this effect is of importance and that the Radiation Index is a simple and clearly defined tool to rank materials according to their radiation resistance. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

343

Standard criteria and methods to assess the reclamation of native vegetation on mined land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is currently much interest in the re-establishment of native (semi-natural) vegetation in mineral workings in the UK. It is expected that future planning consents will have conditions attached which require evidence that the proposed communities have been achieved. At present there is no standard approach. This paper describes a formal sample based method which enables assessment of plant community, species richness and species of particular interest at any point in time and their course of development. The method is illustrated by use of data collected for sown grassland on a restored opencast coal site in South Wales. Further development work is likely to be necessary and comparison with other recently recommended methods is suggested

344

Low Voltage Flip-flop Standard Cells with Optimum Energy Delay Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents transmission gate flip-flop standard cells with channel length and dual-threshold techniques and their low-voltage operating. The proposed transmission gate flip-flops have the same structure with the basic master-slave transmission gate one using multiplexers, but the different place is the feedback path (non-critical path. In the non-critical path, the dual-channel length flip-flop uses high threshold devices while the dual-threshold flip-flop uses gate-length modulation device. Three flip-flop standard cells are investigated from 0.5 to 1.2 V in term of Energy Delay Product (EDP with HSPICE at a SMIC 130 nm technology. The dual-threshold flip-flop standard cell achieves considerable leakage reductions and gate-length biasing flip-flop standard cell achieves the lowest total energy consumption in all the cells. The results demonstrate that scaling supply voltage using dual-threshold CMOS (low threshold and ultra high threshold and gate-length biasing are advantageous, especially in low voltage regions (800-900 mv which yield the best EDP.

Yang Dan

2013-01-01

345

Baby care product development: artificial urine in vitro assay is useful for cosmetic product assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of infants' inability to control urination, the skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from irritating effects of urine and prevention of diaper dermatitis such as products for cleansing and protection of the skin. Several in vitro models are currently available to assess tolerance. In vitro testing using artificial urine allows the protective effects of diaper-region cosmetics to be ascertained. Thus, a new model defined as "artificial urine in vitro assay" has been added to our traditional pre-clinical in vitro testing program. IL1-? is a highly active and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a key role in inflammation and is the biological mirror of irritation induced by diaper dermatitis. This study determines, on human skin explants, if a cosmetic formula is (1) tolerated equally as well in the presence of artificial urine as in its absence and (2) is able to decrease IL1-? production induced by artificial urine or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. 31 tests including 17 in-house formulas, 10 bench-markers and 4 combinations of products were performed and data obtained are represented on a simple four-point scale (from practically non protective to very protective). It allows determination of formula-type groups that will have predictable protective properties in subsequent clinical trials and comparison with competitors' products. It is a useful aid in the formulation stage and provides readily-useable data for the cosmetic risk assessment. PMID:23850986

Degouy, Arnaud; Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

2014-02-01

346

Offshore wind resource assessment with Standard Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT): A Rhode Island case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivated by the current Rhode Island Ocean SAMP (Special Area Management Plan) project and the growing need in the foreseeable future, analysis tools for wind resource assessment are assembled into a toolkit that can be accessed from a GIS. The analysis is demonstrated by application to the ongoing wind resource assessment of Rhode Island's offshore waters by the Ocean SAMP. The tool is called Standard Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT). SWAT utilizes a method for integrating observations from the study area or numerical model outputs to assemble the spatial distribution of the offshore wind resource. Available power is inferred from direct measurements of wind speed, but the shape of the atmospheric boundary layer or wind speed profile must be parameterized in order to extrapolate measurements to heights other than that of the measurements. The vertical wind speed profile is modeled with the basic power law assuming a 1/7 exponent parameter representing near-neutral or more accurately timeaverage conditions. As an alternate estimate from year long multi-level observations at a meteorological tower is employed. The basis for the power analysis is the 2- parameter Weibull probability distribution, recognized as standard in modeling typical wind speed distributions. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the Weibull probability density function provides the expected power densities at observation sites. Application to Rhode Island's coastal waters yields an estimated Weibull shape parameter of roughly 2 for the offshore environment and a Weibull scale parameter that increases with distance from the coast. Estimates of power in the SAMP study area range from 525 to 850 W/m² at an elevation of 80 meters based on an observed profile in the SAMP study area. Like the Weibull scale parameter, annual mean wind power increases with distance offshore.

Crosby, Alexander Robert

347

Higgs production and decay with a fourth Standard-Model-like fermion generation  

CERN Document Server

State-of-the-art predictions for the Higgs-boson production cross section via gluon fusion and for all relevant Higgs-boson decay channels are presented in the presence of a fourth Standard-Model-like fermion generation. The qualitative features of the most important differences to the genuine Standard Model are pointed out, and the use of the available tools for the predictions is described. For a generic mass scale of 600 GeV in the fourth generation explicit numerical results for the cross section and decay widths are presented, revealing extremely large electroweak radiative corrections, e.g., to the cross section and the Higgs decay into WW or ZZ pairs, where they amount to about -60% or more. This signals the onset of a non-perturbative regime due to the large Yukawa couplings in the fourth generation. An estimate of the respective large theoretical uncertainties is presented as well.

Denner, A; Muck, A; Passarino, G; Spira, M; Sturm, C; Uccirati, S; Weber, M M

2011-01-01

348

Higgs production by gluon fusion in the standard model and in the supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the second chapter the standard model is described. Beside the theoretical foundations with the two-Higgs doublet model also an extension of the SM is discussed. The third chapter deals with supersymmetry and the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The Fortran program SusHi is presented in chapter four. Chapter five treats the renormalization of the sbottom sector and the bottom mass. It is described, which renormalization schemes are maid available in SusHi. In the sixth chapter we present our results for inclusive cross sections. Thereby the most important production channels, gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation are considered and compared. Differential distributions we discuss in the seventh chapter. Thereby mainly the resummation of logarithms is discussed. Beside an analytic resummation also the POWHEG formalism is described. The results of both methods are presented and compared.

349

Assessment of new vehicles emissions certification standards in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Light duty gasoline vehicles account for most of CO hydrocarbons and NOx emissions at the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). In order to ameliorate air pollution from the beginning of 2001, Tier 1 emission standards became mandatory for all new model year sold in the country. Car manufacturers in Mexico do not guarantee the performance of their exhaust emissions systems for a given mileage. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Tier 1 vehicles will stand the certification values for at least 162000 km with the regular fuel available at the MAMC. Mileage accumulation and deterioration show that certified carbon monoxide emissions will stand for the useful life of the vehicles but in the case of non-methane hydrocarbons will be shorter by 40%, and nitrogen oxides emissions above the standard will be reached at one third of the accumulated kilometers. The effect of gasoline sulfur content, on the current in use Tier 1 vehicles of the MAMC and the impact on the emissions inventory in year 2010 showed that 31000 extra tons of NOx could be added to the inventory caused by the failure of the vehicles to control this pollutant at the useful life of vehicles. PMID:16570219

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; López-Salinas, E

2006-03-01

350

A standardized online clinical education and assessment tool for neurology clerkship students assigned to multiple sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Drexel neurology clerkship experience can vary from large groups at a university hospital inpatient unit to smaller groups at private physician offices. Evaluations are based on the site director's subjective assessment and performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners neurology shelf examination. We are developing a standardized online clinical neurology course and quiz for the whole clerkship. We piloted the course and quiz at a single site for one academic year and compared their test scores with a control group of students at other clerkship sites who took the online quiz without viewing the course. Students at the pilot site achieved higher scores both on the neurology shelf examination and the clinical quiz and also reported higher teaching satisfaction scores than students at all other sites. There was a 97 % participation rate in the online quiz from the other sites. Use of this online course and quiz provides effective standardized clinical neurology teaching and evaluation that can be applied to students across multiple sites. PMID:24307398

Holland, Neil R; Grinberg, Ilya; Tabby, David

2014-01-01

351

Standards for Quantitative Assessment of Lung Structure: The Dawn of Stereopneumology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARY. The lungs are complex 3D structuresstudied in the clinic and the laboratory using histologic or imaging sections. Although such 2D analyses of lung structure are considered “gold standards”, the information conveyed is often insufficient and does not represent the whole organ. Stereology, the mathematical approach to the analysis of 3D structures via 2D sampling and morphometry, the practical application of stereology, provide solutions to this problem, but had until recently not been systematically adoptedin pneumology. In an effort of minimizing the above-mentioned methodological problems and of standardizing the quantitative assessment of lung structure, the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society formed a task force, which recently published its findings. The task force aimed at comprehensively reviewing current stereologic methods for lung morphometry, formulating practical guidelines for using unbiased methods for basic and translational research of lung structure, and examining the extensions of stereologic methods on non-invasive imaging of lung architecture. In the statement of the task force are included useful directives with important application in the laboratory and the clinic, the most pertinent of which are discussed in the present mini-review. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:141-152.

Georgios T. Stathopoulos

2010-01-01

352

HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

353

System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

Jay Zarnikau

2011-10-01

354

In-vessel hydrogen production assessment during severe accident sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991 the Design Division of Electricite de France (EdF) acquired the MAAP license (modular accident analysis program) to contribute to the assessment of severe accident concerns both on its 56 operating (EdF) pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants (including two N4 plants), and for future projects, mainly the European pressurized reactor (EPR). EdF checked the MAAP code consistency with CATHARE (until the beginning of core overheating) and ESCADRE (severe accident code system of CEA-IPSN, the technical support of the French Safety Authority) results, mainly on thermal-hydraulic aspects. This paper presents results on studies concerned with the MAAP4 code simulation of hydrogen production during severe accidents and the resulting core degradation phase on a French four-loop 1300-MW PWR

355

Assessment standards, Van Hiele levels, and grade seven learners’ understandings of geometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of researchers in mathematical education assert that the instruction in geometry offered in South African schools is inadequate and that traditional teaching strategies do little to promote teachers understandings of their learners’ levels of mathematical thought. Van Hiele specifically states that the inability of many teachers to match instruction with their learners’ levels of geometrical understanding is a contributing factor to their failure to promote meaningful understandings in this topic.  This study investigated whether a sample of grade seven learners in previously disadvantaged primary schools met both the assessment criteria for geometry as stated by the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement and the implied Van Hiele thinking levels.  The data generated suggest that none of the 30 learners who participated in this study had attained these requirements and that language competency in general is a barrier to the attainment of higher levels of understanding amongst this group of second-language learners. It is suggested that not only Van Hiele Levels and Assessment Standards, but also learners’ cultural background and their specific use of words in the vernacular context, need to be taken into consideration by teachers when developing learning programmes. Possible strategies to meet these requirements are suggested.

Nosisi Feza

2011-10-01

356

Higgs Pair-Production in the Standard Model at Next Generation Linear $e^+e^-$ Colliders  

CERN Document Server

We study the Higgs pair-production in the Standard Model of the strong and electroweak interactions at future $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider energies, with the reaction $e^{+}e^{-}\\to t \\bar t HH$. We evaluated the total cross section of $t\\bar tHH$ and calculate the number total of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at tree-level. The numerical computation is done for the energy which is expected to be available at a possible Next Linear $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collider: with center-of-mass energy $800, 1600$ $GeV$ and luminosity 1000 $fb^{-1}$.

Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Sampayo, O A

2003-01-01

357

Higgs pair production in the standard model at next generation linear e+e- colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the Higgs pair production in the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions at future e+e- collider energies, with the reaction e+e-?tt-barHH. We evaluate the total cross section of tt-barHH and calculate the total number of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at the tree level. The numerical computation is done for an energy which is expected to be available at a possible Next Linear e+e- Collider with a center-of-mass energy 800, 1600 GeV and a luminosity of 1000 fb-1

358

Single top production at HERA in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The H1 Collaboration at the DESY electron-proton collider HERA has observed, in photoproduction and neutral-current deep-inelastic scattering, an unexpected excess of events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum, especially at large values of hadronic transverse momentum - a signature typical for single top-quark production. This observation is being substantiated in the HERA II run. Motivated by this, we evaluate the cross section of single top-quark photo- and electroproduction both in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, considering both minimal and non-minimal flavour-violation scenarios in the latter case. (Orig.)

359

Neutral scalar Higgs masses and production cross sections in an extended supersymmetric standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upper bounds on the three neutral scalar Higgs masses are considered in the supersymmetric standard model with a gauge singlet Higgs field. When the lightest Higgs is singlet-dominated the second lightest Higgs is shown to lie near or below the theoretical upper bound on the lightest Higgs mass. We also consider detectability of these Higgs bosons at a future e+ e- linear collider with ?(s) similar 300 GeV and show that at least one of the neutral scalar Higgs has a production cross section larger than 0.04 pb. ((orig.))

360

Hanford Site Radionuclide Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Stack Source Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), is a department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government and must comply with the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1955, as amended, and the implementing regulations. On December 15, 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) the ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities'' (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H requires that the emissions of radionuclides from any DOE Facility shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem in a year. In addition, potential emissions of radionuclides from a stack or vent that exceed 0.1 mrem/year to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) require continuous monitoring. The requirement for calculating potential emissions is to compute the emissions, which could occur without control devices in place but with operations otherwise normal. In 1998, an assessment was performed of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) stacks (HNF-1974). Since then, changes have occurred in the location of the MEI, in the status of onsite facilities, in the unit dose factor in closing stacks, in the emissions, and in the addition of new stacks and vents. Because of these changes, an updated assessment was warranted. This assessment provides an update for the 44 stacks on the Hanford Site under management of Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) and BHI.

DAVIS, W.E.

2002-09-01

361

Higgs Boson Production via Gluon Fusion in the Standard Model with four Generations  

CERN Document Server

Higgs bosons can be produced copiously at the LHC via gluon fusion induced by top and bottom quark loops, and can be enhanced strongly if extra heavy quarks exist. We present results for Higgs +zero-, one- and two-jet production at the LHC, in both the Standard Model and the 4th generation model, by evaluating the corresponding heavy quark triangle, box and pentagon Feynman diagrams. We compare the results by using the effective Higgs-gluon interactions in the limit of heavy quarks with the cross sections including the full mass dependences. NLO effects with full mass dependence are included in the inclusive Higgs boson production rate. Our results improve the theoretical basis for fourth generation effects on the Higgs boson search at the LHC.

Li, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng

2010-01-01

362

Standard-model predictions for W-pair production in electron-positron collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the status of the theoretical predictions for W-pair production in e+e- collisions within the electroweak standard model (SM). We first consider for on-shell W-bosons the lowest-order cross-section within the SM, the general effects of anomalous couplings, the radiative corrections within the SM, and approximations for them. Then we discuss the inclusion of finite-width effects in lowest order and the existing results for radiative corrections to off-shell W-pair production, and we outline the general strategy to calculate radiative corrections within the pole scheme. We summarize the theoretical predictions for the total and partial W-boson widths including radiative corrections and discuss the quality of an improved Born approximation. Finally we provide a general discussion of the structure-function method to calculate large logarithmic higher-order corrections associated with collinear photon radiation. (orig.)

363

In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was validated quantitatively by comparing it with the CO values measured from the volume flow in the pulmonary artery. Relative bias varied between 0 and -17%, where the nominal accuracy of the flow meter is in the order of 10%. Assuming the CO measurements from the flow probe as a gold standard, excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed with the CO estimates obtained from image segmentation.

Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

2009-04-07

364

Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: ? We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. ? Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. ? Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. ? Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

365

Environmentally Responsible Product Assessments for the Automobiles Made in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
This article discusses a general assessment of how the environmental performance of the automobile has changed over the years. We performed an SLCA and used the AT&T matrix and Delphi-technique to compare a 1990s era automobile(made in china to one from the 2000s of China. From the comparison, we calculated 5 life stages of automobile production include premanufacturing, product manufacture, product delivery, product use and recycling. The comparison shows moderate environmental stewardship during resource extraction, packaging. The ratings during manufacturing and refurbishment/ recycling/ disposal are both poor, and during customer use are abysmal though it have some improvement. The overall rating of 1990s is far below what might be desired. In contrast, the overall rating for the 2000s vehicle is much better than that of the earlier vehicle but still leaving plenty of room for improvement.
Key words: AT&T matrix, environment, LCA, SLCA, automobile
Résumé: Cet article entreprend une évaluation générale du fait que comment la performance environnementale de l’automobile a changé ces dernières années. Nous avons effectué un SLCA et utilisé la matrice de l’AT&T ainsi que le technique Delphi afin de comparer un automobile des années 1990 (fabriqué en Chine avec un autre des années 2000. A travers la comparaison, nous avons calculé 5 étapes de la production de l’automobile : préfabrication, fabricarion du produit, livraison du produit, utilisation du produit, recyclage. La comparaison montre un management environnemental modéré pendant l’extraction et l’empaquetage des ressources. Les évaluations durant la fabrication et la reconstruction /recyclage/ élimination sont toutes misérables, et pendant la période d’utilisation par les clients elle apparaît épouvantable malgré des améliorations. L’évaluation générale des années 90 est loin de répondre à notre désir. Au contraire, celle des années 2000 est bien meilleure que la précédente, mais reste beaucoup à désirer.
Mots-Clés: matrice de l’AT&T, environnement, LCA, SLCA, automobile

Li-li YANG

2006-12-01

366

Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

Hanssen, Ole Joergen

1997-12-31

367

Environmental assessment of energy production based on long term commercial willow plantations in Sweden.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper analyzed the environmental assessment of short rotation willow plantations in Sweden based on the standard framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from the International Standards Organisation. The analysis is focused on two alternative management regimes for willow plantations dedicated to biomass production for energy purposes. The data used included the averages of a large sample of commercial plantations. One of the scenarios is carried out under nitrogen based fertilized conditions and the other under non-fertilized management with total biomass yields (dry weight) of 140t/ha and 86t/ha over a 21 and 22-year life time respectively. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of the potentials for abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition, an energy analysis was performed using the cumulative energy demand method (CED). The application of nitrogen based fertilizers allows an increase in the biomass yield per ha of up to 40% although the contributions to almost all impact categories, particularly the eutrophication potential and toxicity potential impact categories are also considerably higher. Conversely, due to the higher biomass yields achieved with fertilization of these willow plantations, that regime presents a better overall environmental profile in terms of energy yield and global warming potential. PMID:22369863

González-García, Sara; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Murphy, Richard

2012-04-01

368

CP Phases in Correlated Production and Decay of Neutralinos in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the associated production of neutralinos $e^+e^-\\to\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1\\tilde{\\chi}^0_2$ accompanied by the neutralino leptonic decay $\\tilde{\\chi}^0_2\\to\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1 \\ell^+\\ell^-$, taking into account initial beam polarization and production-decay spin correlations in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with general CP phases but without generational mixing in the slepton sector. The stringent constraints from the electron EDM on the CP phases are also included in the discussion. Initial beam polarizations lead to three CP-even distributions and one CP-odd distribution, which can be studied independently of the details of the neutralino decays. We find that the production cross section and the branching fractions of the leptonic neutralino decays are very sensitive to the CP phases. In addition, the production-decay spin correlations lead to several CP-even observables such as lepton invariant mass distribution, and lepton angular distribution, and one interesting T-odd (CP-odd) triple p...

Choi, S Y; Song, W Y

2000-01-01

369

Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

Skala Dejan U.

2004-01-01

370

Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels in a two stage game. The firms choose the quality level in the first game, and their prices in the second game. The Nash equilibrium illustrates that the producer in the large country produces a higher quality than the producer in the small country. However, a reduction of the trade barrier twists the quality levels in favour of the small country. Furthermore, in case of implementation of a minimum quality standard, which forces the low quality producer from the small country to increase the quality level, the producer from the large country reacts strategically by lowering the quality level of his product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model.

Hansen, JØrgen Drud; Nielsen, JØrgen Ulff-MØller

2006-01-01

371

Selecting HDF5 as the Standard for NPOESS Environmental and Sensor Data Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) will, in the next decade, replace two existing polar environmental satellite systems, DMSP and POES. The converged system will provide significantly enhanced sensing characteristics desired by the civil and national security communities. As a result, raw and processed data rates will increase by at least 30-fold. The interface data processing segment (IDPS) produces raw, calibrated sensor, and environmental data products for its direct users significantly faster than current systems. Four major NOAA and DoD processing sites will each host a full version of IDPS. Similar software will be provided to users who wish to process direct downlinks from the NPOESS satellites. The program office and its TRW/Raytheon contractor team chose HDF5 as the standard to distribute IDPS data to users. After considering a variety of available format standards, several attributes led to this selection. o Familiarity -- Environmental scientists already have experience with the standard, most recently from EOS products. o Maturity -- HDF has shown its "staying power", and has been available long enough to have matured from user experiences. NASA, DOE, and others invested heavily in its development. o Capability -- HDF was designed to manage large, compound data sets within high performance computing environments. o Compatibility -- HDF operates on multiple appropriate operating systems. o Availability -- HDF was developed in the public interest at NCSA, and is freely available. o Interoperability -- The DoD Joint Technical Architecture is in the process of accepting HDF as a standard for interoperability among DoD systems. The NPOESS engineering development phase began this fall. Under the shared system responsibility contracting model, TRW and Raytheon have begun to work with the program office and consult with NCSA to make final implementation decisions. Among the issues to be considered are the relationship between HDF and descriptive metadata; consistent data structure implementations for dissimilar sensors; correlations between time- and space-delimited data sets; and policies to assure long-term stability of the standard. The IDPS will be ready with its HDF implementation to support the NPOESS Preparatory Program in 2006. NPP is a joint NASA-NPOESS program office mission designed to provide interim data continuity to the climate research community, and to reduce risk for the new NPOESS sensors.

Goldberg, A. M.; Folk, M. J.

2002-12-01

372

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Science.gov (United States)

...significant difference in a performance characteristic that materially...while maintaining similar performance characteristics. (c...product is not inferior in performance characteristics from the standardized...composition. (5) Water and fat-replacers (e.g....

2010-01-01

373

9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Science.gov (United States)

...significant difference in a performance characteristic that materially...while maintaining similar performance characteristics. (c...product is not inferior in performance characteristics from the standardized...composition. (5) Water and fat-replacers (e.g....

2010-01-01

374

Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography  

CERN Document Server

Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

2014-01-01

375

Assessing net community production in a glaciated Alaska fjord  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of deglaciation in Glacier Bay (GLBA) has been observed to seasonally impact the biogeochemistry of this marine system. The influence from surrounding glaciers, particularly tidewater glaciers, has the potential to greatly impact the efficiency and structure of the marine food web within GLBA. To assess the magnitude, spatial and temporal variability of net community production (NCP) in a glaciated fjord, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), inorganic macronutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO) and particulate organic carbon (POC) between July 2011 and July 2012 in Glacier Bay, AK. Seasonally-averaged data were analyzed on a regional basis to account for distinct biogeochemical differences within the Bay due to spatial variation in rates of primary production and the influence of glacial-fed stratification, particularly in the northern regions. High NCP rates were observed across the Bay (~ 54 to ~ 81 mmol C m-2 d-1) between the summer and fall of 2011. However, between the fall and winter, as well as between the winter and spring of 2012, air-sea fluxes of CO2 and organic matter respiration made NCP rates negative across most of the Bay as inorganic carbon and macronutrient concentrations returned to pre-bloom levels. The highest carbon production occurred within the lower bay between the summer and fall of 2011 with ~ 1.3 × 1010 g C season-1. Bay-wide, there was carbon production of ~ 2.6 × 1010 g C season-1 between the summer and fall. Respiration and air-sea gas exchange were the dominant drivers of carbon biogeochemistry between the fall and winter of 2012. The substantial spatial and temporal variability in our NCP estimates largely reflect glacial influences within the Bay, as melt-water is depleted in macronutrients relative to marine waters entering from the Gulf of Alaska in the middle and lower parts of the Bay. Further glacial retreat will likely lead to additional modifications in the carbon biogeochemistry of GLBA with unknown consequences for the local marine food web, which includes many species of marine mammals.

Reisdorph, S. C.; Mathis, J. T.

2014-09-01

376

Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1988-01-01

377

New semiquantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT by an anatomical standardization method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated a new semiquantitative procedure to more easily and objectively estimate the striatal uptake of 123I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET), using an anatomical standardization method, the Neurostat. Eleven patients with PS and 8 with ET were examined by clinical assessment and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were used to assess the stage and severity of the disease. The co-registered MR and SPECT images were created with fusion software included in Neurostat. On the cross section, which shows the largest area of striate, irregular shaped regions of interest corresponding to the striate and occipital cortex were drawn. Then the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(F), was calculated. Another calculation was done by VOIClassic, which is a software included in Neurostat to estimate the counts per voxel of anatomically defined regions such as caudate nucleus, putamen, occipital cortex, and total cortex. Using these count data, the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(OC), and total cortex, V3''(TC), was calculated. A fair linear correlation was observed between V3''(OC) and V3''(F) (y=1.53x+1.40; r=0.756; ps=-0.816). However, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC) correlated less with UPDRS (rs=-0.667 and -0.645, respectively). Semiquantitative parameters, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC), calculated by VOIClassic including the Neurostat system are useful and easily calculable parameters as well as V3''(F) for the differential diagnosis of PS from ET. (author)

378

Assessing risk of non-compliance of phosphorus standards for lakes in England and Wales  

Science.gov (United States)

High population densities, use of inorganic fertilizer and intensive livestock agriculture have increased phosphorus loads to lakes, and accelerated eutrophication is a major pressure for many lakes. The EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that good chemical and ecological quality is restored in all surface water bodies by 2015. Total phosphorus (TP) standards for lakes in England and Wales have been agreed recently, and our aim was to estimate what percentage of lakes in England and Wales is at risk of failing these standards. With measured lake phosphorus concentrations only being available for a small number of lakes, such an assessment had to be model based. The study also makes a source apportionment of phosphorus inputs into lakes. Phosphorus loads were estimated from a range of sources including agricultural loads, sewage effluents, septic tanks, diffuse urban sources, atmospheric deposition, groundwater and bank erosion. Lake phosphorus concentrations were predicted using the Vollenweider model, and the model framework was satisfactorily tested against available observed lake concentration data. Even though predictions for individual lakes remain uncertain, results for a population of lakes are considered as sufficiently robust. A scenario analysis was carried out to investigate to what extent reductions in phosphorus loads would increase the number of lakes achieving good ecological status in terms of TP standards. Applying the model to all lakes in England and Wales greater than 1 ha, it was calculated that under current conditions roughly two thirds of the lakes would fail the good ecological status with respect to phosphorus. According to our estimates, agricultural phosphorus loads represent the most frequent dominant source for the majority of catchments, but diffuse urban runoff also is important in many lakes. Sewage effluents are the most frequent dominant source for large lake catchments greater than 100 km². The evaluation in terms of total load can be misleading in terms of what sources need to be tackled by catchment management for most of the lakes. For example sewage effluents are responsible for the majority of the total load but are the dominant source in only a small number of larger lake catchments. If loads from all sources were halved this would potentially increase the number of complying lakes to two thirds but require substantial measures to reduce phosphorus inputs to lakes. For agriculture, required changes would have to go beyond improvements of agricultural practise, and need to include reducing the intensity of land use. The time required for many lakes to respond to reduced nutrient loading is likely to extend beyond the current timelines of the WFD due to internal loading and biological resistances.

Duethmann, D.; Anthony, S.; Carvalho, L.; Spears, B.

2009-04-01

379

System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems  

CERN Document Server

A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

2011-01-01

380

NMR analysis of cracking products of asphalt and assessment of catalyst performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of some crackates obtained from asphalt cracking in a micro autoclave under a pool of nitrogen. The cracking was carried out in the presence of Zeolite Socony Mobil no. 5 (HZSM-5) and locally cheap and readily available clay i.e. Utimanzai Clay (UTIMAC) as catalysts. The crackates obtained in case of each run was analyzed by 13C NMR spectrophotometer using CDCl3 as dissolving solvent and tetramethyl silane (TMS) as internal standard. The 13C NMR data was used to assess the extent of hydrocracking and degree of branching in crackates from asphalt .The results indicate that the cheap local catalyst used has comparable suitability with the conventional expensive catalyst in terms of asphalt cracking and its conversion to light products enriched with bulk n-alkane configurations

381

NMR analysis of cracking products of asphalt and assessment of catalyst performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of some crackates obtained from asphalt cracking in a micro autoclave under a pool of nitrogen. The cracking was carried out in the presence of Zeolite Socony Mobil 5 (HZSM-5) and locally cheap and readily available clay i.e. Utimanzai Clay (UTIMAC) as catalysts. The crackates obtained in case of each run was analyzed by {sup 13}C NMR spectrophotometer using CDCl{sub 3} as dissolving solvent and tetramethyl silane (TMS) as internal standard. The {sup 13}C NMR data was used to assess the extent of hydrocracking and degree of branching in crackates from asphalt.The results indicate that the cheap local catalyst used has comparable suitability with the conventional expensive catalyst in terms of asphalt cracking and its conversion to light products enriched with bulk n-alkane configurations. (author)

Ahmad, Imtiaz; Shakirullah, Mohammad; Rehman, Habib ur; Ishaq, Mohammad; Shah, Amjad Ali [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, 25120, N.W.F.P (Pakistan); Khan, Mohammad Arsala [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu Al Sinayah, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

2009-02-15

382

Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations;  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DOE Industrial Technologies Program case study describes the savings possible if Commonwealth Aluminum (now Aleris Rolled Products) makes improvements noted in energy assessments at two aluminum mills.

2006-04-01

383

Top pair production at hadron colliders in non-minimal standard models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cross section of top pair production in hadronic collisions to O({alpha}{alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) is calculated within the general 2-Higgs doublet model and the minimal supersymmetric standard model. At the parton level the O({alpha}) one-loop corrections to the main production mechanisms, qq{yields}tt and gg{yields}tt, significantly modify the Born cross sections: in the threshold region {radical}(s)>or{approx}2 m{sub t} they are enhanced up to 50% and with increasing cm energy {radical}(s), they can be reduced by up to the same order of magnitude. In a wide range of the parameter space of the models under consideration the observable hadronic cross sections for top pair production at the Tevatron pp{yields}ttX and at the LHC pp{yields}ttX are typically reduced by several percent (

Hollik, W.; Moesle, W.M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Wackeroth, D. [Theory Group, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

1998-04-13

384

Standardization of the neutron probe for the assessment of masonry deterioration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repair of the infrastructure will require nondestructive methods to assess the condition of existing buildings and other structures, many of which are constructed of masonry. One possible technology is the neutron probe, a prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) technique that can perform non- destructive elemental analyses in the field. It is based on a very low intensity 252Cf neutron source and a high-purity germanium detector for the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture within the material. The thermal neutron capture cross sections for hydrogen and chlorine are very large, and in masonry, these elements are found primarily in moisture and chlorides. These are major causes of deterioration in porous materials such as brick masonry. The moisture damages the material through expansive stresses during freeze-thaw cycles. Chlorides also generate expansive stresses through periodic cycles of dissolution and recrystallization in response to relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere. Similar problems also occur in reinforced concrete, where chlorides cause additional damage through corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The sensitivity of the neutron probe to hydrogen and chlorine thus means it can be used to map the distribution of these agents of deterioration. Preliminary field work at Colonial Williamsburg and Venice, Italy, showed that the technique could yield useful qualitative information. However, to be a quantitative method, the neutron probe had tantitative method, the neutron probe had to be standardized in the laboratory on materials of known composition and specified moisture and chloride content

385

Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

2011-04-01

386

Orbiter Cold Plate Intergranular Corrosion: Development of NDE Standards and Assessment of NDE Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

During pre-servicing of a space shuttle (orbiter vehicle, OV-102), helium leak detection of an avionics cold plate identified a leak located in the face sheet oriented towards the support shelf. Subsequent destructive examination of the leaking cold plate revealed that intergranular corrosion had penetrated the 0.017-inch thick aluminum (AA6061) face sheet. The intergranular attack (IGA) was likely caused by an aggressive crevice environment created by condensation of water vapor between the cold plate and support shelf. Face sheet susceptibility to IGA is a result of the brazing process used in the fabrication of the cold plates. Cold plate components were brazed at 1000 F followed by a slow cooling process to avoid distortion of the bonded cold plate. The slow cool process caused excessive grain boundary precipitation resulting in a material that is susceptible to IGA. The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) Develop first-of-a-kind nondestructive evaluation (NDE) standards that contain IGA identical to that found in the orbiter cold plates; and (2) Assess advanced NDE techniques for corrosion detection and recommend methods for cold plate examination. This report documents the results of work performed at Langley Research Center to fulfill these objectives.

Smith, Stephen W.; Winfree, William P.; Piascik, Robert S.

2002-01-01

387

Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated P?eiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carlà, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

2014-10-01

388

Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development. PMID:23238338

Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

2013-02-01

389

PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We aimed to compare the standardized central review of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUV{sub max} and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ?3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

Tychyj-Pinel, Christelle [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ricard, Fabien [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Fulham, Michael [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Fournier, Marion [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, The Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation (LYSARC), Pierre-Benite (France); Meignan, Michel [CHU Henri Mondor, Medicine Nucleaire, Creteil (France); Lamy, Thierry [Service d' Hematologie, CHU, Rennes (France); Vera, Pierre [Centre Henri Becquerel, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rouen (France); Rouen University, QuantIF (Litis EA4108), Rouen (France); Salles, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Service d' Hematologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Trotman, Judith [University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Concord Hospital, Department of Haematology, Concord, NSW (Australia)

2014-03-15

390

PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We aimed to compare the standardized central review of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUVmax and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ?3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET-negative patients (p = 0.002; HR 3.3; 95 % CI 1.5-7.4), with a PPV of 66.7 %. We confirm that FDG PET/CT status when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ?4 is strongly predictive of outcome after first-line immunochemotherapy for FL. Further efforts to refine the criteria for assessing minimal residual FDG uptake in FL should provide a reproducible platform for response assessment in future prospective studies of a PET-adapted approach. (orig.)

391

Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments  

OpenAIRE

Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed studies were found that assessed the impact of production of pork, chicken, beef, milk, and eggs using life cycle analysis (LCA). Only 16 of these studies were reviewed, based on five criteria: stud...

Vries, M.; Boer, I. J. M.

2010-01-01

392

Indirect water management through Life Cycle Assessment: Fostering sustainable production in developing countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) represents a methodological framework for analyzing the total environmental impact of any product or service of our daily life. After tracking all associated emissions and the consumption of resources, this impact is expressed with respect to a few common impact categories. These are supposed to reflect major societal and environmental priorities. However, despite their central role in environmental processes, to date hydrological as well as hydrogeological aspects are only rarely considered in LCA. Compared with standard impact categories within LCA, water is special. In contrast to other abiotic resources such as crude oil, it can be replenished. Total freshwater resources are immense, but not evenly distributed and often scarce in regions of high demand. Consequently, threads to natural water bodies have immense spatial dependency. Setting up functional relationships in order to derive a generally valid and practicable evaluation is tedious due to the complex, insufficiently understood, and uncertain natural processes involved. LCA that includes the environmental effects of water consumption means global indirect water resource management. It supports goal-directed consumer behaviour that aims to reduce pressure on natural water systems. By developing a hydrologically-based assessment of potential impacts from human interaction with natural water bodies, "greener" products can be prioritised. More sustainable and environmentally friendly water management is the result. The proposed contribution presents an operational assessment method of global surface water consumption for impacts on human health and ecosystem quality within a LCA framework. A major focus is the issue of how such global assessment helps to quantify potential impacts from water-intensive production in developing countries, where the means for proper water management are often limited. We depict a compensation scheme for impacts related to water consumption that allows agriculture-dependent regions to produce and export crops while customers can compensate the related environmental impacts and/or improving the integrated water resource management by paying a premium. This allows for efficient international food production, strengthening sustainability regarding social, environmental and economic issues related to water and trade.

Pfister, S.; Bayer, P.; Koehler, A.; Hellweg, S.

2009-04-01

393

Double Higgs production at TeV colliders in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reconstruction of the Higgs potential in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) requires the measurement of the trilinear Higgs self-couplings. The 'double Higgs production' subgroup has been investigating the possibility of detecting signatures of processes carrying a dependence on these vertices at the large hadron collider (LHC) and future linear colliders (LCs). As reference reactions, we have chosen gg ? hh and e+e- ? hhZ, respectively, where h is the lightest of the MSSM Higgs bosons. In both cases, the Hhh interaction is involved. For mH >or? 2 mh, the two reactions are resonant in the H ? hh mode, providing cross sections which are detectable at both accelerators and strongly sensitive to the strength of the trilinear coupling involved. We explore this mass regime of the MSSM in the h ? bb decay channel, also accounting for irreducible background effects. (orig.)

394

Biocatalytic production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil: Standardization of process parameters and comparison of fuel characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of cottonseed oil was studied using low cost crude pancreatic lipase as catalyst in a batch system. The effects of the critical process parameters including water percentage, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration, buffer pH and reaction temperature were determined. Maximum conversion of 75-80% was achieved after 4 h at 37 C, pH 7.0 and with 1:15 M ratio of oil to methanol, 0.5% (wt of oil) enzyme and water concentration of 5% (wt of oil). Various organic solvents were tested among which a partially polar solvent (t-butanol) was found to be suitable for the reaction. The major fuel characteristics like specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point and calorific value of the 20:80 blends (B20) of the fatty acid methyl esters with petroleum diesel conformed very closely to those of American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards. (author)

Chattopadhyay, Soham; Karemore, Ankush; Das, Sancharini; Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Deysarkar, Asoke [PfP Technology LLC., 14227 Fern, Houston, TX 77079 (United States)

2011-04-15

395

Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

2011-01-01

396

Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve

397

Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers with Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers' rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended…

Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

2013-01-01

398

Development of a Standardized Instrument To Assess the Performance of Computer Tasks by Students with Low Vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Assessment of Computer Task Performance was developed to evaluate the performance of children with low vision when using sequences of actions that result in a computer command. Results with 22 students (ages 4-12) show that four standardized tasks have high reliability and one has a moderate degree of reliability. (Contains references.)…

Vincent, Claude; Dumont, Claire; Bouchard, Daniele; Lesperance, Francoise

2003-01-01

399

Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in associated production with w boson at the Tevatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron is presented in this dissertation. The process of interest is the associated production of W boson and Higgs boson, with the W boson decaying leptonically and the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of bottom quarks. The dataset in the analysis is accumulated by the D0 detector from April 2002 to April 2008 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}. The events are reconstructed and selected following the criteria of an isolated lepton, missing transverse energy and two jets. The D0 Neural Network b-jet identification algorithm is further used to discriminate b jets from light jets. A multivariate analysis combining Matrix Element and Neural Network methods is explored to improve the Higgs boson signal significance. No evidence of the Higgs boson is observed in this analysis. In consequence, an observed (expected) limit on the ratio of {sigma} (p{bar p} {yields} WH) x Br (H {yields} b{bar b}) to the Standard Model prediction is set to be 6.7 (6.4) at 95% C.L. for the Higgs boson with a mass of 115 GeV.

Chun, Xu; /Michigan U.

2009-11-01

400

77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies...energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power supplies...Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power...

2012-06-29

401

Bringing OTEC Environmental Assessments of the 1980s Up To 21st Century Oceanographic Standards (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the potential environmental effects of OTEC plant construction and operation were evaluated in the 1980s as part of earlier OTEC development, recent OTEC efforts have led to the re-examination of the issues involved. During the intervening years we have significantly increased our understanding of the oceans, and our ability to observe and model the marine environment has improved markedly. For example, OTEC environmental assessments have traditionally included the effects of discharging deep seawater, with its elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon, and depleted levels of dissolved oxygen, into the upper water column. However, the role of trace elements in controlling marine primary production rates is now widely accepted, and their natural vertical distribution in the ocean needs to be considered. Our expanded understanding of ocean biogeochemistry also makes environmental assessment more complicated. For example, discharges of deep seawater within the photic zone of the ocean, but below the surface mixed layer, should result in photosynthetic production that would remove both dissolved nutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide at approximately the same stoichiometric ratio as they are elevated in deep seawater; thus, the only large-scale related environmental impact would involve the fate of the resulting photosynthetically produced organic matter. Similarly, our improved knowledge of marine physical chemistry allows a better understanding of OTEC’s potential impact on the ocean’s inorganic carbon chemistry. For example, the reduction in pressure of deep seawater as it is brought to the surface, and the increase in temperature due to OTEC heat exchange, will both lead to an increase in the deep water’s pH; opposite effects will occur in the shallow seawater used by OTEC. Determination of the net effect will require modeling using predicted pumping rates for warm and cold seawater, the planned intake and discharge depths and temperatures, the inorganic carbon chemistry at the specific site, and recently refined inorganic carbon equilibria data. Ecological data (e.g., primary productivity, the biomass of various trophic levels, biota attraction to floating objects, etc.) should also be updated with the results from more contemporary studies. Additional factors that should be examined include electromagnetic effects of cabling, alterations in the bio-physical coupling of water column as a result of the discharge plume, potential harmful algal bloom development, and low-frequency noise production. Moreover, new ocean observation techniques such as gliders and AUVs allow large areas of the ocean to be monitored in 3-D for extended periods of time. Similarly, new marine modeling techniques, such as regional ocean modeling systems (ROMS), allow OTEC plumes to be studied in the context of a 3-D dynamic ocean, including such features as internal tides and mesoscales eddies, and allow assimilation of 3-D data to improve model performance. As an early step in these efforts, we have used HOT time-series data to determine patterns of seasonal variability in the upper ocean (warm water intake and discharge zone) and in the deep ocean (cold water uptake) near the site for the proposed Kahe Point, Oahu OTEC demonstration plant.

Sansone, F. J.; Comfort, C. M.; Weng, K. C.

2010-12-01

402

Criteria for data evaluation and adoption for regulatory guides - an assessment of the 'General Instructions and Standard Values' and of the planned Ordinance on Radioecological Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author states that the quantified, conservative model assumptions are by no means suited to compensate for an under-assessment of dose commitments due to too low parameters chosen for calculation. The mathematical model used is also said to be inadequate for a sufficiently realistic simulation of real ecological processes, as it takes into account only 7 of the 41 factors having an impact on radionuclide transfer in the food chains. The author explains the necessity of revising the ''General Instructions and Standard Values for Calculating the Radiation Dose to the Population''. (DG)

403

Assessment of Systems for Mechanisation of Casting Production  

OpenAIRE

Using data on the world production of castings, the situation of foundry industry in Poland was evaluated with emphasis put on the produc-tivity of domestic foundries. It has been observed that an increase of productivity requires a wide-scale mechanisation of the equipment used for casting production on modern foundry moulding lines. Modernisation of foundries is expected to help in creation of optimum conditions for casting production, satisfying all the requirements regarding quantity and ...

Fedoryszyn, A.

2007-01-01

404

A epidemiologia na avaliação da qualidade: uma proposta Epidemiological standards for assessing quality: a proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma estratégia de definição de indicadores para avaliar a qualidade do processo de assistência, baseada na identificação dos objetivos dessa assistência e na verificação da existência de normas técnicas que a norteiem. Simultaneamente, aplica esta metodologia ao processo de assistência ao nascimento e parto, adotando enfoque de risco, tanto para a saúde individual, como para a coletiva. Utiliza para tal um banco de dados de 4.558 Histórias Clínicas Perinatais Simplificadas de 12 hospitais. Os indicadores selecionados foram: sorologia para sífilis, tipagem sanguínea Rh, vacinação antitetânica, taxa de cesáreas, recepção do bebê por pediatra na sala de partos, boletim de Apgar, avaliação de idade gestacional por exame físico, alojamento conjunto, aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta, encaminhamento para consulta de puerpério. Para classificação dos hospitais, foram utilizadas a soma simples, padrão-ouro, e hierarquização. A metodologia proposta permitiu identificar um hospital com qualidade excelente, cinco com qualidade boa, dois com qualidade regular e quatro com desempenho completamente insatisfatório.This paper proposes a strategy for defining indicators to assess the quality of the process of health care, based on the identification of the objectives of the care being delivered and on the verification of whether the technical guidelines for the procedures are being enforced. The article goes on to apply the proposed methodology to the process of health care during childbirth, based on a perspective of comprehensive care and adopting both an individual and collective risk approach. It uses a data bank of 4,558 Simplified Perinatal Clinical Histories (CLAP/PAHO/WHO from 12 hospitals.The indicators selected were: V.D.R.L., Rh blood typing, antitetanus vaccination, rate of cesarean sections, reception of the baby by a pediatrician at birth, Apgar score, evaluation of the gestational age by physical exam, rooming-in, exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge, and referral for a puerperal consultation. Methods for classification of hospitals were the sum of their scores for each indicator, gold standard, and ranking. This methodology warranted identification of one hospital with excellent quality of care, five with good care, two with fair care, and four whose performances were completely unsatisfactory. Finally, some remarks on the assessment of quality of health care are made and future developments are proposed.

Daphne Rattner

1996-01-01